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Acta Biologica Hungarica

Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
The present study describes the elicitor effect of silver ion (Ag+ ) and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance the biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production as well as biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer) in genetically transformed root (hairy root) cultures of Cucumis anguria. The biomass of hairy root cultures was significantly increased by AgNPs whereas decreased in Ag+ elicitation at 1 and 2 mg/L. AgNPs-elicited hairy roots produced a significantly higher amount of individual phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids), total phenolic and flavonoid contents than Ag+ -elicited hairy roots...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Thundiparampil Vasanth Vineethkumar, Gopal Shyla, Sanil George
Lectins are sugar-binding proteins and considered as attractive candidates for drug delivery and targeting. Here, we report the identification of the smallest lectin-like peptide (odorranalectin HYba) from the skin secretion of Hydrophylax bahuvistara which is being the shortest lectin-like peptide identified so far from the frog skin secretion, with 15 amino acid residues. The peptide is the first report from an Indian frog and lacks antimicrobial activity but strongly agglutinate intact human erythrocytes...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot, Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina Barszcz, Maciej Janeczek
The aim of the study was to describe the morphology and the development of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the pre-hatchling and post-hatchling African black ostrich. The study involved 50 birds aged between 28 days and 3 years. The EOMs were analyzed morphologically with respect to the location and length of the straight and oblique muscles and the third eyelid muscles, the length and breadth of their tendons as well as the distance and shape of the muscle tendon insertions at the corneal limbus. A histological and histometric analysis were also carried out...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Yi Wen Lu, Tai Sheng Chiu
Housekeeping genes (HK genes) are required for cell survival and the maintenance of basic cellular functions. The investigation of factors affecting codon usage patterns in HK genes of insects can help in understanding the molecular evolution of insects and aid the development of insect pest management strategies. In this study, we employed bioinformatics approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of HK genes in the insect model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. A comparison of CUB between 1107 HK genes and 1084 high tissue specificity genes suggested that HK genes have higher CUB in D...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Seba Jamal Shbailat, Razan Ataallah Abuassaf
The route of egg white transfer into the yolk and the mechanisms underlying the digestion of egg proteins are unexplored in the fertilized egg of the duck, Anas platyrhynchos domestica. Here, we investigated the route(s) of egg white transfer and we determined the type of activated proteases during duck embryo development. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of egg proteins throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow egg white transfer and we measured its activity...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Samira Samea-Andabjadid, Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani, Safar Nasrollahzadeh, Nosratollah Najafi
This research was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (50 μM) on physiological performance of faba bean (Vicia faba) under different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m). The experiment was arranged as factorial on the bases of randomized complete block design in three replications. Leaf Na+ content, root and leaf soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation increased, but K+ , K+ /Na+ and membrane stability index (MSI) decreased as a result of salt stress...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Gergely Zachar, Tamás Jakó, István Vincze, Zsolt Wagner, Tamás Tábi, Eszter Bálint, Szilvia Mezey, Éva Szökő, András Csillag
D-aspartate (D-Asp) modulates adult neural plasticity and embryonic brain development by promoting cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Here, developmental changes of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp were determined during the first postembryonic days, a time window for early learning, in selected brain regions of domestic chickens after chiral separation and capillary electrophoresis. Extracellular concentration (ECC) of EAAs was measured in microdialysis samples from freely moving chicks...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Bálint Bús, Károly Antal, Zsuzsa Emri
Spindle oscillations are generated predominantly during sleep state II, through cyclical interactions between thalamocortical and reticular neurons. Inhibition from reticular cells is critical for this activity; it enables burst firing by the de-inactivation of T-type Ca2+ channels. While the effect of different channelopathies on spindling is extensively investigated, our knowledge about the role of intrathalamic connections is limited. Therefore, we explored how the connection pattern and the density of reticular inhibitory synapses affect spindle activity in a thalamic network model...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Petra Varró, Melinda Béldi, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Zoltán Mayer, Nguyen Hong Duc, Zita Sasvári, Katalin Posta
The association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most common and widespread mutualistic plant-fungi interaction. AM fungi are of beneficial effects on the water and nutrient uptake of plants and increase plant defense mechanisms to alleviate different stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities and to track the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal system under temperature- and mechanical stress conditions...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Bergüzar Karadağ, Nilgün Candan Yücel
To elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) and fish flour (FF) pretreatment, wheat was pretreated with 20, 50 and 100 ppm CA and 1 g/10 mL FF for 2 d and was then cultivated. We investigated whether exogenous CA + FF could protect wheat from salt stress and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of seed vigor, antioxidant defense systems, phenolic biosynthesis and lipid peroxidation. At 2 days exogenous CA did not influence seed vigor...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Kokkadan K Srikumar, Sukumaran Smitha, Bastian S Kumar, Balakrishnan Radhakrishnan
Helopeltis theivora is considered as one of the major pest in tea plantations causing considerable economic damage. Recent control strategies against this notorious polyphagous pest mainly depend on the application of insecticides. The study is focused on the antennal response of H. theivora on exposure to different insecticides using electroantenogram (EAG). The result showed that the insects perceive quinalphos as they are frequently exposed to it. The hierarchy of the EAG response of exposed and unexposed insects was quinalphos > bifenthrin > deltamethrin > thiamethoxam...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Mivuyo S Mbovane, Venkata S R Gangireddygari, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Khayalethu Ntushelo
One-day-old cultures of the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata were exposed to 0%, 5% and 10% acetaldehyde mixed with distilled water. Fungal growth data showed that, overall, the 5% and the 10% acetaldehyde treatments significantly inhibited the growth of A. alternata, and that acetyldehyde also facilitated maturity and multicellularity of fungal conidia. The increase of the acetyldehyde dose also caused correlated decrease of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate produced by A. alternata.
