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Acta Biologica Hungarica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605983/phytotoxic-property-of-the-invasive-plant-tithonia-diversifolia-and-a-phytotoxic-substance
#1
Masahiko Suzuki, Arihiro Iwasaki, Kiyotake Suenaga, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Tithonia diversifolia (Hermsl.) A. Gray is a perennial invasive plant and spreads quickly in the invasive areas. The extracts of T. diversifolia were found to be toxic to several crop plant species such as rice, maize, sorghum, lettuce and cowpea, and several putative allelopathic substances were identified. However, there is limited information available for the effects of T. diversifolia on wild plants including weed plant species. We investigated the allelopathic potential of T. diversifolia extracts on weed plants, and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605982/chemical-composition-and-antifungal-activity-of-hedera-helix-leaf-ethanolic-extract
#2
Oana Roşca-Casian, Cristina Mircea, Laurian Vlase, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Delia Tania Teuca, Marcel Pârvu
The 50% ethanol extract obtained from Hedera helix leaves was investigated regarding the presence and quantity of polyphenols, sterols and in vitro antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The chemical analysis revealed the presence of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the non-hydrolysed sample and quercetin and kaempferol in the hydrolysed sample and stigmasterol in the ivy leaf extract (nonhydrolysed sample). The antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, B...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605981/hydrogen-peroxide-and-nitric-oxide-regulation-of-phenolic-metabolism-under-water-stress-and-aba-in-wheat
#3
Rattanpreet Kaur, Vikramjit Kaur Zhawar
Wheat cultivar PBW644 (drought tolerant) and PBW343 (drought sensitive) were found as ABA-higher sensitive and ABA-lesser sensitive, respectively, in the screen of six wheat cultivars. Both cultivars were studied for H2O2 (ROS)/nitric oxide (NO)-regulation of growth and phenolic metabolism under ABA and water stress (WS) by supplying ROS/NO producers as well as scavengers. Endogenous ROS/NO under ABA/WS increased growth, such effect was higher in PBW644. In PBW343, reduced growth under WS was improved by exogenous ROS/NO...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605980/indoleacetic-acid-production-and-plant-growth-promoting-potential-of-bacterial-endophytes-isolated-from-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seeds
#4
Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Khadija Al-Hosni, Sang-Mo Kang, Chang-Woo Seo, In-Jung Lee
Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605979/phytochemical-investigation-of-rumex-thyrsiflorus-fingerh
#5
Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Peter Forgo, Judit Hohmann, Andrea Vasas
In the course of our pharmacological screening of Polygonaceae species occurring in the Carpathian Basin the extracts prepared from the roots of Rumex thyrsiflorus showed promising antiproliferative, xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. The present work deals with the isolation of compounds from the root of the plant. After multistep separation process, four compounds were obtained from the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the methanol extract of the root. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as 1-palmitoylglycerol, β-sitosterol, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B5...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605978/isolation-and-preliminary-characterization-of-a-bacteriocin-producer-bacillus-strain-inhibiting-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Ankit Kumar Chauhan, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Vivek K Bajpai
In a multivalent approach to discover new antimicrobial substance, a total of 160 Bacilli were isolated from termitarium soil, characterized on the basis of their morphological and physiological characters and screened for their antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against certain drug resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and common food contaminating bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. After preliminary screening, sixteen isolates showed inhibitory activity against test pathogens...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605977/linalool-induced-oxidative-stress-processes-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#7
Gábor Máté, Dominika Kovács, Zoltán Gazdag, Miklós Pesti, Árpád Szántó
The present study investigated the linalool (Lol)-induced effects in acute toxicity tests in the human pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans). Lol treatments induced reduced germ tube formation of the pathogen, which plays a crucial role in the virulence. In comparison with the untreated control, the exposure of 107 cells ml(-1) to 0.7 mM or 1.4 mM Lol for one hour induced 20% and 30% decrements, respectively, in the colony-forming ability. At the same time, these treatments caused dose-dependent decrease in the levels of superoxide anion radical and total reactive oxygen species, while there was 1...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605976/anti-mutagenic-potential-of-algal-extracts-on-chromosomal-aberrations-in-allium-cepa-l
