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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789939/bioremediation-3-0-engineering-pollutant-removing-bacteria-in-the-times-of-systemic-biology
#1
REVIEW
Pavel Dvořák, Pablo I Nikel, Jiří Damborský, Víctor de Lorenzo
Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g., hydrocarbons, heavy metals) or generated through chemical synthesis (e.g., xenobiotic compounds). Whereas naturally occurring microbes already have considerable ability to remove many environmental pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents...
August 5, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782586/breaking-the-mirror-l-amino-acid-deaminase-a-novel-stereoselective-biocatalyst
#2
REVIEW
Gianluca Molla, Roberta Melis, Loredano Pollegioni
Enantiomerically pure amino acids are of increasing interest for the fine chemical, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical industries. During past years l-amino acids have been produced from deracemization of dl-solution employing the stereoselective flavoenzyme d-amino acid oxidase. On the other hand, the isolation of corresponding d-isomer was hampered by the scarce availability of a suitable l-amino acid oxidase activity. On this side, l-amino acid deaminase (LAAD), only present in the Proteus bacteria, represents a suitable alternative...
August 3, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782585/weaving-for-heart-valve-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Albert Liberski, Nadia Ayad, Dorota Wojciechowska, Radoslaw Kot, Duy M P Vo, Dilibaier Aibibu, Gerald Hoffmann, Chokri Cherif, Katharina Grobelny-Mayer, Marek Snycerski, Helmut Goldmann
Weaving is a resourceful technology which offers a large selection of solutions that are readily adaptable for tissue engineering (TE) of artificial heart valves (HV). The different ways that the yarns are interlaced in this technique could be used to produce complex architectures, such as the three-layer architecture of the leaflets. Once the assembly is complete, growth of cells in the scaffold would occur in the orientation of the yarn, enabling the deposition of extra cellular matrixes proteins in an oriented manner...
August 3, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768145/stay-connected-electrical-conductivity-of-microbial-aggregates
#4
REVIEW
Cheng Li, Keaton Larson Lesnik, Hong Liu
The discovery of direct extracellular electron transfer offers an alternative to the traditional understanding of diffusional electron exchange via small molecules. The establishment of electronic connections between electron donors and acceptors in microbial communities is critical to electron transfer via electrical currents. These connections are facilitated through conductivity associated with various microbial aggregates. However, examination of conductivity in microbial samples is still in its relative infancy and conceptual models in terms of conductive mechanisms are still being developed and debated...
July 30, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760369/towards-systems-metabolic-engineering-in-pichia-pastoris
#5
REVIEW
Jan-Philipp Schwarzhans, Tobias Luttermann, Martina Geier, Jörn Kalinowski, Karl Friehs
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is firmly established as a host for the production of recombinant proteins, frequently outperforming other heterologous hosts. Already, a sizeable amount of systems biology knowledge has been acquired for this non-conventional yeast. By applying various omics-technologies, productivity features have been thoroughly analyzed and optimized via genetic engineering. However, challenging clonal variability, limited vector repertoire and insufficient genome annotation have hampered further developments...
July 28, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739506/glycosaminoglycans-from-marine-sources-as-therapeutic-agents
#6
REVIEW
Jesus Valcarcel, Ramón Novoa-Carballal, Ricardo Pérez-Martín, Rui L Reis, José Antonio Vázquez
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in marine animals are different to those of terrestrial organisms, mainly in terms of molecular weight and sulfation. The therapeutic properties of GAGs are related to their ability to interact with proteins, which is very much influenced by sulfation position and patterns. Since currently GAGs cannot be chemically synthesized, they are sourced from natural products, with high intra- but also inter-species variability, in terms of chain length, disaccharide composition and sulfation pattern...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739505/valorisation-of-softwood-bark-through-extraction-of-utilizable-chemicals-a-review
#7
REVIEW
M Jablonsky, J Nosalova, A Sladkova, A Haz, F Kreps, J Valka, S Miertus, V Frecer, M Ondrejovic, J Sima, I Surina
Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Finally, some challenges and perspectives on the production of chemicals from bark are discussed.
