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Acta Biologica Hungarica

Loránd Barthó, Zsolt Sándor, Timea Bencsik
Aqueous extract of the spines of the brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819) caused contraction of the guinea-pig small intestine in vitro, a widely-used preparation in pharmacology. The action is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ , and probably takes place on the smooth muscle cells. Mouse gastrointestinal preparations were also contracted by the extract. Stings by the spines of this fish species causes a painful sensation in man. We tested the effect of an extract of spines in isolated organ experiments on innervated smooth muscle preparations...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Márta Kotormán, Zita Kelemen, Phanindra Babu Kasi, János Nemcsók
We tested the amyloid fibril formation inhibitory effect of seven teas diluted in 55% ethanol at pH 7.0 at a protein concentration of 0.15 mg/ml α-chymotrypsin. In the experiments we investigated the formation and inhibition of amyloid fibrils by turbidity measurements, aggregation kinetics experiments and Congo red binding assay. The results suggest that the different teas effectively inhibit the formation of amyloidlike fibrils. The two most potent inhibitors were peppermint and melilot, extracts which almost completely inhibited the formation of aggregates in 5-fold dilution...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Yasir H Siddique, Falaq Naz, Smita Jyoti
In the present study the effect of capsaicin was studied on PD model flies expressing human alpha synuclein. First the potential of scavenging superoxide anion and free radicals by capsaicin at doses of 20, 40, 80 and 100 μM was estimated. The PD flies were allowed to feed separately on the diet containg 20, 40, 80 and 100 μM of capsaicin, respectively, for 24 days. After 24 days of exposure, fly head homogenate was prepared from each group and was used to estimate glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PC), dopamine content, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Abdelnasser Galal
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are considered to possess protective activity in plants exposed to various stresses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) on salt stressed summer squash cv. Eskandrani seedlings, whether it can alleviate the deleterious effects of salt stress in growing seedlings or not. For this, summer squash seeds were germinated in solidified half strength MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of EBL (0, 5, 10 and 20 μM) and NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM)...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Nguyen Hong Duc, Katalin Posta
The protective role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against the phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) was examined in tomato plants. Seven different AMF isolates were used to determine which ones were able to induce effectively resistance against Cmm. Stems of seven-week tomato plants were infected with Cmm, then a disease severity index (DSI) was determined during the next three weeks. In addition to different responses to mycorrhizal inoculation, three levels of responses to the bacterial disease were recognized in treatments...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Andrea Komlósi, Timea Ülkei, Erzsébet Fogarasi, Mircea Croitoru, Ibolya Fülöp, Erzsébet Domokos, Ruxandra Ştefănescu, Erzsébet Varga
In this study, we analyzed extracts of Ribes (black currant, red currant and gooseberry) fruits obtained with methanol, methanol 50% and water. For each extract total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and total anthocyanin content was assessed. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity and by the photo-chemiluminescence (PCL) method. Identification and quantification of individual phenolic compounds was performed by means of high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) analyses...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Negin Khomarlou, Parviz Aberoomand-Azar, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Hamid Tebyanian, Ali Hakakian, Reza Ranjbar, Seyed Abdolmajid Ayatollahi
The objective of this study was to identify the bioactive compounds of essential oil and evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil extracted from Chenopodium album subsp. striatum against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains (MDR) which were isolated from clinical specimens by conventional methods. Furthermore, eight different Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were used to investigate the antibacterial potential of the essential oil. The antibacterial activity was tested using MIC and MBC microdilution method, well and disc diffusion in different concentration...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Attila W Kovács, Viktor R Tóth, Károly Pálffy
Eutrophication and enhanced external nutrient loading of lakes and seas are most clearly reflected by increased cyanobacterial blooms, which are often toxic. Freshwater cyanobacteria produce a number of bioactive secondary metabolites, some of which have allelopathic properties, significantly influencing the biological processes of other algae, thereby affecting species composition and succession of the phytoplankton. The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of bloom-forming cyanobacterial exudates on the photophysiology of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, Szilvia Veres
Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals and humans, but not plants. However, the capacity of some plants to accumulate and transform Se into bioactive compounds has important implications for human nutrition and health. In this study, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and maize (Zea mays) seedlings were cultivated in soil to investigate the effect of different rates of sodium selenite (1-90 mg kg-1 soil) and sodium selenate (1-30 mg kg-1 soil) on absorption and translocation of Se and sulphur (S). Sodium selenate decreased growth of sunflower roots at all applied rates and of maize roots at the highest rate applied...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
