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Journal of Sports Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799458/effects-of-an-unsupervised-pedometer-based-physical-activity-program-on-daily-steps-of-adults-with-moderate-to-severe-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Cristina Martins Coelho, Maycon Moura Reboredo, Felipe Martins Valle, Carla Malaguti, Larissa Almeida Campos, Lucas Mendes Nascimento, Erich Vidal Carvalho, Júlio César Abreu Oliveira, Bruno Valle Pinheiro
Supervised exercise has shown benefits for subjects with asthma, but little is known about the effectiveness of unsupervised physical activity on this population. We investigated the effects of a 12-week unsupervised pedometer-based physical activity program on daily steps and on clinical and psychological parameters of adults with asthma. Clinically stable adults with moderate to severe asthma were encouraged to take daily 30-minute walks and were randomized to pedometer and control groups. The pedometer group received pedometers and individualized daily step targets...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795879/influence-of-different-attentional-focus-on-emg-amplitude-and-contraction-duration-during-the-bench-press-at-different-speeds
#2
Joaquin Calatayud, Jonas Vinstrup, Markus D Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, Juan Carlos Colado, Lars L Andersen
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using different focus affects electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and contraction duration during bench press performed at explosive and controlled speeds. Eighteen young male individuals were familiarized with the procedure and performed the one-maximum repetition (1RM) test in the first session. In the second session, participants performed the bench press exercise at 50% of the 1RM with 3 different attentional focuses (regular focus on moving the load vs contracting the pectoralis vs contracting the triceps) at 2 speed conditions (controlled vs maximal speed)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792273/effects-of-intensity-on-muscle-specific-voluntary-electromechanical-delay-and-relaxation-electromechanical-delay
#3
Cory M Smith, Terry J Housh, Ethan C Hill, Josh L Keller, Glen O Johnson, Richard J Schmidt
The purposes of this study were to examine: 1) the potential muscle-specific differences in voluntary electromechanical delay (EMD) and relaxation electromechanical delay (R-EMD), and 2) the effects of intensity on EMD and R-EMD during step incremental isometric muscle actions from 10 to 100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). EMD and R-EMD measures were calculated from the simultaneous assessments of electromyography, mechanomyography, and force production from the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) during step isometric muscle actions...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786764/an-examination-of-the-jump-and-lift-factors-influencing-the-time-to-reach-peak-catch-height-during-a-rugby-union-lineout
#4
Tiaki Brett Smith, Kim Hébert-Losier, Doug McClymont
The goal of an offensive Rugby Union lineout is to throw the ball in a manner that allows your team to maintain possession. Typically, the player catching the ball jumps and is lifted upwards by two teammates, reaching above the opposing player who is competing for the ball also. Despite various beliefs regarding the importance of the jumper's mass and attempted jump height, and lifters' magnitude and point of force application, there is negligible published data on the topic. The squeeze technique is one lifting method commonly employed by New Zealand teams during lineout plays, whereby the jumper initiates the jump quickly and the lifters provide assistance only once the jumper reaches 20-30 cm...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783467/the-physiological-effects-of-concurrent-strength-and-endurance-training-sequence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Zsolt Murlasits, Zsuzsanna Kneffel, Lukman Thalib
We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the chronic effects of the sequence of concurrent strength and endurance training on selected important physiological and performance parameters, namely lower body 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max/peak). Based on predetermined eligibility criteria, chronic effect trials, comparing strength-endurance (SE) with endurance-strength (ES) training sequence in the same session were included. Data on effect sizes, sample size and SD as well other related study characteristics were extracted...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783446/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-does-not-improve-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-heat
#6
Georgina L Kent, Brian Dawson, Gregory R Cox, Louise M Burke, Annette Eastwood, Kevin D Croft, Peter Peeling
This investigation examined the effect of beetroot juice (BR) supplementation, a source of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)), on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and thermoregulation in the heat. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 12 male cyclists (age 26.6 ± 4.4 years, VO2peak 65.8 ± 5.5 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) completed four cycling TTs (14 kJ.kg(-1)) in hot (35°C, 48% relative humidity) and euthermic (21°C, 52%) conditions, following 3 days supplementation with BR (6.5 mmol NO3(-) for 2 days and 13 mmol NO3(-) on the final day), or NO3(-)depleted placebo (PLA)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782993/where-science-meets-practice-olympic-coaches-crafting-of-the-tapering-process