#8
Hoda Anwer Mansour, Hala Mahfouz, Nesma Maher
In the present study, sodium azide (SA) toxicity and the anti-mutagenic effects of different algal extracts at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations were studied on the mitotic index (MI), chromosomal and nuclear aberrations using Allium cepa L. root assay. Moreover, phytochemical screening of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants compounds, total antioxidant, DPPH scavenging activity, polysaccharides, and phenolic contents were done for two red seaweeds (Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux and Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey) and for one brown seaweed (Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux)...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605975/evaluation-of-antiproliferative-and-hepatoprotective-effects-of-wheat-grass-triticum-aestivum
#9
Anand Rajoria, Archana Mehta, Pradeep Mehta, Laxmi Ahirwal, Shruti Shukla, Vivek K Bajpai
This study was aimed to evaluate the pharmacological potential of various extracts (hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of dried shoots of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) in terms of antiproliferative and hepatoprotective potential of T. aestivum. The total chlorophyll content in dried shoots of T. aestivum was 0.54 ± 0.016 g/L (chlorophyll-a: 0.288 ± 0.05 g/L; and chlorophyll-b; 0.305 ± 0.05 g/L), while total carotene content was 0.42 ± 0.066 g/L. In addition, the chloroform extract of dried shoots of T...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605974/hplc-method-for-measurement-of-human-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-by-aqueous-plant-extracts
#10
István Takács, Ákos Takács, Anikó Pósa, Gyöngyi Gyémánt
Control of hyperglycemia is an important treatment in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity. α-Amylase, as the first enzyme of glucose release from dietary polysaccharides, is a potential target to identify new sources of novel anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs. In this work, different herbal extracts as α-amylase inhibitors were studied by measuring the rate of the cleavage of a maltooligomer substrate 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-D-maltoheptoside. Measurement of chromophore containing products after reversed phase HPLC separation was used for α-amylase activity measurement...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322092/physico-chemical-changes-in-karkade-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-seedlings-responding-to-salt-stress
#11
Abdelnasser Galal
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors affecting series of morphological, physiological, metabolic and molecular changes in plant growth. The effect of different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM) of NaCl on the vegetative growth and some physiological parameters of karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa) seedling were investigated. NaCl affected the germination rate, delayed emergence and retarded vegetative growth of seedlings. The length of seedling as well as the leaf area was significantly reduced...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322091/jasmonic-and-salicylic-acids-enhanced-phytochemical-production-and-biological-activities-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-spine-gourd-momordica-dioica-roxb
#12
Ill-Min Chung, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322090/the-chemical-inducer-bth-benzothiadiazole-and-root-colonization-by-mycorrhizal-fungi-glomus-spp-trigger-resistance-against-white-rot-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-in-sunflower
#13
Rita Bán, Gellért Baglyas, Ferenc Virányi, Balázs Barna, Katalin Posta, József Kiss, Katalin Körösi
White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) is one of the most devastating plant diseases of sunflower. Controlling this pathogen by available tools hardly result in acceptable control. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of plant resistance inducers, BTH (benzothiadiazole in Bion 50 WG) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on disease development of white rot in three sunflower genotypes. Defence responses were characterized by measuring the disease severity and identifying cellular/histological reactions (e...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322089/biological-changes-of-green-pea-pisum-sativum-l-by-selenium-enrichment
#14
Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, Éva Domokos-Szabolcsy, Szilvia Veres
Supplement of common fertilizers with selenium (Se) for crop production will be an effective way to produce selenium-rich food and feed. The value of green pea seeds and forages as alternative protein source can be improved by using agronomic biofortification. Therefore, biological changes of green pea (Pisum sativum L.) and influences of inorganic forms of Se (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) at different concentrations on the accumulation of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) were investigated in greenhouse experiment...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322088/alpha-tocopherol-dependent-salt-tolerance-is-more-related-with-auxin-synthesis-rather-than-enhancement-antioxidant-defense-in-soybean-roots
