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Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139579/topical-adjuvants-incompletely-remove-adherent-staphylococcus-aureus-from-implant-materials
#1
Emily P Ernest, Anthony S Machi, Brock A Karolcik, P Rocco LaSala, Matthew J Dietz
Adjuvant treatments including Betadine, Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been attempted to eradicate prosthetic joint infection caused by biofilm or intracellular bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro abilities of chemical adjuvants to decrease Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm presence on orthopaedic implant grade materials, including titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt chrome. S. aureus biofilms were grown for 48 hours and evaluated for baseline colony forming units/centimeter squared (CFU/cm(2) ) and compared to treatments with Betadine, Dakin's solution, H2 O2 , or 1% chlorine dioxide (ClO2 )...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139576/effects-of-lateral-offset-sole-shoes-on-knee-adduction-moment-in-women-with-medial-compartment-knee-osteoarthritis
#2
Woo Young Jang, Hae Woon Jung, Gi Won Choi, Hyun Min Lee, Hae Soo Park, Soon Hyuck Lee
This study aimed to determine the impact of wearing a lateral-offset sole shoe (LOSS) on knee adduction moment (KAM) in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). From December 2012 to November 2016, patients with medial knee OA were recruited. Ninety-three knees (50 left, 43 right) of 93 female patients were analyzed. The first peak KAMs were measured with patients 1) walking barefoot, 2) walking in conventional shoes, and 3) walking in LOSSs. The patients had grade 1 (n=19), grade 2 (n=49), grade 3 (n=20), and grade 4 (n=5) knee OA...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139573/gait-patterns-symptoms-and-function-in-patients-with-isolated-tibiofemoral-osteoarthritis-and-combined-tibiofemoral-and-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis
#3
Harvi F Hart, Kay M Crossley, Michael A Hunt
The purpose of this study was to compare hip and knee biomechanics during walking in individuals with isolated TFOA, combined TFOA and PFOA, and those without knee OA, and to compare patient-reported symptoms and function in individuals with isolated TFOA and those with combined TFOA and PFOA. Participants with and without knee OA were assessed and categorized into (i) no OA, (ii) isolated TFOA, and (iii) combined TFOA and PFOA, based on Kellgren and Lawrence diagnostic criteria. Quantitative motion analyses were conducted during walking, and hip and knee kinematics and external moments were calculated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139571/human-prosthetic-joint-infections-are-associated-with-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-implications-for-infection-persistence
#4
Cortney E Heim, Debbie Vidlak, Jessica Odvody, Curtis W Hartman, Kevin L Garvin, Tammy Kielian
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of joint arthroplasty surgery typified by biofilm formation. Currently, mechanisms whereby biofilms persist and evade immune-mediated clearance in immune competent patients remain largely ill-defined. Therefore, the current study characterized leukocyte infiltrates and inflammatory mediator expression in tissues from patients with PJI compared to aseptic loosening. CD33(+) HLA-DR(-) CD66b(+) CD14(-/low) granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) were the predominant leukocyte population at sites of human PJI compared to aseptic tissues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139570/distribution-of-segmental-foot-kinematics-in-patients-with-degenerative-joint-disease-of-the-ankle
#5
Karl Canseco, Karen M Kruger, Jessica M Fritz, Katherine A Konop, Sergey Tarima, Richard M Marks, Gerald F Harris
Degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the ankle is a debilitating chronic disease associated with severe pain and dysfunction resulting in antalgic gait alteration. Little information is available about segmental foot and ankle motion distribution during gait in ankle osteoarthritis. The aim of the current study was to dynamically characterize segmental foot and ankle kinematics of patients with severe ankle arthrosis requiring total ankle replacement. This was a prospective study involving 36 (19 M, 17 F) adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of ankle arthrosis ("DJD" group) and 36 (23 M, 13 F) healthy subjects ("Control" group)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106758/transcriptomic-analysis-of-synovial-extracellular-rna-following-knee-trauma-a-pilot-study
#6
Anthony J Griswold, Jose Perez, Karen Nuytemans, Thomas Strong, Liyong Wang, Danica D Vance, Hayley Ennis, Marvin K Smith, Thomas M Best, Jeffery M Vance, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Lee D Kaplan
Traumatic knee injuries often result in damage to articular cartilage and other joint structures. Such trauma is a strong risk factor for the future development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways modulating response to knee joint trauma remain unclear. Moreover, investigations of biomarkers influencing responses have been targeted rather than broad, unbiased discovery studies. Herein we characterize the complete complement of extracellular RNA (exRNA) in the synovial fluid of 14 subjects following knee injury...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106756/biomechanical-investigation-of-four-different-fixation-techniques-in-sacrum-denis-type-ii-fracture-with-low-bone-mineral-density
#7
