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Seminars in Speech and Language

Mabel L Rice
Future perspectives on children with language impairments are framed from what is known about children with specific language impairment (SLI). A summary of the current state of services is followed by discussion of how these children can be overlooked and misunderstood and consideration of why it is so hard for some children to acquire language when it is effortless for most children. Genetic influences are highlighted, with the suggestion that nature plus nurture should be considered in present as well as future intervention approaches...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Joan C Arvedson
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have played primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. Medical, surgical, and technological advances have improved the survival of young fragile infants and children, many of whom will present with feeding/swallowing problems. Regardless of their underlying etiologies, many of these children are at risk for aspiration-induced lung disease, undernutrition or malnutrition, developmental deficits, and stressful interactions with their caregivers...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiologic, and central neurophysiologic bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language and other cognitive and emotional processes. During the time when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Judith A Gierut
Research on phonological disorders in children has conventionally emphasized the speech sound in search of causes, diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of the disorder. This article aims to shift the research focus to the word instead. The motivation comes from advances in psycholinguistics that demonstrate the word is central to the perception, production, and acquisition of phonological information. Three strands of potential study are outlined in evaluation of how words might initiate and boost, but perhaps also, interrupt learning for children with phonological disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Marilyn A Nippold
Adolescents with developmental language disorders often do not receive the type of intervention that would improve their ability to speak, listen, read, and write effectively. Part of the problem is that many of these young people show no obvious symptoms of a language disorder, yet they struggle on a daily basis to succeed at school-related tasks that require a sophisticated level of language development. This article discusses some of the challenges these students face and makes suggestions for what could be done to address the issues...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Joe Reichle, Kathryn Drager, Jessica Caron, Quannah Parker-McGowan
This article examines the growth of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in providing support to children and youth with significant communication needs. Addressing current trends and offering a discussion of needs and probable future advances is framed around five guiding principles initially introduced by Williams, Krezman, and McNaughton. These include: (1) communication is a basic right and the use of AAC, especially at a young age, can help individuals realize their communicative potential; (2) AAC, like traditional communication, requires it to be fluid with the ability to adapt to different environments and needs; (3) AAC must be individualized and appropriate for each user; (4) AAC must support full participation in society across all ages and interests; and (5) individuals who use AAC have the right to be involved in all aspects of research, development, and intervention...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Christine Yoshinaga-Itano, Mallene Wiggin
Hearing is essential for the development of speech, spoken language, and listening skills. Children previously went undiagnosed with hearing loss until they were 2.5 or 3 years of age. The auditory deprivation during this critical period of development significantly impacted long-term listening and spoken language outcomes. Due to the advent of universal newborn hearing screening, the average age of diagnosis has dropped to the first few months of life, which sets the stage for outcomes that include children with speech, spoken language, and auditory skill testing in the normal range...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jena McDaniel, Paul J Yoder
The behavioral phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) offers one avenue for developing speech-language therapy services that are tailored to the individual's characteristics that affect treatment response. Behavioral phenotypes are patterns of behavioral strengths and weaknesses for specific genetic disorders that can help guide the development and implementation of effective interventions. Nonetheless, individual differences within children with DS must be acknowledged and addressed because behavioral phenotypes are probabilistic, not deterministic...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Linda R Watson
In the next decade, professionals in communication sciences and disorders will encounter a wealth of needs, opportunities, and challenges in research and practice related to autism spectrum disorder. What lies ahead will reflect both transformations of and continuities with past perspectives (psychodynamic, biological, and learning theory). Among our largest challenges as individuals and as a discipline will be to determine the most important needs to address and the most productive opportunities to seize. Interprofessional collaboration, community engagement, and partnerships among researchers, practitioners, and community stakeholder are all strategies that can better guide our selection of priorities...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Nan Bernstein Ratner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Lyn S Turkstra
