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Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646530/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#1
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#2
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631843/age-related-spontaneous-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Takashi Ohnishi, Hideki Sudo, Takeru Tsujimoto, Norimasa Iwasaki
The pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration is unclear, but it is a major cause of several spinal diseases. Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding the human spine. However, there is little information about when intervertebral disc degeneration begins in the mouse or regarding the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings. The aim for this study was to obtain information about age-related spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the mouse lumbar spine using magnetic resonance imaging and a histological score regarding when the intervertebral disc degeneration started and how rapidly it progressed, as well as how our histological score detected the degeneration...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621834/from-intricate-to-integrated-biofabrication-of-articulating-joints
#4
Wilhelmina Margaretha Groen, Paweena Diloksumpan, Paul René van Weeren, Riccardo Levato, Jos Malda
Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621468/the-characteristics-of-regional-bone-quality-in-cervical-vertebrae-considering-bmd-determining-a-safe-trajectory-for-cervical-pedicle-screw-fixation
#5
Moon-Kyu Kim, Ho-Jung Cho, Dai-Soon Kwak, Seung-Hoon You
This study aimed to report the mechanical strength and characteristics of the lateral mass and pedicle considering BMD for the safe insertion of pedicle screws in the subaxial cervical level. We evaluated BMD and Hounsfield unit (HU) values of cortical bones at the lateral mass and pedicle of C3-7 from CT images in 99 patients. Patients were divided into three groups (Group A, T-score ≥-1; Group B, -2.5 < T-score < -1.0; Group C, T-score≤-2.5). The HU numbers of cortical bone in the vertebral canal (medial wall of the lateral mass; cHU), posterior wall of the transverse foramen (fHU), and medial wall, lateral wall, and trabecular area of the pedicle (mHU, lHU, and pHU, respectively) were measured on the CT images in the middle of the pedicle...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608618/bench-to-bedside-bridge-enhanced-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair
#6
REVIEW
Gabriel S Perrone, Benedikt L Proffen, Ata M Kiapour, Jakob T Sieker, Braden C Fleming, Martha M Murray
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most well-known orthopaedic injuries and are treated with one of the most common orthopaedic procedures performed in the United States. This surgical procedure, ACL reconstruction, is successful at restoring the gross stability of the knee. However, the outcomes of ACL reconstruction can be limited by short and long term complications, including muscle weakness, graft rupture and premature osteoarthritis. Thus, new methods of treating this injury are being explored...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608580/pedicle-screw-augmentation-with-bone-cement-enforced-vicryl-mesh
#7
S L Schmid, E Bachmann, M Fischer, D C Meyer, C A Gerber, J G Snedeker, M Farshad
Achieving sufficient mechanical purchase of pedicle screws in osteoporotic or previously instrumented bone is technically and biologically challenging. Techniques using different kinds of pedicle screws or methods of cement augmentation have been used to address this challenge, but are associated with difficult revisions and complications. The purpose of this biomechanical trial was to investigate the use of biocompatible textile materials in combination with bone cement to augment pullout strength of pedicle screws while reducing the risk of cement extrusion...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598009/development-of-overuse-tendinopathy-a-new-descriptive-model-for-the-initiation-of-tendon-damage-during-cyclic-loading
#8
Tyler W Herod, Samuel P Veres
Tendinopathic tissue has long been characterized by changes to collagen microstructure. However, initial tendon damage from excessive mechanical loading-a hallmark of tendinopathy development-could occur at the nanoscale level of collagen fibrils. Indeed, it is on this scale that tenocytes interact directly with tendon matrix, and excessive collagen fibril damage not visible at the microscale could trigger a degenerative cascade. In this study we explored whether initiation of tendon damage during cyclic loading occurs via a longitudinal compression-induced buckling mechanism of collagen fibrils leading to nanoscale kinkband development...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597988/estimating-apparent-maximum-muscle-stress-of-trunk-extensor-muscles-in-older-adults-using-subject-specific-musculoskeletal-models
#9
Katelyn A Burkhart, Alexander G Bruno, Mary L Bouxsein, Jonathan F Bean, Dennis E Anderson
