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Journal of Sports Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429636/differences-in-game-reading-between-selected-and-non-selected-youth-soccer-players
#1
Ruud J R Den Hartigh, Steffie Van Der Steen, Bas Hakvoort, Wouter G P Frencken, Koen A P M Lemmink
Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423994/seasonal-variation-in-sports-participation
#2
Ute Schüttoff, Tim Pawlowski
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423991/changes-in-body-mass-stature-and-bmi-in-south-african-elite-u18-rugby-players-from-different-racial-groups-from-2002-2012
#3
Justin Durandt, Mervin Green, Herman Masimla, Mike Lambert
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences between racial groups for body mass, stature and body mass index (BMI) in South African elite U18 rugby players and whether there were significant changes in these measurements between 2002 and 2012. Self-reported body mass and stature were obtained from U18 players (n = 4007) who attended the national tournament during this period. BMI was calculated for each player.White players were 9.8 kg heavier than black players, who were 2.3 kg heavier than coloured players (P < 0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423987/reproducibility-of-upper-leg-emg-frequency-content-during-cycling
#4
Rodrigo Rico Bini, Camila Peter Hoefelmann, Vitor Pereira Costa, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Reproducibility of frequency content from surface electromyography (sEMG) signals has not been assessed and it is unknown if incremental load testing design could affect sEMG in cycling. The goals of this study were to assess the reproducibility of measures from sEMG frequency content between sessions and to compare these frequency components between a ramp and a step incremental cycling test. Eighteen cyclists performed four incremental load cycling tests to exhaustion. Two tests were performed using a step increment (load started at 100 W for 3 min followed by increments of 30 W every 3 min) and two were performed using a ramp increment (load started at 100 W for 1 min followed by increments of 30 W·min(-1))...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421914/seeing-the-forest-but-not-the-trees-heterogeneity-in-community-size-effects-in-canadian-ice-hockey-players
#5
N Wattie, J Schorer, J Baker
The community size effect (or birthplace effect) suggests that high-performance athletes are less likely to emerge from regions with population sizes that are very small or very large. However, previous research on elite Canadian ice hockey players has not considered the influence of intra-national regional variation of population distributions with respect to community size effects. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the heterogeneity of the community size effect between Canadian National Hockey League draftees (2000-2014: n = 1505), from 7 provincial regions within Canada (i...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417687/does-a-perceptuomotor-skills-assessment-have-added-value-to-detect-talent-for-table-tennis-in-primary-school-children
#6
Irene R Faber, Johan Pion, Goran Munivrana, Niels R Faber, Maria W G Nijhuis-Van der Sanden
Talent detection intends to support lifelong sports participation, reduce dropouts and stimulate sports at the elite level. For this purpose it is important to reveal the specific profile which directs children to the sports that connect to their strengths and preferences. This study evaluated a perceptuomotor skills assessment as part of talent detection for table tennis, a sport in which perceptuomotor skills are considered essential to cope with the difficult technical aspects. Primary school children (n = 121) and gifted young table tennis players (n = 146) were assessed using the Dutch perceptuomotor skills assessment measuring "ball control" and "gross motor function"...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417667/immediate-and-short-term-biomechanical-adaptation-of-habitual-barefoot-runners-who-start-shod-running
#7
Ivan P H Au, Fannie O Y Lau, Winko W An, Janet H Zhang, Tony L Chen, Roy T H Cheung
This study investigated the immediate and short-term effects of minimalist shoes (MS) and traditional running shoes (TRS) on vertical loading rates, foot strike pattern and lower limb kinematics in a group of habitual barefoot runners. Twelve habitual barefoot runners were randomly given a pair of MS or TRS and were asked to run with the prescribed shoes for 1 month. Outcome variables were obtained before, immediate after and 1 month after shoe prescription. Average and instantaneous vertical loading rates at the 1-month follow-up were significantly higher than that at the pre-shod session (P < 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415899/specific-muscle-synergies-in-national-elite-female-ice-hockey-players-in-response-to-unexpected-external-perturbation
#8
Minhee Kim, Yushin Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, BumChul Yoon
