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Journal of Sports Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009665/accelerometry-to-measure-physical-activity-in-toddlers-determination-of-wear-time-requirements-for-a-reliable-estimate-of-physical-activity
#1
Michèle Bisson, Florence Tremblay, Etienne Pronovost, Anne-Sophie Julien, Isabelle Marc
Accelerometry is widely used to evaluate physical activity in toddlers however recommendations regarding wear time are needed to understand physical activity behaviours in this age group. This study aimed to determine the minimum wear time to reliably evaluate physical activity in toddlers. Children from the 3D Birth Cohort (n = 255, 49.8% boys, 2.1 ± 0.2 years) were asked to wear an accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph) for 7 days. Physical activity was expressed in active time (min/day) and counts per minute (CPM)...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996715/longitudinal-associations-between-motor-competence-and-different-physical-activity-intensities-labmed-physical-activity-study
#2
Luís Lopes, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Cesar Agostinis Sobrinho, José Oliveira-Santos, André Oliveira, Anthony Okely, Rute Santos
An appropriated level of motor competence is essential for children´s healthy growth and development and a key factor in the promotion of lifelong active lifestyles and health. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between motor competence and different physical activity intensities (light, moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity), as well as total physical activity, over a two-year period, in adolescents. The sample comprised of 103 adolescents (13.49 ± 0.87 years, 53 girls), from the north of Portugal...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983101/power-output-in-traditional-and-ballistic-bench-press-in-elite-athletes-influence-of-training-background
#3
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Michael R McGuigan
This study aimed to compare the power production in traditional bench-press (TBP) and ballistic bench-throw (BBT) exercises. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in velocity, force, and power outputs between TBP and BBT. Finally, we tested the differences between the loads used to optimize power (optimum power load; OPL) in both exercises, using three distinct power-variables: mean power (MP), mean propulsive power (MPP), and peak power (PP). Sixty athletes from different sports were divided into two groups, according to their training characteristics: hypertrophy-based trained athletes (HTA), thirty-one athletes performing hypertrophy training programmes for (at least) 12-weeks; and power-based trained athletes (PTA), twenty-nine athletes performing power-oriented training sessions for (at least) 12-weeks...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974824/promoting-additional-activity-in-youth-soccer-a-half-longitudinal-study-on-the-influence-of-autonomy-supportive-coaching-and-basic-psychological-need-satisfaction
#4
Siv Gjesdal, Bente Wold, Yngvar Ommundsen
This study investigated the relationships between perceptions of coach autonomy support, basic psychological need satisfaction and the frequency at which youth soccer players engage in additional soccer activity outside of team sessions. We employed structural equation modelling to test a two-wave (T1 and T2) half-longitudinal study to see if basic psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between coach autonomy support and additional soccer activity across a competitive season. The sample consisted of 527 youth soccer players, aged 10-15 years...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972090/modelling-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-with-exponential-growth-functions-during-resistance-training
#5
Antony G Philippe, Fabio Borrani, Anthony Mj Sanchez, Guillaume Py, Robin Candau
System theory is classically applied to describe and to predict the effects of training load on performance. The classic models are structured by impulse-type transfer functions, nevertheless, most biological adaptations display exponential growth kinetics. The aim of this study was to propose an extension of the model structure taking into account the exponential nature of skeletal muscle adaptations by using a genetic algorithm. Thus, the conventional impulse-type model was applied in 15 resistance trained rodents and compared with exponential growth-type models...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969061/does-ball-carrier-technique-influence-tackler-head-injury-assessment-risk-in-elite-rugby-union
#6
Gregory J Tierney, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Ciaran K Simms
The aim of this study was to use video evidence of tackles in elite level rugby union to identify ball carrier proficiency characteristics, for both lower and upper body tackles, that have a higher propensity to result in Head Injury Assessments(HIA) for the tackler. HIA (n = 74) and non-HIA tackles (n = 233) were categorised as either front-on or side-on upper or lower body tackles and scored for ball carrying proficiency characteristics. Side-on tackles included tackles from behind. A Chi-Square test (p < 0...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962280/concurrent-validity-and-reliability-of-an-iphone-app-for-the-measurement-of-ankle-dorsiflexion-and-inter-limb-asymmetries
#7
