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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218694/towards-rationally-designed-biomanufacturing-of-therapeutic-extracellular-vesicles-impact-of-the-bioproduction-microenvironment
#1
REVIEW
Divya B Patel, Marco Santoro, Louis J Born, John P Fisher, Steven M Jay
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and others, have emerged as potential therapeutics for a variety of applications. Pre-clinical reports of EV efficacy in treatment of non-healing wounds, myocardial infarction, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and many other injuries and diseases demonstrate the versatility of this nascent therapeutic modality. EVs have also been demonstrated to be effective in humans, and clinical trials are underway to further explore their potential...
September 12, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193965/natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-for-lignocellulosic-biomass-pretreatment-recent-developments-challenges-and-novel-opportunities
#2
REVIEW
Alok Satlewal, Ruchi Agrawal, Samarthya Bhagia, Joshua Sangoro, Arthur J Ragauskas
Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals has attracted immense research and development around the world. Lowering recalcitrance of biomass in a cost-effective manner is a challenge to commercialize biomass-based technologies. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are new 'green' solvents that have a high potential for biomass processing because of their low cost, low toxicity, biodegradability, easy recycling and reuse. This article discusses the properties of DESs and recent advances in their application for lignocellulosic biomass processing...
September 5, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118811/breaking-the-frontiers-of-cosmetology-with-antimicrobial-peptides
#3
REVIEW
Thuany de Alencare Silva, Mariana Carolina Braga, Gustavo Oliveira Silva Santana, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo, Robert Pogue, Simoni Campos Dias, Octavio Luiz Franco, Juliana Lott de Carvalho
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are mostly endogenous, cationic, amphipathic polypeptides, produced by many natural sources. Recently, many biological functions beyond antimicrobial activity have been attributed to AMPs, and some of these have attracted the attention of the cosmetics industry. AMPs have revealed antioxidant, self-renewal and pro-collagen effects, which are desirable in anti-aging cosmetics. Additionally, AMPs may also be customized to act on specific cellular targets. Here, we review the recent literature that highlights the many possibilities presented by AMPs, focusing on the relevance and impact that this potentially novel class of active cosmetic ingredients might have in the near future, creating new market outlooks for the cosmetic industry with these molecules as a viable alternative to conventional cosmetics...
August 14, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086329/advances-in-nanoparticle-and-microparticle-delivery-systems-for-increasing-the-dispersibility-stability-and-bioactivity-of-phytochemicals
#4
REVIEW
David Julian McClements
Application of bioactive phytochemicals in foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals is often limited because of their poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Phytochemical oral delivery systems (PODS), consisting of phytochemical-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles, can overcome these challenges. PODS can be produced in liquid, gel, paste, or solid forms. They must be carefully formulated to be compatible with the product matrix, economical, robust, and maintain phytochemical bioactivity. This review evaluates recent advances in the development of PODS, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and biopolymer microgels...
August 4, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196813/microbial-electrocatalysis-redox-mediators-responsible-for-extracellular-electron-transfer
#5
REVIEW
Xiaobo Liu, Liang Shi, Ji-Dong Gu
Redox mediator plays an important role in extracellular electron transfer (EET) in many environments wherein microbial electrocatalysis occurs actively. Because of the block of cell envelope and the low difference of redox potential between the intracellular and extracellular surroundings, the proceeding of EET depends mainly on the help of a variety of mediators that function as an electron carrier or bridge. In this Review, we will summarize a wide range of redox mediators and further discuss their functional mechanisms in EET that drives a series of microbial electrocatalytic reactions...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165173/tree-gum-based-renewable-materials-sustainable-applications-in-nanotechnology-biomedical-and-environmental-fields
#6
REVIEW
Vinod V T Padil, Stanisław Wacławek, Miroslav Černík, Rajender S Varma
The prospective uses of tree gum polysaccharides and their nanostructures in various aspects of food, water, energy, biotechnology, environment and medicine industries, have garnered a great deal of attention recently. In addition to extensive applications of tree gums in food, there are substantial non-food applications of these commercial gums, which have gained widespread attention due to their availability, structural diversity and remarkable properties as 'green' bio-based renewable materials. Tree gums are obtainable as natural polysaccharides from various tree genera possessing exceptional properties, including their renewable, biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic nature and their ability to undergo easy chemical modifications...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144516/a-little-breath-of-fresh-air-into-an-anaerobic-system-how-microaeration-facilitates-anaerobic-digestion-process