In 10 years, there might be fewer adults who need rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury because of advances in injury prevention and very early treatment. For adults who do need rehabilitation, assessment might include biosensor recordings in their everyday communication contexts, and home practice might be delivered by a robot that can be programmed to mimic target characteristics of human behavior. These advances in science and technology will enhance rehabilitation, but it will always be our responsibility as speech-language pathologists to advocate for our patients and clients and support them in achieving the best possible quality of communication life...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Joseph R Duffy
Research and practice in the area of motor speech disorders (MSDs) will change in the next 10 years, most likely in evolutionary rather revolutionary ways. We are likely to see an increase in the understanding of the underpinnings of MSDs and refinements in assessment and diagnosis. Management approaches probably will be refined, as will how outcomes are measured. The evidence base for treatment efficacy will grow. Technology and changes in the health care system will have strong and overarching, but not easily predicted, influences...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Michelle Ciucci, Corinne A Jones, Georgia A Malandraki, Katherine A Hutcheson
Dysphagia evaluation and management has rapidly become the primary practice area of medical speech pathologists since its adoption in our field less than three decades ago. As a specialty, swallowing and swallowing disorders comprise the largest represented discipline with 10,059 specialty interest group members within the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and 298 board-certified specialists in the American Speech Hearing Association. There are national and international organizations, such as the Dysphagia Research Society and its interdisciplinary journal Dysphagia, that provide continuing education for clinicians and a platform for dysphagia researchers...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Michelle Bourgeois, Jennifer Brush, Natalie Douglas, Rebecca Khayum, Emily Rogalski
In the next two decades, there will be advances in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders of aging that have the potential to change the way speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained and provide services to individuals with a continuum of cognitive communication challenges. SLPs will address the needs of the aging adult who continues to reside in the community and desires to maintain an independent and meaningful life, as well as those who require a supportive residential setting to achieve a satisfying quality of life...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Deanna Britton, Joshua O Benditt, Jeannette D Hoit
For more than a decade, there has been a trend toward increased use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) via mask or mouthpiece as a means to provide ventilatory support without the need for tracheostomy. All indications are that use of NPPV will continue to increase over the next decade and beyond. In this article, we review NPPV, describe two common forms of NPPV, and discuss the potential benefits and challenges of NPPV for speaking and swallowing based on the available literature, our collective clinical experience, and interviews with NPPV users...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jacqueline J Hinckley
The purpose of this article is to envision how the clinical practice of aphasia management might be done 10 years in the future. The vision of how an individual clinician's daily tasks are changed is built on current trends, including the aging of the population, the life participation approach to aphasia, development and use of evidence-based practices, person-centered care, and technology. To be prepared for the future of these trends, we will need to develop clinical capacity, not only in the number of speech-language pathologists but also most importantly in their competence for using evidence-based practices and training others to support effective communication, including other health care providers...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Julie M Barkmeier-Kraemer, Rita R Patel
Voice disorders are thought to affect approximately one third of all individuals within the United States during their lifetime. Individuals who require the use of their voice as part of their occupations are at highest risk for developing voice problems. Unfortunately, efficient diagnosis and effective management of voice disorders can be challenged by difficulty accessing professionals with the necessary expertise to diagnose and treat voice problems efficiently. Within the next decade, technological advancements show promise for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of intervention for voice disorders...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Connie A Tompkins
This article reflects on the future of intervention for language and communication disorders that follow unilateral damage to the right cerebral hemisphere. The author first introduces some of the challenges inherent in this task: a very small and preliminary evidence base and a limited number of investigators conducting treatment research for most of the consequences of these disorders, more general difficulties of translating evidence to practice, and limited graduate training in the area. The article then addresses some predictions and hopes for the future...
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Walter H Manning, Robert W Quesal
In this article, the authors (with the assistance of colleagues from whom they solicited comments), provide a forward-looking perspective on research and clinical work in fluency disorders in the next 10-15 years. Issues discussed include neurology, genetics, early intervention, and clinical training in stuttering.
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Audrey L Holland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
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