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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528197/ubiquitous-chromatin-opening-elements-ucoes-applications-in-biomanufacturing-and-gene-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan J Neville, Joe Orlando, Kimberly Mann, Bethany McCloskey, Michael N Antoniou
Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs) are defined by their ability to consistently confer stable, site of integration-independent transgene expression that is proportional to copy number, including from within regions of heterochromatin such as centromeres. UCOEs structurally consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing single or dual divergently-transcribed housekeeping gene promoters. Since their discovery in 1999, UCOEs and their sub-fragments have found applications in areas of biotechnology requiring stable, reproducible, and high levels of gene expression...
May 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522213/harnessing-self-assembled-peptide-nanoparticles-in-epitope-vaccine-design
#2
REVIEW
Manica Negahdaripour, Nasim Golkar, Nasim Hajighahramani, Sedigheh Kianpour, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccination has been one of the most successful breakthroughs in medical history. In recent years, epitope-based subunit vaccines have been introduced as a safer alternative to traditional vaccines. However, they suffer from limited immunogenicity. Nanotechnology has shown value in solving this issue. Different kinds of nanovaccines have been employed, among which virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) and self-assembled peptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) seem very promising. Recently, SAPNs have attracted special interest due to their unique properties, including molecular specificity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522212/bioengineering-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-vaccine-platform
#3
REVIEW
Matthias J H Gerritzen, Dirk E Martens, René H Wijffels, Leo van der Pol, Michiel Stork
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally non-replicating, highly immunogenic spherical nanoparticles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs from pathogenic bacteria have been successfully used as vaccines against bacterial meningitis and sepsis among others and the composition of the vesicles can easily be engineered. OMVs can be used as a vaccine platform by engineering heterologous antigens to the vesicles. The major advantages of adding heterologous proteins to the OMV are that the antigens retain their native conformation, the ability of targeting specific immune responses, and a single production process suffices for many vaccines...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511892/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-phytoplankton
#4
REVIEW
Jim Junhui Huang, Shaoling Lin, Wenwen Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition...
May 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457999/maltooligosaccharide-forming-amylase-characteristics-preparation-and-application
#5
REVIEW
Sihui Pan, Ning Ding, Junyan Ren, Zhengbiao Gu, Caiming Li, Yan Hong, Li Cheng, Tod P Holler, Zhaofeng Li
As member of glycosyl hydrolase family 13, maltooligosaccharide-forming amylases (MFAses) are specific and interesting because of their capacity to hydrolyze starch into functional maltooligosaccharides, which are usually composed of 2-10 α-d-glucopyranosyl units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic linkages. MFAses have been extensively studied during recent decades, and have shown promise in various industrial applications. This review begins by introducing the potential uses of maltooligosaccharides. Then it describes the progress in the identification, assay, action pattern, structure, and modification of MFAses...
April 27, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450077/transcriptomics-of-human-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-retrospective-analysis-and-future-prospects
#6
REVIEW
Naresh Kasoju, Hui Wang, Bo Zhang, Julian George, Shan Gao, James T Triffitt, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye
The plastic-adherent, fibroblast-like, clonogenic cells found in the human body now defined as multipotent "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" (MSCs) hold immense potential for cell-based therapies. Recently, research and basic knowledge of these cells has fast-tracked, both from fundamental and translational perspectives. There have been important discoveries with respect to the available variety of tissue sources, the development of protocols for their easy isolation and in vitro expansion and for directed differentiation into various cell types...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#7
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396124/lactobacilli-and-pediococci-as-versatile-cell-factories-evaluation-of-strain-properties-and-genetic-tools
#8
REVIEW
Elleke F Bosma, Jochen Forster, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery, the choice of product, substrate and production organism is important. Currently, the most frequently used production hosts include Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but promising examples are available of alternative hosts such as LAB...
April 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390874/application-of-single-cell-technology-in-cancer-research
#9
REVIEW
Shao-Bo Liang, Li-Wu Fu
In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena...
April 5, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377276/encapsulation-systems-for-the-delivery-of-hydrophilic-nutraceuticals-food-application
#10
REVIEW
N P Aditya, Yadira Gonzalez Espinosa, Ian T Norton
Increased health risk associated with the sedentary life style is forcing the food manufacturers to look for food products with specific or general health benefits e.g. beverages enriched with nutraceuticals like catechin, curcumin rutin. Compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins are the good choice of bioactive compounds that can be used to fortify the food products to enhance their functionality. However due to low stability and bioavailability of these bioactives (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) within the heterogeneous food microstructure and in the Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT), it becomes extremely difficult to pass on the real health benefits to the consumers...
April 1, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351654/lignin-enzyme-interaction-mechanism-mitigation-approach-modeling-and-research-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Xiang Li, Yi Zheng
The adverse environmental impacts of the fossil fuel and the concerns of energy security necessitate the development of alternative clean energy sources from renewable feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass is a 2nd generation feedstock used in the production of biofuels and bio-based products that are conventionally derived from fossil resources. The biochemical conversion, which entails biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, is one major platform used to transform lignocelluloses into biofuels...