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Natalia Romero-Franco, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the validity and reliability of an iPhone app (named: Dorsiflex) for the measurement of weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion. To do this, twelve healthy participants (age=28.6±2.3 years) performed a weight-bearing lunge test with each leg in five separate occasions, while dorsiflexion angle was simultaneously registered using a professional digital inclinometer and the Dorsiflex iPhone app, which was specifically developed for this study. A total of 120 angles measured both with the digital inclinometer and the app were then compared for validity, reliability and accuracy purposes using several statistical tests...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958058/assessment-of-step-accuracy-using-the-consumer-technology-association-standard
#8
Jennifer A Bunn, Caleb Jones, Alexis Oliviera, Michael J Webster
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of commercially-available physical activity devices when walking and running at various treadmill speeds using CTA 2056: Physical Activity Monitoring for Fitness Wearables: Step Counting, standard by the Consumer Technology Association (CTA). Twenty participants (10 males and 10 females) completed self-paced walking and running protocols on the treadmill for five minutes each. Eight devices (Apple iWatch series 1, Fitbit Surge, Garmin 235, Moto 360, Polar A360, Suunto Spartan Sport, Suunto Spartan Trainer, and TomTom Spark 3) were tested two at a time, one per wrist...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947584/collective-team-behaviour-of-australian-rules-football-during-phases-of-match-play
#9
Jeremy P Alexander, Bartholomew Spencer, Jocelyn K Mara, Sam Robertson
Using the spatiotemporal characteristics of players, the primary aim of this study was to determine whether differences in collective team behaviour exist in Australian Rules football during different phases of match play. The secondary aim was to determine the extent to which collective team behaviour differed between competing teams and match half. Data was collected via 10 Hz global positioning system devices from a professional club during a 2 × 20 min, 15-v-15-match simulation drill. Five spatiotemporal variables from each team (x centroid, y centroid, length, width, and surface area) were collected and analysed during offensive, defensive, and contested phases...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947300/motivational-profiles-in-table-tennis-players-relations-with-performance-anxiety-and-subjective-vitality
#10
Tsz Lun Alan Chu, Tao Zhang, Tsung-Min Hung
Research has suggested the need to use a person-centred approach to examine multidimensionality of motivation. Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the primary aim of the present study was to examine the motivational profiles in table tennis players and their composition by gender, country, training status, and competition levels (from recreational to international). The secondary aim was to examine the differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944452/differences-in-determinants-of-aerobic-and-muscle-strengthening-physical-activity-among-college-students-a-reasoned-action-approach
#11
Paul Branscum, Grace Fairchild
While there is a concerted effort to promote physical activity (PA) across United States government and non-governmental organizations, interventions typically focus on aerobic forms of PA, leaving out muscle strengthening PA. The purpose of this study was to operationalize the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to explain theory-based correlates of aerobic and muscle strengthening PA, which can provide targets for future public health interventions. Theory-based correlates of both PA behaviors were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, and intentions predicted a significant amount of aerobic PA (14...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932816/altitude-training-in-endurance-running-perceptions-of-elite-athletes-and-support-staff
#12
Gareth Turner, Barry W Fudge, Jamie S M Pringle, Neil S Maxwell, Alan J Richardson
This study sought to establish perceptions of elite endurance athletes on the role and worth of altitude training. Elite British endurance runners were surveyed to identify the altitude and hypoxic training methods utilised, along with reasons for use, and any situational, cultural and behaviour factors influencing these. Prior to the 2012 Olympics Games, 39 athletes and 20 support staff (coaches/practitioners) completed an internet-based survey to establish differences between current practices and the accepted "best-practice"...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932805/the-3-minute-all-out-cycling-test-is-sensitive-to-changes-in-cadence-using-the-lode-excalibur-sport-ergometer
#13
James Wright, Stewart Bruce-Low, Simon A Jobson
This study investigated the effect cadence has on the estimation of critical power (CP) and the finite work capacity (W') during the 3-minute all-out cycling test. Ten participants completed 8 tests: 1) an incremental test to calculate gas exchange threshold (GET), maximal aerobic power (MAP) and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak ), 2-4) three time-to-exhaustion tests at 80, 100 and 105% MAP to calculate CP and W', 5-7) four 3-minute all-out tests to calculate end power (EP) and work done above EP (WEP) using cadences ranging from preferred -5 to preferred +10 rev·min-1 to set the fixed resistance...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924701/acute-responses-to-sprint-interval-and-continuous-exercise-in-adults-with-and-without-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction
#14
Joshua Good, Eric Viana, Kirsten A Burgomaster, Shilpa Dogra
