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Behavioral Sciences & the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052262/diversion-evaluations-a-specialized-forensic-examination
#1
Virginia Barber-Rioja, Merrill Rotter, Faith Scombs
Diversion programs screen justice-involved individuals for the presence of psychiatric disorders, and after negotiations take place with attorneys and treatment providers, these programs link participants with community-based treatment programs in lieu of incarceration. As the number of diversion programs, including mental health courts, continues to rapidly grow, so does the need for "diversion evaluations". Diversion evaluations are a type of forensic mental health assessment (FMHA) conducted to assist the courts in making decisions regarding diversion eligibility...
October 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034504/revising-the-paradigm-for-jail-diversion-for-people-with-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-intercept-0
#2
Dan Abreu, Travis W Parker, Chanson D Noether, Henry J Steadman, Brian Case
A conceptual model for community-based strategic planning to address the criminalization of adults with mental and substance use disorders, the Sequential Intercept Model has provided jurisdictions with a framework that overcomes traditional boundaries between the agencies within the criminal justice and behavioral health systems. This article presents a new paradigm, Intercept 0, for expanding the utility of the Sequential Intercept Model at the front end of the criminal justice system. Intercept 0 encompasses the early intervention points for people with mental and substance use disorders before they are placed under arrest by law enforcement...
October 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983959/countywide-implementation-of-crisis-intervention-teams-multiple-methods-measures-and-sustained-outcomes
#3
Sheryl Kubiak, Erin Comartin, Edita Milanovic, Deborah Bybee, Elizabeth Tillander, Celeste Rabaut, Heidi Bisson, Lisa M Dunn, Michael J Bouchard, Todd Hill, Steven Schneider
The crisis intervention team (CIT) is a tool that can be used to foster pre-booking diversion of individuals with mental illness from the criminal justice system and into community treatment services. Although CIT is often implemented solely as the training of law enforcement officers, the model stipulates that CIT is a vehicle for collaboration with community stakeholders who share a similar philosophy, as well as expanded mental health services offering a 24 hour-seven days per week drop-off option for law enforcement officers...
October 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940465/police-officers-volunteering-for-rather-than-being-assigned-to-crisis-intervention-team-cit-training-evidence-for-a-beneficial-self-selection-effect
#4
Michael T Compton, Roger Bakeman, Beth Broussard, Barbara D'Orio, Amy C Watson
Officers' volunteering for Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training-rather than being assigned-is assumed to be an important, beneficial self-selection bias. This bias remains poorly characterized, though CIT officers are more likely to be female and to have had exposure to the mental health field. We determined whether or not self-selection is beneficial with regard to knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as level of force used (i.e., no or low force versus any form of physical force) and disposition of subjects, in actual encounters...
September 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925026/characterizing-community-courts
#5
Tali Gal, Hadar Dancig-Rosenberg
Community courts (CCs) provide a therapeutic diversion for repeat low-level offenders. This article explores the characteristics of two Israeli CCs using the Criminal Law Taxonomy (CLT), an instrument developed by the authors for assessing process-, stakeholder-, substance-, and outcomes-related characteristics of criminal justice mechanisms. Through court-hearing observations and a process of multi-rater coding of cases, the article analyzes the courtroom dynamics according to a set of 13 measurable parameters...
