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Behavioral Sciences & the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303590/psychiatric-disability-in-law-enforcement-officers
#1
Marilyn Price
Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience...
March 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295575/definition-and-assessment-of-disability-in-mental-disorders-under-the-perspective-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#2
Michael Linden
This article provides an overview of definitions and assessment instruments of disability, an important topic in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic illnesses, and in expert appraisals in social and forensic medicine. Health problems are manifested not only in symptoms, but also regularly in impairment or disability in everyday life, which is especially true for mental disorders. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization, disability can be understood as chronic suffering from symptoms of illness, or limitations of executing capacities, or inability to participate in selected areas of life...
March 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276597/an-international-perspective-on-feigned-mental-disabilities-conceptual-issues-and-continuing-controversies
#3
Thomas Merten, Richard Rogers
In forensic contexts, an increased prevalence of feigned symptom presentations should be expected, although it will probably vary by the context and specific forensic issue. Forensic experts should examine this possibility proactively while maintaining a balanced perspective that actively considers clinical data for both feigning and genuine responding. Psychological measures and standardized methods developed for feigning and other response styles can facilitate these often complex determinations. The current article provides an international perspective on the issue of feigned mental disabilities...
March 9, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247431/partners-under-pressure-examining-the-consistency-of-true-and-false-alibi-statements
#4
Marthe Lefsaker Sakrisvold, Pär Anders Granhag, Erik Mac Giolla
How to discriminate between honest and deceptive alibi statements holds great legal importance. We examined this issue from the perspective of group deception. Our goals were to (a) compare the consistency between the statements of guilty and innocent suspects and those of their respective alibi witnesses, and (b) to examine the moderating role of object-salience on the level of consistency between their statements. Pairs of truth-tellers provided honest testimonies. Pairs of liars were divided into perpetrators and alibi witnesses...
March 1, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233336/investigator-sensitivity-to-alibi-witness-inconsistency-after-a-long-delay
#5
Heather L Price, Leora C Dahl
In two studies, mock investigators conducted a computer-based investigation of a crime involving an alibi witness who varied in the consistency of his statements taken 5 years apart. Investigators showed evidence of skepticism of alibi witness statements in which major contradictions (activity, location) were present, and some skepticism of statements in which minor (activity) details were contradictory. Entirely consistent statements were judged favorably, and reduced perceptions of suspect guilt (Study 2)...
February 24, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165152/memory-errors-in-alibi-generation-how-an-alibi-can-turn-against-us
#6
William E Crozier, Deryn Strange, Elizabeth F Loftus
Alibis play a critical role in the criminal justice system. Yet research on the process of alibi generation and evaluation is still nascent. Indeed, similar to other widely investigated psychological phenomena in the legal system - such as false confessions, historical claims of abuse, and eyewitness memory - the basic assumptions underlying alibi generation and evaluation require closer empirical scrutiny. To date, the majority of alibi research investigates the social psychological aspects of the process...
February 6, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008653/altruistic-lying-in-an-alibi-corroboration-context-the-effects-of-liking-compliance-and-relationship-between-suspects-and-witnesses
#7
Stéphanie B Marion, Tara M Burke
Police investigators, judges, and jurors are often very skeptical of alibi witness testimony. To investigate when and why individuals lie for one another, we conducted two studies in which witnesses' support of a false alibi was observed. We varied the level of social pressure exerted on witnesses and the level of affinity between suspect-witness pairs. During a study session purportedly intended to investigate dyadic problem-solving ability, a mock theft was staged. When questioned, participants were provided the opportunity to either corroborate or refute a confederate's false alibi that the latter was with them when the theft occurred...