#7
Darren Ritchie, Justine B Allen, Andrew Kirkland
Although there is research providing physiologically-based guidance for the content of the taper, this study was the first to examine how coaches actually implement the taper. The purpose of this study was to examine the taper planning and implementation processes of successful Olympic coaches leading up to major competitions and how they learned about tapering. Seven track and field coaches participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their tapering processes. To be considered for inclusion, coaches were required to have coached one or more athletes to an Olympic or Paralympic medal...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777695/relationship-of-performance-on-the-sensory-organization-test-to-landing-characteristics
#8
Caleb D Johnson, Valerie J Williams, Nicholas R Heebner, Meleesa F Wohleber, Andrew J Simonson, Deirdre M Rafferty, Andrew Reinert, Timothy C Sell
Jump landing tasks have been used to assess landing characteristics and require significant sensorimotor feedback to maintain functional joint stability (FJS) throughout the task. Postural stability (PS) also requires significant sensorimotor feedback and control and would seemingly involve similar sensory feedback pathways. However, previous literature clarifying the relationship between these two processes, maintaining FJS and PS, is limited. 80 Special Tactics Operators. PS was assessed using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776487/physiological-and-biomechanical-responses-between-seated-and-standing-positions-during-distance%C3%A2-based-uphill-time-trials-in-elite-cyclists
#9
Anthony Bouillod, Frederic Grappe
Cyclists regularly change from a seated to a standing position when the gradient increases during uphill cycling. The aim of this study was to analyse the physiological and biomechanical responses between seated and standing positions during distance-based uphill time trials in elite cyclists. Thirteen elite cyclists completed two testing sessions that included an incremental-specific cycling test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2max and three distance-based uphill time trials in the field to determine physiological and biomechanical variables...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770661/the-effects-of-football-match-congestion-in-an-international-tournament-on-hip-adductor-squeeze-strength-and-pain-in-elite-youth-players
#10
Martin Wollin, Tania Pizzari, Kane Spagnolo, Marijke Welvaert, Kristian Thorborg
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a congested international tournament match schedule on adductor strength and pain in elite youth football players. Twenty-two male players (age: 15.53 ± 0.48 years, height: 174.87 ± 7.59 cm, weight: 67.45 ± 7.40 kg) were included. The 5-second adductor squeeze strength was captured daily using a hand-held dynamometer during a 7-game international tournament. Pain during the squeeze test was recorded using numerical pain ratings (0-10) to quantify groin pain...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767321/does-elite-success-trigger-mass-participation-in-table-tennis-an-analysis-of-trickle-down-effects-in-germany-france-and-austria
#11
Jan Haut, Christian Gaum
There is a widespread belief that success at the elite level leads to increasing mass participation in sports. However, this assumption is merely supported by empirical evidence and is analyzed here for the case of table tennis. Therefore long-term data (1964-2014) on participation in Germany, France and Austria is statistically tested for effects of success by the countries' athletes at international competitions. Results indicate that no general trickle-down effect can be confirmed for table tennis in the countries observed...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767317/effects-of-inter-limb-asymmetries-on-physical-and-sports-performance-a-systematic-review
#12
Chris Bishop, Anthony Turner, Paul Read
The prevalence of inter-limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies across a wide range of sports and physical qualities; however, few have analysed their effects on physical and sports performance. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline and SPORT Discus databases, with all articles required to meet a specified criteria based on a quality review. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria, relating participant asymmetry scores to physical and sports performance measures...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758835/kinematics-and-metabolic-cost-of-running-on-an-irregular-treadmill-surface
#13
Alyssa M Gantz, Timothy R Derrick
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic and metabolic effects of running on an irregular surface. We also examined how altering the frontal plane foot angle (inversion/eversion) at contact using real-time visual feedback would affect these other variables. Sixteen participants completed three running bouts lasting 5-7 minutes each on an irregular surface (IS) treadmill, a traditional smooth surface (SS) treadmill, and on SS while receiving visual feedback of the frontal plane foot angle at contact (SSF) with a goal of matching IS foot angle on SS...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749751/the-relationship-between-segmental-kinematics-and-ball-spin-in-type-2-cricket-spin-bowling
#14
Aaron J Beach, René E D Ferdinands, Peter J Sinclair
