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Journal of Sports Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922090/microsaccades-and-interest-areas-during-free-viewing-sport-task
#1
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Monica Perazzolo, Ivan Malagoli Lanzoni, Salvatore Squatrito
Microsaccades are important fixation eye movements for visual scene perception. Compared to novices, athletes make fewer fixations of longer duration toward limited interest areas crucial for action prediction. Thus, our aim was to study the microsaccade features during those fixations. Gaze behaviour of expert and novice table tennis players was recorder during a task in which subjects were instructed to predict the direction of the ball after the opponent's throw. Three interest areas from the opponent's body and one from the ball trajectory were identified...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922063/individual-calibration-of-accelerometers-in-children-and-their-health-related-implications
#2
Lynne M Boddy, Conor Cunningham, Stuart J Fairclough, Marie H Murphy, Gavin Breslin, Lawrence Foweather, Rebecca M Dagger, Lee E F Graves, Nicola D Hopkins, Gareth Stratton
This study compared children's physical activity (PA) levels, the prevalence of children meeting current guidelines of ≥60 minutes of daily moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and PA-health associations using individually calibrated (IC) and empirical accelerometer cutpoints. Data from 75 (n = 32 boys) 10-12 year old children were included in this study. Clustered cardiometabolic (CM) risk, directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), anthropometric and 7 day accelerometer data were included within analysis...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905685/helping-coaches-apply-the-principles-of-representative-learning-design-validation-of-a-tennis-specific-practice-assessment-tool
#3
Lyndon Krause, Damian Farrow, Machar Reid, Tim Buszard, Ross Pinder
Representative Learning Design (RLD) is a framework for assessing the degree to which experimental or practice tasks simulate key aspects of specific performance environments (i.e. competition). The key premise being that when practice replicates the performance environment, skills are more likely to transfer. In applied situations, however, there is currently no simple or quick method for coaches to assess the key concepts of RLD (e.g. during on-court tasks). The aim of this study was to develop a tool for coaches to efficiently assess practice task design in tennis...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895489/effects-of-mild-running-on-substantia-nigra-during-early-neurodegeneration
#4
Michael F Almeida, Carolliny M Silva, Rodrigo S Chaves, Nathan C R Lima, Renato S Almeida, Karla P Melo, Marilene Demasi, Tiago Fernandes, Edilamar M Oliveira, Luis E S Netto, Sandra M Cardoso, Merari F R Ferrari
Moderate physical exercise acts at molecular and behavioural levels, such as interfering in neuroplasticity, cell death, neurogenesis, cognition and motor functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the cellular effects of moderate treadmill running upon substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration. Aged male Lewis rats (9-month-old) were exposed to rotenone 1mg/kg/day (8 weeks) and 6 weeks of moderate treadmill running, beginning 4 weeks after rotenone exposure. Substantia nigra was extracted and submitted to proteasome and antioxidant enzymes activities, hydrogen peroxide levels and Western blot to evaluate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), alpha-synuclein, Tom-20, PINK1, TrkB, SLP1, CRMP-2, Rab-27b, LC3II and Beclin-1 level...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895469/trends-in-aggressive-play-and-refereeing-among-the-top-five-european-soccer-leagues
#5
Ryan M Sapp, Espen E Spangenburg, James M Hagberg
Current trends suggest professional soccer is becoming less aggressive, with England often argued to have the most aggressive of the top European leagues. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in fouls and cards as indicators of aggressive play in the first divisions of England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain over the past decade. Number of fouls per match and per yellow card has decreased in all leagues since 2007/08, though attempted tackles per foul has not changed or has increased...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895467/kinetic-and-kinematic-patterns-during-high-intensity-clean-movement-searching-for-optimal-load
#6
Achraf Ammar, Bryan L Riemann, Liwa Masmoudi, Marcel Blaumann, Osama Abdelkarim, Anita Hökelmann
The aim of the present study was to investigate loading effects on kinematic and kinetic variables among elite-weightlifters in order to identify an optimal training load to maximize power production for clean-movement. Nine elite-weightlifter (age: 24 ± 4years, body-mass: 77 ± 6.5kg, height: 176 ± 6.1cm and 1RM clean: 170 ± 5kg) performed 2 separate repetitions of the clean using 85, 90, 95% and 100%, in a randomized order, while standing on a force platform and being recorded using 3D-capture-system. Differences in kinematics (barbell displacement, velocity and acceleration) and kinetics (power, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), rate of force development (RFD), and work) across the loads were statistically assessed...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892463/effect-of-different-velocity-loss-thresholds-during-a-power-oriented-resistance-training-program-on-the-mechanical-capacities-of-lower-body-muscles