Yves P Acklin, Ivan Zderic, R Geoff Richards, Paul Schmitz, Boyko Gueorguiev, Stephan Grechenig
With increasing life expectancy, fragility fractures of the pelvic ring are seen more frequently. Although their osteosynthesis can be very challenging, specific biomechanical studies for investigation of the fixation stability are still lacking. The aim of this study was to biomechanically evaluate four different fixation methods for sacrum Denis type II fractures in osteoporotic bone. Unstable Denis type II vertical sacrum fractures were created in 16 human pelves. Their osteosynthesis was performed with one sacro-iliac screw, posterior sacral plating, triangular fixation, or spino-pelvic fixation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106746/low-dose-lithium-regimen-enhances-endochondral-fracture-healing-in-osteoporotic-rodent-bone
#8
Kathak Vachhani, Cari Whyne, Yufa Wang, David Burns, Diane Nam
Osteoporotic bone fractures are highly prevalent and involve lengthy recovery. Lithium, commonly used in psychiatric medicine, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, leading to up-regulation of osteogenesis. Our recent preclinical work demonstrated that a 20mg/kg lithium dose administered beginning 7 days post-fracture for 14 days optimally improved femoral fracture healing in healthy rats at 4 weeks post fracture (46% higher torsional strength). In this study, lithium treatment was evaluated for healing of osteoporotic bone fractures...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106743/quantifying-meniscal-kinematics-in-dogs
#9
Brian H Park, Scott A Banks, Antonio Pozzi
The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094772/mechanosensitiviy-of-aged-muscle-stem-cells
#10
Heleen E Boers, Mohammad Haroon, Fabien Le Grand, Astrid D Bakker, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Richard T Jaspers
During aging, skeletal muscle tissue progressively declines in mass, strength, and regenerative capacity. Decreased muscle stem cell (MuSC) number and impaired function might underlie the aging-related muscle wasting and impaired regenerative capacity. As yet, the search for factors that regulate MuSC fate and function has revealed several biochemical factors within the MuSC niche that may be responsible for the decline in MuSC regenerative capacity. This decline cannot be explained by environmental factors solely, as the MuSC potential to regenerate muscle tissue is not reversed by changing the biochemical MuSC niche composition...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094396/polydeoxyribonucleotide-improves-tendon-healing-following-achilles-tendon-injury-in-rats
#11
Shin Hyuk Kang, Min Seok Choi, Han Koo Kim, Woo Seob Kim, Tae Hui Bae, Mi Kyung Kim, Seung Hwan Chang
Tendon injuries are major musculoskeletal disorders. Polydeoxyribonucleotide activates the adenosine receptor subtype A2A, resulting in tissue growth and neogenesis. This experimental study confirms that polydeoxyribonucleotide can improve secretion of various growth factors, promote collagen synthesis, and restore tensile strength of the Achilles tendon in a rat model with Achilles tendon injury. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 weeks, were divided into two groups, and the Achilles tendon was transected and repaired using the modified Kessler's method...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094382/low-intensity-vibration-increases-cartilage-thickness-in-obese-mice
#12
Tee Pamon, Vincent Bhandal, Benjamin J Adler, M Ete Chan, Clinton T Rubin
Obesity is associated with an elevated risk of osteoarthritis (OA). We examined here whether high fat diet administered in young mice, compromised the attainment of articular cartilage thickness. Further, we sought to determine if low intensity vibration (LIV) could protect the retention of articular cartilage in a mouse model of diet induced obesity. Five-week-old, male, C57BL/6 mice were separated into 3 groups (n = 10): Regular diet (RD), High fat diet (HF), and HF + LIV (HFv; 90Hz, 0.2g, 30 min/d, 5 d/w) administered for 6 weeks...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091320/suppression-of-hyaluronan-synthesis-attenuates-the-tumorigenicity-of-low-grade-chondrosarcoma
#13
Shunsuke Hamada, Yoshihiro Nishida, Lisheng Zhuo, Tamayuki Shinomura, Kunihiro Ikuta, Eisuke Arai, Hiroshi Koike, Koji Kimata, Takahiro Ushida, Naoki Ishiguro
Hyaluronan (HA) has been shown to play crucial roles in the tumorigenicity of malignant tumors. Chondrosarcoma, particularly when low-grade, is characterized by the formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) containing abundant HA, and its drug/radiation resistance has become a clinically relevant problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), on ECM formation as well as antitumor effects in chondrosarcoma. We investigated the effects of MU on rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells with a grade I histological malignancy in vitro and in vivo grafted model...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088511/towards-engineering-distinct-multi-lamellated-outer-and-inner-annulus-fibrosus-tissues
#14
Jonathan Iu, J Paul Santerre, Rita A Kandel
The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc (IVD) has a zonal distribution of phenotypically distinct cells. The outer AF (OAF) cells produce an extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in type I collagen with little proteoglycans, whereas the ECM of the inner AF (IAF) has abundant type II collagen and proteoglycans. The inhomogeneous distribution of the ECM in the AF may reflect the complex mechanical forces that the IVD experiences. A bioengineered AF tissue should recapitulate both the inner and outer zones in order to have proper functionality...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087625/3-dimensional-metrics-of-proximal-femoral-shape-deformities-in-legg-calv%C3%A3-perthes-disease-and-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis
#15
Elaine F Chan, Christine L Farnsworth, Stephen M Klisch, Harish S Hosalkar, Robert L Sah
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) are two common pediatric hip disorders that affect the 3-dimensional shape and function of the proximal femur. This study applied the principles of continuum mechanics to statistical shape modeling (SSM) and determined 3-D metrics for the evaluation of shape deformations in normal growth, LCPD, and SCFE. CT scans were obtained from 32 patients with asymptomatic, LCPD, and SCFE hips ((0.5-0.9mm)(2) in-plane resolution, 0.63mm slice thickness)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087614/potential-role-for-a-specialized-%C3%AE-3-integrin-based-structure-on-osteocyte-processes-in-bone-mechanosensation
#16
Pamela Cabahug-Zuckerman, Randy F Stout, Robert J Majeska, Mia M Thi, David C Spray, Sheldon Weinbaum, Mitchell B Schaffler
Osteocyte processes are an order of magnitude more sensitive to mechanical loading than their cell bodies. The mechanisms underlying this remarkable mechanosensitivity are not clear, but may be related to the infrequent αVβ3 integrin sites where the osteocyte cell processes attach to canalicular walls. These sites develop dramatically elevated strains during load-induced fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular system and were recently shown to be primary sites for osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell mechanotransduction...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087600/-patient-reported-outcomes-following-experimental-surgery-using-telemetry-to-assess-movement-in-experimental-ovine-models
#17
K Newell, J Chitty, F M D Henson
Many potential treatments for orthopaedic disease fail at the animal to human translational hurdle. One reason for this failure is that the majority of pre clinical outcome measurements emphasise structural changes, such as gross morphology and histology, and do not address pain or its alleviation, which is a key component of treatment success in man. With increasing emphasis on 'patient reported outcome measurements (PROM)' in clinical practice, in this study we have used two different telemetric methods (geolocation and Fitbark activity trackers) to measure movement behaviour, i...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080374/the-unfolded-protein-response-mediated-by-perk-is-casually-related-to-the-pathogenesis-of-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#18
Takeshi Fujii, Nobuyuki Fujita, Satoshi Suzuki, Takashi Tsuji, Takashi Takaki, Kazuo Umezawa, Kota Watanabe, Takeshi Miyamoto, Keisuke Horiuchi, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura
Although the number of patients with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is increasing in aging societies, its etiology and pathogenesis remain elusive and there is currently no effective treatment to prevent this undesirable condition. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular machinery that plays critical roles in handling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a condition caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. This study aimed to elucidate the potential role of the UPR mediated by pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), one of the major ER stress sensors in mammalian cells, in the development of IVD degeneration...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080354/biomechanics-obesity-and-osteoarthritis-the-role-of-adipokines-when-the-levee-breaks
#19
REVIEW
Vera Francisco, Tamara Pérez, Jesús Pino, Verónica López, Eloy Franco, Ana Alonso, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Osteoarthritis is a high-incidence painful and debilitating disease characterized by progressive degeneration of articular joints, which indicates a breakdown in joint homeostasis favoring catabolic processes. Biomechanical loading, associated with inflammatory and metabolic imbalances of joint, strongly contributes to the initiation and progression of the disease. Obesity is a primary risk factor for disease onset, and mechanical factors increased the risk for disease progression. Moreover, inflammatory mediators, in particular, adipose tissue-derived cytokines (better known as adipokines) play a critical role linking obesity and osteoarthritis...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077224/femoral-version-comparison-among-advanced-imaging-methods
#20
Corey B Fuller, Christine L Farnsworth, James D Bomar, Megan E Jeffords, Joshua S Murphy, Eric W Edmonds, Andrew T Pennock, Dennis R Wenger, Vidyadhar V Upasani
Accurate assessment of femoral version is essential to the surgical treatment of lower extremity deformities, yet the ideal modality and technique to measure femoral version is controversial. This study explored two hypotheses: First, there is no difference in the accuracy of femoral version measurement from 2D CT, 2D MRI and 3D biplanar radiography reconstructions compared to a 3D model created from CT. Second, there is a difference between the measured version from traditional axial sections of the proximal femur compared to femoral neck oblique sections for CT and MRI...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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