#7
REVIEW
Duc Nguyen, Samir Kumar Khanal
Exposure of a small amount of oxygen/air (microaeration) has been reported to benefit the anaerobic digestion (AD) process in enhancing hydrolysis, improving methane yield, stabilizing the process and scavenging hydrogen sulfide among others. The underlying mechanism of enhancing AD process via microaeration is the augmentation of activity and diversity of the microbial consortia that promotes syntrophic interactions among different microbial groups, thereby creating a more stable process. To design and implement a microaeration-based AD process, fundamental insights about the mechanism of the AD system at process, microbial and molecular levels must be fully explored...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077716/neural-stem-cell-differentiation-into-mature-neurons-mechanisms-of-regulation-and-biotechnological-applications
#8
REVIEW
Mariana S Vieira, Anderson K Santos, Rebecca Vasconcellos, Vânia A M Goulart, Ricardo C Parreira, Alexandre H Kihara, Henning Ulrich, Rodrigo R Resende
The abilities of stem cells to self-renew and form different mature cells expand the possibilities of applications in cell-based therapies such as tissue recomposition in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to stem cells found in the embryo, various adult organs and tissues have niches of stem cells in an undifferentiated state. In the central nervous system of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in two regions: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077715/cancer-hallmarks-and-malignancy-features-gateway-for-improved-targeted-drug-delivery
#9
REVIEW
Tiatou Souho, Lallepak Lamboni, Lin Xiao, Guang Yang
Cancer chemotherapy is mainly based on the use of cytotoxic compounds that often affect other tissues, generating serious side effects which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Recent advancements in targeted drug delivery systems offer opportunities to improve the efficiency of chemotherapy, by the use of smaller drug doses with reduced side effects. In the gene therapy approach, this consists in improving the transformation potential of the gene delivery system. Interestingly, these systems further provide good platforms for the delivery of hydrophobic and low-bioavailability compounds, while facilitating the penetration of the blood-brain barrier...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063950/biosynthesis-and-biotechnological-application-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-complex-and-unclear
#10
REVIEW
Huibin Zou, Lei Li, Tongtong Zhang, Mengxun Shi, Nan Zhang, Jingling Huang, Mo Xian
Compared with the better-studied canonical amino acids, the distribution, metabolism and functions of natural non-canonical amino acids remain relatively obscure. Natural non-canonical amino acids have been mainly discovered in plants as secondary metabolites that perform diversified physiological functions. Due to their specific characteristics, a broader range of natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids have recently been applied in the development of functional materials and pharmaceutical products...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053578/bacteria-and-archaea-as-the-sources-of-traits-for-enhanced-plant-phenotypes
#11
REVIEW
Caroline M Smith-Moore, Amy M Grunden
Rising global demand for food and population increases are driving the need for improved crop productivity over the next 30 years. Plants have inherent metabolic limitations on productivity such as inefficiencies in carbon fixation and sensitivity to environmental conditions. Bacteria and archaea inhabit some of the most inhospitable environments on the planet and possess unique metabolic pathways and genes to cope with these conditions. Microbial genes involved in carbon fixation, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient acquisition have been utilized in plants to enhance plant phenotypes by increasing yield, photosynthesis, and abiotic stress tolerance...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031778/current-challenges-facing-one-step-production-of-l-ascorbic-acid
#12
REVIEW
Panpan Wang, Weizhu Zeng, Sha Xu, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
l-ascorbic acid (L-AA, vitamin C) is an essential vitamin that is widely used as a nutrient or medicine in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, beverage and feed additive industries, and accounts for the largest share of the global vitamins market. L-AA is mainly produced by a classic two-step fermentation process that suffers from the use of a multi-step mixed culture system and two rounds of sterilisation, which significantly increases the cost of the final product. One-step fermentation has been attempted, but a method rivalling the efficiency of the two-step process has not yet been achieved on an industrial scale...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031049/synthetic-biology-toolkits-and-applications-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
REVIEW
Binbin Chen, Hui Ling Lee, Yu Chyuan Heng, Niying Chua, Wei Suong Teo, Won Jae Choi, Susanna Su Jan Leong, Jee Loon Foo, Matthew Wook Chang
Synthetic biologists construct biological components and systems to look into biological phenomena and drive a myriad of practical applications that aim to tackle current global challenges in energy, healthcare and the environment. While most tools have been established in bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, recent years have seen parallel developments in the model yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most well-understood eukaryotic biological system. Here, we outline the latest advances in yeast synthetic biology tools based on a framework of abstraction hierarchies of parts, circuits and genomes...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017503/responses-exhibited-by-various-microbial-groups-relevant-to-uranium-exposure
