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Journal of Sports Sciences

Ross Beaumont, Philip Cordery, Mark Funnell, Stephen Mears, Lewis James, Phillip Watson
This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (<75 mg · day(-1)) were randomly assigned to ingest caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg(-1)day(-1); titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O2peak and Wmax (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg(-1) caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla])...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Nivan Weerakkody, Trevor Allen
The impact that muscle fatigue and taping have on proprioception in an applied sporting context remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate disturbances in position sense at the shoulder joint, and asses the effectiveness of adhesive tape in preventing injury and improving performance, after a bout of cricket fast bowling. Among amateur cricket players (N = 14), shoulder position sense, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force and bowling accuracy was assessed before and immediately after a fatiguing exercise bout of fast bowling...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alan J Pearce, Janet A Young, Lucy Parrington, Nicole Aimers
The objective of this study was to explore beliefs and attitudes of students studying exercise science in Australia towards sports concussion. A secondary objective explored differences between gender and previous experience of concussion. A total of 312 participants (m = 217; f = 95) responded to a series of statements ranging across a number of areas including personal attitudes and beliefs towards concussion: if they would risk playing with a concussion; their views on elite/professional athletes who continue to play after a concussion; and attitudes towards rehabilitation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Matthew J Stork, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
This study investigated the impact of listening to music during exercise on perceived enjoyment, attitudes and intentions towards sprint interval training (SIT). Twenty men (24.8 ± 4.5 years) and women (20.1 ± 2.6 years) unfamiliar with SIT exercise completed two acute sessions of SIT, one with and one without music. Perceived enjoyment, attitudes and intentions towards SIT were measured post-exercise for each condition. Attitudes and intentions to engage in SIT were also measured at baseline and follow-up...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Susana Vale, Jorge Mota
The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Georges Jabbour, Pascale Mauriege, Denis Joanisse, Horia-Daniel Iancu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of supramaximal exercise training (SET) on performance variables and metabolic changes in sedentary obese adults. Twenty-four obese adults were randomly allocated into a non-trained (NT) [n = 12; body mass index (BMI) = 33(3)] and SET group [n = 12; BMI = (33(2)]. After baseline metabolic and fitness measurements, the participants completed a 6-week SET intervention. Metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness assessments were repeated post-intervention...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Veronica Allan, Zach Root, Sara Buckham, Chris Forrest, Jean Côté
Social identity - identity formed through membership in groups - may play an important role in regulating intrateam moral behaviour in youth sport (Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., & Côté, J. (2014). Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 56-64. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine this potential role through stimulated recall interviews with competitive youth-ice-hockey players. Twenty-three players (Mage = 13...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Stephanie A Kovalchik, Michael K Bane, Machar Reid
Official rankings are the most common measure of success in professional women's tennis. Despite their importance for earning potential and tournament seeding, little is known about ranking trajectories of female players and their influence on career success. Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive study of the career progression of elite female tennis talent. The study examined the ranking trajectories of the top 250 female professionals between 1990 and 2015. Using regression modelling of yearly peak rankings, we found a strong association between the shape of the ranking trajectory and the highest career ranking earned...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jianjiang Cui, Zixuan Liu, Long Xu
As referee's decisions are made artificially in traditional table tennis matches, many factors in a match, such as fatigue and subjective tendency, may lead to unjust decision. Based on finite state machine (FSM), this paper presents a model for table tennis referee regulation to substitute manual decisions. In this model, the trajectory of the ball is recorded through a binocular visual system while the complete rules extracted from the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) rules are described based on FSM...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Carl T Woods, Sam Robertson, Neil French Collier
This study investigated the evolution of game-play manifested via team performance indicator characteristics in the Australian Football League (AFL) from the 2001 to 2015 seasons. The mean values for 18 performance indicators were collated for every AFL team over 15-seasons. A multivariate analysis was used to uncover temporal trends in the dataset. Compared to the 2004 season, the 2005 to 2010 seasons were characterised by large growth in the counts of handballs (d = 0.83; 90% CI = 0.22-1.43), disposals (d = 1...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek, C Roger James, Barry T Bates
Our purpose was to use group and single-case methods to examine inter-individual variability in the context of factors related to landing injuries. We tested the load accommodation strategies model (An exploration of load accommodation strategies during walking with extremity-carried weights. Human Movement Science, 35, 17-29) using landing impulse, revealing pre-landing strategies following height and external load manipulations. Ten healthy volunteers (8 male, 2 female, 24.0 ± 1.4 years, 1.72 ± 0.06 m, 73...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Chunxiao Li, Chee Keng John Wang, Do Young Pyun
