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Journal of Leukocyte Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428201/dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-lpd-rv0462-specific-t-cell-recall-responses-are-higher-in-healthy-household-contacts-of-tb-a-novel-immunodominant-antigen-from-m-tuberculosis
#1
Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
The partial effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), displayed by the existing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), highlights the need for novel vaccines to replace or improve BCG. In TB immunology, antigen-specific cellular immune response is frequently considered indispensable. Latency-associated antigens are intriguing as targets for TB vaccine development. The mycobacterial protein, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd; Rv0462), the third enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411215/the-effect-of-rho-drugs-on-mast-cell-activation-and-degranulation
#2
Avinash Sheshachalam, Alicia Baier, Gary Eitzen
Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that produce potent proinflammatory mediators, which are stored in cytoplasmic granules. Stimulation triggers degranulation, a process that mobilizes granules to dock and fuse to the plasma membrane, releasing mediators. Mast cell degranulation has an important role in immunity but can also intensify inflammation and contribute to allergic disorders. Hence, it is important to understand signaling pathways that regulate mast cell degranulation. Here, we examined the role of Rho proteins in regulating mast cell activation leading to degranulation...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408397/the-il-31-il-31-receptor-axis-general-features-and-role-in-tumor-microenvironment
#3
REVIEW
Elisa Ferretti, Anna Corcione, Vito Pistoia
IL-31 is a recently identified cytokine with a well-defined role in the pathogenesis of pruritus. IL-31, whose production is induced by IL-4 and IL-33, binds a heterodimeric receptor (R) composed of the exclusive IL-31RA chain and the shared oncostatin M R. Signaling through the IL-31R involves the MAPK, PI3K/AKT and Jak/STAT pathways. Different variants and isoforms of IL-31RA with different signaling activities have been identified. IL-31 is produced predominantly by circulating Th2 lymphocytes and skin-homing CLA(+)CD45RO(+) T cells...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408396/novel-role-of-immature-myeloid-cells-in-formation-of-new-lymphatic-vessels-associated-with-inflammation-and-tumors
#4
REVIEW
Sophia Ran, Andrew Wilber
Inflammation triggers an immune cell-driven program committed to restoring homeostasis to injured tissue. Central to this process is vasculature restoration, which includes both blood and lymphatic networks. Generation of new vessels or remodeling of existing vessels are also important steps in metastasis-the major cause of death for cancer patients. Although roles of the lymphatic system in regulation of inflammation and cancer metastasis are firmly established, the mechanisms underlying the formation of new lymphatic vessels remain a subject of debate...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400540/cd56-bright-nk-il-7r%C3%AE-expression-negatively-associates-with-hcv-level-and-il-7-induced-nk-function-is-impaired-during-hcv-and-hiv-infections
#5
Chelsey J Judge, Lenche Kostadinova, Kenneth E Sherman, Adeel A Butt, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Nicholas T Funderburg, Alan L Landay, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Johan K Sandberg, Donald D Anthony
Several lines of evidence support the concept that NK cells play an important role in control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection via cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. IL-7 is a homeostatic cytokine with a role in T cell development, activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. The IL-7Rα chain [cluster of differentiation (CD)127] is expressed on NK cells, with greatest abundance on the CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) (CD56(bright)) subset. Here, we measured CD127 expression on CD56(bright), CD56(dim)CD16(+) (CD56(dim)), or CD56(neg)CD16(+) (CD56(neg)) NK cell subsets of 25 uninfected donors (UD); 34 chronic HCV-infected, treatment-naïve; 25 HIV-infected, virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 42 HCV-HIV-coinfected subjects on ART...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400539/mass-cytometry-deep-phenotyping-of-human-mononuclear-phagocytes-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-human-blood-and-bone-marrow
#6
Mikael Roussel, P Brent Ferrell, Allison R Greenplate, Faustine Lhomme, Simon Le Gallou, Kirsten E Diggins, Douglas B Johnson, Jonathan M Irish
The monocyte phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous, both phenotypically and functionally. In this study, we sought to characterize those diverse MPS phenotypes with mass cytometry (CyTOF). To identify a deep phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs, a panel was designed to measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389622/il-4r%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-in-neonates-and-th2-immunopathology-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#7
Bishwas Shrestha, Dahui You, Jordy Saravia, David T Siefker, Sridhar Jaligama, Greg I Lee, Asmaa A Sallam, Jeffrey N Harding, Stephania A Cormier
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children, and severe RSV infection early in life has been associated with asthma development. Using a neonatal mouse model, we have shown that down-regulation of IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) with antisense oligonucleotides in the lung during neonatal infection protected from RSV immunopathophysiology. Significant down-regulation of IL-4Rα was observed on pulmonary CD11b(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) suggesting a role for IL-4Rα on mDCs in the immunopathogenesis of neonatal RSV infection...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389621/fluid-shear-induced-cathepsin-b-release-in-the-control-of-mac1-dependent-neutrophil-adhesion