September 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913894/veteran-treatment-courts-a-promising-solution
#6
Ashok Paparao Yerramsetti, Daniel David Simons, Loretta Coonan, Andrea Stolar
The high prevalence of substance use, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental illness in the veteran population presents unique public health and social justice challenges. Veteran involvement in the justice system has been identified as a national concern. Criminal justice involvement compounds pre-existing socioeconomic stressors and further strains support systems. The point of contact with the criminal justice system, however, presents an opportunity to establish mental health treatment...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913841/diversion-at-re-entry-using-criminogenic-cbt-review-and-prototypical-program-development
#7
Kirk Heilbrun, Victoria Pietruszka, Alice Thornewill, Sarah Phillips, Rebecca Schiedel
Society and the criminal justice system prioritize the reduction of reoffending risk as part of any criminal justice intervention. The Sequential Intercept Model identifies five points of interception at which justice-involved individuals can be diverted into a more rehabilitative alternative: (1) law enforcement/emergency services; (2) booking/initial court hearings; (3) jails/courts; (4) re-entry; and (5) community corrections/community support. The present article focuses on diversion as part of Intercept 5 - re-entry planning and specialized services in the community...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913835/retributive-justifications-for-jail-diversion-of-individuals-with-mental-disorder
#8
E Lea Johnston
Jail diversion programs have proliferated across the United States as a means to decrease the incarceration of individuals with mental illnesses. These programs include pre-adjudication initiatives, such as crisis intervention teams, as well as post-adjudication programs, such as mental health courts and specialized probationary services. Post-adjudication programs often operate at the point of sentencing, so their comportment with criminal justice norms is crucial. This article investigates whether and under what circumstances post-adjudication diversion for offenders with serious mental illnesses may cohere with principles of retributive justice...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891121/mental-health-courts-and-forensic-assertive-community-treatment-teams-as-correctional-diversion-programs
#9
Jacqueline Landess, Brian Holoyda
Problem-solving courts (PSCs) developed as a means of mandating treatment and judicial supervision of certain types of court participants. PSCs have rapidly expanded in number and type over several decades. Mental health courts (MHCs) are a type of PSC that arose in response to the growing number of persons with mental illness within the criminal justice system. Their primary role is to divert individuals with mental illness from incarceration into psychiatric treatment and to reduce recidivism while improving psychosocial functioning of participants...
September 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881042/nature-nurture-and-capital-punishment-how-evidence-of-a-genetic-environment-interaction-future-dangerousness-and-deliberation-affect-sentencing-decisions
#10
Natalie Gordon, Edie Greene
Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or none] and the likelihood of the defendant's future dangerousness (low or high), 600 mock jurors read sentencing phase evidence in a capital murder trial, rendered individual verdicts, and half deliberated as members of a jury to decide a sentence of death or life imprisonment...
September 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881041/evaluation-of-ct-s-asist-program-specialized-services-to-divert-higher-risk-defendants
#11
Linda K Frisman, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Eleni T Rodis, Joseph Grzelak, Michael Aiello
Some criminal defendants with mental illness may not be referred to traditional mental health jail diversion programs because they have a history of non-compliance with treatment, or complex personal circumstances such as homelessness. To successfully divert such individuals, Connecticut has developed a specialized program called the Advanced Supervision and Intervention Support Team (ASIST), which offers criminal justice supervision in conjunction with mental health treatment and support services. An evaluation of the ASIST program included a six-month follow-up study of 111 program clients to examine mental health functioning and other outcomes, and a comparison of administrative data for 492 ASIST clients with a propensity-matched group to examine recidivism...
September 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856706/the-crisis-intervention-team-cit-model-an-evidence-based-policing-practice
#12
Amy C Watson, Michael T Compton, Jeffrey N Draine
As academic researchers, we are often asked to opine on whether the Crisis Intervention Team model (CIT) is an evidence-based practice (EBP) or evidence-based policing. Our answer is that it depends on how you define evidence-based practice and what outcome you are interested in. In this commentary, we briefly describe the CIT model, examine definitions of evidence-based practice and evidence-based policing, and then summarize the existing research on what is known about the effectiveness of CIT to date. We conclude that CIT can be designated an EBP for officer-level cognitive and attitudinal outcomes, but more research is needed to determine if CIT can be designated an EBP for other outcomes...
August 30, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799186/the-psycholegal-factors-for-juvenile-transfer-and-reverse-transfer-evaluations
#13
Christopher M King
It remains unclear whether forensic mental health assessments for juvenile reverse transfer (to juvenile court) are distinct from those for juvenile transfer (to adult court). This survey consisted of an updated review of transfer and reverse transfer laws (in jurisdictions that have both mechanisms) in light of the generally accepted three-factor model of functional legal capacities involved in transfer evaluations (i.e., risk, sophistication-maturity, and treatment amenability). Results indicated that a majority of states' reverse transfer statutes refer explicitly or implicitly to the same three psycholegal constructs identified as central for transfer...
