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Acta Biologica Hungarica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262715/how-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-influence-the-defense-system-of-sunflower-during-different-abiotic-stresses
#1
Zoltán Mayer, Nguyen Hong Duc, Zita Sasvári, Katalin Posta
The association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most common and widespread mutualistic plant-fungi interaction. AM fungi are of beneficial effects on the water and nutrient uptake of plants and increase plant defense mechanisms to alleviate different stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities and to track the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal system under temperature- and mechanical stress conditions...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262714/cinnamic-acid-and-fish-flour-affect-wheat-phenolic-acids-and-flavonoid-compounds-lipid-peroxidation-proline-levels-under-salt-stress
#2
Bergüzar Karadağ, Nilgün Candan Yücel
To elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) and fish flour (FF) pretreatment, wheat was pretreated with 20, 50 and 100 ppm CA and 1 g/10 mL FF for 2 d and was then cultivated. We investigated whether exogenous CA + FF could protect wheat from salt stress and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of seed vigor, antioxidant defense systems, phenolic biosynthesis and lipid peroxidation. At 2 days exogenous CA did not influence seed vigor...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262713/electro-antennographic-response-of-helopeltis-theivora-to-synthetic-pesticides-used-in-tea-plantations
#3
Kokkadan K Srikumar, Sukumaran Smitha, Bastian S Kumar, Balakrishnan Radhakrishnan
Helopeltis theivora is considered as one of the major pest in tea plantations causing considerable economic damage. Recent control strategies against this notorious polyphagous pest mainly depend on the application of insecticides. The study is focused on the antennal response of H. theivora on exposure to different insecticides using electroantenogram (EAG). The result showed that the insects perceive quinalphos as they are frequently exposed to it. The hierarchy of the EAG response of exposed and unexposed insects was quinalphos > bifenthrin > deltamethrin > thiamethoxam...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262712/acetaldehyde-suppresses-growth-changes-conidia-morphology-and-reduces-the-production-of-adenosine-3-5-cyclic-monophosphate-in-a-dose-dependent-manner-in-alternaria-alternata
#4
Mivuyo S Mbovane, Venkata S R Gangireddygari, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Khayalethu Ntushelo
One-day-old cultures of the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata were exposed to 0%, 5% and 10% acetaldehyde mixed with distilled water. Fungal growth data showed that, overall, the 5% and the 10% acetaldehyde treatments significantly inhibited the growth of A. alternata, and that acetyldehyde also facilitated maturity and multicellularity of fungal conidia. The increase of the acetyldehyde dose also caused correlated decrease of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate produced by A. alternata.
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262711/hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-damage-on-mechanical-properties-of-the-articular-cartilage
#5
Ekrem Cicek
Articular cartilage has unique mechanical and physicochemical properties which are responsible for its load carrying capabilities. This work investigates the effects of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage on mechanical properties of articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was exposed to hydrogen peroxide for a week. Dynamic and static mechanical tests applied to calculate articular cartilage compressive modulus. We observed higher control curve slopes than that of hydrogen peroxide curves which account for lesser stiffness values in the exposed articular cartilage...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262710/establishment-of-an-efficient-plant-regeneration-culture-protocol-and-achievement-of-successful-genetic-transformation-in-jatropha-curcas-l
#6
Ying Liu, Guoxuan Liu, Yali Yang, Sufang Niu, Fuguang Yang, Shaoxia Yang, Jianian Tang, Jianping Chen
An efficient and reproducible protocol is described for shoot-bud regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of J. curcas. Treating the explants with high concentrations (5-120 mg/L) of TDZ for short durations (5-80 min) before inoculation culture increased significantly the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated buds. The highest shoot-buds induction rate (87.35%) was achieved when petiole explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min and inoculated on hormone-free MS medium for 30 days...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262709/chemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-commercial-origanum-onites-l-oil-against-nosocomial-carbapenem-resistant-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producer-escherichia-coli-isolates
#7
Banu Kaskatepe, Serap Suzuk Yildiz, Merve Eylul Kiymaci, Ayse Nur Yazgan, Salih Cesur, Sinem Aslan Erdem
In recent years rapidly growing antibiotic resistance has increased interest toward natural products, especially essential oils because of their various effects. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of the commercial Origanum onites essential oil (EO) and to investigate the antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and dilution methods, against ten different ATCC strains, including eight bacteria, two yeasts and seventy-nine clinical nosocomial Escherichia coli isolates that produce extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262708/in-vivo-screening-of-diterpene-alkaloids-using-bdelloid-rotifer-assays