December 23, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229484/the-effects-of-secret-instructions-and-yes-no-questions-on-maltreated-and-non-maltreated-children-s-reports-of-a-minor-transgression
#8
Elizabeth C Ahern, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127798/relationship-closeness-and-self-reported-willingness-to-falsely-take-the-blame
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jennifer Willard, Max Guyll, Stephanie Madon, Jacob E Allen
One reason people falsely confess is to protect the true perpetrator. The current study examined whether relationship closeness influences people's self-reported willingness to falsely take the blame. Utilizing theoretical work from the prosocial area, three potential mediators were investigated. Participants (N = 131) were randomly assigned to think of either a close or a casual friend and then read one of two scenarios that described a minor offense committed by the friend. Participants' willingness to take the blame was assessed, as well as their perceptions of reciprocity, feelings of empathy, and distress concerns related to their relationship with the offending friend...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116810/can-implicit-associations-distinguish-true-and-false-eyewitness-memory-development-and-preliminary-testing-of-the-iate
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rebecca K Helm, Stephen J Ceci, Kayla A Burd
Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098410/juror-decision-making-in-death-penalty-sentencing-when-presented-with-defendant-s-history-of-child-abuse-or-neglect
#11
Lisa L Bell Holleran, Tyler J Vaughan, Donna M Vandiver
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747920/post-incarceration-recidivism-of-lone-versus-group-juvenile-homicide-offenders
#12
Norair Khachatryan, Kathleen M Heide, Jordyn Rad, Erich V Hummel
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620269/effects-of-mental-health-and-neuroscience-evidence-on-juror-perceptions-of-a-criminal-defendant-the-moderating-role-of-political-orientation
#13
Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens, John W Clark, Karolina Sörman
Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757984/the-un-reliability-of-alibi-corroborators-failure-to-recognize-faces-of-briefly-encountered-strangers-puts-innocent-suspects-at-risk
#14
Steve D Charman, Andrea Reyes, Daniella K Villalba, Jacqueline R Evans
Some innocent suspects rely on the memory of strangers to corroborate their alibis. However, no research has examined whether such potential alibi corroborators can accurately recognize an innocent suspect with whom they previously interacted. We developed a novel alibi corroboration paradigm in which undergraduate students (representing innocent suspects who would later provide an alibi) interacted with naïve university employees (representing potential alibi corroborators). Each student briefly interacted with a different naïve university employee (n = 60), and were also each yoked to a different employee with whom they did not interact (n = 60)...
October 19, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868273/from-assassination-to-protection-of-public-officials-an-introductory-editorial
#15
EDITORIAL
Alan R Felthous
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868272/introduction-to-this-issue-international-perspectives-on-the-protection-of-public-officials
#16
Frank R Farnham, Kenneth G Busch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868271/lone-actor-terrorist-target-choice
#17
Paul Gill, Emily Corner
Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public...
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859545/targeted-violence-against-law-enforcement-officers
#18
Ronald Schouten, Douglas V Brennan
As highly visible representatives and guardians of society, law enforcement officers (LEOs) are very public figures. Injury or death in the line of duty, whether due to accidents or intentional acts of violence, is an occupational hazard for LEOs. Targeted assaults on police officers, referred to as ambushes in previous literature, are a particularly perplexing problem with significant implications for society at large. In the summer of 2016, the latest in a series of high-profile acts of violence aimed at police occurred, leading to increased examination of the acts themselves and their causes...
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730668/public-figure-attacks-in-the-united-states-1995-2015
#19
J Reid Meloy, Molly Amman
An archival descriptive study of public figure attackers in the United States between 1995 and 2015 was undertaken. Fifty-six incidents were identified, primarily through exhaustive internet searches, composed of 58 attackers and 58 victims. A code book was developed which focused upon victims, offenders, pre-attack behaviors including direct threats, attack characteristics, post-offense and other outcomes, motivations and psychological abstracts. The average interrater agreement for coding of bivariate variables was 0...
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681443/supporting-threat-management-with-forensic-expert-knowledge-protecting-public-officials-and-private-individuals
#20
Angela Guldimann, Reinhard Brunner, Hans Schmid, Elmar Habermeyer
This article describes the implementation of a Cantonal Threat Assessment and Management (CTAM) in Zurich, Switzerland. In order to support this endeavor, the Specialist Unit for Forensic Assessment and Case Management was installed. The forensic experts provide supervision and short-term assessments to public prosecutors and general psychiatrists. In close cooperation with police threat management units, forensic experts support the assessment and management of individuals who exhibit concerning and threatening behavior towards public officials or private individuals...
September 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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