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Journal of Leukocyte Biology

Rym Ouni, Houda Gharsalli, Violette Dirix, Amani Braiek, Nadia Sendi, Afifa Jarraya, Leila Douik El Gharbi, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Chaouki Benabdessalem
Nearly two billion people are latently infected with Mtb (LTBI). Detection of LTBI with high risk to develop active tuberculosis (aTB) is considered the cornerstone to control the disease. The current challenge is to identify markers that better classify LTBI versus aTB. It has been previously shown that Rv0140, a reactivation-associated antigen of Mtb, induces significantly higher IFN-γ production in LTBI individuals as compared to aTB patients. Herein, we show that Rv0140 induces high granzyme B level by PBMCs derived from LTBI (n = 34) as compared to aTB (n = 18)...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Julia Y Chu, Barry McCormick, Greta Mazelyte, Melina Michael, Sonja Vermeren
Neutrophils are short-lived, terminally differentiated leukocytes that form an essential part of host immunity and play a key role in acute and chronic inflammation. The analysis of these important cells is hindered by the fact that neutrophils are not amenable to culture, transfection, or transduction. Conditionally HoxB8-immortalized mouse hematopoietic progenitors are suitable for in vitro differentiation of a range of myeloid cells, including neutrophils. Integrins and FcγRs are cell surface receptors, the ligation of which is required for a range of neutrophil functions that are important in health and disease...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Anthony T Vella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Tassia Santoro, Carolina T Azevedo, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-allergic compounds that function, at least in part, by inhibiting signaling pathways in mast cells. We hypothesized that the GC-induced mastocytopenia and suppression of mast cell activation are mediated by the advanced glycation end products (AGEs)/receptors of AGEs (RAGEs) signaling axis. We evaluated the role of AGEs in GC-mediated mastocytopenia and impaired mast cell degranulation in male Wistar rats and Swiss-Webster mice subcutaneously injected with dexamethasone or prednisolone (0...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Amritha Balakrishnan, Burhan Jama, Gerald P Morris
Approximately 10% of peripheral T cells express 2 functional TCR αβ heterodimers. Receptor co-expression changes the repertoire of TCRs produced during thymic development, enabling generation of T cells bearing TCRs not capable of mediating positive selection or that would normally be negatively selected. The effect of receptor co-expression on the composition and functionality of the peripheral TCR repertoire is not well defined, though evidence demonstrates dual TCR cells pose an increased risk for unwanted immune responses such as autoimmunity and alloreactivity...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Sammy Yaw Aboagye, Grace Kpeli, Joseph Tuffour, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is the third most important mycobacterial diseases after tuberculosis and leprosy in immunocompetent individuals. Although the mode of transmission remains an enigma, disease incidence has been strongly linked to disturbed environment and wetlands. The blunt of the diseases is recorded in West African countries along the Gulf of Guinea, and children 15 years and below account for about 48% of all cases globally. Prior to 2004, wide surgical excisions and debridement of infected necrotic tissues followed by skin grafting was the accepted definitive treatment of BU...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Giuseppina Caligiuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Aimee M Beaulieu
NK cells are important mediators of immunological defense against pathogens and cancer, owing in part to their ability to directly kill infected and malignant host cells. Although historically considered cells of the innate immune system, a growing body of literature indicates that NK cells have the capacity to mount immune responses with features of immunological memory, including enhanced recall responses that are long-lived and Ag-specific. Anamnestic NK cell responses in mice have now been described in a broad range of immunological settings, including viral and bacterial infections, hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions, and alloantigen responses...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Tiffany T Loo, Yuanyuan Gao, Vanja Lazarevic
Acquired and genetic immunodeficiencies have revealed an indispensable role for CD4+ T cells in the induction of protective host immune responses against a myriad of microbial pathogens. Influenced by the cytokines present in the microenvironment, activated CD4+ T cells may differentiate into several highly-specialized helper subsets defined by the production of distinct signature cytokines tailored to combat diverse classes of pathogens. The process of specification and differentiation is controlled by networks of core, master, and accessory transcription factors, which ensure that CD4+ T helper (TH ) cell responses mounted against an invading microbe are of the correct specificity and type...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain, Griffin M Wright, Jeevan Kumar Jadapalli
Inflammation-limiting nonsteroidal pain relievers magnify myocardial infarction (MI) incidences and increase re-admission events in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the molecular and cellular mechanism of this provocative adverse effect is unclear. Our goal was to determine whether carprofen (CAP) impedes splenic leukocyte-directed acute inflammation-resolving response in cardiac injury. After subacute CAP treatment, mice were subjected to permanent coronary ligation maintaining MI- and naïve-controls...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Mélanie Kirchmeyer, Florence A Servais, Matthias Hamdorf, Petr V Nazarov, Aurélien Ginolhac, Rashi Halder, Laurent Vallar, Matthias Glanemann, Claudia Rubie, Frank Lammert, Stephanie Kreis, Iris Behrmann
Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines play important roles in liver (patho-)biology. For instance, they regulate the acute phase response to inflammatory signals and are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Much is known about the regulation of protein-coding genes by cytokines whereas their effects on the miRNome is less well understood. We performed a microarray screen to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) in human hepatocytes which are modulated by IL-6-type cytokines. Using samples of 2 donors, 27 and 68 miRNAs (out of 1,733) were found to be differentially expressed upon stimulation with hyper-IL-6 (HIL-6) for up to 72 h, with an overlap of 15 commonly regulated miRNAs...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Joshua A Englert, John W Christman, Megan N Ballinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Daniela Baptista, François Mach, Karim J Brandt
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the infiltration of immune cells, such as monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, and B cells, into the inner layer of vessel walls. T and B cell functions in the process of atherogenesis, as well as their mutual regulation, have been investigated but several aspects remain to be clarified. In the present review, we give a brief overview of the functions of follicular regulatory T cell (Tfr) on follicular T (Tfh) and B cell regulation related to atherosclerosis pathogenesis, including their influence on lymphangiogenesis and lipoprotein metabolism...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Jonas Mårtensson, André Holdfeldt, Martina Sundqvist, Michael Gabl, Terry P Kenakin, Lena Björkman, Huamei Forsman, Claes Dahlgren
Acetate, an agonist for the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2R/GPR43), triggers an increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ in neutrophils without any assembly of the superoxide generating NADPH-oxidase. We show that the phenylacetamide compound 58 (Cmp 58; (S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-N-(5-phenylthiazol-2-yl)butanamide), lacking a direct activating effect on neutrophils, acts as a positive FFA2R modulator that turns acetate into a potent activating agonist that triggers an assembly of the NADPH-oxidase...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Xiao Wang, Emily Jodoin, Julianne Jorgensen, Jarone Lee, James J Markmann, Sule Cataltepe, Daniel Irimia
Neutrophils reach the sites of inflammation and infection in a timely manner by navigating efficiently through mechanically complex interstitial spaces, following the guidance of chemical gradients. However, our understanding of how neutrophils that follow chemical cues overcome mechanical obstacles in their path is restricted by the limitations of current experimental systems. Observations in vivo provide limited insights due to the complexity of the tissue environment. Here, we developed microfluidic devices to study the effect of progressive mechanical confinement on the migration patterns of human neutrophils toward chemical attractants...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Lena Müller, Daniela Hainberger, Valentina Stolz, Wilfried Ellmeier
Nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1) is a transcriptional corepressor that links chromatin-modifying enzymes with gene-specific transcription factors. Although identified more than 20 years ago as a corepressor of nuclear receptors, the role of NCOR1 in T cells remained only poorly understood. However, recent studies indicate that the survival of developing thymocytes is regulated by NCOR1, revealing an essential role for NCOR1 in the T cell lineage. In this review, we will briefly summarize basic facts about NCOR1 structure and functions...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Cheng-Rong Yu, Jin Kyeong Choi, Anita N Uche, Charles E Egwuagu
IL-10 and IL-35 suppress excessive immune responses and therapeutic strategies are being developed to increase their levels in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we sought to identify major cell types that produce both cytokines in-vivo and to characterize mechanisms that regulate their production. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a CNS autoimmune disease that serves as model of human uveitis. We induced EAU in C57BL/6J mice and investigated whether T cells, B lymphocytes, or myeloid cells are the major producers of IL-10 or IL-35 in blood, lymph nodes (LNs), spleen, and at the site of ocular inflammation, the neuroretina...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Avinash Khandagale, Beatrice Lazzaretto, Göran Carlsson, Mikael Sundin, Sulman Shafeeq, Ute Römling, Bengt Fadeel
Mutations in the gene JAGN1 were recently discovered in patients with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consisting of decondensed chromatin decorated with various granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) to combat microbial infections. However, whether JAGN1 is required for the formation or function of NETs is not known. Here, we analyzed primary neutrophils from a patient with homozygous JAGN1 mutations with respect to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced NET formation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kai J Rogers, Wendy Maury
The filovirus, Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV), infects tissue macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs) early during infection. Viral infection of both cells types is highly productive, leading to increased viral load. However, virus infection of these two cell types results in different consequences for cellular function. Infection of Mϕs stimulates the production of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to the production of a cytokine storm, while simultaneously increasing tissue factor production and thus facilitating disseminated intravascular coagulation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Michelle L D'Antoni, Brooks I Mitchell, Sara McCurdy, Mary Margaret Byron, Debra Ogata-Arakaki, Dominic Chow, Nehal N Mehta, William A Boisvert, Eric Lefebvre, Cecilia M Shikuma, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Yvonne Baumer
Incidences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are high among virologically suppressed HIV-infected individuals. Monocyte activation and trafficking are key mechanisms in the evolution of CVD. We studied the ability of cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) and CCR5 antagonist, to influence the migration of monocytes from HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Monocytes were derived from 23 ART-suppressed HIV-infected and 16 HIV-uninfected donors. In a trans-endothelial migration model, monocytes, and human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were exposed to cenicriviroc and migrated monocytes, quantified...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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