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729211/insight-into-immunocytes-infiltrations-in-polymorphous-light-eruption
#8
REVIEW
Dongyun Lei, Wenjuan Wu, Li Yang, Yan Li, Jiaqi Feng, Lechun Lyu, Li He
Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) which is one of the most common photodermatoses has been demonstrated to be immune-mediated disorder. Resistance to UV-induced immunosuppression resulting from differential immune cells infiltration and cytokines secretion has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of PLE. In this study, we reviewed differential patterns of immune cells infiltrations and cytokines secretion that may contribute to PLE occurrence and development.
July 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723577/enabling-tools-for-high-throughput-detection-of-metabolites-metabolic-engineering-and-directed-evolution-applications
#9
REVIEW
Jyun-Liang Lin, James M Wagner, Hal S Alper
Within the Design-Build-Test Cycle for strain engineering, rapid product detection and selection strategies remain challenging and limit overall throughput. Here we summarize a wide variety of modalities that transduce chemical concentrations into easily measured absorbance, luminescence, and fluorescence signals. Specifically, we cover protein-based biosensors (including transcription factors), nucleic acid-based biosensors, coupled enzyme reactions, bioorthogonal chemistry, and fluorescent and chromogenic dyes and substrates as modalities for detection...
July 16, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709875/bioelectrohydrogenesis-and-inhibition-of-methanogenic-activity-in-microbial-electrolysis-cells-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Rengasamy Karthikeyan, Ka Yu Cheng, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Arpita Bose, Jonathan W C Wong
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are a promising technology for biological hydrogen production. Compared to abiotic water electrolysis, a much lower electrical voltage (~0.2V) is required for hydrogen production in MECs. It is also an attractive waste treatment technology as a variety of biodegradable substances can be used as the process feedstock. Underpinning this technology is a recently discovered bioelectrochemical pathway known as "bioelectrohydrogenesis". However, little is known about the mechanism of this pathway, and numerous hurdles are yet to be addressed to maximize hydrogen yield and purity...
July 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694178/medicinal-plants-used-in-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-ethnobotanical-and-ethnopharmacological-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Javad Sharifi-Rad, Bahare Salehi, Zorica Z Stojanović-Radić, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Marzieh Sharifi-Rad, Gail B Mahady, Majid Sharifi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza Masjedi, Temitope O Lawal, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Javid Masjedi, Razieh Sharifi-Rad, William N Setzer, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Farzad Kobarfard, Atta-Ur Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Athar Ata, Marcello Iriti
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization, with approximately one third of the world's population being latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis treatment consists in an intensive phase and a continuation phase. Unfortunately, the appearance of multi drug-resistant tuberculosis, mainly due to low adherence to prescribed therapies or inefficient healthcare structures, requires at least 20months of treatment with second-line, more toxic and less efficient drugs, i...
July 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694179/microalgal-bacterial-aggregates-applications-and-perspectives-for-wastewater-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Guilllermo Quijano, Juan S Arcila, Germán Buitrón
Research on wastewater treatment by means of microalgal-bacterial processes has become a hot topic worldwide during the last two decades. Owing to the lower energy demand for oxygenation, the enhanced nutrient removal and the potential for resource recovery, microalgal-based technologies are nowadays considered as a good alternative to conventional activated sludge treatments in many instances. Nevertheless, biomass harvesting still constitutes one of the major challenges of microalgal-bacterial systems for wastewater treatment, which is hindered by the poor settleability of microalgal biomass...
July 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694177/spheroids-as-vascularization-units-from-angiogenesis-research-to-tissue-engineering-applications
#13
REVIEW
Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger
Multi-cellular spheroids mimic the complex three-dimensional environment of natural tissues. Accordingly, they are also used as vascularization units in angiogenesis research and regenerative medicine. Spheroid sprouting assays are versatile in vitro models for the analysis of molecular and cellular determinants of blood vessel development, including different endothelial cell phenotypes, pro- and anti-angiogenic factors as well as cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. In tissue engineering, spheroids serve in vivo as paracrine stimulators of angiogenesis and building blocks for the generation of prevascularized microtissues and branched vascular trees in macrotissues...
July 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669588/gh62-arabinofuranosidases-structure-function-and-applications
#14
REVIEW
Casper Wilkens, Susan Andersen, Claire Dumon, Jean-Guy Berrin, Birte Svensson
Motivated by industrial demands and ongoing scientific discoveries continuous efforts are made to identify and create improved biocatalysts dedicated to plant biomass conversion. α-1,2 and α-1,3 arabinofuranosyl specific α-l-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) are debranching enzymes catalyzing hydrolytic release of α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues, which decorate xylan or arabinan backbones in lignocellulosic and pectin constituents of plant cell walls. The CAZy database classifies α-l-arabinofuranosidases in Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) families GH2, GH3, GH43, GH51, GH54 and GH62...
