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Medical Anthropology Quarterly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392771/the-redistribution-of-reproductive-responsibility-on-the-epigenetics-of-environment-in-prenatal-interventions
#1
Natali Valdez
The rapidly shifting field of epigenetics has expanded scientific understanding of how environmental conditions affect gene expression and development. This article focuses on two ongoing clinical trials-one in the United States and one in the United Kingdom-that have used epigenetics as the conceptual basis for testing the relationship between nutrition and obesity during pregnancy. Drawing on ethnographic research, I highlight the different ways that clinical scientists interpret epigenetics to target particular domains of the environment for prenatal intervention...
February 1, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380412/from-drug-safety-to-drug-security-a-contemporary-shift-in-the-policing-of-health
#2
Julia Hornberger
The counterfeiting of medication is increasingly seen as a major threat to health, especially in the light of both the everyday reliance on and a broadening of world-wide access to pharmaceuticals. Exaggerated or real, this threat has inaugurated, this article argues, a shift from a drug safety regime to a drug security regime that governs the flow of pharmaceuticals and brings together markets, police and health actors in new ways. This entails a shift from soft disciplinary means aimed at incremental and continued inclusion of defaulters, to one of drastically sovereign measures of exclusion and banishment aimed at fake goods and the people associated with them, in the name of health...
January 29, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377315/the-data-hustle-how-beneficiaries-benefit-from-continual-data-collection-and-humanitarian-aid-research-in-the-somali-region-of-ethiopia
#3
Lauren Carruth
Based on ethnographic and policy research in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article examines how contemporary trends in the humanitarian relief industry to mandate continual data collection, "accountability," and the "localization" of aid have increased demands for participatory and intensive research methodologies in crisis-affected communities. International humanitarian relief agencies hustle to hire local staffs and recruit enough participants for their repeated research projects, while at the same time, the so-called beneficiaries of aid also hustle to participate in data collection as paid informants and temporary employees...
January 28, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363780/kangaroo-mother-care-in-colombia-a-subaltern-health-innovation-against-for-profit-biomedicine
#4
César Ernesto Abadía-Barrero
This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators...
January 24, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356066/the-morality-of-disordered-eating-and-recovery-in-southern-italy
#5
Ann M Cheney, Steve Sullivan, Kathleen Grubbs
Scholars have traced the processes through which moral subjectivities are constituted in culturally meaningful ways through eating disorder and recovery practices, demonstrating how subjective meanings of eating disorders and recovery from them are imbued with moral undertones and become meaningful ways of existing within specific historical and cultural contexts. Drawing on ethnographic insights and interviews with young women with disordered eating histories in southern Italy, we show how suffering from eating disorders and recovery from them enables women to retool their identities and craft moral selves...
January 22, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344977/there-is-no-place-like-home-imitation-and-the-politics-of-recognition-in-bolivian-obstetric-care
#6
Gabriela Elisa Morales
This article examines how efforts to "culturally adapt" birthing spaces in a rural Bolivian hospital are generating debates among doctors about what constitutes proper obstetric care. Working at the intersection of national and transnational projects, NGOs in Bolivia have remade the birthing rooms of some public health institutions to look more like a home, with the goal of making indigenous women feel more comfortable and encouraging them to come to the clinic to give birth. Yet narratives of transformation also obscure ongoing conditions of racial and gendered inequality in health services...
January 17, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023968/pregnant-metaphors-and-surrogate-meanings-bringing-the-ethnography-of-pregnancy-and-surrogacy-into-conversation-in-israel-and-beyond
#7
Tsipy Ivry, Elly Teman
This article explores the way that surrogacy and normal pregnancy share cultural assumptions about pregnancy. Through a juxtaposition of our ethnographic studies of two groups of Jewish-Israeli women-women who have undergone "normal," low-risk pregnancies and women who have given birth as gestational surrogates-we argue that surrogacy and pregnancy emerge as potent metaphors for one another. Both pregnant women and surrogates divided their bodies into two separate realms: fetus and maternal pregnant body. Both trivialized the effect of gestational influence on fetal health, making the fetus seem detached from gestational capacities of the mother...
October 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980733/living-the-social-determinants-of-health-assemblages-in-a-remote-aboriginal-community
#8
Richard D Chenhall, Kate Senior
This article provides a critical discussion of the social determinants of health framework and compares it with theoretical perspectives, such as that offered by assemblage theory, offering an alternative view of the complex interplay between human relationships and the structures around us. We offer an ethnographic perspective, discussing the lived experiences of the social determinants in an Indigenous community in a remote part of northern Australia. [Indigenous health, social determinants of health, assemblages, ethnography, medical anthropology] This article is protected by copyright...
October 5, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980396/corporate-mortality-files-and-late-industrial-necropolitics
#9
Peter C Little
This article critically examines the corporate production, archival politics, and socio-legal dimensions of corporate mortality files (CMFs), the largest corporate archive developed by IBM to systematically document industrial exposures and occupational health outcomes for electronics workers. I first provide a history of IBM's CMF project, which amounts to a comprehensive mortality record for IBM employees over the past 40 years. Next, I explore a recent case in Endicott, New York, birthplace of IBM, where the U...