This study aimed to investigate specific muscle synergies in elite ice hockey players indicating highly developed postural control strategies used to restore balance against unexpected external perturbations. Seven elite athletes (EA) on the women's national ice hockey team and 7 non-athletes (NA) participated in this study. Based on trajectories of centre of mass (COM), analysis periods were divided into an initial phase (a balance disturbance after perturbation onset) and a reversal phase (a balance recovery response), respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406361/predictors-of-performance-in-a-4-h-mountain-bike-race
#9
Andrew R Novak, Kyle J M Bennett, Job Fransen, Ben J Dascombe
This study aimed to cross validate previously developed predictive models of mountain biking performance in a new cohort of mountain bikers during a 4-h event (XC4H). Eight amateur XC4H cyclists completed a multidimensional assessment battery including a power profile assessment that consisted of maximal efforts between 6 and 600 s, maximal hand grip strength assessments, a video-based decision-making test as well as a XC4H race. A multiple linear regression model was found to predict XC4H performance with good accuracy (R(2) = 0...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406358/bone-health-in-elite-kenyan-runners
#10
Nicholas Tam, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Ross Tucker, Robert P Lamberts, Lisa K Micklesfield
Impact loading in athletes participating in various sports has been positively associated with increased bone mineral density (BMD), but this has not been investigated in elite Kenyan runners. Body composition and site-specific BMD measures quantified with dual x-ray absorptiometry were measured in 15 elite male Kenyan runners and 23 apparently healthy South African males of different ethnicities. Training load and biomechanical variables associated with impact loading, such as joint stiffness, were determined in the elite Kenyan runners...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406356/the-association-between-fundamental-athletic-movements-and-physical-fitness-in-elite-junior-australian-footballers
#11
Carl T Woods, Ian McKeown, Justin Keogh, Sam Robertson
This study investigated the associations between fundamental athletic movement and physical fitness in junior Australian football (AF). Forty-four under 18 players performed a fundamental athletic movement assessment consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge, single leg Romanian deadlift and a push up. Movements were scored on three assessment criterions using a three-point scale. Additionally, participants performed five physical fitness tests commonly used for talent identification in AF. A Spearman's nonparametric correlation matrix was built, with correlation coefficients being visualised using a circularly rendered correlogram...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394711/swimming-and-peak-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Jesús Montero-Marín, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Javier García-Campayo, Luis A Moreno, Jose A Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
This meta-analysis aims to determine the effects of regular swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults (18-30 years). A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Library from the earliest possible year to March 2016. Swimmers were compared to non-athletic controls (CG) and to high-impact athletes (HIGH). Effect sizes with the Hedges g in random effects models were developed. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. Swimmers presented similar BMD values to CG in whole-body (g = -0...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391765/the-efficacy-of-cooling-with-phase-change-material-for-the-treatment-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-pilot-study
#13
Susan Y Kwiecien, Malachy P McHugh, Glyn Howatson
Post-exercise cryotherapy treatments are typically short duration interventions. This study examined the efficacy of prolonged cooling using phase change material (PCM) on strength loss and pain after eccentric exercise. Eight adults performed 120 bilateral eccentric quadriceps contractions (90% MVC). Immediately afterwards, frozen PCM packs (15°C) were placed over the quadriceps, with room temperature PCM packs on the contralateral quadriceps. Skin temperature was recorded continually (6 h PCM application)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376678/whole-body-precooling-attenuates-the-extracellular-hsp72-il-6-and-il-10-responses-after-an-acute-bout-of-running-in-the-heat
#14
Ben J Lee, Neil D Clarke, Joanne Hankey, Charles D Thake
The impact of whole-body precooling on the extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHSP72) and cytokine responses to running in the heat is undefined. The aim of this study was to determine whether precooling would attenuate post-exercise eHSP72 and cytokine responses. Eight male recreational runners completed two 90-minute bouts of running at 65% [Formula: see text]O2max in 32 ± 0.9°C and 47 ± 6 % relative humidity (RH) preceded by either 60-minutes of precooling in 20.3 ± 0.3°C water (COOL) or 60 min rest in an air-conditioned laboratory (20...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376674/effect-of-6-weeks-wbvt-on-the-behaviour-of-the-lower-limb-muscle-fibres-during-vertical-jumping
