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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095322/competent-processing-techniques-for-scaffolds-in-tissue-engineering
#1
REVIEW
Ranjna C Dutta, Madhuri Dey, Aroop K Dutta, Bikramjit Basu
Engineering a functional tissue ex vivo requires a synchronized effort towards developing technologies for ECM mimicking scaffold and cultivating tissue-specific cells in an integrated and controlled manner. Cell-interactive scaffolds in three dimensions (3D), designed and processed appropriately with an apt biomaterial to yield optimal porosity and mechanical strength is the key in tissue engineering (TE). In order to accomplish these facets in a 3D scaffold, multiple techniques and processes have been explored by researchers all over the world...
January 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095321/cellulose-to-depolymerize%C3%A2-or-not-to
#2
REVIEW
Sergiu Coseri
Oxidation of the primary OH groups in cellulose is a pivotal reaction both at lab and industrial scale, leading to the value-added products, i.e. oxidized cellulose which have tremendous applications in medicine, pharmacy and hi-tech industry. Moreover, the introduction of carboxyl moieties creates prerequisites for further cellulose functionalization through covalent attachment or electrostatic interactions, being an essential achievement designed to boost the area of cellulose-based nanomaterials fabrication...
January 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057483/the-bioink-a-comprehensive-review-on-bioprintable-materials
#3
REVIEW
Monika Hospodiuk, Madhuri Dey, Donna Sosnoski, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
This paper discusses "bioink", bioprintable materials used in three dimensional (3D) bioprinting processes, where cells and other biologics are deposited in a spatially controlled pattern to fabricate living tissues and organs. It presents the first comprehensive review of existing bioink types including hydrogels, cell aggregates, microcarriers and decellularized matrix components used in extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting processes. A detailed comparison of these bioink materials is conducted in terms of supporting bioprinting modalities and bioprintability, cell viability and proliferation, biomimicry, resolution, affordability, scalability, practicality, mechanical and structural integrity, bioprinting and post-bioprinting maturation times, tissue fusion and formation post-implantation, degradation characteristics, commercial availability, immune-compatibility, and application areas...
January 2, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#4
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017905/stem-cell-derived-kidney-cells-and-organoids-recent-breakthroughs-and-emerging-applications
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kai Chin Chuah, Daniele Zink
The global rise in the numbers of kidney patients and the shortage in transplantable organs have led to an increasing interest in kidney-specific regenerative therapies, renal disease modelling and bioartificial kidneys. Sources for large quantities of high-quality renal cells and tissues would be required, also for applications in in vitro platforms for compound safety and efficacy screening. Stem cell-based approaches for the generation of renal-like cells and tissues would be most attractive, but such methods were not available until recently...
December 23, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017904/raman-tags-novel-optical-probes-for-intracellular-sensing-and-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Yuee Li, Zhong Wang, Xijiao Mu, Aning Ma, Shu Guo
Optical labels are needed for probing specific target molecules in complex biological systems. As a newly emerging category of tags for molecular imaging in live cells, the Raman label attracts much attention because of the rich information obtained from targeted and untargeted molecules by detecting molecular vibrations. Here, we list three types of Raman probes based on different mechanisms: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) probes, bioorthogonal Raman probes, and Resonance Raman (RR) probes. We review how these Raman probes work for detecting and imaging proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules in vitro, within cells, or in vivo...
December 23, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011075/detection-of-on-target-and-off-target-mutations-generated-by-crispr-cas9-and-other-sequence-specific-nucleases
#7
REVIEW
Julia Zischewski, Rainer Fischer, Luisa Bortesi
The development of customizable sequence-specific nucleases such as TALENs, ZFNs and the powerful CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of genome editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is particularly versatile and has been applied in numerous species representing all branches of life. Regardless of the target organism, all researchers using sequence-specific nucleases face similar challenges: confirmation of the desired on-target mutation and the detection of off-target events. Here, we evaluate the most widely-used methods for the detection of on-target and off-target mutations in terms of workflow, sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses...
