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Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323351/baseline-knee-adduction-moment-interacts-with-body-mass-index-to-predict-loss-of-medial-tibial-cartilage-volume-over-2-5-years-in-knee-osteoarthritis
#1
Nicholas M Brisson, Emily G Wiebenga, Paul W Stratford, Karen A Beattie, Saara Totterman, José G Tamez-Peña, Jack P Callaghan, Jonathan D Adachi, Monica R Maly
This study aimed to determine the extent to which changes over 2.5 years in medial knee cartilage thickness and volume were predicted by: (1) peak values of the knee adduction (KAM) and flexion moments; and (2) KAM impulse and loading frequency, representing cumulative load, after controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Adults with clinical knee osteoarthritis participated. At baseline and approximately 2.5 years follow-up, cartilage thickness and volume of the medial tibia and femur were segmented from magnetic resonance imaging scans...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318047/systems-approaches-in-osteoarthritis-identifying-routes-to-novel-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#2
Alan J Mueller, Mandy J Peffers, Carole J Proctor, Peter D Clegg
Systems orientated research offers the possibility of identifying novel therapeutic targets and relevant diagnostic markers for complex diseases such as osteoarthritis. This review demonstrates that the osteoarthritis research community has been slow to incorporate systems orientated approaches into research studies, although a number of key studies reveal novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that contribute both to joint tissue homeostasis and its dysfunction. The review introduces both top-down and bottom-up approaches employed in the study of osteoarthritis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303595/a-single-intra-articular-injection-of-fluvastatin-plga-microspheres-reduces-cartilage-degradation-in-rabbits-with-experimental-osteoarthritis
#3
Norio Goto, Ken Okazaki, Yukio Akasaki, Kohei Ishihara, Koji Murakami, Kiyoshi Koyano, Yasunori Ayukawa, Noriyuki Yasunami, Tomohiro Masuzaki, Yasuharu Nakashima
Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. The anti-inflammatory effect of statins has been reported in recent years. The present study investigated therapeutic effects of the local administration of statin in osteoarthritis (OA). We assessed clinically used statins and selected fluvastatin for further experimentation, as it showed potent anabolic and anti-catabolic effects on human OA chondrocytes...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303585/the-effect-of-depth-of-centrifuged-synovial-fluid-on-leukocyte-esterase-test-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#4
Pakpoom Ruangsomboon, Sriprapa Chinprasertsuk, Varanya Khejonnit, Keerati Chareancholvanich
Centrifugation of aspirated synovial fluid before leukocytes esterase (LE) testing for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) may make blood tinged specimens interpretable. We aimed to establish the proper sampling depth of centrifuged specimens for LE testing as one diagnostic criterion and also AS-D chloroacetate esterase (CAE) staining testing as an adjunctive tool. A definite PJI knee joint group and an aseptic primary total knee arthroplasty control group were studied quasi-experimentally (N = 46)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294393/the-new-msc-mscs-as-pericytes-are-sentinels-and-gatekeepers
#5
REVIEW
Arnold I Caplan
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, hMSCs, were first named over 25 years ago with the "stem cell" nomenclature derived from the fact that we and others could cause these cells to differentiate into a number of different mesodermal phenotypes in cell culture. The capacity to form skeletal tissue in vitro encouraged the use of hMSCs for the fabrication of tissue engineered skeletal repair tissue with subsequent transplantation to in vivo sites. With the current realization that MSCs are derived from perivascular cells, pericytes, and the immunomodulatory and trophic capabilities of MSCs in both in vitro and in vivo test systems, a complete re-evaluation of the role and functions of MSCs in the body was required...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295589/the-promoter-polymorphism-t-1486c-of-tlr-9-gene-is-associated-with-knee-osteoarthritis-in-a-turkish-population
#6
Ozlem Balbaloglu, Seda Sabah Ozcan, Murat Korkmaz, Neziha Yilmaz
In this study, we aimed to determine whether TLR-9 T-1486C SNP was associated with susceptibility to OA in the Turkish population. The study group comprised 272 patients with Grade 2-3-4 knee OA according to the Kellgren-Lawrence scoring system and the control group was formed of 296 individuals with Grade 0-1. The TLR-9 genotype were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. An analysis of TLR-9 promoter -1486T/C polymorphism revealed that the -1486CC genotype appeared to have a higher risk for OA and-1486TT and -1486CT genotypes have a protective effect against the development of OA (crude OR= 0...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294398/functional-properties-of-native-and-tissue-engineered-cartilage-toward-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-chondral-lesions-at-the-knee-a-bovine-cadaveric-study
#7
