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Seminars in Speech and Language

Amy Rodda, Annette Estes
Social impairments are the sine qua non of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, children with ASD are capable of forming reciprocal friendships and many people with ASD have a strong desire for friends. Developing and maintaining friendships is associated with many important outcomes, including improved quality of life, mental health, and academic achievement. Children with ASD often attend groups to improve social skills, but strategies for building and maintaining friendships are not consistently addressed or measured following intervention...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Amy L Donaldson, Mariella Nolfo, Marissa Montejano
Children with autism may perceive friendship in a qualitatively different manner than their neurotypical peers. Yet, these friendships have been reported as satisfying to the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although many studies have identified lower quality of friendship in ASD, reduced reciprocity, and increased loneliness and depression, perhaps it is time to take a closer look at the perspective of autistic individuals and to identify how the broader community influences development of relationships and friendship...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Geralyn R Timler
Conversation skills are an important intervention focus for verbally fluent school-aged children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three sets of approaches for supporting conversation skills are reviewed. Pragmatic language approaches focus on teaching the verbal and nonverbal skills needed to initiate and maintain conversations including strategies for recognizing and repairing communication breakdowns. Social skill approaches focus on similar conversation behaviors, but these behaviors are usually taught for use within specific social tasks such as entering peer groups, maintaining interactions, and resolving conflicts...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Kelly Whalon
Foundational to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are difficulties developing joint attention, social reciprocity, and language/communication. These challenges place children with ASD at risk for future reading failure. Research suggests that many school-aged children with ASD will learn the decoding skills necessary to effectively read text, but will struggle with comprehension. Yet, the reading profiles of learners with ASD also show great heterogeneity, with some also unable to effectively decode new words...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Sarah R Rieth, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, Marilee Burgeson, Karyn Searcy, Kelsey S Dickson, Aubyn C Stahmer
Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions include an explicit focus on coaching parents to use therapy techniques in daily routines and are considered best practice for young children with autism. Unfortunately, these approaches are not widely used in community settings, possibly due to the clinical expertise and training required. This article presents the work of the Bond, Regulate, Interact, Develop, Guide, Engage (BRIDGE Collaborative), a multidisciplinary group of service providers (including speech-language pathologists), parents, funding agency representatives, and researchers dedicated to improving the lives of young children with autism spectrum disorder and their families...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jessica R Dykstra Steinbrenner
Around 30% of elementary school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are considered minimally verbal, yet there is limited research addressing the needs of this group of students. Several recent studies have demonstrated successful improvement of the communication skills of elementary school students with limited verbal skills. Additionally, there are focused intervention practices that are evidence based and may be useful in targeting communication skills for children with ASD who are minimally verbal...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Amy L Donaldson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Sofia Vallila-Rohter, Laura Kasparian, Olga Kaminski, Megan Schliep, Semra Koymen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Donna C Tippett, Brittany R Godin, Kumiko Oishi, Kenichi Oishi, Cameron Davis, Yessenia Gomez, Lydia A Trupe, Eun Hye Kim, Argye E Hillis
Despite its basic and translational importance, the neural circuitry supporting the perception of emotional faces remains incompletely understood. Functional imaging studies and chronic lesion studies indicate distinct roles of the amygdala and insula in recognition of fear and disgust in facial expressions, whereas intracranial encephalography studies, which are not encumbered by variations in human anatomy, indicate a somewhat different role of these structures. In this article, we leveraged lesion-mapping techniques in individuals with acute right hemisphere stroke to investigate lesions associated with impaired recognition of prototypic emotional faces before significant neural reorganization can occur during recovery from stroke...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Hinna Shahid, Rajani Sebastian, Donna C Tippett, Sadhvi Saxena, Amy Wright, Taylor Hanayik, Bonnie Breining, Leonardo Bonilha, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Argye E Hillis
Here we illustrate how investigation of individuals acutely after stroke, before structure/function reorganization through recovery or rehabilitation, can be helpful in answering questions about the role of specific brain regions in language functions. Although there is converging evidence from a variety of sources that the left posterior-superior temporal gyrus plays some role in spoken word comprehension, its precise role in this function has not been established. We hypothesized that this region is essential for distinguishing between semantically related words, because it is critical for linking the spoken word to the complete semantic representation...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Rajani Sebastian, Bonnie L Breining
Advances in structural and functional imaging techniques have provided new insights into our understanding of brain and language relationships. In this article, we review the various structural and functional imaging methods currently used to study language deficits in acute stroke. We also discuss the advantages and the limitations of each imaging modality and the applications of each modality in the clinical and research settings in the study of language deficits.
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Christine Baron, Molly Holcombe, Candace van der Stelt
Group treatment is an integral part of speech-language pathology (SLP) practice. The majority of SLP literature concerns group treatment provided in outpatient settings. This article describes the goals, procedures, and benefits of providing quality SLP group therapy in the comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation (CIR) setting. Effective CIR groups must be designed with attention to type and severity of communication impairment, as well physical stamina of group members. Group leaders need to target individualized patient goals while creating a challenging, complex, and dynamic group context that supports participation by all group members...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Sofia Vallila-Rohter, Laura Kasparian, Olga Kaminski, Megan Schliep, Semra Koymen
In this article, the implementation of a standardized assessment battery for the evaluation of language in an acute care setting is described. Following an institutional shift to adopt electronic medical records, researchers and clinicians worked together to develop a technology-assisted evaluation of aphasia that would be used to assess all patients admitted to our facility with stroke. The project goal was to devise a clinical process to improve aphasia diagnosis and evaluation while remaining feasible within constraints imposed by the acute care setting and the electronic medical record...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Alexandra Basilakos
Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder that disrupts the planning and programming of speech motor movements. In the acute stage of stroke recovery, AOS following unilateral (typically) left hemisphere stroke can occur alongside dysarthria, an impairment in speech execution and control, and/or aphasia, a higher-level impairment in language function. At this time, perceptual evaluation (the systematic, although subjective, description of speech and voice characteristics) is perhaps the only "gold standard" for differential diagnosis when it comes to motor speech disorders...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Kristie A Spencer, Katherine A Brown
Dysarthria is a common consequence of stroke and can have a detrimental influence on communication and quality of life. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) play an important role in the evaluation and rehabilitation of stroke survivors who present with dysarthria. An understanding of the physiologic reason behind the altered speech characteristics, such as weakness or incoordination, can facilitate differential diagnosis, guide evaluation strategies, and influence treatment approaches. An initial comprehensive speech evaluation is comprised of examination of the speech mechanism, screening of speech subsystems, perceptual assessment, and intelligibility measurement...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jessica M Pisegna, Joseph Murray
This article aims to review the use of laryngoscopy to assess swallowing function in the stroke population. Since its inception in 1988, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has become an established procedure with distinct objective findings and practical applications, enabling many to choose it as the primary instrumental tool in evaluating poststroke dysphagia. In this article, we outline the decision-making process of when to use FEES. We highlight considerations for the acute stroke patient and visual signs that guide decision making during a FEES, such as secretions, swallowing frequency, and pharyngeal squeeze elicitation...
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Donna C Tippett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Patricia A Prelock, Christina Melvin, Nancy Lemieux, Kelly Melekis, Shelley Velleman, Mary Alice Favro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
John W McCarthy, Jeffrey J DiGiovanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
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