December 21, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939303/prostate-cancer-diagnostics-clinical-challenges-and-the-ongoing-need-for-disruptive-and-effective-diagnostic-tools
#8
REVIEW
Shikha Sharma, Julia Zapatero-Rodríguez, Richard O'Kennedy
The increased incidence and the significant health burden associated with carcinoma of the prostate have led to substantial changes in its diagnosis over the past century. Despite technological advancements, the management of prostate cancer has become progressively more complex and controversial for both early and late-stage disease. The limitations and potential harms associated with the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a diagnostic marker have stimulated significant investigation of numerous novel biomarkers that demonstrate varying capacities to detect prostate cancer and can decrease unnecessary biopsies...
December 6, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931938/improving-the-secretory-capacity-of-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-by-ectopic-expression-of-effector-genes-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
Henning Gram Hansen, Nuša Pristovšek, Helene Faustrup Kildegaard, Gyun Min Lee
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred cell factory for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. Although efforts primarily within bioprocess optimization have led to increased product titers of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) expressed in CHO cells, post-transcriptional bottlenecks in the biosynthetic pathway of r-proteins remain to be solved. To this end, the ectopic expression of transgenes (effector genes) offers great engineering potential. However, studies on effector genes have in some cases led to inconsistent results...
December 6, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923765/better-together-strategies-based-on-magnetic-particles-and-quantum-dots-for-improved-biosensing
#10
REVIEW
Laura Moro, Mehmet Turemis, Bruna Marini, Rudy Ippodrino, Maria Teresa Giardi
Novel technologies and strategies for sensitive detection of biological responses in healthcare, food and environmental monitoring continue to be a priority. The present review focuses on bioassay development based on the simultaneous use of quantum dots and magnetic beads. Due to the outstanding characteristics of both particles for biosensing applications and the large number of publications using a combined approach, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on different bioassays, the most recent advances and innovative strategies on the topic, together with an analysis of the main drawbacks encountered and potential solutions offered, with a special emphasis on the requirements that the transfer of technologies from the laboratory to the market will demand for future commercialization of biodevices...
December 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923764/applications-of-deep-eutectic-solvents-in-biotechnology-and-bioengineering-promises-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Yves Paul Mbous, Maan Hayyan, Adeeb Hayyan, Won Fen Wong, Mohd Ali Hashim, Chung Yeng Looi
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been touted recently as potential alternatives to ionic liquids (ILs). Although they possess core characteristics that are similar to those of ILs (e.g., low volatility, non-flammability, low melting points, low vapor pressure, dipolar nature, chemical and thermal stability, high solubility, and tuneability), DESs are superior in terms of the availability of raw materials, the ease of storage and synthesis, and the low cost of their starting materials. As such, they have become the subject of intensive research in various sectors, notably the chemical, electrochemical, and biological sectors...
December 3, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908674/renaissance-of-protein-crystallization-and-precipitation-in-biopharmaceuticals-purification
#12
REVIEW
Raquel Dos Santos, Ana Luísa Carvalho, A Cecília A Roque
The current chromatographic approaches used in protein purification are not keeping pace with the increasing biopharmaceutical market demand. With the upstream improvements, the bottleneck shifted towards the downstream process. New approaches rely in Anything But Chromatography methodologies and revisiting former techniques with a bioprocess perspective. Protein crystallization and precipitation methods are already implemented in the downstream process of diverse therapeutic biological macromolecules, overcoming the current chromatographic bottlenecks...
November 28, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890703/vitamin-b6-metabolism-in-microbes-and-approaches-for-fermentative-production
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan Rosenberg, Till Ischebeck, Fabian M Commichau
Vitamin B6 is a designation for the six vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxamine. PLP, being the most important B6 vitamer, serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes. In contrast to other organisms, animals and humans have to ingest vitamin B6 with their food. Several disorders are associated with vitamin B6 deficiency. Moreover, pharmaceuticals interfere with metabolism of the cofactor, which also results in vitamin B6 deficiency...
November 24, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867004/metabolic-engineering-of-bacillus-subtilis-fueled-by-systems-biology-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Yanfeng Liu, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B...