Nikolaos K Paschos, Nikita Lim, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Chondral lesions frequently occur in different topographic locations of the knee. This study evaluated the functional properties among the articulating surfaces of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, and whether neo-cartilage engineered using chondrocytes from different knee locations would reflect these differences. The biomechanical properties of bovine cartilage isolated from eight locations within the tibiofemoral (medial & lateral condyle, medial & lateral tibial plateau) and patellofemoral joints (medial & lateral trochlea, medial & lateral patella) were examined...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263017/diminished-bone-regeneration-after-debridement-of-posttraumatic-osteomyelitis-is-accompanied-by-altered-cytokine-levels-elevated-b-cell-activity-and-increased-osteoclast-activity
#8
Johannes M Wagner, Henriette Jaurich, Christoph Wallner, Stephanie Abraham, Mustafa Becerikli, Mehran Dadras, Kamran Harati, Vikas Duhan, Vishal Khairnar, Marcus Lehnhardt, Björn Behr
Osteomyelitis is a frequent consequence of open fractures thus representing a common bone infection with subsequent alteration of bone regeneration. Impaired bone homeostasis provokes serious variations in the bone remodeling process, thereby involving multiple inflammatory cytokines to activate bone healing. Our previously established mouse model of posttraumatic osteomyelitis provides the chance to study regulation of selected cytokines after surgical debridement of osteomyelitis thus illustrating the course of initial infectious recovery...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262985/smith-s-fracture-generally-occurs-after-falling-on-the-palm-of-the-hand
#9
Yusuke Matsuura, Tomoyuki Rokkaku, Kazuki Kuniyoshi, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Takane Suzuki, Aya Tanaka, Tomoyo Akasaka, Naoya Hirosawa, Maki Iwase, Atsuro Yamazaki, Sumihisa Orita, Seiji Ohtori
Orthopedic trauma surgeons often encounter Smith's fracture in patients who report that they have fallen on the palms of their hands. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathogenesis of Smith's fracture in basic clinical aspects. First, a survey was conducted for investigating the mechanism of injury and arm position at the time of injury among patients with Smith's fractures who consulted at our outpatient clinic. Second, we created three-dimensional finite element models (FEMs) to predict the influence of arm position on the type of injury resulting from a fall...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248001/pro-inflammatory-m1-macrophages-promote-osteogenesis-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-the-cox-2-prostaglandin-e2-pathway
#10
Laura Y Lu, Florence Loi, Karthik Nathan, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Emmanuel Gibon, Akira Nabeshima, Luis Cordova, Eemeli Jämsen, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman
Bone fractures are among the most common orthopaedic problems that affect individuals of all ages. Immediately after injury, activated macrophages dynamically contribute to and regulate an acute inflammatory response that involves other cells at the injury site, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These macrophages and MSCs work in concert to modulate bone healing. In this study, we co-cultured undifferentiated M0, pro-inflammatory M1, and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages with primary murine MSCs in vitro to determine the cross-talk between polarized macrophages and MSCs and their effects on osteogenesis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247980/critical-dimensions-of-trans-sacral-corridors-assessed-by-3d-ct-models-relevance-for-implant-positioning-in-fractures-of-the-sacrum
#11
Daniel Wagner, Lukas Kamer, Takeshi Sawaguchi, R Geoff Richards, Hansrudi Noser, Masafumi Uesugi, Christian Ossendorf, Pol M Rommens
Trans-sacral implants can be used alternatively to sacro-iliac screws in the treatment of osteoporosis-associated fragility fractures of the pelvis and the sacrum. We investigated trans-sacral corridor dimensions, the number of individuals amenable to trans-sacral fixation, as well as the osseous boundaries and shape of the S1 corridor. 3D models were reconstructed from pelvic CT scans from 92 Europeans and 64 Japanese. A corridor of <12 mm was considered critical for trans-sacral implant positioning, and <8 mm as impossible...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244607/mir-483-targets-smad4-to-suppress-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Britta A Anderson, Audrey McAlinden
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate cellular differentiation processes by modulating multiple pathways simultaneously. Previous studies to analyze in vivo miRNA expression patterns in developing human limb cartilage tissue identified significant downregulation of miR-483 in hypertrophic chondrocytes relative to proliferating and differentiated chondrocytes. To test the function of miR-483 during chondrogenesis, lentiviral strategies were used to overexpress miR-483 during in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240380/a-novel-in-silico-method-to-quantify-primary-stability-of-screws-in-trabecular-bone
#13
Juri A Steiner, Patrik Christen, Remo Affentranger, Stephen J Ferguson, Gerrit Harry van Lenthe
Insufficient primary stability of screws in bone leads to screw loosening and failure. Unlike conventional continuum finite-element models, micro-CT based finite-element analysis (micro-FE) is capable of capturing the patient-specific bone micro-architecture, providing accurate estimates of bone stiffness. However, such in silico models for screws in bone highly overestimate the apparent stiffness. We hypothesized that a more accurate prediction of primary implant stability of screws in bone is possible by considering insertion-related bone damage...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240373/the-effect-of-simulated-metastatic-lesions-on-the-biomechanical-behavior-of-the-proximal-femur