Guided by Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory, this survey study aimed to examine the effects of the talent development environmental factors on athlete burnout. Talented adolescent athletes (n = 691) filled out a survey form measuring the talent development environmental factors, needs satisfaction and burnout. The findings showed that three talent environmental factors (i.e., long-term development focus, holistic quality preparation and communication) were negative predictors of burnout via needs satisfaction...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Jesús Fernández-Lucas
Parachute jump is an extreme activity that elicits an intense stress response that affects jumpers' body systems being able to put them at risk. The present research analysed modifications in blood oxygen saturation (BOS), heart rate (HR), cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase (CK), muscles strength, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, pistol magazine reload time (PMRT) and state anxiety before and after an automatic open parachute jump in 38 male Spanish soldiers (25.6 ± 5.9 years). A MANOVA with samples as a fixed factor and Effect Size (ES) were conducted...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Matthew Tredrea, Ben Dascombe, Colin E Sanctuary, Aaron Terrence Scanlan
This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P < 0.001), predicted VO2max (P = 0.002) and push-ups1 min (P = 0.004) were superior in selected under-16 players, and sprint times (P ≤ 0...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Richard C Thelwell, Christopher R D Wagstaff, Michael T Chapman, Göran Kenttä
This study extends recent coach stress research by evaluating how coaches perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes, and the broader coach-athlete relationship. A total of 12 coaches working across a range of team sports at the elite level took part in semi-structured interviews to investigate the 3 study aims: how they perceive athletes to detect signals of coach stress; how they perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes; and, how effective they perceive themselves to be when experiencing stress...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Andrew Miller, Stephen Harvey, David Morley, Roland Nemes, Maggie Janes, Narelle Eather
This study evaluated whether exposing junior netball players to greater amounts of competition relevant activity (playing form activity) had an effect on game play outcomes and session involvement. A group-randomised controlled trial in one junior netball club in the Hunter Region, NSW, Australia. Ninety female athletes (mean age = 9.04 years, SD 1.53) were randomised by team (n = 11) into the intervention (n = 41) or 9-week wait-list control (n = 49) condition. The Professional Learning for Understanding Games Education into Sport (PLUNGE into Sport) programme was undertaken in the first half of nine training sessions (9 × 30 min)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Michael J Duncan, Neil D Clarke, Martin Cox, Mike Smith
In many sport and exercise situations, cognitive performance is required under conditions of high physiological load and high cognitive anxiety. However, few studies have assessed all these components in situ. The current study sought to address this issue. Fourteen adults (9 males, 5 females) completed 2 incremental exercise trials (perceived competition or perceived practice) in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive performance, via a test of visual discrimination, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (Bla), and anxiety scores, was recorded at rest, 70% [Formula: see text] and 90% [Formula: see text]...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Brandon A Baiamonte, Robert R Kraemer, Chelsea N Chabreck, Matthew L Reynolds, Kayla M McCaleb, Georgia L Shaheen, Daniel B Hollander
Previous research has demonstrated significant decreases in pain perception in healthy individuals following both aerobic and upper body resistance exercise, but research on circuit training has been limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a strenuous bout of dynamic circuit resistance exercise on pain threshold and pain tolerance in conjunction with changes in blood lactate levels, heart rate (HR), and perceived exertion. A sample of 24 college-age students participated in 2 sessions: (1) a maximal strength testing session and (2) a circuit training bout of exercise that consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with a 1:1 work to rest ratio at 60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) predicted from a three-repetition maximum (3-RM) for 9 exercises...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Stephen M Hadlow, Ross A Pinder, Mark G L Sayers
In Australian rules football structured increases in ball size during development end with the transition to the Size 5 (adult) ball at the Under-15 age group. This study assessed changes in kick technique and performance in experienced junior performers when using Size 4 and 5 Australian rules footballs. Participants (n = 22, 13.77 ± 0.61 years) performed drop punt kicks in 2 representative tasks; a Decision-Making Test (DMT) (n = 14) and Set-Shot Test (SST) (n = 14 + 8). Results indicate participants sustained their level of kick performance (accuracy and quality of ball spin) in both tests when using a Size 5 football...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Leandro de Carvalho da Silva, Carla Ferro Pereira-Monfredini, Luis Augusto Teixeira
This study aimed at assessing the interaction between subjective error estimation and frequency of extrinsic feedback in the learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by children. 10- to 12-year olds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups combining subjective error estimation and relative frequency of extrinsic feedback (33% × 100%). Analysis of performance was based on quality of movement pattern. Analysis showed superior learning of the group combining error estimation and 100% feedback frequency, both groups receiving feedback on 33% of trials achieved intermediate results, and the group combining no requirement of error estimation and 100% feedback frequency had the poorest learning...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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