November 17, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845258/3d-tumor-spheroids-an-overview-on-the-tools-and-techniques-used-for-their-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Elisabete C Costa, André F Moreira, Duarte de Melo-Diogo, Vítor M Gaspar, Marco P Carvalho, Ilídio J Correia
In comparison with 2D cell culture models, 3D spheroids are able to accurately mimic some features of solid tumors, such as their spatial architecture, physiological responses, secretion of soluble mediators, gene expression patterns and drug resistance mechanisms. These unique characteristics highlight the potential of 3D cellular aggregates to be used as in vitro models for screening new anticancer therapeutics, both at a small and large scale. Nevertheless, few reports have focused on describing the tools and techniques currently available to extract significant biological data from these models...
November 11, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836790/production-properties-and-applications-of-endo-%C3%AE-mannanases
#16
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Srivastava, Mukesh Kapoor
The present review provides up-to-date information on the occurrence and methodologies used for producing and purifying endo-β-mannanases and a comprehensive comparison of their biochemical properties. The amalgamation of biochemical, molecular and structural biology approaches which have been used for understanding endo-β-mannanase families, catalytic mechanism, substrate binding, non-catalytic modules, trans-glycosylation, and multi-functional enzyme complexes has been given critical attention. A separate section entailing the state-of-the-art about thermostable endo-β-mannanases, which has emerged as an exciting field of both basic and applied research, is also deliberated...
November 9, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816618/carotenoids-from-microalgae-a-review-of-recent-developments
#17
REVIEW
Mengyue Gong, Amarjeet Bassi
Carotenoids have been receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. Microalgae are recognized as a natural source of carotenoids and other beneficial byproducts. However, the production of micro-algal carotenoids is not yet sufficiently cost-effective to compete with traditional chemical synthetic methods and other technologies such as extraction from plant based sources. This review presents the recent biotechnological developments in microalgal carotenoid production. The current technologies involved in their bioprocessing including cultivation, harvesting, extraction, and purification are discussed with a specific focus on downstream processing...
November 2, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007615/human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-and-tissue-engineering-strategies-for-disease-modeling-and-drug-screening
#18
REVIEW
Alec S T Smith, Jesse Macadangdang, Winnie Leung, Michael A Laflamme, Deok-Ho Kim
Improved methodologies for modeling cardiac disease phenotypes and accurately screening the efficacy and toxicity of potential therapeutic compounds are actively being sought to advance drug development and improve disease modeling capabilities. To that end, much recent effort has been devoted to the development of novel engineered biomimetic cardiac tissue platforms that accurately recapitulate the structure and function of the human myocardium. Within the field of cardiac engineering, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an exciting tool that offer the potential to advance the current state of the art, as they are derived from somatic cells, enabling the development of personalized medical strategies and patient specific disease models...
January 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825829/metagenomics-probing-pollutant-fate-in-natural-and-engineered-ecosystems
#19
REVIEW
Emna Bouhajja, Spiros N Agathos, Isabelle F George
Polluted environments are a reservoir of microbial species able to degrade or to convert pollutants to harmless compounds. The proper management of microbial resources requires a comprehensive characterization of their genetic pool to assess the fate of contaminants and increase the efficiency of bioremediation processes. Metagenomics offers appropriate tools to describe microbial communities in their whole complexity without lab-based cultivation of individual strains. After a decade of use of metagenomics to study microbiomes, the scientific community has made significant progress in this field...
December 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620948/towards-enzymatic-breakdown-of-complex-plant-xylan-structures-state-of-the-art
#20
Peter Biely, Suren Singh, Vladimír Puchart
Significant progress over the past few years has been achieved in the enzymology of microbial degradation and saccharification of plant xylan, after cellulose being the most abundant natural renewable polysaccharide. Several new types of xylan depolymerizing and debranching enzymes have been described in microorganisms. Despite the increasing variety of known glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases, some xylan structures still appear quite recalcitrant. This review focuses on the mode of action of different types of depolymerizing endoxylanases and their cooperation with β-xylosidase and accessory enzymes in breakdown of complex highly branched xylan structures...
November 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
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