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Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918144/a-novel-rat-tail-discitis-model-using-bioluminescent-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Phillip A Bostian, Jonathan M Karnes, Shari Cui, Lisa J Robinson, Scott D Daffner, Michelle R Witt, Sanford E Emery
Management of spondylodiscitis is a challenging clinical problem requiring medical and surgical treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to establish a rat model of spondylodiscitis that utilizes bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus, thus permitting in-vivo surveillance of infection intensity. Inocula of the bioluminescent S. aureus strain XEN36 were created in concentrations of 10(2) CFU/0.1 mL, 10(4) CFU/0.1 mL, and 10(6) CFU/0.1 mL. Three groups of rats were injected with the bacteria in the most proximal intervertebral tail segment...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918117/effects-of-joint-immobilization-on-changes-in-myofibroblasts-and-collagen-in-the-rat-knee-contracture-model
#2
Ryo Sasabe, Junya Sakamoto, Kyo Goto, Yuichiro Honda, Hideki Kataoka, Jiro Nakano, Tomoki Origuchi, Daisuke Endo, Takehiko Koji, Minoru Okita
The purpose of this study was to examine the time-dependent changes in the development of joint capsule fibrosis and in the number of myofibroblasts in the joint capsule after immobilization, using a rat knee contracture model. Both knee joints were fixed in full flexion for 1, 2, and 4 weeks (immobilization group). Untreated rats were bred for each immobilization period (control group). Histological analysis was performed to evaluate changes in the amount and density of collagen in the joint capsule. The changes in type I and III collagen mRNA were examined by in situ hybridization...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891670/biomechanical-behavior-of-novel-composite-pmma-cap-bone-cements-in-an-anatomically-accurate-cadaveric-vertebroplasty-model
#3
Shant Aghyarian, Xiaobang Hu, Ram Haddas, Isador H Lieberman, Victor Kosmopoulos, Harry K W Kim, Danieli C Rodrigues
Vertebral compression fractures are caused by many factors including trauma and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis induced fractures are a result of loss in bone mass and quality that weaken the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, involving cement augmentation of fractured vertebrae, show promise in restoring vertebral mechanical properties. Some complications however, are reported due to the performance characteristics of commercially available bone cements. In this study, the biomechanical performance characteristics of two novel composite (PMMA-CaP) bone cements were studied using an anatomically accurate human cadaveric vertebroplasty model...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886399/simulation-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-5%C3%A2-or-7%C3%A2-valgus-a-study-of-gap-imbalances-and-changes-in-limb-and-knee-alignments-from-native
#4
Stephanie Gu, Stephen M Howell, Maury L Hull
This study calculated the frequency of occurrence of gap imbalances between medial and lateral compartments at 0° flexion and within a compartment between 0° and 90° flexion, and changes in limb and knee alignment from native after computer simulation of TKA with the knee set 5° or 7° valgus at 0° flexion. TKA was simulated on forty-nine 3D bone models of native limbs. At 0° flexion, the femoral component was set 5° or 7° valgus from the anatomic axis of the femur, and the tibial component was set 0° to the tibial anatomic axis...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882612/the-relationship-between-geometry-of-the-extensor-mechanism-of-the-knee-and-risk-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#5
Josh C Carter, Daniel R Sturnick, Pamela M Vacek, Michael J DeSarno, Erin C Argentieri, James R Slauterbeck, Robert J Johnson, Bruce D Beynnon
The complex inter-segmental forces that are developed across an extended knee by body weight and contraction of the quadriceps muscle group transmits an anteriorly-directed force on the tibia that strain the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). We hypothesized that a relationship exists between geometry of the knees extensor mechanism and the risk of sustaining a non-contact ACL injury. Geometry of the extensor mechanism was characterized using MRI scans of the knees of 88 subjects that suffered their first non-contact ACL injury and 88 matched control subjects with normal knees that were on the same team...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879001/osteoarthritis-alters-the-patellar-bones-subchondral-trabecular-architecture
#6
Sebastian Hoechel, Hans Deyhle, Mireille Toranelli, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl
Following the principles of "morphology reveals biomechanics", the cartilage-osseous interface and the trabecular network show defined adaptation in response to physiological loading. In the case of a compromised relationship, the ability to support the load diminishes and the onset of osteoarthritis (OA) may arise. To describe and quantify the changes within the subchondral bone plate (SBP) and trabecular architecture, 10 human OA patellae were investigated by CT and micro-CT. The results are presented in comparison to a previously published dataset of 10 non-OA patellae which were evaluated in the same manner...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878999/experimental-evaluation-of-multiscale-tendon-mechanics
#7
REVIEW
Fei Fang, Spencer P Lake