#8
Michael L Akenhead, Shunichi Fukuda, Geert W Schmid-Schönbein, Hainsworth Y Shin
There is compelling evidence that circulatory hemodynamics prevent neutrophil activation, including adhesion to microvessels, in the microcirculation. However, the underlying mechanism or mechanisms by which that mechanoregulation occurs remain unresolved. Here, we report evidence that exposure to fluid shear stress (FSS) promotes neutrophils to release cathepsin B (ctsB) and that this autocrine regulatory event is antiadhesive for neutrophils on endothelial surfaces through Mac1-selective regulation. We used a combined cell-engineering and immunocytochemistry approach to find that ctsB was capable of cleaving Mac1 integrins on neutrophils and demonstrated that this proteolysis alters their adhesive functions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389620/exploiting-tumor-associated-dendritic-cell-heterogeneity-for-novel-cancer-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Jiri Keirsse, Helena Van Damme, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Damya Laoui
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized APCs present in all tissues, including tumors. They play a major role in orchestrating immune responses and were shown to occur in various functional states in tumors. In this respect, immunogenic tumor-associated DCs (TADCs) are required to initiate and sustain T cell-dependent anti-cancer immunity, whereas regulatory TADCs harbor robust immunosuppressive potential and accelerate malignant growth. Importantly, the heterogeneity of the DC compartment in tumors has been dissected recently in murine and human cancers and was shown to consist of developmentally distinct subsets, including conventional DC (cDC)1, cDC2, and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377398/il-27-enhances-lps-induced-il-1%C3%AE-in-human-monocytes-and-murine-macrophages
#10
Carlene Petes, Christopher Wynick, Christina Guzzo, Divya Mehta, Sarah Logan, Bruce W Banfield, Sameh Basta, Andrea Cooper, Katrina Gee
IL-27 bridges innate and adaptive immunity by modulating cytokine production from myeloid cells and regulating Th cell differentiation. During bacterial infection, TLR4 triggering by LPS induces IL-27 production by monocytes and macrophages. We have previously shown that IL-27 can prime monocytes for LPS responsiveness by enhancing TLR4 expression and intracellular signaling. If unregulated, this could result in damaging inflammation, whereas on the other hand, this may also provide greater responses by inflammatory processes induced in response to bacterial pathogens...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360185/neutrophil-quo-vadis
#11
REVIEW
Jadwiga Jablonska, Zvi Granot
Neutrophils were traditionally considered to be a homogeneous population of terminally differentiated cells with very defined roles in inflammation and fighting infections. However, recent advances in neutrophil research challenge this limited view and demonstrate that neutrophils are highly versatile, play different roles in various pathologic scenarios, and are heterogeneous. With this, it is becoming clear that one term-"neutrophil"-is too general, and more precise nomenclature is urgently required. In this mini review, we discuss the knowns and unknowns in neutrophil terminology and highlight the critical questions that should be addressed for the establishment of clear neutrophil nomenclature...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360184/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-t-regulatory-cells-in-tumors-unraveling-the-dark-side-of-the-force
#12
REVIEW
Aikaterini Hatziioannou, Themis Alissafi, Panayotis Verginis
Important conceptual advances in tumor immunology over the last years have shifted the paradigm from focusing on the malignant cell to the importance of host immune components in the design of successful immunotherapies. The immune system, through sophisticated innate and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms, inhibits the growth and establishment of tumors. However, despite immune surveillance, tumors still escape and grow, mainly as a result of endowed tumor-induced immunosuppressive circuits. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are the major components of these regulatory networks that facilitate tumor immune escape and significantly compromise the efficacy of current immunotherapies...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356350/from-top-to-bottom-midkine-and-pleiotrophin-as-emerging-players-in-immune-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Noah Sorrelle, Adrian T A Dominguez, Rolf A Brekken
Cytokines are pivotal in the generation and resolution of the inflammatory response. The midkine/pleiotrophin (MK/PTN) family of cytokines, composed of just two members, was discovered as heparin-binding neurite outgrowth-promoting factors. Since their discovery, expression of this cytokine family has been reported in a wide array of inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this minireview, we will discuss the emerging appreciation of the functions of the MK/PTN family in the immune system, which include promoting lymphocyte survival, sculpting myeloid cell phenotype, driving immune cell chemotaxis, and maintaining hematopoiesis...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356349/camp-a-multifaceted-modulator-of-immune-synapse-assembly-and-t-cell-activation
#14
REVIEW
Vijay Bharathi Arumugham, Cosima T Baldari
T Lymphocyte activation involves a substantial reorganization of the membranous and intracellular compartments. Signaling complexes assemble and dismantle in a highly ordered fashion in both compartments and orchestrate the activation of T cells with high sensitivity and specificity. TCR ligation leads to a short burst of cAMP production, which is centrally required for T cell activation; however, sustained elevations in intracellular cAMP concentrations are immunosuppressive. Emerging evidence of the existence of local cAMP pools gleaned from studies on other cell types suggests that cAMP compartmentalization may account, in part, for these opposing effects...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356348/tpl2-promotes-neutrophil-trafficking-oxidative-burst-and-bacterial-killing