March 25, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347720/very-large-scale-production-of-antibodies-in-plants-the-biologization-of-manufacturing
#12
REVIEW
J F Buyel, R M Twyman, R Fischer
Gene technology has facilitated the biologization of manufacturing, i.e. the use and production of complex biological molecules and systems at an industrial scale. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the major class of biopharmaceutical products, but they are typically used to treat specific diseases which individually have comparably low incidences. The therapeutic potential of mAbs could also be used for more prevalent diseases, but this would require a massive increase in production capacity that could not be met by traditional fermenter systems...
March 25, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343873/transport-of-bacteria-in-porous-media-and-its-enhancement-by-surfactants-for-bioaugmentation-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Hua Zhong, Guansheng Liu, Yongbing Jiang, Jinzhong Yang, Yang Liu, Xin Yang, Zhifeng Liu, Guangming Zeng
The success of bioaugmentation processes for groundwater bioremediation requires efficient transport of bacteria in the subsurface environment. In this paper, the factors that influence transport of bacterial cells in porous media are reviewed and the effects of surfactants on the transport are discussed. Movement of bacterial cells in porous media is a process driven by advection and hydrodynamic dispersion forces of fluids. Immobilization of bacterial cells takes place due to processes such as adsorption and straining...
March 23, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342941/is-there-any-crosstalk-between-the-chemotaxis-and-virulence-induction-signaling-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#14
REVIEW
Minliang Guo, Zhiwei Huang, Jing Yang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil-born phytopathogenic bacterium, is well known as a nature's engineer due to its ability to genetically transform the host by transferring a DNA fragment (called T-DNA) from its Ti plasmid to host-cell genome. To combat the harsh soil environment and seek the appropriate host, A. tumefaciens can sense and be attracted by a large number of chemical compounds released by wounded host. As a member of α-proteobacterium, A. tumefaciens has a chemotaxis system different from that found in Escherichia coli, since many chemoattractants for A...
March 23, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323062/new-strategies-and-approaches-for-engineering-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-of-microbial-natural-products
#15
REVIEW
Lei Li, Weihong Jiang, Yinhua Lu
With the rapidly growing number of sequenced microbial (meta)genomes, enormous cryptic natural product (NP) biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been identified, which are regarded as a rich reservoir for novel drug discovery. A series of powerful tools for engineering BGCs has accelerated the discovery and development of pharmaceutically active NPs. Here, we describe recent advances in the strategies for BGCs manipulation, which are driven by emerging technologies, including efficient DNA recombination systems, versatile CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tools and diverse DNA assembly methods...
March 16, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284994/brewing-up-a-storm-the-genomes-of-lager-yeasts-and-how-they-evolved
#16
REVIEW
Chandre Monerawela, Ursula Bond
Yeasts used in the production of lager beers belong to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. The hybridisation event happened approximately 500-600years ago and therefore S. pastorianus may be considered as a newly evolving species. The happenstance of the hybridisation event created a novel species, with unique genetic characteristics, ideal for the fermentation of sugars to produce flavoursome beer. Lager yeast strains retain the chromosomes of both parental species and also have sets of novel hybrid chromosomes that arose by recombination between the homeologous parental chromosomes...
March 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279699/metabolic-engineering-for-the-microbial-production-of-marine-bioactive-compounds
#17
REVIEW
Xiangzhao Mao, Zhen Liu, Jianan Sun, Sang Yup Lee
Many marine bioactive compounds have medicinal and nutritional values. These bioactive compounds have been prepared using solvent-based extraction from marine bio-resources or chemical synthesis, which are costly, inefficient with low yields, and environmentally unfriendly. Recent advances in metabolic engineering allowed to some extent more efficient production of these compounds, showing promises to meet the increasing demand of marine natural bioactive compounds. In this paper, we review the strategies and statuses of metabolic engineering applied to microbial production of marine natural bioactive compounds including terpenoids and their derivatives, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and marine natural drugs, and provide perspectives...
March 6, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300614/towards-combinatorial-transcriptional-engineering
#18
REVIEW
Rajesh Mehrotra, Kaushik Renganaath, Harsh Kanodia, Gary J Loake, Sandhya Mehrotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288861/biotechnology-approaches-to-produce-potent-self-adjuvanting-antigen-adjuvant-fusion-protein-subunit-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
Peter Michael Moyle
Traditional vaccination approaches (e.g. live attenuated or killed microorganisms) are among the most effective means to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These approaches, nevertheless, have failed to yield successful vaccines against many important pathogens. To overcome this problem, methods have been developed to identify microbial components, against which protective immune responses can be elicited. Subunit antigens identified by these approaches enable the production of defined vaccines, with improved safety profiles...
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286148/nanocarriers-for-microrna-delivery-in-cancer-medicine
#20
REVIEW
I Fernandez-Piñeiro, I Badiola, A Sanchez
The number of deaths caused by cancer is expected to increase partly due to the lack of selectivity and undesirable systemic effects of current treatments. Advances in the understanding of microRNA (miRNA) functions and the ideal properties of nanosystems have brought increasing attention to the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy. This review covers the different miRNA therapeutic strategies and delivery challenges for its application in cancer medicine. Current trends in inorganic, polymeric and lipid nanocarrier development for miRNA replacement or inhibition are summarized...
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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