#15
Seda Sereflioglu, Burcu Seckin Dinler, Eda Tasci
In this paper, we describe the alleviated effects of alpha-tocopherol (α-T) on oxidative damage and its possible role as a signal transmitter in plants during salt stress. The results show that exogenously applied α-T under salt stress increased root length and weight, but reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion radical (O2(.)-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in soybean roots. The proline content was reduced by α-T treatment. Interestingly, endogenous auxin (IAA) level was significantly increased after α-T application as compared to salt stress alone...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322087/physiological-role-of-exogenous-nitric-oxide-in-improving-performance-yield-and-some-biochemical-aspects-of-sunflower-plant-under-zinc-stress
#16
Samia Ageeb Akladious, Heba Ibrahim Mohamed
The present study was undertaken to examine the possible roles of sodium nitroprusside in protection against oxidative damage due to zinc toxicity in sunflower plants. Physiochemical parameters in sunflower plants exposed to Zn(2+) (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg soil) alone or combined with SNP were measured. The results showed that excess of Zn decreased plant growth, seed yield components and photosynthetic pigments content. On the other hand, Zn stress increased the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, ascrobate peroxidase and glutathione reductase), coupled with the appearance of novel protein bands...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322086/viability-of-sh-sy5y-cells-is-associated-with-purinergic-p2-receptor-expression-alterations
#17
Arda Örçen, Vuslat Yilmaz, Murat Giriş, Uğur Akcan, Erdem Tüzün, Gaye Erten
To investigate the role of metabotrophic purinergic P2Y receptors in neuroblastoma cell survival, expression of P2 receptors by normal mouse (C57BL/6) brain and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was investigated by Western blot and real time PCR studies. Viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with purinergic receptor antagonists suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS) was evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry. In the brain samples of C57BL/6 mice, expressions of P2Y4 and P2X7 were significantly reduced, whereas that of P2Y1 was significantly elevated in an age-dependent manner...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322085/examination-of-the-effect-of-sodium-nitrite-on-gap-junction-function-during-ischaemia-and-reperfusion-in-anaesthetized-dogs
#18
Gottfried Miskolczi, Márton Gönczi, Mária Kovács, Ágnes Végh
It has previously been proved that sodium nitrite, infused prior to coronary artery occlusion or before reperfusion, results in marked antiarrhythmic effect in anaesthetized dogs. We have now examined whether this protection involves the modulation of gap junction (GJ) function by nitric oxide (NO), derived from nitrite administration under ischaemic conditions. Two groups of chloralose and urethane anaesthetized dogs, each containing 13 animals, were subjected to a 25 min period occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, followed by reperfusion...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322084/fine-structure-and-synaptology-of-the-nitrergic-neurons-in-medial-septum-of-the-rat-brain
#19
Katalin Halasy, Balázs Szőke, Gergely Janzsó
The nitrergic neuron population and certain aspects of their connectivity (peptidergic inputs, co-localization with GABA, synaptic target distribution) were studied in the medial septum of the rat brain. The histochemical localization of NADPH diaphorase and immunohistochemical identification of nNOS at light and electron microscopic level was applied. Double-labeling experiments with galanin and leucine enkephalin, moreover the postembedding GABA immunogold staining was also carried out. NADPH diaphorase- and nNOS-immunopositive neurons could be identified inside the borders of medial septum...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322083/diurnal-variation-of-the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-level-in-the-hypothalamus
#20
Balázs Gerics, Ferenc Szalay, Péter Sótonyi, Veronika Jancsik
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the neuropeptide produced mainly in the hypothalamus, plays an operative role in regulating food intake and the sleep/wake cycle. Considering that these physiological functions pursue diurnal variations, we checked whether the total hypothalamic MCH level depends on the time of the day. The aggregated MCH peptide content of the whole MCH neuron population was significantly higher at the end of the sleeping period (lights on), than at the end of the active period (lights off)...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
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