#15
Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Paula Esteban, Fernando Martínez, José Fernando Jiménez
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of 6 weeks of whole body vibration training (WBVT) on body composition, muscle activity of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius muscle architecture (static and dynamic) and ground reaction forces (performance jump) during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump in young healthy adult males. A total of 33 men (23.31 ± 5.62 years) were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (experimental group, EGWBVT: n = 17; 22...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368719/fatigue-does-not-conjointly-alter-postural-and-cognitive-performance-when-standing-in-a-shooting-position-under-dual-task-conditions
#16
José Luis Bermejo, Xavier García-Massó, Thierry Paillard, Frédéric Noé
This study investigated the effects of fatigue on balance control and cognitive performance in a standing shooting position. Nineteen soldiers were asked to stand while holding a rifle (single task - ST). They also had to perform this postural task while simultaneously completing a cognitive task (dual task - DT). Both the ST and DT were performed in pre- and post-fatigue conditions. In pre-fatigue, participants achieved better balance control in the DT than in the ST, thus suggesting that the increased cognitive activity associated with the DT improves balance control by shifting the attentional focus away from a highly automatised activity...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368213/association-between-comt-val158met-polymorphism-and-competition-results-of-competitive-swimmers
#17
Daisuke Abe, Hirokazu Doi, Taishi Asai, Mayuko Kimura, Tadashi Wada, Yuusuke Takahashi, Takaaki Matsumoto, Kazuyuki Shinohara
Recent studies have shown the contribution of genetic determinants to athletes' physical ability. However, despite the fact that cognitive abilities like self-control and stress-tolerance influence athletes' competitive performance, few studies to date have investigated the association between genetic polymorphism, which is linked to cognitive ability and athletic performance. The present study investigated the link between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are known to exert influences on dopaminergic neural function and competitive performance of swimmers...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357932/the-physical-education-predisposition-scale-preliminary-tests-of-reliability-and-validity-in-australian-students
#18
Toni A Hilland, Trent D Brown, Stuart J Fairclough
The main aim of this study was to psychometrically test the Physical Education Predisposition Scale (PEPS) with a cohort of Australian students, to assess secondary school students' perceived PE ability and PE worth. Secondary aims were to explore how the two variables were related and to investigate age and gender differences. Altogether, 266 Year 7, 8, 9 and 10 students (aged 12-16 years), from four schools within the South Eastern region of Melbourne, completed the PEPS at both time points. Principal components analysis revealed the presence of a simple two-factor structure explaining 66...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357922/reliability-assessment-and-correlation-analysis-of-3-protocols-to-measure-trunk-muscle-strength-and-endurance
#19
Casto Juan-Recio, Diego López-Plaza, David Barbado Murillo, M Pilar García-Vaquero, Francisco J Vera-García
Different methods have been developed to quantify trunk muscle strength and endurance. However, some important protocol characteristics are still unclear, hindering the selection of the most suitable tests in each specific situation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and the relationship between 3 representative tests of the most common type of protocols used to assess trunk muscle strength and endurance. Twenty-seven healthy men performed each test twice spaced 1 month apart.Trunk strength and endurance were evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer and 2 field tests including Biering-Sørensen test and Flexion-rotation trunk test...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357897/mindfulness-training-attenuates-the-increase-in-salivary-cortisol-concentration-associated-with-competition-in-highly-trained-wheelchair-basketball-players
#20
Luke A MacDonald, Clare L Minahan
This study determined the effect of 8 wk of mindfulness training (MT) on salivary cortisol (sCort) and rate of salivary Immunoglobulin-A (sIgA) secretion in wheelchair-basketball players during a competition period. The mindful group completed 8 weeks of MT in addition to training and competition. sCort and rate of sIgA secretion were measured at baseline, at 2-week intervals, the end and 2 weeks following the intervention. A significant time and group interaction was observed for sCort (F = 3.297, P = 0...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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