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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331411/tailoring-cyanobacterial-cell-factory-for-improved-industrial-properties
#1
REVIEW
Guodong Luan, Xuefeng Lu
Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331410/implementing-crispr-cas-technologies-in-conventional-and-non-conventional-yeasts-current-state-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Hana Raschmanova, Astrid Weninger, Anton Glieder, Karin Kovar, Thomas Vogl
Within five years, the CRISPR-Cas system has emerged as the dominating tool for genome engineering, while also changing the speed and efficiency of metabolic engineering in conventional (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and non-conventional (Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia pastoris syn. Komagataella phaffii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and C. glabrata) yeasts. Especially in S. cerevisiae, an extensive toolbox of advanced CRISPR-related applications has been established, including crisprTFs and gene drives...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330093/designing-improved-active-peptides-for-therapeutic-approaches-against-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Bárbara Gomes, Marcelo T Augusto, Mário R Felício, Axel Hollmann, Octávio L Franco, Sónia Gonçalves, Nuno C Santos
Infectious diseases are one of the main causes of human morbidity and mortality. In the last few decades, pathogenic microorganisms' resistance to conventional drugs has been increasing, and it is now pinpointed as a major worldwide health concern. The need to search for new therapeutic options, as well as improved treatment outcomes, has therefore increased significantly, with biologically active peptides representing a new alternative. A substantial research effort is being dedicated towards their development, especially due to improved biocompatibility and target selectivity...
January 9, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309812/extracellular-fungal-polyol-lipids-a-new-class-of-potential-high-value-lipids
#4
REVIEW
Luis A Garay, Irnayuli R Sitepu, Tomas Cajka, Jian Xu, Hui Ean Teh, J Bruce German, Zhongli Pan, Stephanie R Dungan, David E Block, Kyria L Boundy-Mills
Extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have attracted attention because productivities can be high, cheap substrates can be used, the molecules are secreted into the medium and the downstream processing is relatively simple. Three classes of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have provided most of the scientific advances in this area, namely sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobioselipids. Polyol lipids, a fourth class of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants, comprise two groups of molecules: liamocins produced by the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and polyol esters of fatty acids, produced by some Rhodotorula yeast species...
January 5, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305895/microbial-and-viral-chitinases-attractive-biopesticides-for-integrated-pest-management
#5
REVIEW
Francesca Berini, Chen Katz, Nady Gruzdev, Morena Casartelli, Gianluca Tettamanti, Flavia Marinelli
The negative impact of the massive use of synthetic pesticides on the environment and on human health has stimulated the search for environment-friendly practices for controlling plant diseases and pests. Among them, biocontrol, which relies on using beneficial organisms or their products (bioactive molecules and/or hydrolytic enzymes), holds the greatest promise and is considered a pillar of integrated pest management. Chitinases are particularly attractive to this purpose since they have fungicidal, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305894/beyond-malaria-the-inhibition-of-viruses-by-artemisinin-type-compounds
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292156/in-vitro-methods-for-testing-antiviral-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Michaela Rumlová, Tomas Ruml
Despite successful vaccination programs and effective treatments for some viral infections, humans are still losing the battle with viruses. Persisting human pandemics, emerging and re-emerging viruses, and evolution of drug-resistant strains impose continuous search for new antiviral drugs. A combination of detailed information about the molecular organization of viruses and progress in molecular biology and computer technologies has enabled rational antivirals design. Initial step in establishing efficacy of new antivirals is based on simple methods assessing inhibition of the intended target...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292155/axenic-cultures-for-microalgal-biotechnology-establishment-assessment-maintenance-and-applications
#8
REVIEW
Chau Hai Thai Vu, Hyung-Gwan Lee, Yong Keun Chang, Hee-Mock Oh
The impact of microalgae (including blue-green algae or cyanobacteria) on human life can be both beneficiary and deleterious. While microalgae can be cultivated and used as feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and high value-added products in nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and aquaculture feeds, some microalgae cause harmful algal blooms (HABs) that cause large-scale mortality in aquatic environments around the world. Thus, with the development of microalgal biotechnology and increasing concern about HABs, research on microscopic algae has increased significantly...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289692/activation-of-nrf2-signaling-by-natural-products-can-it-alleviate-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Manuel Matzinger, Katrin Fischhuber, Elke H Heiss
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached pandemic proportions and effective prevention strategies are wanted. Its onset is accompanied by cellular distress, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor boosting cytoprotective responses, and many phytochemicals activate Nrf2 signaling. Thus, Nrf2 activation by natural products could presumably alleviate DM. We summarize function, regulation and exogenous activation of Nrf2, as well as diabetes-linked and Nrf2-susceptible forms of cellular stress...
December 28, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289691/the-bioelectronic-nose-and-tongue-using-olfactory-and-taste-receptors-analytical-tools-for-food-quality-and-safety-assessment
#10
REVIEW
Manki Son, Tai Hyun Park
Food intake is the primary method for obtaining energy and component materials in the human being. Humans evaluate the quality of food by combining various facets of information, such as an item of food's appearance, smell, taste, and texture in the mouth. Recently, bioelectronic noses and tongues have been reported that use human olfactory and taste receptors as primary recognition elements, and nanoelectronics as secondary signal transducers. Bioelectronic sensors that mimic human olfaction and gustation have sensitively and selectively detected odor and taste molecules from various food samples, and have been applied to food quality assessment...
