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Behavioral Sciences & the Law

Steve D Charman, Andrea Reyes, Daniella K Villalba, Jacqueline R Evans
Some innocent suspects rely on the memory of strangers to corroborate their alibis. However, no research has examined whether such potential alibi corroborators can accurately recognize an innocent suspect with whom they previously interacted. We developed a novel alibi corroboration paradigm in which undergraduate students (representing innocent suspects who would later provide an alibi) interacted with naïve university employees (representing potential alibi corroborators). Each student briefly interacted with a different naïve university employee (n = 60), and were also each yoked to a different employee with whom they did not interact (n = 60)...
October 19, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Norair Khachatryan, Kathleen M Heide, Jordyn Rad, Erich V Hummel
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables...
October 17, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
J Reid Meloy, Molly Amman
An archival descriptive study of public figure attackers in the United States between 1995 and 2015 was undertaken. Fifty-six incidents were identified, primarily through exhaustive internet searches, composed of 58 attackers and 58 victims. A code book was developed which focused upon victims, offenders, pre-attack behaviors including direct threats, attack characteristics, post-offense and other outcomes, motivations and psychological abstracts. The average interrater agreement for coding of bivariate variables was 0...
October 12, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Angela Guldimann, Reinhard Brunner, Hans Schmid, Elmar Habermeyer
This article describes the implementation of a Cantonal Threat Assessment and Management (CTAM) in Zurich, Switzerland. In order to support this endeavor, the Specialist Unit for Forensic Assessment and Case Management was installed. The forensic experts provide supervision and short-term assessments to public prosecutors and general psychiatrists. In close cooperation with police threat management units, forensic experts support the assessment and management of individuals who exhibit concerning and threatening behavior towards public officials or private individuals...
September 29, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
David V James, Frank R Farnham
Specialized units for the assessment and management of concerning behaviors towards public figures have been set up in various jurisdictions. Their efficacy has been demonstrated descriptively and in terms of reduction in concern rates. This study of 100 consecutive cases from the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre (FTAC) in the UK uses a novel measure of outcome in the form of reduction in behaviors of concern and in police call-outs/stops, using data culled from police and health service records. It adopts a mirrored design, comparing individuals over 12-month and 2-year periods before and after FTAC intervention...
September 21, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens, John W Clark, Karolina Sörman
Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty...
September 13, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Michele T Pathé, Timothy J Lowry, Debbie J Haworth, Paul Winterbourne, Leanne Day
Research in western nations has found that pathologically fixated individuals pose a risk of serious harm to public figures, and that many of these fixated persons are mentally ill and require treatment. Over the past decade, integrated fixated threat assessment agencies have been established in western Europe and Australia to specifically assess and manage this group. The current study examines 400 consecutive referrals to a fixated threat assessment center in Queensland, Australia, with a particular focus on the mental health and risk profile of those who engage in inappropriate contact with public office holders...
September 5, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Melanie Sauerland, Linsey H C Raymaekers, Henry Otgaar, Amina Memon, Thijs T Waltjen, Maud Nivo, Chiel Slegers, Nick J Broers, Tom Smeets
In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours...
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Kyle C Scherr, Kimberly M Alberts, Andrew S Franks, Ian Hawkins
Suspects, especially innocent ones, are highly susceptible to waiving their interrogation rights. This research tested the ability of two strategies to overcome innocent suspects' willingness to waive their rights. One strategy was based on the social influence of scarcity (i.e., not constraining the pre-interrogation time limit). The other strategy focused on disrupting individuals' cognitive fluency during the decision-making process (i.e., violating their induced expectation of offering a waiver). Disrupting innocent individuals' cognitive fluency increased their willingness to invoke their rights and, notably, was not qualified by interactions with any other factors...
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Richard Rogers, Jennifer A Steadham, Rachel M Carter, Sarah A Henry, Eric Y Drogin, Emily V Robinson
Juvenile suspects are routinely expected to possess an accurate recall of written or oral Miranda warnings. This study addresses the Miranda-related comprehension recall and reasoning of legally involved juveniles. It is the first juvenile research to compare systematically two levels of complexity for Miranda warnings with the three modalities (oral, written, or combined) of administration. Unexpectedly, easily read written warnings marginally outperformed the combined modality. In order to examine Miranda reasoning, three juvenile groups were operationalized: impaired, questionable, and likely adequate...