#14
Emir Benca, Andreas Reisinger, Janina M Patsch, Lena Hirtler, Alexander Synek, Sandra Stenicka, Reinhard Windhager, Winfried Mayr, Dieter H Pahr
Pathologic fractures of femora in patients with metastatic cancer are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Prediction of impending fractures is based on unspecific clinical criteria or past clinician's experience, which leads to underestimation or overtreatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the site of metastatic lesions on biomechanical behavior of the proximal femur. Sixteen pairs of human femora were scanned with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) to asses bone mineral density...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233384/platelet-rich-plasma-promotes-skeletal-muscle-cell-migration-in-association-with-up-regulation-of-fak-paxillin-and-f-actin-formation
#15
Wen-Chung Tsai, Tung-Yang Yu, Li-Ping Lin, Mioa-Sui Lin, Ting-Ta Tsai, Jong-Hwei S Pang
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233341/dynamical-analysis-of-dislocation-associated-factors-in-total-hip-replacements-by-hardware-in-the-loop-simulation
#16
Andreas Geier, Daniel Kluess, Robert Grawe, Sven Herrmann, Darryl D'Lima, Christoph Woernle, Rainer Bader
Since dislocation of total hip replacements (THR) remains a clinical problem, its mechanisms are still in the focus of research. Previous studies ignored the impact of soft tissue structures and dynamic processes or relied on simplified joint contact mechanics, thus, hindered a thorough understanding. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to use hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation to analyze systematically the impact of varying implant positions and designs as well as gluteal and posterior muscle function on THR instability under physiological-like loading conditions during dynamic movements...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233332/anatomically-standardized-maps-reveal-distinct-patterns-of-cartilage-thickness-with-increasing-severity-of-medial-compartment-knee-osteoarthritis
#17
Julien Favre, Jennifer C Erhart-Hledik, Katerina Blazek, Benedikt Fasel, Garry E Gold, Thomas P Andriacchi
While cartilage thickness alterations are a central element of knee osteoarthritis (OA), differences among disease stages are still incompletely understood. This study aimed to quantify the spatial-variations in cartilage thickness using anatomically-standardized thickness maps and test if there are characteristic patterns in patients with different stages of medial compartment knee OA. Magnetic resonance images were acquired for 75 non-OA and 100 OA knees of varying severities (Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scores 1-4)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213953/the-effects-of-acl-graft-placement-on-in-vivo-knee-function-and-cartilage-thickness-distributions
#18
REVIEW
Louis E DeFrate
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) frequently lead to early-onset osteoarthritis. Despite advancement in surgical techniques, ACL reconstruction has a limited ability to prevent these degenerative changes. While previous studies have investigated knee function after ACL reconstruction, in vivo investigations of the effects of graft placement on in vivo joint function and cartilage health are limited. This review presents a series of studies that used novel imaging and 3D modeling techniques to determine the in vivo placement of the ACL graft on the femur using two different ACL reconstruction techniques...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186356/bone-robusticity-in-two-distinct-skeletal-dysplasias-diverges-from-established-patterns
#19
Kate Citron, Cosmo Veneziale, Josephine Marino, Erin M Carter, Karl J Jepsen, Cathleen Raggio
Achondroplasia is a heritable disorder of endochondral bone formation characterized by disproportionate short stature. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable bone and connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility. To investigate bone morphology of these groups, we retrospectively reviewed 169 de-identified bone age films from 20 individuals with achondroplasia, 39 individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta and 37 age- and sex-matched controls (matched to historical measurements from the Bolton-Brush Collection)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181707/optimal-parameters-to-avoid-thermal-necrosis-during-bone-drilling-a-finite-element-analysis
#20
Mohamed Mediouni, Daniel R Schlatterer, Amal Khoury, Tobias von Bergen, Sunil H Shetty, Manit Arora, Amit Dhond, Neil Vaughan, Alexander Volosnikov
The drilling bone may potentially cause excessive frictional heat, which can lead to local bone necrosis. This heat generation and local necrosis has been suggested to contribute to the resorption of bone around the placed screws, ending in loss of screw purchase in the bone and inadvertent loosening and/or the bone-implant construct. In vivo studies on this subject have inherent obstacles not the least of which is controlling the variables and real time bone temperature data acquisition. Theoretical models can be generated using computer software and the inclusion of known constants for the mechanical properties of metal and bone...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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