The purpose was to compare the airway response to sprint interval exercise (SIE) and continuous exercise (CE) in active adults with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIBC), and to compare ventilatory and oxygen delivery responses between adults with and without EIBC. Adults with EIBC (n = 8, 22.3 ± 3.0 years) and adults without EIBC (n = 8, 22.3 ± 3.0 years) completed a SIE (4 × 30 s sprints separated by 4.5 min of active recovery) and CE (20 min at 65% peak power output) session. Lung function was assessed at baseline, during exercise, and up to 20 min post-exercise...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920155/running-patterns-for-male-and-female-competitive-and-recreational-runners-based-on-accelerometer-data
#15
Christian A Clermont, Lauren C Benson, Sean T Osis, Dylan Kobsar, Reed Ferber
The purpose of this study was to classify runners in sex-specific groups as either competitive or recreational based on center of mass (CoM) accelerations. Forty-one runners participated in the study (25 male and 16 female), and were labeled as competitive or recreational based on age, sex, and race performance. Three-dimensional acceleration data were collected during a 5-minute treadmill run, and 24 features were extracted. Support vector machine classification models were used to examine the utility of the features in discriminating between competitive and recreational runners within each sex-specific subgroup...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913108/feasibility-acceptability-and-potential-efficacy-of-a-childcare-based-intervention-to-reduce-sitting-time-among-pre-schoolers-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Yvonne G Ellis, Dylan P Cliff, Steven J Howard, Anthony D Okely
The aim of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce total and prolonged sitting time in pre-schoolers. Four centres and 115 pre-schoolers (44 % boys; 4.1y) participated in a 3-month, 2-arm pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through observations and semi-structured interviews. Sitting time, and breaks and bouts of sitting during childcare were assessed using an activPAL accelerometer over a one-week period at pre- and post-test (12wks)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913097/age-and-maturity-related-differences-in-motor-coordination-among-male-elite-youth-soccer-players
#17
Nikki Rommers, Mireille Mostaert, Lennert Goossens, Roel Vaeyens, Erik Witvrouw, Matthieu Lenoir, Eva D'Hondt
This study investigated differences in generic and soccer specific motor coordination, as well as speed and agility depending on age and maturity in elite youth soccer players (U10-U15, N = 619). Measurements included body height, body weight and sitting height to estimate age at peak height velocity (APHV); three Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder subtests (i.e. jumping sideways (JS), moving sideways (MS), balancing backwards (BB)) to assess generic motor coordination; the UGent dribbling test for soccer specific motor coordination; a 5m/30m sprint and T-test for speed and agility, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912669/social-identification-exercise-participation-and-positive-exercise-experiences-evidence-from-parkrun
#18
Mark Stevens, Tim Rees, Remco Polman
Growing evidence suggests that social identities may have profound implications for physical activity participation. Real-world examinations of this relationship have, however, been lacking, with research predominantly examining intentions and hypothetical scenarios. To address this shortcoming and further advance understanding in this area, the present study tested relationships between group identification, participation, two exercise-specific outcomes (exercise-specific satisfaction and group cohesion), and a broad health indicator (life satisfaction) among individuals recruited from parkrun...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912666/comparing-actigraph-equations-for-estimating-energy-expenditure-in-older-adults
#19
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, G M E E Geeske Peeters, Robert J Brychta, Kong Y Chen, Wendy J Brown
Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) from accelerometer outputs remains a challenge in older adults. The aim of this study was to validate different ActiGraph (AG) equations for predicting EE in older adults. Forty older adults (age = 77.4 ± 8.1 yrs) completed a set of household/gardening activities in their residence, while wearing an AG at the hip (GT3X+) and a portable calorimeter (MetaMax 3B - criterion). Predicted EEs from AG were calculated using five equations (Freedson, refined Crouter, Sasaki and Santos-Lozano (vertical-axis, vectormagnitude))...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912627/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-analysis-of-professional-dancers-using-3d-dxa-a-case-control-study
#20
Laura Freitas, Tânia Amorim, Ludovic Humbert, Roger Fonollá, Andreas D Flouris, George S Metsios, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Yiannis Koutedakis
Given the lack of relevant data, the aim of this study was to examine femur cortical and trabecular bone in female and male professional ballet dancers. 40 professional ballet dancers and 40 sex- and age-matched non-exercising controls volunteered. Femoral bone density was scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. A 3D-DXA software was used to analyse trabecular and cortical bone. Anthropometry, maturation (Tanner staging), menstrual parameters (age at menarche and primary amenorrhea), energy availability and nutritional analysis (3-day record) were also assessed...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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