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Journal of Leukocyte Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087652/differential-regulation-of-cd103-%C3%AE-e-integrin-expression-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-retinoic-acid-and-toll-like-receptor-ligands
#1
Mandi M Roe, Steve Swain, T Andrew Sebrell, Marisa A Sewell, Madison M Collins, Brian A Perrino, Phillip D Smith, Lesley E Smythies, Diane Bimczok
CD103 (αE integrin) is an important dendritic cell (DC) marker that characterizes functionally distinct DC subsets in mice and humans. However, the mechanism by which CD103 expression is regulated in human DCs and the role of CD103 for DC function are not very well understood. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA) treatment of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) increased the ability of the DCs to synthesize RA and induced MoDC expression of CD103 and β7 at the mRNA and protein level. In contrast, RA was unable to induce the expression of CD103 in primary human DCs isolated from the gastric mucosa...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087651/frontline-science-multiple-cathepsins-promote-inflammasome-independent-particle-induced-cell-death-during-nlrp3-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-activation
#2
Gregory M Orlowski, Shruti Sharma, Jeff D Colbert, Matthew Bogyo, Stephanie A Robertson, Hiroshi Kataoka, Francis K Chan, Kenneth L Rock
Sterile particles cause several chronic, inflammatory diseases, characterized by repeating cycles of particle phagocytosis and inflammatory cell death. Recent studies have proposed that these processes are driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform activated by phagocytosed particles, which controls both caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) and mature IL-1β secretion. After phagocytosis, particles can disrupt lysosomes, and inhibitor studies have suggested that the resulting release of a lysosomal protease-cathepsin B-into the cytosol somehow activates NLRP3...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062573/deficiency-of-n-myristoylation-reveals-calcineurin-activity-as-regulator-of-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#3
Francesca Rampoldi, Fabian Brunk, Mahnaz Bonrouhi, Giuseppina Federico, Damir Krunic, Stefan Porubsky, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Zoran V Popovic
γδ T cell subsets can be characterized, in part, by their secretion of select proinflammatory cytokines. The molecular mechanisms driving the diverse fates of γδ T cells have not been elucidated. We have previously shown that the attachment of myristic acid to the N-terminal glycine of proteins, termed N-myristoylation, is essential for αβ T cell development and activation. Here, we explore the potential role of this lipid modification on the activation of γδ T cells. In the absence of N-myristoylation, the CD27(+) γδ T cell subset was dominantly affected...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062572/updates-in-understanding-the-role-of-cyclophilin-a-in-leukocyte-chemotaxis
#4
REVIEW
Farman Ullah Dawar, Junjie Wu, Lijuan Zhao, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak, Jie Mei, Li Lin
Cyclophilin A (CypA), a well-recognized receptor for anti-inflammatory drug cyclosporine A (CsA) is a ubiquitous and multifunctional protein. Beside the diverse intracellular functions, CypA is secreted against inflammatory stimuli, where it activates and attracts leukocytes via CD147 to the stimulus site. Interestingly, it synergizes with other factors to induce leukocyte migration in different animals. However, the silencing and inhibition of CypA or CD147 inhibits leukocytes chemotaxis and inflammation. This review focuses on the advances made in understanding the mechanism of CypA-dependent leukocytes chemotaxis and hence, recognition of this factor as a possible therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034915/early-life-antibiotic-treatment-enhances-the-pathogenicity-of-cd4-t-cells-during-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Sebastian Scheer, Tiago S Medina, Alex Murison, Matthew D Taves, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Kiran K Soma, Georgia Perona-Wright, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Daniel D De Carvalho, Colby Zaph
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4(+) T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034914/the-regulation-of-acute-immune-responses-to-the-bacterial-lung-pathogen-legionella-pneumophila
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Stephen Brown, Chao Yang, Elizabeth Louise Hartland, Ian Richard van Driel
Legionella pneumophila causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe and potentially fatal bacterial pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the understanding that a robust inflammatory response is important for control of L. pneumophila infection, our understanding of the network of molecular and cellular events within the lung that function to clear the bacterium is not clearly understood. This review compiles our understanding of the various molecular and cellular pathways stimulated upon infection with L...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034913/il-10-distinguishes-a-unique-population-of-activated-effector-like-cd8-t-cells-in-murine-acute-liver-inflammation
#7
Julia E Rood, Scott W Canna, Lehn K Weaver, John W Tobias, Edward M Behrens
Immune-mediated liver injury is a central feature of hyperinflammatory diseases, such as hemophagocytic syndromes, yet the immunologic mechanisms underlying those processes are incompletely understood. In this study, we used the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated model of a hemophagocytic syndrome known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) to dissect the predominant immune cell populations infiltrating the liver during inflammation. We identified CD8(+) T cells that unexpectedly produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) in addition to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) as a major hepatic population induced by TLR9 stimulation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007981/frontline-science-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-facilitate-maternal-fetal-tolerance-in-mice