The present study describes the elicitor effect of silver ion (Ag+ ) and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance the biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production as well as biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer) in genetically transformed root (hairy root) cultures of Cucumis anguria. The biomass of hairy root cultures was significantly increased by AgNPs whereas decreased in Ag+ elicitation at 1 and 2 mg/L. AgNPs-elicited hairy roots produced a significantly higher amount of individual phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids), total phenolic and flavonoid contents than Ag+ -elicited hairy roots...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Thundiparampil Vasanth Vineethkumar, Gopal Shyla, Sanil George
Lectins are sugar-binding proteins and considered as attractive candidates for drug delivery and targeting. Here, we report the identification of the smallest lectin-like peptide (odorranalectin HYba) from the skin secretion of Hydrophylax bahuvistara which is being the shortest lectin-like peptide identified so far from the frog skin secretion, with 15 amino acid residues. The peptide is the first report from an Indian frog and lacks antimicrobial activity but strongly agglutinate intact human erythrocytes...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot, Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina Barszcz, Maciej Janeczek
The aim of the study was to describe the morphology and the development of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the pre-hatchling and post-hatchling African black ostrich. The study involved 50 birds aged between 28 days and 3 years. The EOMs were analyzed morphologically with respect to the location and length of the straight and oblique muscles and the third eyelid muscles, the length and breadth of their tendons as well as the distance and shape of the muscle tendon insertions at the corneal limbus. A histological and histometric analysis were also carried out...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Yi Wen Lu, Tai Sheng Chiu
Housekeeping genes (HK genes) are required for cell survival and the maintenance of basic cellular functions. The investigation of factors affecting codon usage patterns in HK genes of insects can help in understanding the molecular evolution of insects and aid the development of insect pest management strategies. In this study, we employed bioinformatics approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of HK genes in the insect model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. A comparison of CUB between 1107 HK genes and 1084 high tissue specificity genes suggested that HK genes have higher CUB in D...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Seba Jamal Shbailat, Razan Ataallah Abuassaf
The route of egg white transfer into the yolk and the mechanisms underlying the digestion of egg proteins are unexplored in the fertilized egg of the duck, Anas platyrhynchos domestica. Here, we investigated the route(s) of egg white transfer and we determined the type of activated proteases during duck embryo development. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of egg proteins throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow egg white transfer and we measured its activity...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Samira Samea-Andabjadid, Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani, Safar Nasrollahzadeh, Nosratollah Najafi
This research was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (50 μM) on physiological performance of faba bean (Vicia faba) under different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m). The experiment was arranged as factorial on the bases of randomized complete block design in three replications. Leaf Na+ content, root and leaf soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation increased, but K+ , K+ /Na+ and membrane stability index (MSI) decreased as a result of salt stress...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Gergely Zachar, Tamás Jakó, István Vincze, Zsolt Wagner, Tamás Tábi, Eszter Bálint, Szilvia Mezey, Éva Szökő, András Csillag
D-aspartate (D-Asp) modulates adult neural plasticity and embryonic brain development by promoting cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Here, developmental changes of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp were determined during the first postembryonic days, a time window for early learning, in selected brain regions of domestic chickens after chiral separation and capillary electrophoresis. Extracellular concentration (ECC) of EAAs was measured in microdialysis samples from freely moving chicks...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Bálint Bús, Károly Antal, Zsuzsa Emri
Spindle oscillations are generated predominantly during sleep state II, through cyclical interactions between thalamocortical and reticular neurons. Inhibition from reticular cells is critical for this activity; it enables burst firing by the de-inactivation of T-type Ca2+ channels. While the effect of different channelopathies on spindling is extensively investigated, our knowledge about the role of intrathalamic connections is limited. Therefore, we explored how the connection pattern and the density of reticular inhibitory synapses affect spindle activity in a thalamic network model...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Petra Varró, Melinda Béldi, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Zoltán Mayer, Nguyen Hong Duc, Zita Sasvári, Katalin Posta
The association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most common and widespread mutualistic plant-fungi interaction. AM fungi are of beneficial effects on the water and nutrient uptake of plants and increase plant defense mechanisms to alleviate different stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities and to track the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal system under temperature- and mechanical stress conditions...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Bergüzar Karadağ, Nilgün Candan Yücel
To elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) and fish flour (FF) pretreatment, wheat was pretreated with 20, 50 and 100 ppm CA and 1 g/10 mL FF for 2 d and was then cultivated. We investigated whether exogenous CA + FF could protect wheat from salt stress and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of seed vigor, antioxidant defense systems, phenolic biosynthesis and lipid peroxidation. At 2 days exogenous CA did not influence seed vigor...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
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