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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624475/oxidoreductases-on-their-way-to-industrial-biotransformations
#1
REVIEW
Angel T Martínez, Francisco J Ruiz-Dueñas, Susana Camarero, Ana Serrano, Dolores Linde, Henrik Lund, Jesper Vind, Morten Tovborg, Owik M Herold-Majumdar, Martin Hofrichter, Christiane Liers, René Ullrich, Katrin Scheibner, Giovanni Sannia, Alessandra Piscitelli, Cinzia Pezzella, Mehmet E Sener, Sibel Kılıç, Willem J H van Berkel, Victor Guallar, Maria Fátima Lucas, Ralf Zuhse, Roland Ludwig, Frank Hollmann, Elena Fernández-Fueyo, Eric Record, Craig B Faulds, Marta Tortajada, Ib Winckelmann, Jo-Anne Rasmussen, Mirjana Gelo-Pujic, Ana Gutiérrez, José C Del Río, Jorge Rencoret, Miguel Alcalde
Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases and the new dye-decolorizing peroxidases, while heme peroxygenases belong to a still largely unexplored superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins. Nevertheless, basidiomycete unspecific peroxygenases have the highest biotechnological interest due to their ability to catalyze a variety of regio- and stereo-selective monooxygenation reactions with H2O2 as the source of oxygen and final electron acceptor...
June 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627424/channeling-in-native-microbial-pathways-implications-and-challenges-for-metabolic-engineering
#2
REVIEW
Mary H Abernathy, Lian He, Yinjie J Tang
Intracellular enzymes can be organized into a variety of assemblies, shuttling intermediates from one active site to the next. Eukaryotic compartmentalization within mitochondrion and peroxisomes and substrate tunneling within multi-enzyme complexes have been well recognized. Intriguingly, the central pathways in prokaryotes may also form extensive channels, including the heavily branched glycolysis pathway. In vivo channeling through cascade enzymes is difficult to directly measure, but can be inferred from in vitro tests, reaction thermodynamics, transport/reaction modeling, analysis of molecular diffusion and protein interactions, or steady state/dynamic isotopic labeling...
June 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602961/progress-and-biotechnological-prospects-in-fish-transgenesis
#3
REVIEW
Fernanda M P Tonelli, Samyra M S N Lacerda, Flávia C P Tonelli, Guilherme M J Costa, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo R Resende
The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting...
June 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579363/current-advances-on-fermentative-biobutanol-production-using-third-generation-feedstock
#4
REVIEW
Yue Wang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Hong-Wei Yen, Dillirani Nagarajan, Nan-Qi Ren, Shuangfei Li, Zhangli Hu, Duu-Jong Lee, Akihiko Kondo, Jo-Shu Chang
Biobutanol is gaining more attention as a potential alternative to ethanol, and the demand for fermentative biobutanol production has renewed interest. The main challenge faced in biobutanol production is the availability of feedstock. Using conventional agricultural biomass as feedstock is controversial and less efficient, while microalgae, the third generation feedstock, are considered promising feedstock for biobutanol production due to their high growth rate and high carbohydrates content. This review is primarily focused on biobutanol production by using carbohydrate-rich microalgal feedstock...
June 1, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558979/biocompatibility-of-hydrogel-based-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#5
REVIEW
Sheva Naahidi, Mousa Jafari, Megan Logan, Yujie Wang, Yongfang Yuan, Hojae Bae, Brian Dixon, P Chen
Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels...
May 27, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552791/three-dimensional-printing-technologies-applications-and-limitations-in-neurosurgery
#6
REVIEW
Josephine U Pucci, Brandon R Christophe, Jonathan A Sisti, Edward S Connolly
Three-dimensional (3D) printers are a developing technology penetrating a variety of markets, including the medical sector. Since its introduction to the medical field in the late 1980s, 3D printers have constructed a range of devices, such as dentures, hearing aids, and prosthetics. With the ultimate goals of decreasing healthcare costs and improving patient care and outcomes, neurosurgeons are utilizing this dynamic technology, as well. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) can be translated into Stereolithography (STL) files, which are then read and methodically built by 3D Printers...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535924/molecular-features-of-grass-allergens-and-development-of-biotechnological-approaches-for-allergy-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Deborah L Devis, Janet M Davies, Dabing Zhang
Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear...
May 20, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528197/ubiquitous-chromatin-opening-elements-ucoes-applications-in-biomanufacturing-and-gene-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan J Neville, Joe Orlando, Kimberly Mann, Bethany McCloskey, Michael N Antoniou
Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs) are defined by their ability to consistently confer stable, site of integration-independent transgene expression that is proportional to copy number, including from within regions of heterochromatin such as centromeres. UCOEs structurally consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing single or dual divergently-transcribed housekeeping gene promoters. Since their discovery in 1999, UCOEs and their sub-fragments have found applications in areas of biotechnology requiring stable, reproducible, and high levels of gene expression...