#7
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Amador García-Ramos, Paulino Padial, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Belén Feriche
This study compared the effects of two velocity loss thresholds during a power-oriented resistance training program on the mechanical capacities of lower-body muscles. Twenty men were counterbalanced in two groups (VL10 and VL20) based on their maximum power capacity. Both groups used the same exercises, relative intensity and repetition volume, only differing in the velocity loss threshold of each set (VL10: 10% vs. VL20: 20%). Pre- and post-training assessments included an incremental loading test and a 15-m linear sprint to assess the force- and load-velocity relationships and athletic performance variables, respectively...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892462/cycling-performance-is-superior-for-time-to-exhaustion-versus-time-trial-in-endurance-laboratory-tests
#8
Sarah L Coakley, Louis Passfield
Time-to-exhaustion (TTE) trials are used in a laboratory setting to measure endurance performance. However, there is some concern with their ecological validity compared with time-trials (TT). Consequently, we aimed to compare cycling performance in TTE and TT where the duration of the trials was matched. Seventeen trained male cyclists completed three TTE trials at 80, 100 and 105% of maximal aerobic power (MAP). On a subsequent visit they performed three TT over the same duration as the TTE. Participants were blinded to elapsed time, power output, cadence and heart rate (HR)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892460/fatigue-related-changes-in-technique-emerge-at-different-timescales-during-repetitive-training
#9
Daniel Aragonés, Alexander Eekhoff, Fabian Horst, Wolfgang Immanuel Schöllhorn
Training consisting of numerous repetitions performed as closely as possible to ideal techniques is common in sports and every-day tasks. Little is known about fatigue-related technique changes that emerge at different timescales when repeating complex actions such as a karate front kick. Accordingly, 15 karatekas performed 600 kicks (1 pre-block and 9 blocks). The pre-block comprised 6 kicks (3 with each leg) at maximum intensity (K-100%). Each block comprised 60 kicks (10 with each leg) at 80% of their self-perceived maximum intensity (K-80%) plus 6 K-100%...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880783/competitive-balance-trends-in-elite-table-tennis-the-olympic-games-and-world-championships-1988-2016
#10
Jinming Zheng, Taeyeon Oh, Seungmo Kim, Geoff Dickson, Veerle De Bosscher
Competitive balance is important because it enhances outcome uncertainty and therefore it promotes spectator interest, and encourages government investment in a sport. This article analyses the distribution of gold medals, medals, medal points and top eight points amongst nations in table tennis from 1988 to 2016 at the Olympic Games and the World Championships respectively. A normalised version of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and a coefficient of variation are calculated for each nation's share of these performance indicators...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873044/loaded-hip-thrust-based-pap-protocol-effects-on-acceleration-and-sprint-performance-of-handball-players
#11
Antonio Dello Iacono, Johnny Padulo, Laurent D Seitz
This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two barbell hip thrust-based (BHT) post-activation potentiation (PAP) protocols on subsequent sprint performance. Using a crossover design, eighteen handball athletes performed maximal 15-m sprints before and 15s, 4min and 8min after two experimental protocols consisting of BHT loaded with either 50% or 85% 1RM (50PAP and 85PAP, respectively), in order to profile the transient PAP effects. The resulting sprint performances were significantly impaired at 15s only after the 85PAP protocol, which induced likely and very likely greater decreases compared to the 50PAP...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873030/differences-in-hamstring-activation-characteristics-between-the-acceleration-and-maximum-speed-phases-of-sprinting
#12
Ayako Higashihara, Yasuharu Nagano, Takashi Ono, Toru Fukubayashi
This study aimed to investigate activation characteristics of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during the acceleration and maximum-speed phases of sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the BFlh and ST muscles were examined during the acceleration sprint and maximum-speed sprint in 13 male sprinters during an overground sprinting. Differences in hamstring activation during each divided phases and in the hip and knee joint angles and torques at each time point of the sprinting gait cycle were determined between two sprints...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873025/analysis-of-head-impacts-during-sub-elite-hurling-practice-sessions