#8
Tivadar Kiss, Lilla Mácsai, Dezső Csupor, Zsolt László Datki
The group of diterpene alkaloids contains numerous compounds with complex chemistry and diverse pharmacological activities. Beside toxicity, these compounds possess activity on the cardiovascular system, tumor cell lines and nervous system. The pharmacological properties have been described using in vitro and in vivo techniques; however, the bioactivities of many compounds have not thoroughly been studied. Here we report on the in vivo evaluation of ten diterpene alkaloids using bdelloid rotifer assays. Napelline exerted toxic effects on rotifers, while wide tolerance range was observed for other investigated compounds...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262707/hydrogen-peroxide-prolongs-mitotic-arrest-in-a-dose-dependent-manner-and-independently-of-the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-activity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Pinar Buket Atalay, Oyku Asci, Fatih Oner Kaya, Bilge Guvenc Tuna
Oxidative stress and chromosome missegregation are important factors that are linked to aneuploidy. A major reason for chromosome missegragation is the inappropriate activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a conserved surveillance mechanism that monitors the state of kinetochore-microtubule attachments to ensure equal chromosome segregation in mitosis. SAC-activation induces a prolonged mitotic arrest. Mitosis is considered the most vulnerable cell cycle phase to several external signals, therefore increasing the time cells spent in this phase via mitotic arrest induction by SAC-activating agents is favorable for cancer therapy...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262706/in-silico-characterisation-of-novel-rice-transcripts-differentially-expressed-in-phosphorus-dificient-conditions-suggests-a-role-of-these-transcripts-in-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#10
Julia S Yumnam, Mayank Rai, Wricha Tyagi
Phosphorus deficiency adversely affects crop productivity. The mechanism of tolerance in plants is not well understood. The current study successfully annotated a set of highly significant (Log2 RPKM ≥3) nine novel sequences up-regulated in P deficient condition identified from a low P tolerant rice genotype. Sequence annotation identified two transcripts (Os01g37260 and Os02g11060) carrying known domains, F-box and WD, respectively. Multiple Expectation maximization for Motif Elicitation (MEME) revealed presence of conserved domains like D[LP][HY][CL]D[CM][DT]C[AP][DQ][IQ]C, [EH][DN]HN[HS] [ER][FY][EP]I[HN]H which might play a role in phosphorus deficiency tolerance...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262705/salinity-tolerance-of-grafted-watermelon-seedlings
#11
Viktória Bőhm, Dávid Fekete, Gábor Balázs, László Gáspár, Noémi Kappel
In order to evaluate the salinity tolerance of grafted watermelon, two sets of experiments were conducted in a growing chamber where 'Esmeralda' varieties were grafted onto interspecific squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. × Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and Lagenaria siceraria rootstocks. Both non-grafted and self-garfted plants were used for control. For salt stress, 2.85 and 4.28 mM/l substrate doses of NaCl were added with each irrigation in 2 day intervals for a duration of 23 days. Interspecific-grafted plants showed the highest salinity tolerance as plant biomass and leaf area were not decreased but improved by salinity in most cases...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262704/comparison-of-the-production-and-chemical-constituents-of-five-perilla-frutescens-l-britt-accessions
#12
Péter Radácsi, Szilvia Sárosi, Lotti Ágnes Szomor, Éva Németh-Zámbori
An open field experiment was carried out with five purple Perilla frutescens accessions (588P, GB, J3, JTD3, PS3) in 2014 and 2015. Morphological traits, production, total phenolic content (TPC), essential oil content (EOC) and composition as well as the antioxidant capacity (AOC) were investigated. Highest biomass was produced by JTD3 in both years. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the stems was lower than in the leaves in all accessions. Leaves of accession GB produced the highest AOC values (215...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262703/inhibitory-effects-of-four-neonicotinoid-active-ingredients-on-acetylcholine-esterase-activity
#13
János Győri, Anna Farkas, Oksana Stolyar, András Székács, Mária Mörtl, Ágnes Vehovszky
There is a great concern about the decline of pollinators, and neonicotinoids emerging bee disorders are assumed to play a significant role. Since changes in learning ability has been observed in honey bees exposed to some acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors, we therefore, tested in vitro the effect of four neonicotinoids on purified eel AChE. AChE activity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner, and calculated IC50 values for thiamethoxam (IC50 = 414 μM) and clothianidin (IC50 = 160 μM) were found to be much higher compared to acetamiprid (IC50 = 75...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901808/morphometric-characteristics-and-coi-haplotype-diversity-of-arctodiaptomus-spinosus-copedoda-populations-in-soda-pans-in-hungary
#14
László Forró, Judit Nédli, Enikő Csata, Virág Krízsik, Csilla Balogh, László G-Tóth
