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Behavioral Sciences & the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799186/the-psycholegal-factors-for-juvenile-transfer-and-reverse-transfer-evaluations
#1
Christopher M King
It remains unclear whether forensic mental health assessments for juvenile reverse transfer (to juvenile court) are distinct from those for juvenile transfer (to adult court). This survey consisted of an updated review of transfer and reverse transfer laws (in jurisdictions that have both mechanisms) in light of the generally accepted three-factor model of functional legal capacities involved in transfer evaluations (i.e., risk, sophistication-maturity, and treatment amenability). Results indicated that a majority of states' reverse transfer statutes refer explicitly or implicitly to the same three psycholegal constructs identified as central for transfer...
August 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762534/perceptions-of-voluntary-consent-among-jail-diverted-veterans-with-co-occurring-disorders
#2
Max L Trojano, Paul P Christopher, Debra A Pinals, Autumn Harnish, David Smelson
This study assessed perceptions of voluntary consent among 69 veterans who enrolled in a "jail diversion" program for co-occurring disorders. Perceptions were measured using modified items from the MacArthur Perceived Coercion and Negative Pressure Scales. A majority reported that they "chose to" (88.4%) or "felt free to" (85.5%) enroll. Most reported having "control over" (69.6%) and "more influence than anyone else" regarding (60.9%) their participation. About half reported that enrollment was "their idea" (49...
August 1, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722310/capitalizing-on-scientific-advances-to-improve-access-to-and-quality-of-children-s-mental-health-care
#3
Ann F Garland, Florencia Lebensohn-Chialvo, Kristopher G Hall, Erika R N Cameron
The majority of mental health problems begin in childhood or adolescence. The potential benefits of early identification and treatment of such problems are well established, and models of effective mental health interventions for children have proliferated in recent decades. However, barriers in access to care and challenges in assuring delivery of high-quality care significantly limit the public health impact of services for children and families. Specifically, the majority of children who need mental health care do not receive it, and when children are in care, many do not receive interventions that are most likely to have the greatest positive impact...
July 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670848/community-protection-versus-individual-healing-two-traditions-in-community-mental-health
#4
Philip T Yanos, Edward L Knight, Beth Vayshenker, Lauren Gonzales, Joseph S DeLuca
This article identifies two major traditions that drive the mandate for a community mental health care system-community protection and individual healing. It discusses the historical antecedents of these two traditions and how these traditions relate to different visions of what the "common good" means. It then discusses how they both operate in the current US-based system, creating inherent conflicts and tensions, and gives specific examples from the personal and professional experiences of the authors. The article proposes ways to reduce the tension and discusses what sacrifices and compromises this resolution would entail for the US community mental health system...
July 3, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631841/introduction-to-this-special-issue-community-mental-health-and-the-common-good
#5
Larry Davidson, Bruce Arrigo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631834/citizenship-community-mental-health-and-the-common-good
#6
Kendall Atterbury, Michael Rowe
In this article, we address the issue of community mental health and the common good via an applied theory of citizenship to support the social inclusion, empowerment, and inclusion of persons diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. We begin by discussing citizenship, and the concept of the common good, in regard to historical conceptions of citizenship, including the historical exclusion of women, people of color, persons with mental illness, and others. We then review the development of our citizenship framework in response to the limitations of even the most innovative community mental health interventions, specifically the practice of mental health outreach to persons who are homeless...
