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Journal of Sports Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531363/beneficial-effect-of-enriched-air-nitrox-on-bubble-formation-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#1
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Bubble formation during scuba diving might induce decompression sickness. This prospective randomised and double-blind study included 108 advanced recreational divers (38 females). Fifty-four pairs of divers, 1 breathing air and the other breathing nitrox28 undertook a standardised dive (24 ± 1 msw; 62 ± 5min) in the Red Sea. Venous gas bubbles were counted (Doppler) 30-<45 min (early) and 45-60 min (late) post-dive at jugular, subclavian and femoral sites. Only 7% (air) vs. 11% (air28®) (n.s.) were bubble-free after a dive...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514202/the-physical-characteristics-of-match-play-in-english-schoolboy-and-academy-rugby-union
#2
Dale B Read, Ben Jones, Padraic J Phibbs, Gregory A B Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Jonathon J S Weakley, Kevin Till
The aim was to compare the physical characteristics of under-18 academy and schoolboy rugby union competition by position (forwards and backs). Using a microsensor unit, match characteristics were recorded in 66 players. Locomotor characteristics were assessed by maximum sprint speed (MSS) and total, walking, jogging, striding and sprinting distances. The slow component (<2 m · s(-1)) of PlayerLoad(TM) (PLslow), which is the accumulated accelerations from the three axes of movement, was analysed as a measure of low-speed activity (e...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508705/physical-demands-of-game-based-training-drills-in-women-s-team-handball
#3
Live S Luteberget, Hege P Trollerud, Matt Spencer
Game-based training drills are popular in team sports. This study compared two game-based training conditions and official matches in team handball. Thirty-one women players wore inertial measurement units in five training sessions and five official matches. In training, 3vs3 and 6vs6 game-based training conditions were performed with a 5-min duration. PlayerLoad™ and high-intensity events (HIEs; >2.5 m · s(-1)) were extracted from the raw data. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences and reported with effect sizes (ESs)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502223/investigation-of-angiogenesis-genes-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture-risk-in-a-south-african-population
#4
Masouda Rahim, Hayden Hobbs, Willem van der Merwe, Michael Posthumus, Malcolm Collins, Alison V September
The angiogenesis-signalling pathway is a physiological response after mechanical loading to promote matrix remodelling and thereby maintain tissue homeostasis. Studies have shown increased expression of angiogenic molecules in response to loading and in ruptured ligaments. Recently, polymorphisms within the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and kinase insert-domain receptor (KDR) genes were associated with risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and Achilles tendinopathy in Caucasian study groups...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498791/the-influence-of-successive-matches-on-match-running-performance-during-an-under-23-international-soccer-tournament-the-necessity-of-individual-analysis
#5
Matthew C Varley, Valter Di Salvo, Mattia Modonutti, Warren Gregson, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
This study investigated the effects of successive matches on match-running in elite under-23 soccer players during an international tournament. Match-running data was collected using a semi-automated multi-camera tracking system during an international under-23 tournament from all participating outfield players. Players who played 100% of all group stage matches were included (3 matches separated by 72 h, n = 44). Differences in match-running performance between matches were identified using a generalised linear mixed model...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481698/perfectionism-predicts-injury-in-junior-athletes-preliminary-evidence-from-a-prospective-study
#6
Daniel J Madigan, Joachim Stoeber, Dale Forsdyke, Mark Dayson, Louis Passfield
According to the stress-injury model (Williams & Andersen, 1998), personality factors predisposing athletes to elevated levels of stress may increase the risk of injury. As perfectionism has been associated with chronic stress, it may be one such personality factor. So far, however, no study has investigated the relationships between perfectionism and injury utilising a prospective design. Therefore, the present study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns and injury in 80 junior athletes from team and individual sports (mean age 17...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481691/the-role-of-self-regulatory-efficacy-moral-disengagement-and-guilt-on-doping-likelihood-a-social-cognitive-theory-perspective
#7
Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu
Given the concern over doping in sport, researchers have begun to explore the role played by self-regulatory processes in the decision whether to use banned performance-enhancing substances. Grounded on Bandura's (1991) theory of moral thought and action, this study examined the role of self-regulatory efficacy, moral disengagement and anticipated guilt on the likelihood to use a banned substance among college athletes. Doping self-regulatory efficacy was associated with doping likelihood both directly (b = -...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481686/lower-extremity-joint-loads-in-habitual-rearfoot-and-mid-forefoot-strike-runners-with-normal-and-shortened-stride-lengths
#8
Elizabeth R Boyer, Timothy R Derrick
Our purpose was to compare joint loads between habitual rearfoot (hRF) and habitual mid/forefoot strikers (hFF), rearfoot (RFS) and mid/forefoot strike (FFS) patterns, and shorter stride lengths (SLs). Thirty-eight hRF and hFF ran at their normal SL, 5% and 10% shorter, as well as with the opposite foot strike. Three-dimensional ankle, knee, patellofemoral (PF) and hip contact forces were calculated. Nearly all contact forces decreased with a shorter SL (1.2-14.9% relative to preferred SL). In general, hRF had higher PF (hRF-RFS: 10...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481676/technical-determinants-of-tackle-and-ruck-performance-in-international-rugby-union
#9
Sharief Hendricks, Tiffany van Niekerk, Drew Wade Sin, Mike Lambert, Steve den Hollander, James Brown, Willie Maree, Paul Treu, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
The most frequently occurring contact events in rugby union are the tackle and ruck. The ability repeatedly to engage and win the tackle and ruck has been associated with team success. To win the tackle and ruck, players have to perform specific techniques. These techniques have not been studied at the highest level of rugby union. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance at the highest level of rugby union. A total of 4479 tackle and 2914 ruck events were coded for the Six Nations and Championship competitions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481665/physical-activity-awareness-of-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#10
Jérémy Vanhelst, Laurent Béghin, Alain Duhamel, Stefaan De Henauw, Jonatan R Ruiz, Anthony Kafatos, Yannis Manios, Kurt Widhalm, Béatrice Mauro, Michael Sjöström, Frédéric Gottrand
The aim of this study was to assess physical activity (PA) awareness of adolescents and to identify anthropometric and psychosocial factors that can lead to under or overestimation of PA. This study included 2044 adolescents. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days to measure PA and completed a self-rated questionnaire about PA. Adolescents were classified into four PA awareness subgroups (realistically active, overestimators, underestimators and realistically inactive) according to the self-rated and objective assessment of PA...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475465/food-restriction-alters-salivary-cortisol-and-%C3%AE-amylase-responses-to-a-simulated-weightlifting-competition-without-significant-performance-modification
#11
Alexandre Durguerian, Edith Filaire, Catherine Drogou, Clément Bougard, Mounir Chennaoui
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a 6-day food restriction period on the physiological responses and performance of 11 high-level weightlifters. After a period of weight maintenance (T2), they were assigned into two groups depending on whether they lost (Diet group, n = 6) or maintained their body weight (Control group, n = 5) during the course of those 6 days. An evaluation of performance and the measurement of salivary cortisol concentrations and salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity were performed during a simulated weightlifting competition which took place at T2, after a 6-day period of food restriction (T3)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471736/cognitive-motor-dual-task-ability-of-athletes-with-and-without-intellectual-impairment
#12
Debbie Van Biesen, Lore Jacobs, Katina McCulloch, Luc Janssens, Yves C Vanlandewijck
Cognition is important in many sports, for example, making split-second-decisions under pressure, or memorising complex movement sequences. The dual-task (DT) paradigm is an ecologically valid approach for the assessment of cognitive function in conjunction with motor demands. This study aimed to determine the impact of impaired intelligence on DT performance. The motor task required balancing on one leg on a beam, and the cognitive task was a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task assessing dynamic visual-search capacity...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471718/mechanical-power-thrust-power-and-propelling-efficiency-relationships-with-elite-sprint-swimming-performance
#13
Giorgio Gatta, Matteo Cortesi, Ian Swaine, Paola Zamparo