August 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762534/perceptions-of-voluntary-consent-among-jail-diverted-veterans-with-co-occurring-disorders
#14
Max L Trojano, Paul P Christopher, Debra A Pinals, Autumn Harnish, David Smelson
This study assessed perceptions of voluntary consent among 69 veterans who enrolled in a "jail diversion" program for co-occurring disorders. Perceptions were measured using modified items from the MacArthur Perceived Coercion and Negative Pressure Scales. A majority reported that they "chose to" (88.4%) or "felt free to" (85.5%) enroll. Most reported having "control over" (69.6%) and "more influence than anyone else" regarding (60.9%) their participation. About half reported that enrollment was "their idea" (49...
August 1, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722310/capitalizing-on-scientific-advances-to-improve-access-to-and-quality-of-children-s-mental-health-care
#15
Ann F Garland, Florencia Lebensohn-Chialvo, Kristopher G Hall, Erika R N Cameron
The majority of mental health problems begin in childhood or adolescence. The potential benefits of early identification and treatment of such problems are well established, and models of effective mental health interventions for children have proliferated in recent decades. However, barriers in access to care and challenges in assuring delivery of high-quality care significantly limit the public health impact of services for children and families. Specifically, the majority of children who need mental health care do not receive it, and when children are in care, many do not receive interventions that are most likely to have the greatest positive impact...
July 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670848/community-protection-versus-individual-healing-two-traditions-in-community-mental-health
#16
Philip T Yanos, Edward L Knight, Beth Vayshenker, Lauren Gonzales, Joseph S DeLuca
This article identifies two major traditions that drive the mandate for a community mental health care system-community protection and individual healing. It discusses the historical antecedents of these two traditions and how these traditions relate to different visions of what the "common good" means. It then discusses how they both operate in the current US-based system, creating inherent conflicts and tensions, and gives specific examples from the personal and professional experiences of the authors. The article proposes ways to reduce the tension and discusses what sacrifices and compromises this resolution would entail for the US community mental health system...
July 3, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850176/-life-s-hurried-tangled-road-a-therapeutic-jurisprudence-analysis-of-why-dedicated-counsel-must-be-assigned-to-represent-persons-with-mental-disabilities-in-community-settings
#17
Alison J Lynch, Michael L Perlin
The right to counsel is a fundamental right for individuals facing criminal processes and involuntary civil commitment. However, individuals with serious mental illnesses are subject to many community proceedings (e.g., being taken by law enforcement to a crisis drop-off center) where counsel is not available. We argue that, unless meaningful counsel is provided in such situations, the cycle of arrest, hospitalization, and stays in the community will continue for these individuals, who are among some of the most disenfranchised citizens in the nation and are often without any meaningful voice...
July 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850175/commentary-on-community-mental-health-and-the-common-good
#18
Bruce Arrigo, Larry Davidson
This article comments on the core question addressed by this Special Issue: "What's good about public sector mental health?" Theoretical, empirical, and programmatic insights derived from the Issue's six article contributions guide the overall commentary. Several points of thematic overlap are featured in these preliminary observations, and these themes are suggestive for directing future research (e.g., citizenship studies) in the field of community mental health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
July 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612397/understanding-and-treating-offenders-with-serious-mental-illness-in-public-sector-mental-health
#19
H Richard Lamb, Linda E Weinberger
This article begins with the history of the rise and fall of the state hospitals and subsequent criminalization of persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Currently, there is a belief among many that incarceration has not been as successful as hoped in reducing crime and drug use, both for those with and those without SMI. Moreover, overcrowding in correctional facilities has become a serious problem necessitating a solution. Consequently, persons with SMI in the criminal justice system are now being released in large numbers to the community and hopefully treated by public sector mental health...
July 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631841/introduction-to-this-special-issue-community-mental-health-and-the-common-good
#20
Larry Davidson, Bruce Arrigo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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