#8
Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg, Pratima Sinha, Chas Figley, Ramses Long, DoHwan Park, Darryl Carter, Virginia K Clements
During successful pregnancy, a woman is immunologically tolerant of her genetically and antigenically disparate fetus, a state known as maternal-fetal tolerance. How this state is maintained has puzzled investigators for more than half a century. Diverse, immune and nonimmune mechanisms have been proposed; however, these mechanisms appear to be unrelated and to act independently. A population of immune suppressive cells called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulates in pregnant mice and women. Given the profound immune suppressive function of MDSCs, it has been suggested that this cell population may facilitate successful pregnancy by contributing to maternal-fetal tolerance...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999148/inflammasome-biology-taught-by-legionella-pneumophila
#9
REVIEW
Danielle P A Mascarenhas, Dario S Zamboni
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that assemble in the cytosol of many types of cells, including innate immune cells. The inflammasomes can be activated in response to infection or in response to stress signals that induce damage in the host cell membranes. These platforms trigger inflammatory processes, cell death, and the control of microbial replication. Many inflammasomes have been described so far, including NLRP3, NAIP/NLRC4, caspase-11, and AIM2. The ligand for NLRP3 is still unidentified, but the efflux of K(+) is essential for NLRP3 activation...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986871/hiv-infection-of-kupffer-cells-results-in-an-amplified-proinflammatory-response-to-lps
#10
Arevik Mosoian, Lumin Zhang, Feng Hong, Francesc Cunyat, Adeeb Rahman, Riti Bhalla, Ankur Panchal, Yedidya Saiman, M Isabel Fiel, Sander Florman, Sasan Roayaie, Myron Schwartz, Andrea Branch, Mario Stevenson, Meena B Bansal
End-stage liver disease is a common cause of non-AIDS-related mortality in HIV(+) patients, despite effective anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs). HIV-1 infection causes gut CD4 depletion and is thought to contribute to increased gut permeability, bacterial translocation, and immune activation. Microbial products drain from the gut into the liver via the portal vein where Kupffer cells (KCs), the resident liver macrophage, clear translocated microbial products. As bacterial translocation is implicated in fibrogenesis in HIV patients through unclear mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that HIV infection of KCs alters their response to LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974365/nk-cells-require-antigen-specific-memory-cd4-t-cells-to-mediate-superior-effector-functions-during-hsv-2-recall-responses-in-vitro
#11
Branson Chen, Amanda J Lee, Marianne V Chew, Ali A Ashkar
Natural killer (NK) cells have an important role in mounting protective innate responses against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. However their role as effectors in adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells from C57BL/6 mice in an ex vivo splenocyte culture produce significantly more interferon γ (IFN-γ) upon re-exposure to HSV-2 antigens in a mouse model of genital HSV-2 immunization. We find that naïve NK cells do not require any prior stimulation or priming to be activated to produce IFN-γ...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965385/hmgb1-induces-neutrophil-dysfunction-in-experimental-sepsis-and-in-patients-who-survive-septic-shock
#12
Murielle Grégoire, Jean-Marc Tadié, Fabrice Uhel, Arnaud Gacouin, Caroline Piau, Nathaniel Bone, Yves Le Tulzo, Edward Abraham, Karin Tarte, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
Sepsis is accompanied by the initial activation of proinflammatory pathways and long-lasting immunosuppression that appears to contribute to late-occurring mortality. Although high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in many aspects of inflammation, its role in sepsis-induced immune suppression remains unclear. In this study, we examined HMGB1's contribution to neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity dysfunction and associated neutrophil-dependent bacterial clearance in mice subjected to sepsis and in patients who survive septic shock...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965384/signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-regulates-host-defense-and-protects-mice-against-herpes-simplex-virus-1-hsv-1-infection
#13
Hung-Ching Hsia, Charles M Stopford, Zhigang Zhang, Blossom Damania, Albert S Baldwin
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates cellular responses to multiple cytokines, governs gene expression, and regulates the development and activation of immune cells. STAT3 also modulates reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) in ganglia. However, it is unclear how STAT3 regulates the innate immune response during the early phase of HSV-1 lytic infection. Many cell types critical for the innate immunity are derived from the myeloid lineage. Therefore, in this study, we used myeloid-specific Stat3 knockout mice to investigate the role of STAT3 in the innate immune response against HSV-1...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965383/defects-in-cd4-t-cell-lfa-1-integrin-dependent-adhesion-and-proliferation-protect-cd47-mice-from-eae
#14
Veronica Azcutia, Ribal Bassil, Jan M Herter, Daniel Engelbertsen, Gail Newton, Anu Autio, Tanya Mayadas, Andrew H Lichtman, Samia J Khoury, Charles A Parkos, Wassim Elyaman, Francis W Luscinskas