December 28, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278756/decentralised-manufacturing-of-cell-and-gene-therapy-products-learning-from-other-healthcare-sectors
#11
REVIEW
Richard P Harrison, Steven Ruck, Qasim A Rafiq, Nicholas Medcalf
Decentralised or 'redistributed' manufacturing represents an attractive choice for production of some cell and gene therapies (CGTs), in particular personalised therapies. Decentralised manufacturing splits production into various locations or regions and in doing so, imposes organisational changes on the structure of a company. This confers a significant advantage by democratising supply, creating jobs without geographical restriction to the central hub and allowing a more flexible response to external pressures and demands...
December 23, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277309/enhancing-the-performance-of-brewing-yeasts
#12
REVIEW
Marcel Karabín, Lukáš Jelínek, Pavel Kotrba, Rudolf Cejnar, Pavel Dostálek
Beer production is one of the oldest known traditional biotechnological processes, but is nowadays facing increasing demands not only for enhanced product quality, but also for improved production economics. Targeted genetic modification of a yeast strain is one way to increase beer quality and to improve the economics of beer production. In this review we will present current knowledge on traditional approaches for improving brewing strains and for rational metabolic engineering. These research efforts will, in the near future, lead to the development of a wider range of industrial strains that should increase the diversity of commercial beers...
December 22, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277308/nrf2-as-regulator-of-innate-immunity-a-molecular-swiss-army-knife
#13
REVIEW
Maurizio Battino, Francesca Giampieri, Francesca Pistollato, Antoni Sureda, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Valeria Pittalà, Nikolay Mehterov, Victoria Sarafian, Francesca Fallarino, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Organisms are constantly exposed to a broad range of pathological and stress-inducing agents, allergens and environmental chemicals that can induce infections, toxicity or other undesirable reactions. Our immune system has evolved over time in order to efficiently respond to these exogenous insults and maintain homeostasis. In particular, the innate immune system acts as primary barrier to prevent the entrance of invasive agents or allergens. This system is comprised of a diversity of cell types that are rapidly activated by recognition of common structures present in many potential pathogens known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
December 22, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258845/polymer-nanostructures-for-bioapplications-induced-by-laser-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Petr Slepička, Jakub Siegel, Oleksiy Lyutakov, Nikola Slepičková Kasálková, Zdeňka Kolská, Lucie Bačáková, Václav Švorčík
Modification of polymer substrates can essentially change the properties of material and thereby it allows their usage in attractive fields of material research. Laser treatment can be successfully applied for change in physico-chemical surface properties and/or for selective change of surface morphology with pattern construction. Three major applications of laser induced structures were described, cytocompatibility control, application as anti-bacterial substrate and plasmonic-based detection system. The construction of a second generation antibacterials using the synergic effect of either nanopatterning of polymers by application of a laser or noble metals deposition and consequent modification of nanostructures was presented...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253526/comparative-analysis-of-high-butanol-tolerance-and-production-in-clostridia
#15
REVIEW
Petra Patakova, Jan Kolek, Karel Sedlar, Pavlina Koscova, Barbora Branska, Kristyna Kupkova, Leona Paulova, Ivo Provaznik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248686/augmented-reality-for-personalized-nanomedicines
#16
REVIEW
Yugyung Lee, Chi H Lee
As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248685/bioconversion-of-carbon-dioxide-to-methane-using-hydrogen-and-hydrogenotrophic-methanogens
#17
REVIEW
Jana Zabranska, Dana Pokorna
Biogas produced from organic wastes contains energetically usable methane and unavoidable amount of carbon dioxide. The exploitation of whole biogas energy is locally limited and utilization of the natural gas transport system requires CO2 removal or its conversion to methane. The biological conversion of CO2 and hydrogen to methane is well known reaction without the demand of high pressure and temperature and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Reducing equivalents to the biotransformation of carbon dioxide from biogas or other resources to biomethane can be supplied by external hydrogen...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248684/involvement-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-stress-resistance-of-microbial-cells-biotechnological-consequences-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Stanislav Obruca, Petr Sedlacek, Martin Koller, Dan Kucera, Iva Pernicova
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated by numerous prokaryotes as storage materials; they attract attention as "green" alternatives to petrochemical plastics. Recent research has demonstrated that their biological role goes beyong their storage function, since they presence in cytoplasm enhances stress resistance of microorganisms. To address these complex functions, this review summarizes the protective effects of PHA for microrganisms; the involvement of PHA in stress resistance is discussed also from a praxis-oriented perspective...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248683/importance-of-microbial-defence-systems-to-bile-salts-and-mechanisms-of-serum-cholesterol-reduction
#19
REVIEW
Horáčková Šárka, Plocková Milada, Demnerová Kateřina
An important feature of the intestinal microbiota, particularly in the case of administered probiotic microorganisms, is their resistance to conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly tolerance to and growth in the presence of bile salts. Bacteria can use several defence mechanisms against bile, including special transport mechanisms, the synthesis of various types of surface proteins and fatty acids or the production of exopolysaccharides. The ability to enzymatically hydrolyse bile salts occurs in a variety of bacteria...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248682/synthetic-biology-of-modular-endolysins
#20
REVIEW
Hans Gerstmans, Bjorn Criel, Yves Briers
Endolysins and their derivatives have emerged in recent years as a novel class of antibacterials, which have now entered the clinical phases. Their rapid mode-of-action and proteinaceous nature differentiates them from any other class of antibiotics. A key feature of endolysins is their modularity and the opportunities that emerge thereof to customize properties such as specificity, activity, stability and solubility. Extensive protein engineering efforts have expanded the activity spectrum to (pan)drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria or have improved the activity against Gram-positive pathogens...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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