May 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522213/harnessing-self-assembled-peptide-nanoparticles-in-epitope-vaccine-design
#9
REVIEW
Manica Negahdaripour, Nasim Golkar, Nasim Hajighahramani, Sedigheh Kianpour, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccination has been one of the most successful breakthroughs in medical history. In recent years, epitope-based subunit vaccines have been introduced as a safer alternative to traditional vaccines. However, they suffer from limited immunogenicity. Nanotechnology has shown value in solving this issue. Different kinds of nanovaccines have been employed, among which virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) and self-assembled peptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) seem very promising. Recently, SAPNs have attracted special interest due to their unique properties, including molecular specificity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522212/bioengineering-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-vaccine-platform
#10
REVIEW
Matthias J H Gerritzen, Dirk E Martens, René H Wijffels, Leo van der Pol, Michiel Stork
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally non-replicating, highly immunogenic spherical nanoparticles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs from pathogenic bacteria have been successfully used as vaccines against bacterial meningitis and sepsis among others and the composition of the vesicles can easily be engineered. OMVs can be used as a vaccine platform by engineering heterologous antigens to the vesicles. The major advantages of adding heterologous proteins to the OMV are that the antigens retain their native conformation, the ability of targeting specific immune responses, and a single production process suffices for many vaccines...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511892/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-phytoplankton
#11
REVIEW
Jim Junhui Huang, Shaoling Lin, Wenwen Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition...
May 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457999/maltooligosaccharide-forming-amylase-characteristics-preparation-and-application
#12
REVIEW
Sihui Pan, Ning Ding, Junyan Ren, Zhengbiao Gu, Caiming Li, Yan Hong, Li Cheng, Tod P Holler, Zhaofeng Li
As member of glycosyl hydrolase family 13, maltooligosaccharide-forming amylases (MFAses) are specific and interesting because of their capacity to hydrolyze starch into functional maltooligosaccharides, which are usually composed of 2-10 α-d-glucopyranosyl units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic linkages. MFAses have been extensively studied during recent decades, and have shown promise in various industrial applications. This review begins by introducing the potential uses of maltooligosaccharides. Then it describes the progress in the identification, assay, action pattern, structure, and modification of MFAses...
April 27, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450077/transcriptomics-of-human-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-retrospective-analysis-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Naresh Kasoju, Hui Wang, Bo Zhang, Julian George, Shan Gao, James T Triffitt, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye
The plastic-adherent, fibroblast-like, clonogenic cells found in the human body now defined as multipotent "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" (MSCs) hold immense potential for cell-based therapies. Recently, research and basic knowledge of these cells has fast-tracked, both from fundamental and translational perspectives. There have been important discoveries with respect to the available variety of tissue sources, the development of protocols for their easy isolation and in vitro expansion and for directed differentiation into various cell types...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#14
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396124/lactobacilli-and-pediococci-as-versatile-cell-factories-evaluation-of-strain-properties-and-genetic-tools
#15
REVIEW
Elleke F Bosma, Jochen Forster, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery, the choice of product, substrate and production organism is important. Currently, the most frequently used production hosts include Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but promising examples are available of alternative hosts such as LAB...
April 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390874/application-of-single-cell-technology-in-cancer-research
#16
REVIEW
Shao-Bo Liang, Li-Wu Fu
In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena...
April 5, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377276/encapsulation-systems-for-the-delivery-of-hydrophilic-nutraceuticals-food-application
#17
REVIEW
N P Aditya, Yadira Gonzalez Espinosa, Ian T Norton
Increased health risk associated with the sedentary life style is forcing the food manufacturers to look for food products with specific or general health benefits e.g. beverages enriched with nutraceuticals like catechin, curcumin rutin. Compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins are the good choice of bioactive compounds that can be used to fortify the food products to enhance their functionality. However due to low stability and bioavailability of these bioactives (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) within the heterogeneous food microstructure and in the Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT), it becomes extremely difficult to pass on the real health benefits to the consumers...
April 1, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300614/towards-combinatorial-transcriptional-engineering
#18
REVIEW
Rajesh Mehrotra, Kaushik Renganaath, Harsh Kanodia, Gary J Loake, Sandhya Mehrotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288861/biotechnology-approaches-to-produce-potent-self-adjuvanting-antigen-adjuvant-fusion-protein-subunit-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
Peter Michael Moyle
Traditional vaccination approaches (e.g. live attenuated or killed microorganisms) are among the most effective means to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These approaches, nevertheless, have failed to yield successful vaccines against many important pathogens. To overcome this problem, methods have been developed to identify microbial components, against which protective immune responses can be elicited. Subunit antigens identified by these approaches enable the production of defined vaccines, with improved safety profiles...
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286148/nanocarriers-for-microrna-delivery-in-cancer-medicine
#20
REVIEW
I Fernandez-Piñeiro, I Badiola, A Sanchez
The number of deaths caused by cancer is expected to increase partly due to the lack of selectivity and undesirable systemic effects of current treatments. Advances in the understanding of microRNA (miRNA) functions and the ideal properties of nanosystems have brought increasing attention to the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy. This review covers the different miRNA therapeutic strategies and delivery challenges for its application in cancer medicine. Current trends in inorganic, polymeric and lipid nanocarrier development for miRNA replacement or inhibition are summarized...
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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