October 5, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872187/the-attachment-imperative-parental-experiences-of-relation-making-in-a-danish-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#10
Laura E Navne, Mette N Svendsen, Tine M Gammeltoft
In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant...
September 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409861/neocolonialism-and-health-care-access-among-marshall-islanders-in-the-united-states
#11
Michael R Duke
In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387005/ethical-gifts-an-analysis-of-soap-for-data-transactions-in-malawian-survey-research-worlds
#12
Crystal Biruk
In 2008, thousands of Malawians received soap from an American research project as a gift for survey participation. Soap was deemed an ethical, non-coercive gift by researchers and ethics boards, but took on meanings that expressed recipients' grievances and aspirations. Research participants reframed soap and research benefits as "rights" they are entitled to, wages for "work," and a symbol of exploitation. Enlisting the perspectives of Malawi's ethics board, demographers, Malawian fieldworkers, and research participants, I describe how soap is spoken about and operates in research worlds...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370246/electronic-health-records-and-the-disappearing-patient
#13
Linda M Hunt, Hannah S Bell, Allison M Baker, Heather A Howard
With rapid consolidation of American medicine into large-scale corporations, corporate strategies are coming to the forefront in health care delivery, requiring a dramatic increase in the amount and detail of documentation, implemented through use of electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs are structured to prioritize the interests of a myriad of political and corporate stakeholders, resulting in a complex, multi-layered, and cumbersome health records system, largely not directly relevant to clinical care. Drawing on observations conducted in outpatient specialty clinics, we consider how EHRs prioritize institutional needs manifested as a long list of requisites that must be documented with each consultation...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295590/shifting-gears-triage-and-traffic-in-urban-india
#14
Harris Solomon
While studies of triage in clinical medical literature tend to focus on the knowledge required to carry out sorting, this article details the spatial features of triage. It is based on participation observation of traffic-related injuries in a Mumbai hospital casualty ward. It pays close attention to movement, specifically to adjustments, which include moving bodies, changes in treatment priority, and interruptions in care. The article draws on several ethnographic cases of injury and its aftermath that gather and separate patients, kin, and bystanders, all while a triage medical authority is charged with sorting them out...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696499/mohit-s-pharmakon-symptom-rotational-bodies-and-pharmaceuticals-in-rural-rajasthan
#15
Andrew McDowell
This article reexamines medical anthropology theories of symptom, illness, and disease to consider unregulated medical care in India. It builds on clinical observations, an inventory of the pharmaceuticals used by men who call themselves "Bengali doctors," and their patients to understand medical care in a context that privileges symptom not disease. It draws on Derrida's use of pharmakon to outline the complexities of care and embodiment and helps locate local and medical anthropology theories of symptom and pharmaceuticals within theories of the experiential body...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623675/bioseguridad-in-mexico-pursuing-security-between-local-and-global-biologies
#16
Emily Mannix Wanderer
In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550815/ethics-in-numbers-auditing-cleft-treatment-in-mexico-and-beyond
#17
Samuel Taylor-Alexander
Plastic surgeons around the globe are implementing projects that mix audit with medical research to ensure and improve the level of care offered to patients with cleft lip and palate. Drawing on recent literature on "audit culture" and the global growth of "performance indicators" as a form of governance, I demonstrate the conjugation of ethics and the production of numerical indicators in cleft treatment. By standardizing documentation, cleft treatment audit programs facilitate evidence-based medicine and a form of reflexive self-governance...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474685/normal-regular-and-standard-scaling-the-body-through-fecal-microbial-transplants
#18
Matthew J Wolf-Meyer
In 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a workshop to determine the risks and benefits associated with the experimental use of fecal microbial transplants to treat Clostridium difficile and other gastroenterological disorders. By focusing on the proceedings of the NIH-FDA workshop on the treatment of the human microbiome, the question of how medicine colonizes human bodies through microbial transplants raises questions about what an individual body is, how determinative of human health the microbiome is, and what the limits of molecular biomedicine are when the microbiome is taken into consideration...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804960/handle-with-care-rethinking-the-rights-versus-culture-dichotomy-in-cancer-disclosure-in-india
#19
Cecilia Coale Van Hollen
Medical practitioners, bioethicists, psychologists, and anthropologists have debated whether it is ethical to disclose or withhold information from patients about cancer diagnoses. This debate is framed as pitting universal individual human rights against cultural pluralism. The rights-based argument asserts that people have a right to information about their own health to make the best decisions about their treatment. The cultural variation argument suggests that in some cultural contexts there is a perception that information about one's cancer diagnosis may cause more harm than good due to the psychological trauma this may cause...
August 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800188/care-in-the-context-of-a-chronic-epidemic-caring-for-diabetes-in-chicago-s-native-community
#20
Margaret Pollak
American Indians have some of the highest rates of diabetes worldwide, and they are disproportionately affected by the secondary complications of the disease. While most research on Native populations focuses on reservations, this study investigates diabetes care in Chicago's Native community. People living with diabetes manage blood sugar levels to prevent the development of secondary complications. As with many diabetics, the majority of their health care work is completed outside of the biomedical setting...
August 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
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