Maximum muscle stress (MMS) is a critical parameter in musculoskeletal modeling, defining the maximum force that a muscle of given size can produce. However, a wide range of MMS values have been reported in literature, and few studies have estimated MMS in trunk muscles. Due to widespread use of musculoskeletal models in studies of the spine and trunk, there is a need to determine reasonable magnitude and range of trunk MMS. We measured trunk extension strength in 49 participants over 65 years of age, surveyed participants about low back pain, and acquired quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans of their lumbar spines...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594131/optimization-of-puncture-injury-to-rat-caudal-disc-for-mimicking-early-degeneration-of-intervertebral-disc
#10
Ming-Hsiao Hu, Kai-Chiang Yang, Yeong-Jang Chen, Yuan-Hui Sun, Feng-Huei Lin, Shu-Hua Yang
The caudal discs of rats have been proposed as a puncture model in which intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration can be induced and novel therapies can be tested. For biological repair, treatments for ongoing IVD degeneration are ideally administered during the earlier stages. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the optimal puncture needle size for creating a model that mimicked the earlier stages of IVD degeneration. According to the disc height index, histologic score and MRI grading, a puncture needle sized 21G or larger induced rapid degenerative processes in rat caudal discs during the initial 2-4 weeks...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590060/structure-function-relationships-at-the-human-spinal-disc-vertebra-interface
#11
Britta Berg-Johansen, Aaron J Fields, Ellen C Liebenberg, Alfred Li, Jeffrey C Lotz
Damage at the intervertebral disc-vertebra interface associates with back pain and disc herniation. However, the structural and biomechanical properties of the disc-vertebra interface remain underexplored. We sought to measure mechanical properties and failure mechanisms, quantify architectural features, and assess structure-function relationships at this vulnerable location. Vertebra-disc-vertebra specimens from human cadaver thoracic spines were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT), surface speckle-coated, and loaded to failure in uniaxial tension...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574622/oxford-medial-unicompartmental-knees-display-contact-loss-during-step-cycle-motion-and-bicycle-motion-a-dynamic-radiostereometric-study
#12
Kristian Horsager, Bart L Kaptein, Peter B Jørgensen, Claus F Jepsen, Maiken Stilling
The Oxford medial unicompartmental knee is designed fully congruent, with the purpose of maintaining a large contact-area throughout motion and minimize wear. No other study has investigated this design feature in-vivo. We aimed to evaluate if contact-loss was introduced between the articulating surfaces of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee during bicycle- and step-cycle motion, and whether this correlated with essential implant parameters, such as polyethylene (PE) wear, knee-loadings, and clinical outcome...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574614/strontium-ii-and-mechanical-loading-additively-augment-bone-formation-in-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds
#13
Sandra Reitmaier, Anna Kovtun, Julian Schuelke, Britta Kanter, Madlin Lemm, Andreas Hoess, Sascha Heinemann, Berthold Nies, Anita Ignatius
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are widely used for bone-defect treatment. Current developments comprise the fabrication of porous scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting and doting using biologically active substances, such as strontium. Strontium is known to increase osteoblast activity and simultaneously to decrease osteoclast resorption. This study investigated the short-term and long-term in vivo performances of strontium(II)-doted CPC (SrCPC) scaffolds compared to non-doted CPC scaffolds after implantation in unloaded or load-bearing trabecular bone defects in sheep...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574610/costamere-protein-expression-and-tissue-composition-of-rotator-cuff-muscle-after-tendon-release-in-sheep
#14
Severin Ruoss, Christoph B Möhl, Mario C Benn, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Karl Wieser, Dominik C Meyer, Christian Gerber, Martin Flück
Previous studies suggested that degradation of contractile tissue requires cleavage of the costamere, a structural protein complex that holds sarcomeres in place. This study examined if costamere turnover is affected by a rotator cuff tear in a previously established ovine model. We found the activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of costamere turnover, was unchanged at 2 weeks but decreased by 27% 16 weeks after surgical release of the infraspinatus tendon. This was accompanied by cleavage of the costamere protein talin into a 190 kDa fragment while full length talin remained unchanged...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574601/explosive-and-maximal-strength-before-and-6-months-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-explosive-strength-before-and-after-tha
#15
Bernd Friesenbichler, Nicola C Casartelli, Vanessa Wellauer, Julia F Item-Glatthorn, Stephen J Ferguson, Michael Leunig, Nicola A Maffiuletti
Patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis experience impairments in lower limb muscle function due to pain and disuse of the affected limb. The influence of hip osteoarthritis and subsequent total hip arthroplasty (THA) has mostly been evaluated by maximal strength tests, yet the functionally important explosive strength capabilities of hip and knee muscles are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate hip and knee explosive and maximal strength in hip osteoarthritis patients before and after THA. 21 patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis were evaluated before and 6 months after THA...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561381/estrogen-dependent-efficacy-of-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-in-female-rats
#16
Levente Pócs, Ágnes Janovszky, Dénes Garab, Gabriella Terhes, Imre Ocsovszki, József Kaszaki, Mihály Boros, József Piffkó, Andrea Szabó
Our aim was to examine the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the local periosteal and systemic inflammatory consequences of hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in Sprague-Dawley rats with chronic estrogen deficiency (13 weeks after ovariectomy, OVX) in the presence and absence of chronic 17beta-estradiol supplementation (E2, 20 µg kg(-1) , 5 days/week for 5 weeks); sham-operated (non-OVX) animals served as controls. As assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy, rolling and the firm adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNs) gave similar results in the Sham + IR and OVX + IR groups in the tibial periosteal microcirculation during the 3-h reperfusion period after a 60-min tourniquet ischemia...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561268/near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-measuring-changes-in-bone-hemoglobin-content-after-exercise-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Adina E Draghici, Diane Potart, Joseph L Hollmann, Vivian Pera, Qianqian Fang, Charles A DiMarzio, J Andrew Taylor, Mark J Niedre, Sandra J Shefelbine
Bone blood perfusion has an essential role in maintaining a healthy bone. However, current methods for measuring bone blood perfusion are expensive and highly invasive. This study presents a custom built near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument to measure changes in bone blood perfusion. We demonstrated the efficacy of this device by monitoring oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin changes in the human tibia during and after exercise in able-bodied and in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), a population with known impaired peripheral blood perfusion...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561262/quantification-of-regional-variations-in-glenoid-trabecular-bone-architecture-and-mineralization-using-clinical-computed-tomography-images
#18
Bong-Jae Jun, Amit Vasanji, Eric T Ricchetti, Eric Rodriguez, Naveen Subhas, Zong-Ming Li, Joseph P Iannotti
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of a clinical CT imaging and analysis technique to quantify regional variations in trabecular bone architecture and mineralization of glenoid bones. Specifically, our objective was to determine to what extent clinical CT imaging of intact upper extremities can describe variations of trabecular bone architectures at anatomic and peri-implant regions by comparing trabecular bone architectures as measured by high-resolution, micro CT imaging of same excised glenoid bones...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548698/novel-porcine-experimental-model-of-severe-progressive-thoracic-scoliosis-with-compensatory-curves-induced-by-interpedicular-bent-rigid-temporary-tethering
#19
Carlos Barrios, José Miguel Lloris, Juan Alonso, Borja Maruenda, Jesús Burgos, Rafael Llombart-Blanco, Luis Gil, Viviana Bisbal
Using flexible tethering techniques, porcine models of experimental scoliosis have shown scoliotic curves with vertebral wedging but very limited axial rotation. The aim of this experimental work was to induce a severe progressive scoliosis in a growing porcine model for research purposes. A unilateral spinal bent rigid tether was anchored to two ipsilateral pedicle screws in eight pigs. The spinal tether was removed after 8 weeks. Ten weeks later, the animals were sacrificed. Conventional radiographs and 3D CT-scans were taken to evaluate changes in the alignment of the thoracic spine...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548682/arthrotomy-based-pre-clinical-models-of-particle-induced-osteolysis-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Meghan M Moran, Brittany M Wilson, Ryan D Ross, Amarjit S Virdi, D Rick Sumner
We completed a systematic literature review of in vivo animal models that use arthrotomy-based methods to study particle-induced peri-implant osteolysis. The purpose of the review was to characterize the models developed to date, to determine the questions addressed, to assess scientific rigor and transparency and to identify gaps in knowledge. We probed three literature databases (Medline, Embase and Scopus) and found 77 manuscripts that fit the search parameters. In the most recent 10 years, researchers mainly used rat and mouse models, whereas in the previous 20 years large animal, canine and rabbit models were more common...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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