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Ekrem Cicek
Articular cartilage has unique mechanical and physicochemical properties which are responsible for its load carrying capabilities. This work investigates the effects of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage on mechanical properties of articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was exposed to hydrogen peroxide for a week. Dynamic and static mechanical tests applied to calculate articular cartilage compressive modulus. We observed higher control curve slopes than that of hydrogen peroxide curves which account for lesser stiffness values in the exposed articular cartilage...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Ying Liu, Guoxuan Liu, Yali Yang, Sufang Niu, Fuguang Yang, Shaoxia Yang, Jianian Tang, Jianping Chen
An efficient and reproducible protocol is described for shoot-bud regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of J. curcas. Treating the explants with high concentrations (5-120 mg/L) of TDZ for short durations (5-80 min) before inoculation culture increased significantly the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated buds. The highest shoot-buds induction rate (87.35%) was achieved when petiole explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min and inoculated on hormone-free MS medium for 30 days...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Banu Kaskatepe, Serap Suzuk Yildiz, Merve Eylul Kiymaci, Ayse Nur Yazgan, Salih Cesur, Sinem Aslan Erdem
In recent years rapidly growing antibiotic resistance has increased interest toward natural products, especially essential oils because of their various effects. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of the commercial Origanum onites essential oil (EO) and to investigate the antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and dilution methods, against ten different ATCC strains, including eight bacteria, two yeasts and seventy-nine clinical nosocomial Escherichia coli isolates that produce extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Tivadar Kiss, Lilla Mácsai, Dezső Csupor, Zsolt László Datki
The group of diterpene alkaloids contains numerous compounds with complex chemistry and diverse pharmacological activities. Beside toxicity, these compounds possess activity on the cardiovascular system, tumor cell lines and nervous system. The pharmacological properties have been described using in vitro and in vivo techniques; however, the bioactivities of many compounds have not thoroughly been studied. Here we report on the in vivo evaluation of ten diterpene alkaloids using bdelloid rotifer assays. Napelline exerted toxic effects on rotifers, while wide tolerance range was observed for other investigated compounds...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Pinar Buket Atalay, Oyku Asci, Fatih Oner Kaya, Bilge Guvenc Tuna
Oxidative stress and chromosome missegregation are important factors that are linked to aneuploidy. A major reason for chromosome missegragation is the inappropriate activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a conserved surveillance mechanism that monitors the state of kinetochore-microtubule attachments to ensure equal chromosome segregation in mitosis. SAC-activation induces a prolonged mitotic arrest. Mitosis is considered the most vulnerable cell cycle phase to several external signals, therefore increasing the time cells spent in this phase via mitotic arrest induction by SAC-activating agents is favorable for cancer therapy...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Julia S Yumnam, Mayank Rai, Wricha Tyagi
Phosphorus deficiency adversely affects crop productivity. The mechanism of tolerance in plants is not well understood. The current study successfully annotated a set of highly significant (Log2 RPKM ≥3) nine novel sequences up-regulated in P deficient condition identified from a low P tolerant rice genotype. Sequence annotation identified two transcripts (Os01g37260 and Os02g11060) carrying known domains, F-box and WD, respectively. Multiple Expectation maximization for Motif Elicitation (MEME) revealed presence of conserved domains like D[LP][HY][CL]D[CM][DT]C[AP][DQ][IQ]C, [EH][DN]HN[HS] [ER][FY][EP]I[HN]H which might play a role in phosphorus deficiency tolerance...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Viktória Bőhm, Dávid Fekete, Gábor Balázs, László Gáspár, Noémi Kappel
In order to evaluate the salinity tolerance of grafted watermelon, two sets of experiments were conducted in a growing chamber where 'Esmeralda' varieties were grafted onto interspecific squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. × Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and Lagenaria siceraria rootstocks. Both non-grafted and self-garfted plants were used for control. For salt stress, 2.85 and 4.28 mM/l substrate doses of NaCl were added with each irrigation in 2 day intervals for a duration of 23 days. Interspecific-grafted plants showed the highest salinity tolerance as plant biomass and leaf area were not decreased but improved by salinity in most cases...
December 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
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