June 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612513/the-sequential-intercept-model-and-juvenile-justice-review-and-prospectus
#7
Kirk Heilbrun, Naomi E S Goldstein, David DeMatteo, Rebecca Newsham, Elizabeth Gale-Bentz, Lindsay Cole, Shelby Arnold
Behavioral health needs in justice-involved adolescents are an increasing concern, as it has been estimated that two-thirds of youths in the juvenile justice system now meet the criteria for one or more psychological disorders. This article describes the application of the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM), developed to describe five "points of interception" from standard prosecution into rehabilitation-oriented alternatives for adults (Munetz & Griffin, 2006), to juvenile justice. The five SIM intercepts are: (1) first contact with law enforcement or emergency services; (2) initial hearings and detention following arrest; (3) jails and courts (including problem-solving courts); (4) re-entry from jails, prisons and forensic hospitals; and (5) community corrections and community support, including probation and parole...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612397/understanding-and-treating-offenders-with-serious-mental-illness-in-public-sector-mental-health
#8
H Richard Lamb, Linda E Weinberger
This article begins with the history of the rise and fall of the state hospitals and subsequent criminalization of persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Currently, there is a belief among many that incarceration has not been as successful as hoped in reducing crime and drug use, both for those with and those without SMI. Moreover, overcrowding in correctional facilities has become a serious problem necessitating a solution. Consequently, persons with SMI in the criminal justice system are now being released in large numbers to the community and hopefully treated by public sector mental health...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508591/serious-offenders-using-evidence-to-predict-and-manage-the-risk
#9
Dominic A S Pearson, Cynthia McDougall
In response to the risk of serious further offences, an evidence-based approach is needed in risk management. A recent joint prison-probation inspection of the management of life sentence prisoners in six U.K. prisons found that the quality of assessment and plans to manage risk of harm to others was insufficient, with too much focus on the offender's verbal account. The present paper discusses observations of regular prisoner behaviour as the basis for predictions, and summarizes results of an evaluation of this methodology based on a sample of high-risk category prisoners released into the community...
May 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581153/self-reported-current-practices-in-child-forensic-interviewing-training-tools-and-pre-interview-preparation
#10
Jillian Rowback Rivard, Nadja Schreiber Compo
In child sexual abuse investigations, forensic interviewers within the Child Advocacy Center (CAC) model serve as neutral fact-finders for a team of professionals tasked with investigating and intervening in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Although empirical evidence has led to the development of best-practice techniques and protocols, there is currently no universally adopted protocol in the field. The present research gathered detailed information from a national sample of real-world child forensic interviewers about their training and current practices, with a specific focus on assessing the information interviewers typically review prior to conducting child forensic interviews...
May 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429396/children-s-uncertain-responses-when-testifying-about-alleged-sexual-abuse-in-scottish-courts
#11
Samantha J Andrews, Elizabeth C Ahern, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the uncertain responses of 56 alleged sexual abuse victims, aged 5-17 years, testifying in Scottish criminal court trials. Don't know/remember ground rules were explained to 38% of the children and each child reported uncertainty in response to 15% of the questions on average. Uncertain responding was associated with expressions of resistance and confusion, questioning context (proportionally more regarding substantive than non-substantive issues), question content (least to disclosure-focused questions), utterance type (more to directives, particularly those posed by defense lawyers; more to recall-based than recognition prompts), and age (children in mid-adolescence were less likely to respond uncertainly than those who were either older or younger)...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429375/patient-characteristics-and-outcomes-related-to-successful-outpatient-competency-restoration
#12
Amy J Mikolajewski, Gina M Manguno-Mire, Kelly L Coffman, Sarah M Deland, John W Thompson
Criminal defendants have a fundamental right to a fair and speedy trial. However, individuals found incompetent to stand trial are unable to move forward in the adjudication process and are often mired in protracted legal proceedings. If competency restoration is statutorily permissible and can be conducted in the outpatient setting, we propose that it should be considered based on burgeoning empirical data. We present data from an outpatient forensic clinic in which individuals are conditionally released to receive competency restoration in the community...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370391/interviews-of-children-in-a-portuguese-special-judicial-procedure
#13
Carlos Eduardo Peixoto, Raquel Veludo Fernandes, Telma Sousa Almeida, Júlia Marina Silva, David La Rooy, Catarina Ribeiro, Teresa Magalhães, Michael E Lamb
Since 2007, alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Portugal have provided evidence in a mandatory "Declarações para Memória Futura" (DMF; English transl. 'Statement for future use') proceeding. In order to protect children from having to testify in court, interviews conducted at the DMF can be used later as trial evidence because the hearings are conducted by judges. The present study examined 137 interviews with 3- to 17-year-olds conducted in several Portuguese criminal courts. Detailed examination of interview transcripts showed that 69% of all questions asked were option-posing questions, 16% were directive questions, 11% were suggestive questions, and only 3% were open-ended prompts...
