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Medical Anthropology Quarterly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023968/pregnant-metaphors-and-surrogate-meanings-bringing-the-ethnography-of-pregnancy-and-surrogacy-into-conversation-in-israel-and-beyond
#1
Tsipy Ivry, Elly Teman
This article explores the way that surrogacy and normal pregnancy share cultural assumptions about pregnancy. Through a juxtaposition of our ethnographic studies of two groups of Jewish-Israeli women-women who have undergone "normal," low-risk pregnancies and women who have given birth as gestational surrogates-we argue that surrogacy and pregnancy emerge as potent metaphors for one another. Both pregnant women and surrogates divided their bodies into two separate realms: fetus and maternal pregnant body. Both trivialized the effect of gestational influence on fetal health, making the fetus seem detached from gestational capacities of the mother...
October 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980733/living-the-social-determinants-of-health-assemblages-in-a-remote-aboriginal-community
#2
Richard D Chenhall, Kate Senior
This article provides a critical discussion of the social determinants of health framework and compares it with theoretical perspectives, such as that offered by assemblage theory, offering an alternative view of the complex interplay between human relationships and the structures around us. We offer an ethnographic perspective, discussing the lived experiences of the social determinants in an Indigenous community in a remote part of northern Australia. [Indigenous health, social determinants of health, assemblages, ethnography, medical anthropology] This article is protected by copyright...
October 5, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980396/-corporate-mortality-files-and-late-industrial-necropolitics
#3
Peter C Little
This article critically examines the corporate production, archival politics, and socio-legal dimensions of Corporate Mortality Files (CMFs), the largest corporate archive developed by International Business Machine's Corporation (IBM) to systematically document industrial exposures and occupational health outcomes for electronics workers. I first provide a history of IBM's CMF project, which amounts to a comprehensive mortality record for IBM employees over the past 40 years. Next, I explore a recent case in Endicott, New York, birthplace of IBM, where the U...
October 5, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872187/the-attachment-imperative-parental-experiences-of-relation-making-in-a-danish-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
Laura E Navne, Mette N Svendsen, Tine M Gammeltoft
In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant...
September 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804960/handle-with-care-rethinking-the-rights-versus-culture-dichotomy-in-cancer-disclosure-in-india
#5
Cecilia Coale Van Hollen
Medical practitioners, bioethicists, psychologists, and anthropologists have debated whether it is ethical to disclose or withhold information from patients about cancer diagnoses. This debate is framed as pitting universal individual human rights against cultural pluralism. The rights-based argument asserts that people have a right to information about their own health to make the best decisions about their treatment. The cultural variation argument suggests that in some cultural contexts there is a perception that information about one's cancer diagnosis may cause more harm than good due to the psychological trauma this may cause...
August 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800188/care-in-the-context-of-a-chronic-epidemic-caring-for-diabetes-in-chicago-s-native-community
#6
Margaret Pollak
American Indians have some of the highest rates of diabetes worldwide, and they are disproportionately affected by the secondary complications of the disease. While most research on Native populations focuses on reservations, this study investigates diabetes care in Chicago's Native community. People living with diabetes manage blood sugar levels to prevent the development of secondary complications. As with many diabetics, the majority of their health care work is completed outside of the biomedical setting...
August 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791731/only-near-is-dear-doing-elderly-care-with-everyday-icts-in-indian-transnational-families
#7
Tanja Ahlin
In Kerala, South India, young people, especially women, are encouraged to become nurses in order to migrate abroad for work and thereby improve the financial status of their family. Meanwhile, many of their parents remain in India by themselves. This is occurring in the context of a strong popular discourse of elder abandonment, related to the local norms of intergenerational co-habitation. Based on fieldwork in Kerala and one of the nurses' destination countries, Oman, I present evidence that complicates this discourse by showing how: (1) migration is a form of elder care practice in itself; and (2) care for the elderly continues across countries and continents with the help of information and communication technologies (ICTs)...
August 9, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776771/efficacious-holidays-the-therapeutic-dimensions-of-pleasure-and-discipline-in-czech-respiratory-spas
#8
Susanna Trnka
As evidence-based medicine has increasingly become the standard for assessing the efficacy of health care, the Czech Republic finds itself in a dilemma, with centuries of sanatorium-style spa treatments resisting easy categorization. Despite some critics' contentions that spas are "pointless holidays" and reductions in government funding of health spas, in 2014 Czech courts affirmed every Czech citizen's right to spa treatments if their health status merits it. Drawing on research in two children's respiratory spas, this article considers the experiences of patients aged two-15 and their accompanying parents or guardians (mainly mothers) to suggest that in addition to the range of therapeutic procedures highlighted within spa cures, more amorphous aspects-such as pleasure and discipline-may be just as central to spas' successes...
August 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766753/to-keep-this-disease-from-killing-you-cultural-competence-consonance-and-health-among-hiv-positive-women-in-kenya
#9
Toni Copeland
The HIV/AIDS crisis continues in sub-Saharan Africa, where nearly 70% of infections are found. Despite recent efforts to supply antiretroviral therapy to those infected, most are not receiving medication and are forced to rely on self-management to remain healthy. In Kenya, many of those infected are women living in extreme poverty. This article presents the findings of research among poor women in Nairobi that examined the relationship between knowledge of a cultural model of self-managing HIV/AIDS, cultural consonance, and health...