Tendon's primary function is a mechanical link between muscle and bone. The hierarchical structure of tendon and specific compositional constituents are believed to be critical for proper mechanical function. With increased appreciation for tendon importance and the development of various technological advances, this review paper summarizes recent experimental approaches that have been used to study multiscale tendon mechanics, includes an overview of studies that have evaluated the role of specific tissue constituents, and also proposes challenges/opportunities facing tendon study...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878991/crimp-length-decreases-in-lax-tendons-due-to-cytoskeletal-tension-but-is-restored-with-tensional-homeostasis
#8
Michael Lavagnino, Andrew E Brooks, Anna N Oslapas, Keri L Gardner, Steven P Arnoczky
Collagen crimp morphology is thought to contribute to the material behavior of tendons and may reflect the local mechanobiological environment of tendon cells. Following loss of collagen tension in tendons, tenocytes initiate a contraction response that shortens tendon length which, in turn, may alter crimp patterns. We hypothesized that changes in the crimp pattern of tendons are the result of cell-based contractions which are governed by relative tautness/laxity of the collagen matrix. To determine the relationship between crimp pattern and tensional homeostasis, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) were either allowed to freely contract or placed in clamps with 10% laxity for 7 days...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869311/hypoxia-suppresses-serum-deprivation-induced-degradation-of-the-nucleus-pulposus-cell-extracellular-matrix-through-the-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#9
Jianru Wang, Hehai Pan, Xiang Li, Kuibo Zhang, Zemin Li, Hua Wang, Zhaomin Zheng, Hui Liu
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of the nucleus pulposus (NP) extracellular matrix (ECM). Serum deprivation (SD) has been reported to exacerbate IVD degeneration; however, the effect of SD on ECM metabolism is not fully understood. Hypoxia plays important roles in maintaining the physiological functions of IVD cells; however, whether hypoxia has any effect on NP ECM production under conditions of SD is still unclear. In the current study, we established an in vitro SD model by exposing NP cells to serum-free medium...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864891/3d-mri-quantification-of-femoral-head-deformity-in-legg-calv%C3%A3-perthes-disease
#10
Karen D Standefer, Molly Dempsey, ChanHee Jo, Harry K W Kim
The purpose of this study was to quantify femoral head deformity in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) using a novel three dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction and volume based analysis. Bilateral femoral heads of 17 patients (mean age 9.9 ± 2.0 years; 12 boys, 5 girls) with LCPD were scanned 1-2 times (n= 33 LCPD heads, 20 normal heads) using a 1.5T MRI scanner. Fourteen patients had unilateral and three had bilateral LCPD with 5 hips in the Waldenström initial stage, 9 in the fragmentation stage, 14 in the reossification stage, and 5 in the healed stage...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864887/ethical-use-of-animal-models-in-musculoskeletal-research
#11
Matthew J Allen Vet, Kurt D Hankenson, Laurie Goodrich, Gregory P Boivin, Brigitte von Rechenberg
The use of animals in research is under increasing scrutiny from the general public, funding agencies and regulatory authorities. Our ability to continue to perform in-vivo studies in laboratory animals will be critically determined by how researchers respond to this new reality. This Perspectives article summarizes recent and ongoing initiatives within ORS and allied organizations to ensure that musculoskeletal research is performed to the highest ethical standards. It goes on to present an overview of the practical application of the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) into experimental design and execution, and discusses recent guidance with regard to improvements in the way in which animal data are reported in publications...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859554/evaluation-of-genipin-for-stabilization-of-decellularized-porcine-cartilage
#12
Steven Elder, Amanda Pinheiro, Christian Young, Preston Smith, Emily Wright
We speculate that an acellular osteochondral xenograft may be a good alternative to allografts for repair of focal articular cartilage lesions. In order to make a xenograft resistant to enzymatic degradation and to prevent a chronic immune response it may beneficial to stabilize it through crosslinking. The concept is analogous to treatment of porcine bioprosthetic heart valves with glutaraldehyde. The purpose of this study was to evaluate genipin, a natural crosslinking agent with low cytotoxicity, for stabilization of decellularized cartilage...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862223/effects-of-hip-implant-modular-neck-material-and-assembly-method-on-fatigue-life-and-distraction-force
#13
Fahad Aljenaei, Isabelle Catelas, Hakim Louati, Paul E Beaulé, Michel Nganbe
There is an urgent clinical need to develop accurate in vitro test procedures to better understand, predict and prevent in vivo implant failures. This study aimed to simulate in vivo fatigue fracture and distraction of modular necks in an in vitro setting, and to assess the effects of neck material (Ti6Al4V vs. CoCrMo) and assembly method (hand vs. impact) on implant failure. Fatigue tests were performed on the PROFEMUR® Modular Neck System under two different loads and number of cycles: 2.3 kN for 5 million cycles, and 7...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862237/locally-applied-simvastatin-promotes-bone-formation-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-fusion
#14
Toshinobu Ishihara, Masashi Miyazaki, Naoki Notani, Shozo Kanezaki, Masanori Kawano, Hiroshi Tsumura
