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Journal of Sports Sciences

Marcus J C Lee, David G Lloyd, Brendan S Lay, Paul D Bourke, Jacqueline A Alderson
Increasing knee stability via appropriate muscle activation could reduce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk during unplanned sidestepping. High-level athletes may activate their knee muscles differently from low-level athletes when responding to quasi-game realistic versus non game-realistic stimuli. Eleven high-level and 10 low-level soccer players responded to a non game-realistic arrow-planned condition (AP), a quasi game-realistic one-defender scenario (1DS) and two-defender scenario (2DS), and an arrow-unplanned condition (AUNP), that imposed increasing time constraints to sidestep...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Raffaele Scurati, Giorgio Gatta, Giovanni Michielon, Matteo Cortesi
Drag is the resistant force that opposes a swimmer displacing through water and significantly affects swimming performance. Drag experienced during active swimming is called active drag (Da ), and its direct determination is still controversial. By contrast, drag experienced while gliding in a stable streamlined body position is defined as passive drag (Dp ), and its assessment is widely agreed upon. Dp reduction preserves the high velocity gained with the push-off from the starting block or wall after starting and turning or improves the gliding phase of the breaststroke cycle...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
M Á De La Cámara, S Higueras-Fresnillo, V Cabanas-Sánchez, D Martinez-Gomez, O L Veiga
Tools for measuring walking time make use of objective and subjective methods. One subjective approach is to administer physical activity questionnaires (PAQ), mainly because they are inexpensive and easy to give to large groups. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study has a brief PAQ (EPIC-PAQ) and includes one question referencing walking time. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the question about time spent walking included in the EPIC-PAQ. The sample included 200 older adults (113 women)...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco, João Victor Esteves
Recently in the Journal of Sports Sciences, Schaun et al. published a study on the comparison of energy expenditure between high-intensity interval training and moderate continuous training performed in water. With this Letter to the Editor, we would like to comment on the methodological aspects that should be considered to analyze the results presented, as well as the conclusions. Abbreviations: CONT, moderate-intensity continuous training; EPOC, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption; HIIT, high-intensity interval training; VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jacob Bejder, Thomas Christian Bonne, Michael Nyberg, Kim Anker Sjøberg, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
Detailed physiological phenotyping was hypothesized to have predictive value for Olympic distance cross-country mountain bike (XCO-MTB) performance. Additionally, mean (MPO) and peak power output (PPO) in 4 × 30 s all-out sprinting separated by 1 min was hypothesized as a simple measure with predictive value for XCO-MTB performance. Parameters indicative of body composition, cardiovascular function, power and strength were determined and related to XCO-MTB national championship performance (n = 11)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Chaabene Helmi, Younés Hachana
The purpose of this study was to estimate the optimal body size, limb-segment length, girth or breadth ratios for 100-m backstroke mean speed performance in young swimmers. Sixty-three young swimmers (boys [n = 30; age: 13.98 ± 0.58 years]; girls [n = 33; age: 13.02 ± 1.20 years]) participated in this study. To identify the optimal body size and body composition components associated with 100-m backstroke speed performance, we adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jason C Tee, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
Academy rugby league competition is an important step along the pathway to professional status, but little is known about injury at this level of the game. The aim of this research was to establish the nature, incidence and burden of injury in English academy rugby league. Using an observational prospective cohort study design, and a time-loss injury definition, the injury outcomes of three professional rugby league academies were recorded during the 2017 season. A total of 87 injuries occurred in 59 matches for an overall injury incidence of 85 (95%CI 67-103) injuries per 1000 hours played...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Geoffrey T Burns, Jessica Deneweth Zendler, Ronald F Zernicke
Ground reaction force measurements are a fundamental element of kinetic analyses of locomotion, yet they are traditionally constrained to laboratory settings or stationary frames. This study assessed the validity and reliability of a new wireless in-shoe system (Novel Loadsol/Pedoped) for field-based ground reaction force measurement in hopping, walking, and running. Twenty participants bilaterally hopped on a force plate and walked (5 km/hr) and ran (10 km/hr) on an instrumented treadmill on two separate days while wearing the insoles...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Hugo Folgado, Jorge Bravo, Paulo Pereira, Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to compare youth football players' performance during two small-sided games with different pitch orientation: i) 40x30m and ii) 30x40m formats. Twenty under-15 players (age = 14.1 ± 0.5 years) participated in nine GK+4vs4+GK situations in each format, with the duration of six minutes each. Positional data were collected using individual GPS units, and computed for tactical and physical performance indicators. The SSG were video recorded, using notational analysis for collecting technical indicators...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alejandro Martínez-Cava, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Luis Sánchez-Medina, Juan José González-Badillo, Jesús G Pallarés
This study aimed to compare the load-velocity and load-power relationships of three common variations of the squat exercise. 52 strength-trained males performed a progressive loading test up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the full (F-SQ), parallel (P-SQ) and half (H-SQ) squat, conducted in random order on separate days. Bar velocity and vertical force were measured by means of a linear velocity transducer time-synchronized with a force platform. The relative load that maximized power output (Pmax) was analyzed using three outcome measures: mean concentric (MP), mean propulsive (MPP) and peak power (PP), while also including or excluding body mass in force calculations...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ben Piggott, Sean Müller, Paola Chivers, Ashley Cripps, Gerard Hoyne