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Richard Rogers, Allyson J Sharf, John W Clark, Eric Y Drogin, Darby B Winningham, Margot M Williams
In the wake of countless police dramas, commonly held misperceptions endure that the American public knows both Miranda warnings and concomitant rights. Past research has tested public knowledge of Miranda per se, without evaluating additional misconceptions. The current investigation utilizes the European Union's much more all-encompassing safeguards, as delineated in the EU's 2012 Directive and Letter of Rights. Besides knowledge of Miranda, the advisability of these enhanced rights and protections was also assessed...
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Joel D Lieberman, Daniel A Krauss, Miliaikeala Heen, Mari Sakiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Krystle Martin, Erica Martin
It is the responsibility of forensic psychiatric hospitals to detain and treat patients, gradually reintegrating them into society; decisions to release patients must balance risk to the public with maintaining the least restrictive environment for patients. Little is known about the factors considered when making such decisions and whether these factors have been empirically linked to future risk of violence. The current study explores the factors predictive of forensic treatment teams' recommendations for patients under the care of the Ontario Review Board (ORB)...
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Stephanie Collier, Susan Hatters Friedman
This naturalistic exploratory study describes the characteristics of women prisoners referred to the forensic psychiatry service of the largest women's prison in New Zealand. Forensic psychiatrists diagnosed more than one-third of the referred female inmates with psychotic disorders, and they diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder in one-fifth. The majority of the women reported substance use prior to incarceration, as well as a history of personal victimization by family violence. Of the women prisoners referred to community mental health services at release, two-thirds attended the arranged outpatient mental health follow-up appointment...
July 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Felice Carabellese, Alan R Felthous
Originally a hedge against the death penalty, the insanity defense came to offer hospitalization as an alternative to imprisonment. In the late 19th century Italy opened inpatient services first for mentally ill prisoners and then for offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity. Within the past decade, a series of decrees has resulted in transferring the responsibility for treating NGRI acquittees and "dangerous" mentally ill prisoners from the Department of Justice to the Department of Health, and their treatment from Italy's high security forensic psychiatric hospitals (OPGs) to community regional facilities (REMSs, Residences for the Execution of Security Measures), community mental health facilities, one of which is located in each region of Italy...
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Maria H Nagtegaal, Cyril Boonmann
The present study examined a group of 447 Dutch forensic psychiatric patients on conditional release (CR). After a brief overview of the Dutch CR system for forensic psychiatric patients is presented, two sets of factors were studied: factors associated with behavioral experts' recommendations on CR readiness (prevalence rates of recommendations in contrast to or consistent with the judge's decision on CR, written vs. oral recommendations and consensus among parties); and characteristics of forensic psychiatric patients on CR imposed consistent with or contrary to behavioral experts' recommendations (i...
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Debbie Green, Michael Vitacco, Alan R Felthous
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Leila Salem, Anne G Crocker, Yanick Charette, Christopher M Earls, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The objectives of this study were to describe the disposition and housing trajectories of individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD), and the factors that predict different trajectories. To do so, disposition and housing status were coded for 934 NCRMD patients over a 36-month follow-up period. Sequential data analysis resulted in four distinct trajectories: detention in hospital, conditional discharge in supportive housing, conditional discharge in independent housing, and absolute discharge to unknown housing...
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Ilan Melnick
With the advent of psychotropic medications and with the deinstitutionalization of psychiatry starting in 1968, patients were prematurely discharged from forensic state hospitals. Due to lack of resources, psychiatric forensic patients ended up in the correctional system or homeless with the reduction of psychiatric beds in forensic and civil state hospitals. Lacking proper training and medication management, the recidivism rate of this population was close to 10% for rearrest and about 35% for revocation of conditional release (CR; Manguno-Mire et al...
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Michael A Norko, Tobias Wasser, Heidi Magro, Erin Leavitt-Smith, Frederic J Morton, Tamika Hollis
For over 30 years now the movement and status of insanity acquittees in Connecticut has been supervised by the Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). During this time, 365 acquittees have been committed to the jurisdiction of the PSRB, 177 individuals have achieved conditional release (CR) and 215 acquittees have been discharged from PSRB jurisdiction. This article examines revocation of CR by the PSRB, arrests of acquittees on CR, and provides the first report of arrests following discharge from the PSRB's jurisdiction...
March 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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