June 29, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624475/oxidoreductases-on-their-way-to-industrial-biotransformations
#15
REVIEW
Angel T Martínez, Francisco J Ruiz-Dueñas, Susana Camarero, Ana Serrano, Dolores Linde, Henrik Lund, Jesper Vind, Morten Tovborg, Owik M Herold-Majumdar, Martin Hofrichter, Christiane Liers, René Ullrich, Katrin Scheibner, Giovanni Sannia, Alessandra Piscitelli, Cinzia Pezzella, Mehmet E Sener, Sibel Kılıç, Willem J H van Berkel, Victor Guallar, Maria Fátima Lucas, Ralf Zuhse, Roland Ludwig, Frank Hollmann, Elena Fernández-Fueyo, Eric Record, Craig B Faulds, Marta Tortajada, Ib Winckelmann, Jo-Anne Rasmussen, Mirjana Gelo-Pujic, Ana Gutiérrez, José C Del Río, Jorge Rencoret, Miguel Alcalde
Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases and the new dye-decolorizing peroxidases, while heme peroxygenases belong to a still largely unexplored superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins. Nevertheless, basidiomycete unspecific peroxygenases have the highest biotechnological interest due to their ability to catalyze a variety of regio- and stereo-selective monooxygenation reactions with H2O2 as the source of oxygen and final electron acceptor...
June 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627424/channeling-in-native-microbial-pathways-implications-and-challenges-for-metabolic-engineering
#16
REVIEW
Mary H Abernathy, Lian He, Yinjie J Tang
Intracellular enzymes can be organized into a variety of assemblies, shuttling intermediates from one active site to the next. Eukaryotic compartmentalization within mitochondrion and peroxisomes and substrate tunneling within multi-enzyme complexes have been well recognized. Intriguingly, the central pathways in prokaryotes may also form extensive channels, including the heavily branched glycolysis pathway. In vivo channeling through cascade enzymes is difficult to directly measure, but can be inferred from in vitro tests, reaction thermodynamics, transport/reaction modeling, analysis of molecular diffusion and protein interactions, or steady state/dynamic isotopic labeling...
June 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602961/progress-and-biotechnological-prospects-in-fish-transgenesis
#17
REVIEW
Fernanda M P Tonelli, Samyra M S N Lacerda, Flávia C P Tonelli, Guilherme M J Costa, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo R Resende
The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting...
June 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579363/current-advances-on-fermentative-biobutanol-production-using-third-generation-feedstock
#18
REVIEW
Yue Wang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Hong-Wei Yen, Dillirani Nagarajan, Nan-Qi Ren, Shuangfei Li, Zhangli Hu, Duu-Jong Lee, Akihiko Kondo, Jo-Shu Chang
Biobutanol is gaining more attention as a potential alternative to ethanol, and the demand for fermentative biobutanol production has renewed interest. The main challenge faced in biobutanol production is the availability of feedstock. Using conventional agricultural biomass as feedstock is controversial and less efficient, while microalgae, the third generation feedstock, are considered promising feedstock for biobutanol production due to their high growth rate and high carbohydrates content. This review is primarily focused on biobutanol production by using carbohydrate-rich microalgal feedstock...
June 1, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558979/biocompatibility-of-hydrogel-based-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#19
REVIEW
Sheva Naahidi, Mousa Jafari, Megan Logan, Yujie Wang, Yongfang Yuan, Hojae Bae, Brian Dixon, P Chen
Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels...
May 27, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552791/three-dimensional-printing-technologies-applications-and-limitations-in-neurosurgery
#20
REVIEW
Josephine U Pucci, Brandon R Christophe, Jonathan A Sisti, Edward S Connolly
Three-dimensional (3D) printers are a developing technology penetrating a variety of markets, including the medical sector. Since its introduction to the medical field in the late 1980s, 3D printers have constructed a range of devices, such as dentures, hearing aids, and prosthetics. With the ultimate goals of decreasing healthcare costs and improving patient care and outcomes, neurosurgeons are utilizing this dynamic technology, as well. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) can be translated into Stereolithography (STL) files, which are then read and methodically built by 3D Printers...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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