The techniques of spin bowling in cricket have been largely formulated from the collective intuitions of past players. A standard model of bowling technique has been generally prescribed for both off-spin and leg-spin bowlers, but there has been no biomechanics research to validate this approach. This study measured 20 Type-2 off-spin and 15 Type-2 leg-spin bowlers using a 3D Cortex motion analysis system. Correlation coefficients between segmental kinematic variables and spin rate in the off-spin and leg-spin bowlers revealed that off-spin bowling was associated with an earlier movement time of the thorax, whereas leg-spin bowling was associated with a greater magnitude and earlier movement time of pelvis rotation, as well as a greater magnitude of pelvis-shoulder separation movement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749254/individualised-training-at-different-intensities-in-untrained-participants-results-in-similar-physiological-and-performance-benefits
#15
Sarah L Coakley, Louis Passfield
This study compared effects of training at moderate, high, or a combination of the two intensities (mixed) on performance and physiological adaptations, when training durations were individualised. Untrained participants (n = 34) were assigned to a moderate, high, or mixed group. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), power output at V̇O2max (MAP), time-to-exhaustion and gross efficiency were recorded before and after four weeks of cycling training (four times per week). The moderate group cycled at 60% MAP in blocks of 5 min with 1 min recovery, and training duration was individualised to 100% of pre-training time-to-exhaustion...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745131/the-effects-of-a-home-based-physical-activity-intervention-on-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Ian M Lahart, Amtul R Carmichael, Alan M Nevill, George D Kitas, George S Metsios
The aim of this current randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a home-based physical activity (PA) intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors. Thirty-two post-adjuvant therapy breast cancer survivors (age = 52 ± 10 years; BMI = 27.2 ± 4.4 kg∙m(2)) were randomised to a six-month home-based PA intervention with face-to-face and telephone PA counselling or usual care. Cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported PA were assessed at baseline and at six-months...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742436/factors-associated-with-using-research-evidence-in-national-sport-organisations
#17
Nicholas L Holt, Kurtis Pankow, Martin Camiré, Jean Côté, Jessica Fraser-Thomas, Dany J MacDonald, Leisha Strachan, Katherine A Tamminen
The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with the use of research evidence in Canadian National Sport Organisations (NSOs). Data were collected via individual semi-structured interviews with 21 representatives from Canadian NSOs. A qualitative description approach was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to an inductive-to-deductive thematic analysis. A research implementation framework (Rycroft-Malone, 2004) was used to organise inductively derived themes into the higher-order categories of evidence (use of evidence, disconnection between research and practice), context (lack of capacity, organisational structure), and facilitation (personal connections with researchers and sport scientists, formal meetings with stakeholders)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741451/perceived-neighborhood-environmental-characteristics-and-different-types-of-physical-activity-among-brazilian-adolescents
#18
Gerfeson Mendonça, Alex Antonio Florindo, Cassiano Ricardo Rech, Delma Katiana Silva de Freitas, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
Little is known about the association between environmental characteristics and types of physical activity in adolescents in a Latin American context. The aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood environmental characteristics and different types of physical activity in 2,874 adolescents from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba State, Northeastern Brazil. The types of activity measured by questionnaire (≥10 min/day) included sports, physical exercises, active commuting and recreational activities...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728471/implementing-technical-refinement-in-high-level-athletics-exploring-the-knowledge-schemas-of-coaches
#19
Philip E Kearney, Howie J Carson, Dave Collins
This paper explores the approaches adopted by high-level field athletics coaches when attempting to refine an athlete's already well-established technique (long and triple jump and javelin throwing). Six coaches, who had all coached multiple athletes to multiple major championships, took part in semi-structured interviews focused upon a recent example of technique refinement. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis. The coaching tools reported were generally consistent with those advised by the existing literature, focusing on attaining "buy-in", utilising part-practice, restoring movement automaticity and securing performance under pressure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726550/exploring-the-impact-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-adolescents-objectively-measured-physical-activity-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Sarah A Costigan, Nicola D Ridgers, Narelle Eather, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Nigel Harris, David R Lubans
High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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