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Biotechnology Advances

Henning Gram Hansen, Nuša Pristovšek, Helene Faustrup Kildegaard, Gyun Min Lee
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred cell factory for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. Although efforts primarily within bioprocess optimization have led to increased product titers of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) expressed in CHO cells, post-transcriptional bottlenecks in the biosynthetic pathway of r-proteins remain to be solved. To this end, the ectopic expression of transgenes (effector genes) offers great engineering potential. However, studies on effector genes have in some cases led to inconsistent results...
December 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Laura Moro, Mehmet Turemis, Bruna Marini, Rudy Ippodrino, Maria Teresa Giardi
Novel technologies and strategies for sensitive detection of biological responses in healthcare, food and environmental monitoring continue to be a priority. The present review focuses on bioassay development based on the simultaneous use of quantum dots and magnetic beads. Due to the outstanding characteristics of both particles for biosensing applications and the large number of publications using a combined approach, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on different bioassays, the most recent advances and innovative strategies on the topic, together with an analysis of the main drawbacks encountered and potential solutions offered, with a special emphasis on the requirements that the transfer of technologies from the laboratory to the market will demand for future commercialization ofbiodevices...
December 3, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Yves Paul Mbous, Maan Hayyan, Adeeb Hayyan, Won Fen Wong, Mohd Ali Hashim, Chung Yeng Looi
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been touted recently as potential alternatives to ionic liquids (ILs). Although they possess core characteristics that are similar to those of ILs (e.g., low volatility, non-flammability, low melting points, low vapor pressure, dipolar nature, chemical and thermal stability, high solubility, and tuneability), DESs are superior in terms of the availability of raw materials, the ease of storage and synthesis, and the low cost of their starting materials. As such, they have become the subject of intensive research in various sectors, notably the chemical, electrochemical, and biological sectors...
December 3, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Raquel Dos Santos, Ana Luísa Carvalho, A Cecília A Roque
The current chromatographic approaches used in protein purification are not keeping pace with the increasing biopharmaceutical market demand. With the upstream improvements, the bottleneck shifted towards the downstream process. New approaches rely in Anything But Chromatography methodologies and revisiting former techniques with a bioprocess perspective. Protein crystallization and precipitation methods are already implemented in the downstream process of diverse therapeutic biological macromolecules, overcoming the current chromatographic bottlenecks...
November 28, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Jonathan Rosenberg, Till Ischebeck, Fabian M Commichau
Vitamin B6 is a designation for the six vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxamine. PLP, being the most important B6 vitamer, serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes. In contrast to other organisms, animals and humans have to ingest vitamin B6 with their food. Several disorders are associated with vitamin B6 deficiency. Moreover, pharmaceuticals interfere with metabolism of the cofactor, which also results in vitamin B6 deficiency...
November 24, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Yanfeng Liu, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B...
November 17, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Elisabete C Costa, André F Moreira, Duarte de Melo-Diogo, Vítor M Gaspar, Marco P Carvalho, Ilídio J Correia
In comparison with 2D cell culture models, 3D spheroids are able to accurately mimic some features of solid tumors, such as their spatial architecture, physiological responses, secretion of soluble mediators, gene expression patterns and drug resistance mechanisms. These unique characteristics highlight the potential of 3D cellular aggregates to be used as in vitro models for screening new anticancer therapeutics, both at a small and large scale. Nevertheless, few reports have focused on describing the tools and techniques currently available to extract significant biological data from these models...
November 11, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Praveen Kumar Srivastava, Mukesh Kapoor
The present review provides up-to-date information on the occurrence and methodologies used for producing and purifying endo-β-mannanases and a comprehensive comparison of their biochemical properties. The amalgamation of biochemical, molecular and structural biology approaches which have been used for understanding endo-β-mannanase families, catalytic mechanism, substrate binding, non-catalytic modules, trans-glycosylation, and multi-functional enzyme complexes has been given critical attention. A separate section entailing the state-of-the-art about thermostable endo-β-mannanases, which has emerged as an exciting field of both basic and applied research, is also deliberated...
November 8, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Emna Bouhajja, Spiros N Agathos, Isabelle F George
Polluted environments are a reservoir of microbial species able to degrade or to convert pollutants to harmless compounds. The proper management of microbial resources requires a comprehensive characterization of their genetic pool to assess the fate of contaminants and increase the efficiency of bioremediation processes. Metagenomics offers appropriate tools to describe microbial communities in their whole complexity without lab-based cultivation of individual strains. After a decade of use of metagenomics to study microbiomes, the scientific community has made significant progress in this field...
November 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Mengyue Gong, Amarjeet Bassi
Carotenoids have been receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. Microalgae are recognized as a natural source of carotenoids and other beneficial byproducts. However, the production of micro-algal carotenoids is not yet sufficiently cost-effective to compete with traditional chemical synthetic methods and other technologies such as extraction from plant based sources. This review presents the recent biotechnological developments in microalgal carotenoid production. The current technologies involved in their bioprocessing including cultivation, harvesting, extraction, and purification are discussed with a specific focus on downstream processing...