March 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421687/contemporary-data-and-trends-in-the-economic-costs-of-mental-disabilities
#14
Timothy M Shaughnessy, Frederick R Parker, Jean H Hollenshead, Emmanuel N Clottey, Harvey W Rubin
This article addresses the economic effects of mental disabilities by analyzing contemporary data in the context of micro- and macroeconomic thought and relevant statistical literature. Within the parameters of these conceptual and statistical reference points, the authors seek to discern current trends in the direct, indirect, and opportunity costs posed by mental disabilities, not only to the individuals who suffer from them, but also to their families, to employers, and to society as a whole. The authors also discuss uncertainties that inhere in available data concerning both the prevalence of these conditions and the related costs of treatment, as well as the complexity of drawing correlations among variables with respect to these costs and the difficulty of identifying a meaningful measure of the economic consequences that attend mental disabilities...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421686/international-perspectives-on-mental-disability-and-the-law-introduction-to-this-issue
#15
Albert Drukteinis, Henning Saß, Alan R Felthous
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421685/the-reach-and-limitation-of-the-ada-and-its-integration-mandate-implications-for-the-successful-reentry-of-individuals-with-mental-disabilities-in-a-correctional-population
#16
Henry A Dlugacz, Luna Droubi
This article argues that the ADA and its integration mandate, informed by international standards, should extend to incarcerated individuals with mental disabilities who reenter society, as they are at highly elevated risk for unnecessary segregation in institutions such as homeless shelters or hospitals or through reincarceration. An understanding of the precise services needed to prevent these strongly related but distinct variants of institutionalization requires a robust and continuing research agenda. In discussing the breadth of the ADA, we explore its history, interpretations of its application in a variety of contexts with respect to vulnerable populations and integration, and enforcement...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421684/navigating-the-rolling-hills-of-justice-mental-disabilities-employment-and-the-evolving-jurisprudence-of-the-americans-with-disabilities-act
#17
Lauren Wylonis, Nina T Wylonis, Robert Sadoff
Mental illness and disability affect millions of individuals yearly in the U.S. The most important legislation protecting the mentally disabled in the workplace in the U.S. over the last half century has been the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its associated legislation and guidance. Although the employee should first request reasonable accommodation with the employer, evaluation by a mental health professional is one of the initial steps for individuals who report significant psychiatric symptoms that are impairing their functioning at work in the U...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303590/psychiatric-disability-in-law-enforcement-officers
#18
REVIEW
Marilyn Price
Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295575/definition-and-assessment-of-disability-in-mental-disorders-under-the-perspective-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#19
REVIEW
Michael Linden
This article provides an overview of definitions and assessment instruments of disability, an important topic in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic illnesses, and in expert appraisals in social and forensic medicine. Health problems are manifested not only in symptoms, but also regularly in impairment or disability in everyday life, which is especially true for mental disorders. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization, disability can be understood as chronic suffering from symptoms of illness, or limitations of executing capacities, or inability to participate in selected areas of life...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276597/an-international-perspective-on-feigned-mental-disabilities-conceptual-issues-and-continuing-controversies
#20
Thomas Merten, Richard Rogers
In forensic contexts, an increased prevalence of feigned symptom presentations should be expected, although it will probably vary by the context and specific forensic issue. Forensic experts should examine this possibility proactively while maintaining a balanced perspective that actively considers clinical data for both feigning and genuine responding. Psychological measures and standardized methods developed for feigning and other response styles can facilitate these often complex determinations. The current article provides an international perspective on the issue of feigned mental disabilities...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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