#13
D O'Sullivan, M Roe, C Blake
The reported incidence of head and neck injuries in hurling is 0.12 per 1000 hours, but no previous research has quantified head impact characteristics in this sport. Here, a wireless accelerometer and gyroscope captured head impacts, in 20 senior club level hurling players. Peak linear and rotational acceleration and impact location were recorded during three hurling training sessions, each player participating once. A mean of 27.9 impacts (linear acceleration >10g) per player, per session were recorded; 1314 impacts during a total exposure time of 247 minutes...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869746/physiological-intensity-profile-exercise-load-and-performance-predictors-of-a-65-km-mountain-ultra-marathon
#14
Alessandro Fornasiero, Aldo Savoldelli, Damiano Fruet, Gennaro Boccia, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena
The aims of the study were to describe the physiological profile of a 65-km (4000-m cumulative elevation gain) running mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) and to identify predictors of MUM performance. Twenty-three amateur trail-runners performed anthropometric evaluations and an uphill graded exercise test (GXT) for VO2max, ventilatory thresholds (VTs), power outputs (PMax, PVTs) and heart rate response (HRmax, HR@VTs). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during the race and intensity was expressed as: Zone I (<VT1), Zone II (VT1-VT2), Zone III (>VT2) for exercise load calculation (training impulse, TRIMP)...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869745/corrigendum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869740/30-min-of-treadmill-walking-at-self-selected-speed-does-not-increase-gait-variability-in-independent-elderly
#16
Emmanuel S Da Rocha, Marcos R Kunzler, Maarten F Bobbert, Jacques Duysens, Felipe P Carpes
Walking is one of the preferred exercises among elderly, but could a prolonged walking increase gait variability, a risk factor for a fall in the elderly? Here we determine whether 30 min of treadmill walking increases coefficient of variation of gait in elderly. Because gait responses to exercise depend on fitness level, we included 15 sedentary and 15 active elderly. Sedentary participants preferred a lower gait speed and made smaller steps than the actives. Step length coefficient of variation decreased ~16...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862921/sex-differences-in-elite-performance-track-and-field-competition-from-1983-to-2015
#17
Jonathan Ospina Betancurt, Maria S Zakynthinaki, Maria Jose Martinez-Pariño, Carlos Cordente Martinez, Carmen Rodríguez Fernández
The purpose of this study was to assess the veracity of the Court of Arbitration for Sport's assertion that sex-differences in athletic performance in elite-standard track and field competition is of the order of 10-12%. Exponential curves were fitted to the data of selected track and field events of the finals of all IAAF World Championships and Olympic Games from 1983 to 2016. For each curve, the coefficient of determination R(2) was calculated, in combination the corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the curve constants...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850306/differences-between-motion-capture-and-video-analysis-systems-in-calculating-knee-angles-in-elite-standard-race-walking
#18
Brian Hanley, Catherine B Tucker, Athanassios Bissas
Race walking is an event where the knee must be straightened from first contact with the ground until midstance. The aim of this study was to compare knee angle measurements between 2D videography and 3D optoelectronic systems. Passive retroreflective markers were placed on the right leg of 12 race walkers and 3D marker coordinate data captured (250 Hz), with 2D video data (100 Hz) recorded simultaneously. Knee angle data were first derived based on the markers' coordinates, and separately by using a 3D model that also incorporated thigh and shank clusters; the video data were analysed using both automatic tracking and manual digitising, creating four conditions overall...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832250/prevalence-and-correlates-of-resistance-training-skill-competence-in-adolescents
#19
Jordan J Smith, Matthew DeMarco, Sarah G Kennedy, Mark Kelson, Lisa M Barnett, Avery D Faigenbaum, David R Lubans
The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of adolescents' resistance training (RT) skill competence. Participants were 548 adolescents (14.1 ± 0.5 years) from 16 schools in New South Wales, Australia. RT skills were assessed using the Resistance Training Skills Battery. Demographics, BMI, muscular fitness, perceived strength, RT self-efficacy, and motivation for RT were also assessed. The proportion demonstrating "competence" and "near competence" in each of the six RT skills were calculated and sex differences explored...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829230/corrigendum
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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