This study determined if small-sided games could discriminate perceptual-cognitive-motor skill in Australian Rules Footballers. Higher skilled Western Australian Football League (WAFL) (n = 17) and lesser skilled Amateur (n = 23) players were recruited. Participants played three small-sided games of three minutes. Each disposal was scored for decision-making and motor skill execution, with these scores combined for a total score. Mann-Whitney U tests indicated significantly superior mean decision-making by higher skilled (M = 2...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ting-Ting Yeh, Hsiao-Yun Chang, Yan-Ying Ju, Hui-Ya Chen
Previous study has showed superior sensory organisation ability in rhythmic gymnasts, but mostly in longitudinal data. With a cross-sectional design, this study used a dual-task paradigm to examine the above phenomenon. Fifteen female rhythmic gymnasts (15.0 ± 1.8 yr.) and matched peers (15.1 ± 2.1 yr.) were recruited. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) was administered with a concurrent lower-demand (serial subtraction of three, serving as the baseline) or higher-demand (serial subtraction of seven, serving as the dual-task) arithmetic task...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Lisa Kelly, Siobhán O'Connor, Andrew J Harrison, Níamh J Ní Chéilleachair
This study examined fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency among male (N = 216) and female (N = 198) Irish primary school pupils from Year 2 to Year 7 (9.0 ± 1.7 years). Following anthropometric measurements, participants were video-recorded performing 15 FMS and scored using the TGMD-3, Victorian Fundamental Movement skills Manual and the Get skilled: Get active guidelines. Percentage mastery ranged between 1.4% (gallop) and 35.7% (slide). A two-way ANOVA evaluated the effect of sex (male/female) and class group (Year 2/3/4/5/6/7) on individual skills, locomotor subtest, object-control subtest and total TGMD-3 (GMQ) scores...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Anton J Slagers, Inge H F Reininga, Jan H B Geertzen, Johannes Zwerver, Inge van den Akker-Scheek
The Injury Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PRRS) scale measures the psychological readiness of injured athletes to resume sports participation. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the I-PRRS scale into Dutch (I-PRRS-NL) and assess its validity, reliability, and stability in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The original I-PRRS was translated and culturally adapted from English into Dutch, and tested for clinimetric quality. To assess concurrent validity, 150 patients completed the I-PRRS-NL scale and five questionnaires measuring related constructs 3-16 months after ACLR...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Shiwei Mo, Daniel Hung Kay Chow
This study investigated differences in lower-limb coordination and coordination variability between experienced and novice runners during a prolonged run. Thirty-four participants were categorised as either experienced (n = 17) or novice runners (n = 17). All participants performed a 31-min treadmill run at their individual anaerobic threshold speed, and lower-limb kinematic data were acquired in the sagittal plane at the beginning, middle, and end of the run. Lower-limb coordination and variability during the stance phase were quantified using a vector coding technique for hip-knee, knee-ankle, pelvis-thigh, thigh-shank, and shank-foot couplings...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Paul T Morgan, Matthew I Black, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of critical power (CP) and W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) derived from self-paced time-trial (TT) prediction trials using mobile power meters to predict 16.1-km road cycling TT performance. This study also aimed to assess the agreement between functional threshold power (FTP) and CP. METHODS: Twelve competitive male cyclists completed an incremental test to exhaustion, a FTP test and 4-5 self-paced TT bouts on a stationary bike within the lab, and a 16...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Manuel Ortega-Becerra, Juan Párraga, Juan José González-Badillo
This study analysed the acute mechanical and metabolic responses to a sprint training session focused on maintaining maximal speed until a given speed loss was reached. Nine male high-level sprinters performed 60 m running sprints up to a 3% in speed loss with 6 min rests between sets. Mechanical responses (countermovement jump (CMJ) height and speed loss) and metabolic responses (blood lactate and ammonia concentrations) were measured pre-exercise and after each set was performed. Jump height loss showed almost perfect relationships with both lactate (r = 0...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mohsen Shafizadeh, Stuart Bonner, Jonathan Fraser, Andrew Barnes
The aims of this study were to examine the effect of different environmental constraints on kinematic multi-segment coordination patterns during the service and its coordination with service time variability. Ten expert tennis players (Age: 34.1 ± 5.3) volunteered to take part in this study. Participants served 30 times in 3 different conditions: control, target and opposition. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. A wireless 3D motion capture system (STT Co, Spain) was used to measure 7 joint motions, with a 17 degrees of freedom biomechanical model created to capture the entire service action...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Pascual Bujalance-Moreno, Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Felipe García-Pinillos
Small-sided games (SSG) are played on a small pitch, often using modified rules and involving a smaller number of players. This article aimed to critically analyse the literature to determine how small-sided games affect the performance of football players in the short- and long term. Electronic databases were searched for literature dating from January 2000 to July 2018. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the modified Downs and Black Quality Index (cross-sectional studies) and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (intervention studies)...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ian C Dunican, Jennifer Walsh, Charles C Higgins, Maddison J Jones, Kathleen Maddison, John A Caldwell, Hillman David, Peter R Eastwood
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in an elite rugby union team using in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and sleep questionnaires. Twenty-five elite rugby union players underwent a night of PSG during the "off-season" of the Super Rugby competition to assess their sleep. Of interest were measurements that detected the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; apnea-hypopnea index ≥5 events/hr) and the presence of moderate-severe periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMs; ≥15 events/hr)...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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