November 2, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Shanquan Wang, Siyuan Chen, Yu Wang, Adrian Low, Qihong Lu, Rongliang Qiu
Due to massive production and improper handling, organohalide compounds are widely distributed in subsurface environments, primarily in anoxic groundwater, soil and sediment. Compared to traditional pump-and-treat or dredging-and-disposal treatments, in situ remediation employing abiotic or biotic reductive dehalogenation represents a sustainable and economic solution for the removal of organohalide pollutants. Both nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and organohalide-respiring bacteria remove halogens through reductive dehalogenation and have been extensively studied and successfully applied for the in situ remediation of chloroethenes and other organohalide pollutants...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Kirti M Yenkie, WenZhao Wu, Ryan L Clark, Brian F Pfleger, Thatcher W Root, Christos T Maravelias
Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks to high-value chemicals is an attractive alternative to current petrochemical processes because it offers the potential to reduce net CO2 emissions and integrate with bioremediation objectives. Microbes have been genetically engineered to produce a growing number of high-value chemicals in sufficient titer, rate, and yield from renewable feedstocks. However, high-yield bioconversion is only one aspect of an economically viable process. Separation of biologically synthesized chemicals from process streams is a major challenge that can contribute to >70% of the total production costs...
October 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Lauren A E Erland, Christina E Turi, Praveen K Saxena
Serotonin is an ancient indoleamine that was presumably part of the life cycle of the first prokaryotic life forms on Earth millions of years ago where it functioned as a powerful antioxidant to combat the increasingly oxygen rich atmosphere. First identified as a neurotransmitter signaling molecule in mammals, it is ubiquitous across all forms of life. Serotonin was discovered in plants many years after its discovery in mammals; however, it has now been confirmed in almost all plant families, where it plays important roles in plant growth and development, including functions in energy acquisition, seasonal cycles, modulation of reproductive development, control of root and shoot organogenesis, maintenance of plant tissues, delay of senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses...
October 11, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Omar Y Abdelaziz, Daniel P Brink, Jens Prothmann, Krithika Ravi, Mingzhe Sun, Javier García-Hidalgo, Margareta Sandahl, Christian P Hulteberg, Charlotta Turner, Gunnar Lidén, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
Lignin is a major component of lignocellulosic biomass and as such, it is processed in enormous amounts in the pulp and paper industry worldwide. In such industry it mainly serves the purpose of a fuel to provide process steam and electricity, and to a minor extent to provide low grade heat for external purposes. Also from other biorefinery concepts, including 2nd generation ethanol, increasing amounts of lignin will be generated. Other uses for lignin - apart from fuel production - are of increasing interest not least in these new biorefinery concepts...
October 6, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Qian Zhao, Yu Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Serena Croce, Qiao Wei, Giuliana D'Imporzano, Renjie Dong, Fabrizio Adani
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a useful method for producing renewable energy/biofuel. Today, biogas production uses a large amount of energy crops (EC), with the effect of increasing AD costs and creating conflict between food/feed vs. energy use. A partial solution to this might be the substitution of EC with agricultural wastes, e.g. straw. Straw and corn stover are widely available in the world and approximately 1600millionMgyear(-1) of these substrates are available. Straw can be useful used for biogas production but its characteristics limit its performance so that sometimes the energetic balance can be negative...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Samit Kumar Nandi, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Piyali Das, Indranil Samanta, Prasenjit Mukherjee, Subhasis Roy, Biswanath Kundu
Chronic osteomyelitis is a major challenge in bone surgery. Conventional use of antibiotics is not an effective way to control the malaise due to so many reasons. Determination of optimal treatment strategy becomes difficult for the orthopaedic surgeons and as a consequence, the patients suffer not only from therapeutic failure but also due to adverse side effects of antibiotics and financial loss due to additional stay at hospitals. A wide application of carrier systems, as a medium for local delivery of antibiotics, is being used experimentally and clinically for the treatment of osteomyelitis...
September 28, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Dai Thien Nhan Tram, Hao Wang, Sigit Sugiarto, Tao Li, Wee Han Ang, Chengkuo Lee, Giorgia Pastorin
Nanotechnology has gained much attention over the last decades, as it offers unique opportunities for the advancement of the next generation of sensing tools. Point-of-care (POC) devices for the selective detection of biomolecules using engineered nanoparticles have become a main research thrust in the diagnostic field. This review presents an overview on how the POC-associated nanotechnology, currently applied for the identification of nucleic acids, proteins and antibodies, might be further exploited for the detection of infectious pathogens: although still premature, future integrations of nanoparticles with biological markers that target specific microorganisms will enable timely therapeutic intervention against life-threatening infectious diseases...
September 26, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Peter Biely, Suren Singh, Vladimír Puchart
Significant progress over the past few years has been achieved in the enzymology of microbial degradation and saccharification of plant xylan, after cellulose being the most abundant natural renewable polysaccharide. Several new types of xylan depolymerizing and debranching enzymes have been described in microorganisms. Despite the increasing variety of known glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases, some xylan structures still appear quite recalcitrant. This review focuses on the mode of action of different types of depolymerizing endoxylanases and their cooperation with β-xylosidase and accessory enzymes in breakdown of complex highly branched xylan structures...
November 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Daotong Li, Pan Wang, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
The interplay between the host and host-associated gut microbiota is an area of increasing interest during the recent decade. From young infants to elderly people, from primitive tribes to modern societies, accumulating evidence has suggested the association of critical physiological roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of a variety of human metabolic, immunological and neurological diseases. Importantly, it appears that the relationship between the gut microbiota and disease is bidirectional, instead of causal or consequential...
November 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
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