#14
REVIEW
Nilesh Kolhe, Smita Zinjarde, Celin Acharya
There is a strong interest in knowing how various microbial systems respond to the presence of uranium (U), largely in the context of bioremediation. There is no known biological role for uranium so far. Uranium is naturally present in rocks and minerals. The insoluble nature of the U(IV) minerals keeps uranium firmly bound in the earth's crust minimizing its bioavailability. However, anthropogenic nuclear reaction processes over the last few decades have resulted in introduction of uranium into the environment in soluble and toxic forms...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012541/state-of-art-and-limitations-in-genetic-engineering-to-induce-stable-chondrogenic-phenotype
#15
REVIEW
Valeria Graceffa, Claire Vinatier, Jerome Guicheux, Christopher H Evans, Martin Stoddart, Mauro Alini, Dimitrios I Zeugolis
Current protocols for chondrocyte expansion and chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells fail to reduce phenotypic loss and to mitigate hypertrophic tendency. To this end, cell genetic manipulation is gaining pace as a means of generating cells with stable chondrocyte phenotype. Herein, we provide an overview of candidate genes that either induce cartilage regeneration or inhibit cartilage degeneration. We further discuss in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo viral transduction and non-viral transfection strategies for targeted cells (chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and synovial cells), along with the most representative results obtained in pre-clinical models and in clinical trials...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012540/phage-display-an-important-tool-in-the-discovery-of-peptides-with-anti-hiv-activity
#16
REVIEW
Ronaldo Souza Lopes, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Ricardo Ishak
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a worldwide health problem despite huge investments and research breakthroughs, and no single drug is effective in killing the virus yet. Among new strategies to control HIV infection, the phage display (PD) technology has become a promising tool in the discovery of peptides that can be used as new drugs, or also as possible vaccine candidates. This review discusses basic aspects of PD and its use to advance two main objectives related to combating HIV-1 infection: the identification of peptides that inhibit virus replication and the identification of peptides that induce the production of neutralizing antibodies...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864458/screening-of-organic-solvents-for-bioprocesses-using-aqueous-organic-two-phase-systems
#17
REVIEW
Inês P Rosinha Grundtvig, Søren Heintz, Ulrich Krühne, Krist V Gernaey, Patrick Adlercreutz, John D Hayler, Andy S Wells, John M Woodley
The application of conventional organic solvents has been essential in several steps of bioprocesses in order to achieve sufficient economic efficiency. The use of organic solvents is frequently used either to partly or fully replace water in the reaction medium or as a process aid for downstream separation. Nowadays, manufacturers are increasingly requested to avoid and substitute solvents with hazardous potential. Therefore, the solvent selection must account for potential environmental hazards, health and safety problems, in addition to fulfilling the ideal characteristics for application in a process...
November 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081176/natural-products-for-targeted-therapy-in-precision-medicine
#18
EDITORIAL
Atanas G Atanasov, Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Maciej Banach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729870/natural-scaffolds-in-anticancer-therapy-and-precision-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Aloran Mazumder, Claudia Cerella, Marc Diederich
The diversity of natural compounds is essential for their mechanism of action. The source, structures and structure activity relationship of natural compounds contributed to the development of new classes of chemotherapy agents for over 40 years. The availability of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening has fueled the challenge to identify novel compounds that mimic nature's chemistry and to predict their macromolecular targets. Combining conventional and targeted therapies helped to successfully overcome drug resistance and prolong disease-free survival...
November 1, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684502/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-as-a-therapeutic-target-part-1-molecular-targets-and-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Dongdong Wang, Pavel Uhrin, Andrei Mocan, Birgit Waltenberger, Johannes M Breuss, Devesh Tewari, Judit Mihaly-Bison, Łukasz Huminiecki, Rafał R Starzyński, Nikolay T Tzvetkov, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Atanas G Atanasov
Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of human death worldwide. Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells contributes to the etiology of such diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary hypertension. The control of vascular cell proliferation is complex and encompasses interactions of many regulatory molecules and signaling pathways. Herein, we recapitulated the importance of signaling cascades relevant for the regulation of vascular cell proliferation. Detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying this process is essential for the identification of new lead compounds (e...
November 1, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
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