Simvastatin, an inexpensive lipid-lowering drug widely used to prevent cardiovascular disorders, is known to increase osteoblastic activity, inhibit osteoclastic activity, and stimulate osteoblastic production of bone morphogenetic protein 2. Furthermore, local simvastatin application increased bone formation in animal models of fracture or bone defects. We investigated the effect of locally applied simvastatin in a rat model of spinal fusion. We performed posterolateral lumbar fusion surgery with iliac crest autograft in 36 rats divided into group I (n = 17; implanted with a gelatin scaffold) and group II (n = 19; implanted with a gelatin scaffold infused with 0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862245/radiolucency-in-stemless-shoulder-arthroplasty-is-associated-with-an-imaging-phenomenons
#15
Robert Hudek, Birgit Werner, Ayman F Abdelkawi, Rainer Schmitt, Frank Gohlke
Stemless humeral implants show comparable midterm clinical results compared to stemmed components. Recently, radiolucencies around the metaphyseal seating of humeral stemless implants were reported on postoperative radiographs. It is controversial whether they are attributable to bone resorption. We hypothesized these radiolucencies result from imaging artifacts. Seven cadaveric specimens (3 male and 4 female) were first radiographed and then scanned with CT. A stemless humeral component of current design was implanted in each specimen...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859544/lateral-soft-tissue-structures-contribute-to-cruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty-stability
#16
Kiron K Athwal, Hadi El Daou, Breck Lord, Andrew J Davies, William Manning, Ferdinando Rodriguez Y Baena, David J Deehan, Andrew A Amis
Little information is available to surgeons regarding how the lateral structures prevent instability in the replaced knee. The aim of this study was to quantify the lateral soft-tissue contributions to stability following cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (CR TKA). Nine cadaveric knees were tested in a robotic system at full extension, 30°, 60°, and 90° flexion angles. In both native and CR implanted states, ±90 N anterior-posterior force, ±8 Nm varus-valgus, and ±5 Nm internal-external torque were applied...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859535/marker-based-technique-for-visualizing-radiolucent-implant-components-in-radiographic-imaging
#17
Kimberley Lam-Tin-Cheung, Xunhua Yuan, Hristo N Nikolov, Brent A Lanting, Douglas D Naudie, Matthew G Teeter
Radiography is the predominant imaging modality used for the in-vivo analysis of orthopaedic implants. A major disadvantage of radiography is that the articulating joint components that are composed of radiolucent polyethylene cannot be directly visualized. Current strategies attempt to circumvent this limitation by estimating component positions and simplifying the joint system, however, these approaches lead to a number of associated errors. Thus, this study provides a method to enable the visualization of the polyethylene component of total knee replacements in radiographic images...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859527/gait-mechanics-and-second-acl-rupture-implications-for-delaying-return-to-sport
#18
Jacob J Capin, Ashutosh Khandha, Ryan Zarzycki, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Second anterior cruciate ligament rupture is a common and devastating injury among young women who return to sport after ACL reconstruction, but it is inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to compare gait biomechanics and return-to-sport time frames in a matched cohort of young female athletes who, after primary ACLR, returned to sport without re-injury or sustained a second ACL injury. Approximately 6 months after primary reconstruction, 14 young women (age 16 ± 2 years) involved in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent motion analysis testing after physical therapy and impairment resolution...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891668/systematic-mapping-of-the-subchondral-bone-3d-microarchitecture-in-the-human-tibial-plateau-variations-with-joint-alignment
#19
Bryant C Roberts, Dominic Thewlis, Lucian B Solomon, Graham Mercer, Karen J Reynolds, Egon Perilli
Tibial subchondral bone plays an important role in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Microarchitectural characterization of subchondral bone plate (SBP), underlying subchondral trabecular bone (STB) and relationships between these compartments, however, is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of SBP thickness, SBP porosity and STB microarchitecture, and relationships among them, in OA tibiae of varying joint alignment. Twenty-five tibial plateaus from end-stage knee-OA patients, with varus (n = 17) or non-varus (n = 8) alignment were micro-CT scanned (17 μm/voxel)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813260/clinical-safety-and-wear-resistance-of-the-phospholipid-polymer-grafted-highly-cross-linked-polyethylene-liner
#20
Toru Moro, Yoshio Takatori, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Hiromi Oda, Yoon Taek Kim, Takashige Umeyama, Eisei Fukatani, Hideya Ito, Masayuki Kyomoto, Hirofumi Oshima, Takeyuki Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Kozo Nakamura
To reduce the production of wear particles and subsequent aseptic loosening, we created a human articular cartilage-mimicked surface for a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner, whose surface grafted layer consisted of a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine). Although our previous in vitro findings showed that poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted particles were biologically inert and caused no subsequent bone resorptive responses, and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafting markedly decreased wear in hip joint simulator tests, the clinical safety, and in vivo wear resistance of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liners remained open to question...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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