#15
Nicole V Acuff, Xin Li, Jessica Elmore, Balázs Rada, Wendy T Watford
Tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is a serine/threonine kinase that promotes inflammatory cytokine production by activating the MEK/ERK pathway. Tpl2 has been shown to be important for eliciting the inflammatory properties of macrophages; however, there is relatively little known about the contribution of Tpl2 to neutrophil effector functions. This is an important consideration, as neutrophils provide the first line of defense against infection in the innate immune system. We found that Tpl2 is expressed in both human and murine neutrophils, suggesting a potential function for Tpl2 in this lineage...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356347/leukocyte-phosphodiesterase-expression-after-lipopolysaccharide-and-during-sepsis-and-its-relationship-with-hla-dr-expression
#16
Christophe Lelubre, Hayfa Medfai, Israa Akl, Jenneke Leentjens, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers, Alexandre Rousseau, Patrick Biston, Michael Piagnerelli, Michel Vanhaeverbeek, Pierrick Uzureau, Jean-Louis Vincent, Luc Vanhamme, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) may modulate inflammatory pathways, but PDE expression is poorly documented in humans with sepsis. Using quantitative PCR on whole blood leukocytes, we characterized PDE mRNA expression in healthy volunteers (n = 20), healthy volunteers given lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 18), and critically ill patients with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) sepsis. PDE4B protein expression was also studied in magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS)-isolated CD15(+) neutrophils (from 7 healthy volunteers, 5 patients without and 5 with sepsis)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351852/leukocyte-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-in-human-diseases-an-overview-of-their-distribution-function-and-potential-application-for-immunotherapies
#17
REVIEW
Jilu Zhang, Sunny Mai, Hui-Ming Chen, Kyeongah Kang, Xian Chang Li, Shu-Hsia Chen, Ping-Ying Pan
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a population of immature myeloid cells expanded and accumulated in tumor-bearing mice and in patients with cancer, have been shown to mediate immune suppression and to promote tumor progression, thereby, posing a major hurdle to the success of immune-activating cancer therapies. MDSCs, like their healthy counterparts, such as monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, express an array of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules as well as myeloid activators and inhibitory receptors, such as leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) A and B...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336678/neutrophils-regulate-the-lung-inflammatory-response-via-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-infiltration-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#18
Nagarjuna R Cheemarla, Ma Del Rocío Baños-Lara, Shan Naidu, Antonieta Guerrero-Plata
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human circulation. They are the first immune cell population recruited to the sites of infection. However, the role of neutrophils to regulate host immune responses during respiratory viral infections is largely unknown. To elucidate the role of neutrophils in respiratory antiviral defense, we used an experimental mouse model of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection. HMPV, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a leading respiratory pathogen causing severe symptoms, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in young, elderly, and immunocompromised patients...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292946/nox2-dependent-immunosuppression-in-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#19
Johan Aurelius, Alexander Hallner, Olle Werlenius, Rebecca Riise, Lars Möllgård, Mats Brune, Markus Hansson, Anna Martner, Fredrik B Thorén, Kristoffer Hellstrand
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic neoplasm with few treatment options and dismal prognosis. The role of natural killer (NK) cells and other antileukemic lymphocytes in CMML is largely unknown. We aimed to provide insight into the mechanisms of immune evasion in CMML with a focus on immunosuppressive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by the myeloid cell NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2). The dominant population of primary human CMML cells was found to express membrane-bound NOX2 and to release ROS, which, in turn, triggered extensive PARP-1-dependent cell death in cocultured NK cells, CD8(+) T effector memory cells, and CD8(+) T effector cells...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292945/from-leukocyte-recruitment-to-resolution-of-inflammation-the-cardinal-role-of-integrins
#20
REVIEW
Ioannis Kourtzelis, Ioannis Mitroulis, Janusz von Renesse, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Integrins constitute a large group of adhesion receptors that are formed as heterodimers of α and β subunits. Their presence and activation status on the surface of leukocytes modulate a broad spectrum of processes in inflammation and immunity. This mini review critically outlines research advances with regard to the function of leukocyte integrins in regulating and integrating the onset and resolution of acute inflammation. Specifically, we summarize and discuss relevant, current literature that supports the multifunctional role of integrins and their partners...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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