Arctodiaptomus spinosus (Daday, 1891) is a characteristic species of the soda pan zooplankton in the Great Hungarian Plain. The biogeographical distribution of the species is interesting, since its range expands from the Pannonian Biogeographic region to the other side of the Carpathians, occurring in saline lakes in Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Iran and in temporary waters in Ukraine. Our investigations focused on the morphometric characteristics and the COI haplotype diversity of four Hungarian populations in the Kiskunság area...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901807/exogenous-ascorbic-acid-improves-defence-responses-of-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-exposed-to-multiple-stresses
#15
Armagan Kaya
Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays role both on growth and development and also stress response of the plant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbate on physiological and biochemical changes of sunflower that was exposed to multiple stresses. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased and glutathione, ascorbate and malondialdehyde contents as well as antioxidant enzyme activities increased for sunflower plant that was exposed to 50 mM NaCl and pendimethalin at different concentrations...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901806/optimised-selenium-enrichment-of-artemia-sp-feed-to-improve-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus-larvae-rearing
#16
Péter Juhász, Szvetlana Lengyel, Zsolt Udvari, Alex Nagy Sándor, László Stündl
Selenium is an essential microelement for the normal functioning of life processes. Moreover, it is a component of enzymes with antioxidant effects. However, it has the smallest window of any micronutrient between requirement and toxicity. Selenium is a regularly used element in fish feeds; moreover, enriching zooplankton with selenium to rear larvae is also a well-known technology. It is accepted that the most common starter foods of fish larvae, natural rotifers contain the smallest dosage of selenium, but providing selenium enriched Artemia sp...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901805/fusiform-vateritic-inclusions-observed-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-l-sagittae
#17
Zoltán Kern, Miklós Kázmér, Tamás Müller, András Specziár, Alexandra Németh, Tamás Váczi
Microscopic inclusions have been observed in 7 out of 106 European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) sagittae using polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscope meanwhile the annual increments were studied to characterize the age structure of the population living in Lake Balaton. The presence of vaterite, a rare calcium carbonate polymorph was observed in these inclusions using Raman spectroscopy. Vateritic sagittae in wild fish are usually considered as symptom of physiological stress. The observed fusiform inclusions represent a new morphological type of vaterite inclusions in eel otolith...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901804/histological-and-antimicrobial-study-of-ononis-arvensis-l
#18
Tünde Dénes, Sámuel Gergely Bartha, Mónika Kerényi, Erzsébet Varga, Viktória Lilla Balázs, Rita Csepregi, Nóra Papp
In this study field restharrow (Ononis arvensis) was investigated for histological and antimicrobial features. The aerial part and the root were embedded in synthetic resin and investigated following sectioning by a rotation microtome. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the solvent fractions of the aerial part were studied against four bacterial strains and one fungus. According to histology, the root covered by rhizodermis contains contiguous vascular elements, which are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901803/in-vitro-activity-of-calcium-channel-blockers-in-combination-with-conventional-antifungal-agents-against-clinically-important-filamentous-fungi
#19
Mónika Homa, Kinga Hegedűs, Ádám Fülöp, Vanessza Wolfárt, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Naiyf S Alharbi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László Galgóczy
Despite the current therapeutic options, filamentous fungal infections are associated with high mortality rate especially in immunocompromised patients. In order to find a new potential therapeutic approach, the in vitro inhibitory effect of two antiarrhythmic agents, diltiazem and verapamil hydrochloride were tested against different clinical isolates of ascomycetous and mucoralean filamentous fungi. The in vitro combinations of these non-antifungal drugs with azole and polyene antifungal agents were also examined...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901802/isolation-and-quantitative-analysis-of-physalin-d-in-the-fruit-and-calyx-of-physalis-alkekengi-l
#20
Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Péter Forgó, István Zupkó, Eşianu Sigrid, Judit Hohmann
Physalin D was isolated from the methanol extract of Physalis alkekengi L. fruits by combination of different chromatographic methods (CPC, TLC, HPLC). The structure was elucidated based on (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analysis with the aid of 2D-correlation spectroscopy ((1)H, (1)H-COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data. The quantity of physalin D in mature and immature fruits and calyces was determined by RP-HPLC-UV method. Among the studied samples, immature calyx showed the highest content of physalin D (0...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
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