August 2, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726292/-in-visibility-online-the-benefits-of-online-patient-forums-for-people-with-a-hidden-illness-the-case-of-multiple-chemical-sensitivities-mcs
#10
Tarryn Phillips, Tyson Rees
Sufferers of medically unexplained conditions that are not observable in the clinic can experience multiple layers of invisibility: a lack of biomedical diagnosis; legal skepticism; political disinterest; and a loss of their prior social identity. For those with environmental sensitivities, this is compounded by literal hiddenness due to often being housebound. Drawing on an online survey of people with multiple chemical sensitivity, this article examines how the everyday experience of invisibility is mitigated by engaging with other patients online...
July 20, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409861/neocolonialism-and-health-care-access-among-marshall-islanders-in-the-united-states
#11
Michael R Duke
In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387005/ethical-gifts-an-analysis-of-soap-for-data-transactions-in-malawian-survey-research-worlds
#12
Crystal Biruk
In 2008, thousands of Malawians received soap from an American research project as a gift for survey participation. Soap was deemed an ethical, non-coercive gift by researchers and ethics boards, but took on meanings that expressed recipients' grievances and aspirations. Research participants reframed soap and research benefits as "rights" they are entitled to, wages for "work," and a symbol of exploitation. Enlisting the perspectives of Malawi's ethics board, demographers, Malawian fieldworkers, and research participants, I describe how soap is spoken about and operates in research worlds...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370246/electronic-health-records-and-the-disappearing-patient
#13
Linda M Hunt, Hannah S Bell, Allison M Baker, Heather A Howard
With rapid consolidation of American medicine into large-scale corporations, corporate strategies are coming to the forefront in health care delivery, requiring a dramatic increase in the amount and detail of documentation, implemented through use of electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs are structured to prioritize the interests of a myriad of political and corporate stakeholders, resulting in a complex, multi-layered, and cumbersome health records system, largely not directly relevant to clinical care. Drawing on observations conducted in outpatient specialty clinics, we consider how EHRs prioritize institutional needs manifested as a long list of requisites that must be documented with each consultation...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295590/shifting-gears-triage-and-traffic-in-urban-india
#14
Harris Solomon
While studies of triage in clinical medical literature tend to focus on the knowledge required to carry out sorting, this article details the spatial features of triage. It is based on participation observation of traffic-related injuries in a Mumbai hospital casualty ward. It pays close attention to movement, specifically to adjustments, which include moving bodies, changes in treatment priority, and interruptions in care. The article draws on several ethnographic cases of injury and its aftermath that gather and separate patients, kin, and bystanders, all while a triage medical authority is charged with sorting them out...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696499/mohit-s-pharmakon-symptom-rotational-bodies-and-pharmaceuticals-in-rural-rajasthan
#15
Andrew McDowell
This article reexamines medical anthropology theories of symptom, illness, and disease to consider unregulated medical care in India. It builds on clinical observations, an inventory of the pharmaceuticals used by men who call themselves "Bengali doctors," and their patients to understand medical care in a context that privileges symptom not disease. It draws on Derrida's use of pharmakon to outline the complexities of care and embodiment and helps locate local and medical anthropology theories of symptom and pharmaceuticals within theories of the experiential body...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623675/bioseguridad-in-mexico-pursuing-security-between-local-and-global-biologies
#16
Emily Mannix Wanderer
In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550815/ethics-in-numbers-auditing-cleft-treatment-in-mexico-and-beyond
#17
Samuel Taylor-Alexander
Plastic surgeons around the globe are implementing projects that mix audit with medical research to ensure and improve the level of care offered to patients with cleft lip and palate. Drawing on recent literature on "audit culture" and the global growth of "performance indicators" as a form of governance, I demonstrate the conjugation of ethics and the production of numerical indicators in cleft treatment. By standardizing documentation, cleft treatment audit programs facilitate evidence-based medicine and a form of reflexive self-governance...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474685/normal-regular-and-standard-scaling-the-body-through-fecal-microbial-transplants
#18
Matthew J Wolf-Meyer
In 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a workshop to determine the risks and benefits associated with the experimental use of fecal microbial transplants to treat Clostridium difficile and other gastroenterological disorders. By focusing on the proceedings of the NIH-FDA workshop on the treatment of the human microbiome, the question of how medicine colonizes human bodies through microbial transplants raises questions about what an individual body is, how determinative of human health the microbiome is, and what the limits of molecular biomedicine are when the microbiome is taken into consideration...
September 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380715/embodying-transition-in-later-life-having-a-fall-as-an-uncertain-status-passage-for-elderly-women-in-southeast-london
#19
Miriam Boyles
In their (2014 report, the charity AgeUK states that one-third of older people (over 3 million) fall each year. This article takes a focused look at falling by describing four women's accounts of "having a fall" in Walworth, southeast London, which sheds light on the experience of personal and corporeal change in later life. While some experiential studies of falling have made reference to a loss of embodied control and changes in identity, these aspects have not been explored in sufficient depth. Attending closely to the embodied experience of falling for older women in the context of everyday activity reveals the uncertainty surrounding what it actually signifies and the powerful effect this uncertainty has on their everyday lives and sense of self...
June 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272066/publically-misfitting-extreme-weight-and-the-everyday-production-and-reinforcement-of-felt-stigma
#20
Alexandra Brewis, Sarah Trainer, SeungYong Han, Amber Wutich
Living with extreme weight in the United States is associated with discrimination and self-stigma, creating structural exclusions, embodied stress, and undermining health and wellbeing. Here we combine ethnographic interviews and surveys from those with experiences of living with extreme weight to better explain how this vulnerability is created and reinforced by public cues, both physical (e.g., seatbelts) and social (the reactions of strangers). "Misfitting" is a major theme in interviews, as is the need to plan and scan constantly while navigating too-small public spaces...
June 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
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