CD47 is known to play an important role in CD4(+) T cell homeostasis. We recently reported a reduction in mice deficient in the Cd47 gene (Cd47(-/-)) CD4(+) T cell adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) in vivo and in vitro as a result of impaired expression of high-affinity forms of LFA-1 and VLA-4 integrins. A prior study concluded that Cd47(-/-) mice were resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a result of complete failure in CD4(+) T cell activation after myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 aa (MOG35-55) immunization...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920208/genetic-modification-of-er-hoxb8-osteoclast-precursors-using-crispr-cas9-as-a-novel-way-to-allow-studies-on-osteoclast-biology
#15
Irene Di Ceglie, Guus G H van den Akker, Giuliana Ascone, Bas Ten Harkel, Hans Häcker, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Teun J de Vries, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Peter L E M van Lent
Osteoclasts are cells specialized in bone resorption. Currently, studies on murine osteoclasts are primarily performed on bone marrow-derived cells with the use of many animals and limited cells available. ER-Hoxb8 cells are conditionally immortalized monocyte/macrophage murine progenitor cells, recently described to be able to differentiate toward functional osteoclasts. Here, we produced an ER-Hoxb8 clonal cell line from C57BL/6 bone marrow cells that strongly resembles phenotype and function of the conventional bone marrow-derived osteoclasts...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899415/role-of-chemokine-receptors-and-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-mucosal-inflammation-and-tolerance
#16
REVIEW
Neeraja Kulkarni, Manisha Pathak, Girdhari Lal
The intestinal epithelial lining is a very dynamic interface, where multiple interactions occur with the external world. The intestinal epithelial barrier is continuously exposed to a huge load of commensal microorganisms, food-borne antigens, as well as invading enteropathogens. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and underlying immune cells are the main players in maintaining the delicate balance between gut tolerance and inflammation. IECs deferentially express the variety of chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these receptor-ligand interactions not only mediate the infiltration and activation of immune cells but also switch on the survival cascades in IECs...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895165/rats-with-a-missense-mutation-in-atm-display-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-subsequent-to-accumulation-of-cytosolic-dna-following-unrepaired-dna-damage
#17
Hazel Quek, John Luff, KaGeen Cheung, Sergei Kozlov, Magtouf Gatei, C Soon Lee, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes, Yi Chieh Lim, Nigel L Barnett, Steven Dingwall, Ernst Wolvetang, Tomoji Mashimo, Tara L Roberts, Martin F Lavin
Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)-mutated (ATM) gene give rise to the human genetic disorder A-T, characterized by immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, and neurodegeneration. Whereas a series of animal models recapitulate much of the A-T phenotype, they fail to present with ataxia or neurodegeneration. We describe here the generation of an Atm missense mutant [amino acid change of leucine (L) to proline (P) at position 2262 (L2262P)] rat by intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of mutant sperm into oocytes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895164/mysm1-dependent-checkpoints-in-b-cell-lineage-differentiation-and-b-cell-mediated-immune-response
#18
Michael Förster, Kyo Farrington, Jessica C Petrov, Jad I Belle, Barbara C Mindt, Mariko Witalis, Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz, Anastasia Nijnik
MYSM1 is a chromatin-binding histone deubiquitinase. MYSM1 mutations in humans result in lymphopenia whereas loss of Mysm1 in mice causes severe hematopoietic abnormalities, including an early arrest in B cell development. However, it remains unknown whether MYSM1 is required at later checkpoints in B cell development or for B cell-mediated immune responses. We analyzed conditional mouse models Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre, Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD19-cre, and Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD21-cre with inactivation of Mysm1 at prepro-B, pre-B, and follicular B cell stages of development...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881605/monocytes-and-dendritic-cells-are-the-primary-sources-of-interleukin-37-in-human-immune-cells
#19
Ina Rudloff, Steven X Cho, Jason C Lao, Devi Ngo, Matthew McKenzie, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Marcel F Nold
The interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-37 is one of few anti-inflammatory cytokines, and it is capable of countering a broad spectrum of proinflammatory assaults. Although it is known that leukocytes are a major source of IL-37, knowledge on IL-37 production and secretion in specific immune cell types remains limited. Thus, we investigated IL-37 mRNA expression as well as protein production and secretion in human PBMCs. In PBMCs stimulated with agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1-6 and 9, IL1F7 (the IL-37-encoding gene) was induced up to 9-fold, peaked at 6-8 h and returned to steady-state at 72 h...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881604/cd11d-%C3%AE-2-integrin-expression-on-human-nk-b-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#20
Gabrielle M Siegers, Christy R Barreira, Lynne-Marie Postovit, Gregory A Dekaban
The CD11d integrin is expressed on the cell surface of leukocytes that belong to the myeloid lineage, but its expression on lymphocytes remains unexplored. To test the hypothesis that CD11d is expressed on lymphocyte subsets, we employed a multicolor flow cytometry panel to identify CD11d expression on B, NK, CD4(+) and CD8(+) αβ T cells (αβTc), and γδ T cells (γδTc) in human PBMC samples. CD11d was highly expressed on NK cells, B cells, and γδTc, but not αβTc. CD11d expression was higher on freshly isolated γδTc compared with αβTc from healthy donors, yet both inter- and intradonor variability was evident...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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