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between mechanical power, thrust power, propelling efficiency and sprint performance in elite swimmers. Mechanical power was measured in 12 elite sprint male swimmers: (1) in the laboratory, by using a whole-body swimming ergometer (W'TOT) and (2) in the pool, by measuring full tethered swimming force (FT) and maximal swimming velocity (Vmax): W'T = FT · Vmax. Propelling efficiency (ηP) was estimated based on the "paddle wheel model" at Vmax. Vmax was 2...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471325/sense-of-extension-force-and-angle-of-the-knee-joint-are-correlated-between-two-generations-of-men
#14
Anna Bezulska, M Naczk, Z Adach, J Arlet, J Celichowski
Numerous motor abilities depend on the activity of proprioceptors, which has been suggested to be genetically determined. To test this hypothesis, the control of torque generated by knee extensors and knee position was studied in 30 father-son pairs both before and immediately after running. After stabilisation of the participant in a sitting position, the knee joint of his dominant leg was flexed to 90°, and the maximal voluntary torque (MVT) of the dominant knee extensors under static conditions was measured...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467737/effect-of-a-randomised-12-week-resistance-training-programme-on-muscular-strength-cross-sectional-area-and-muscle-quality-in-women-having-undergone-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#15
Paul Daniels, Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, Morgan S Hall, Lance Davidson, Ted D Adams, Patricia Eisenman
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week resistance training programme on fat-free mass (FFM), muscle cross-sectional area, muscular strength and muscle quality in women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Participants were 16 women (mean age = 44.9 ± 10.2 years) from bariatric surgical groups who were randomly assigned into either a control or an intervention group. Air displacement plethysmography measured FFM and magnetic resonance imaging measured quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and whole thigh muscle cross-sectional area...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453398/assessment-of-passive-drag-in-swimming-by-numerical-simulation-and-analytical-procedure
#16
Tiago M Barbosa, Rui Ramos, António J Silva, Daniel A Marinho
The aim was to compare the passive drag-gliding underwater by a numerical simulation and an analytical procedure. An Olympic swimmer was scanned by computer tomography and modelled gliding at a 0.75-m depth in the streamlined position. Steady-state computer fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on Fluent. A set of analytical procedures was selected concurrently. Friction drag (Df), pressure drag (Dpr), total passive drag force (Df+pr) and drag coefficient (CD) were computed between 1.3 and 2.5 m · s(-1) by both techniques...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429636/differences-in-game-reading-between-selected-and-non-selected-youth-soccer-players
#17
Ruud J R Den Hartigh, Steffie Van Der Steen, Bas Hakvoort, Wouter G P Frencken, Koen A P M Lemmink
Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423994/seasonal-variation-in-sports-participation
#18
Ute Schüttoff, Tim Pawlowski
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423991/changes-in-body-mass-stature-and-bmi-in-south-african-elite-u18-rugby-players-from-different-racial-groups-from-2002-2012
#19
Justin Durandt, Mervin Green, Herman Masimla, Mike Lambert
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences between racial groups for body mass, stature and body mass index (BMI) in South African elite U18 rugby players and whether there were significant changes in these measurements between 2002 and 2012. Self-reported body mass and stature were obtained from U18 players (n = 4007) who attended the national tournament during this period. BMI was calculated for each player.White players were 9.8 kg heavier than black players, who were 2.3 kg heavier than coloured players (P < 0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423987/reproducibility-of-upper-leg-emg-frequency-content-during-cycling
#20
Rodrigo Rico Bini, Camila Peter Hoefelmann, Vitor Pereira Costa, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Reproducibility of frequency content from surface electromyography (sEMG) signals has not been assessed and it is unknown if incremental load testing design could affect sEMG in cycling. The goals of this study were to assess the reproducibility of measures from sEMG frequency content between sessions and to compare these frequency components between a ramp and a step incremental cycling test. Eighteen cyclists performed four incremental load cycling tests to exhaustion. Two tests were performed using a step increment (load started at 100 W for 3 min followed by increments of 30 W every 3 min) and two were performed using a ramp increment (load started at 100 W for 1 min followed by increments of 30 W·min(-1))...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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