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Biotechnology Advances

Bijay Singh, Samir Mitragotri
Clinical translation of nanoparticle drug (nanodrug) delivery systems for cancer therapy is primarily hindered by short half-life of nanodrugs in blood circulation and their poor ability of tumor targeting and penetration in vivo. Circulatory cells have garnered much attention in cancer therapy as drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility, high mobility, biodegradability, tissue targeting capability, high drug loading capacity, ability to cross biological barriers and inherent ability to remain in blood circulation long enough to accumulate within the tumors...
January 10, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
An-Ping Zeng
Currently used bioproduction systems for chemicals and fuels are primarily based on sugar-containing substrates. They have inherent limitations regarding substrate sustainability and affordability, product spectrum and yield, and costs for up- and downstream processing. To overcome some of these major burdens new bioproduction strategies and systems are being developed, including biorefinery, electro-biotechnology (use of electricity for biosynthesis) and C1 bioeconomy using synthetic biological systems based on C1 carbon feedstocks such as CO, CO2 , methane, methanol and formic acid...
January 10, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Robbie R Goodman, Madelaine K Jong, John E Davies
To date only small animal models have been employed to assess the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy on acute pancreatitis (AP), the most common cause of hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. We outline the challenges inherent in the small animal models of AP. We also point to specific benefits afforded by the adoption of larger animal models. The potential for MSC therapeutics in the treatment of AP was recognized over a decade ago. With sharper focus on the form of AP and development of new MSC delivery routes in larger animals, we believe the challenge can be engaged...
January 9, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Garima Agarwal, Peter Blanco Carcache, Ermias Mekuria Addo, A Douglas Kinghorn
Higher plant constituents have afforded clinically available anticancer drugs. These include both chemically unmodified small molecules and their synthetic derivatives currently used or those in clinical trials as antineoplastic agents, and an updated summary is provided. In addition, botanical dietary supplements, exemplified by mangosteen and noni constituents, are also covered as potential cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Approaches to metabolite purification, rapid dereplication, and biological evaluation including analytical hyphenated techniques, molecular networking, and advanced cellular and animal models are discussed...
January 8, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Dawei Ni, Wei Xu, Yingying Zhu, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Cuie Guang, Wanmeng Mu
Inulin, a natural fructan, cannot be hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in the human body and plays a role as a dietary fiber and prebiotic. Due to its versatile physicochemical properties and physiological functions, inulin has been widely applied in food, pharmaceuticals, and many other fields. The microorganism-derived inulin-forming enzyme inulosucrase (ISase) (EC: can biosynthesize higher-molecular-weight inulin than plants using sucrose as the sole substrate, and the enzyme also shows transfructosylation activity toward other saccharide acceptors...
January 7, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Kazuyuki Shimizu, Yu Matsuoka
Overflow metabolism is a common phenomenon observed at higher glycolytic flux in many bacteria, yeast (known as Crabtree effect), and mammalian cells including cancer cells (known as Warburg effect). This phenomenon has recently been characterized as the trade-offs between protein costs and enzyme efficiencies based on coarse-graining approaches. Moreover, it has been recognized that the glycolytic flux increases as the source of energy generation changes from energetically efficient respiration to inefficient respiro-fermentative or fermentative metabolism causing overflow metabolism...
December 18, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Guodong Liu, Yinbo Qu
Filamentous fungi, as the main producers of lignocellulolytic enzymes in industry, need to be engineered to improve the economy of large-scale lignocellulose conversion. Investigation of the cellular processes involved in lignocellulolytic enzyme production, as well as optimization of enzyme mixtures for higher hydrolysis efficiency, have provided effective targets for the engineering of lignocellulolytic fungi. Recently, the development of efficient genetic manipulation systems in several lignocellulolytic fungi opens up the possibility of systems engineering of these strains...
December 18, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
By Jared Dopp, Denis Tamiev, Nigel F Reuel
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has become an established biotechnology tool for rapid protein expression. Over the past few decades many advances have elevated CFPS from a niche, low-efficiency system to one now capable of biomanufacturing custom proteins. Many research papers and reviews exist on the advances made in CFPS genetic template and cell extract preparation for use in E. coli systems. What is currently missing from the literature is a comprehensive review on the myriad of supplement recipes added to the CFPS reaction to support metabolism, transcription, and translation...
December 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Suryang Kwak, Jung Hyun Jo, Eun Ju Yun, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Numerous metabolic engineering strategies have allowed yeasts to efficiently assimilate xylose, the second most abundant sugar component of lignocellulosic biomass. During the investigation of xylose utilization by yeasts, a global rewiring of metabolic networks upon xylose cultivation has been captured, as opposed to a pattern of glucose repression. A clear understanding of the xylose-induced metabolic reprogramming in yeast would shed light on the optimization of yeast-based bioprocesses to produce biofuels and chemicals using xylose...
December 13, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Xiaofeng Dai, Yi Mei, Dongyan Cai, Weidong Han
CAR-T therapy, grafting the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell to target certain cancer cells, has been recognized as a promising therapeutic approach for cancer control as evidenced by the two CAR-T products proved by FDA in 2017. However, the unique heterogeneity of CAR-T therapy has restricted its production in a limited number of institutions and made it a boutique oncotherapy. By reviewing outstanding issues surrounding the commercial scale production of CAR-T therapy, we conclude that achieving mass production of CAR-T therapy without sacrificing its personalized nature is a worldwild challenge for making CAR-T a key element in the next generation of precision medicine, which can be achieved by standardizing 7 prominent factors that collectively determine the scale of CAR-T manufacturing...
December 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Zhen-Hui Cao, Julia M Green-Johnson, Nicole D Buckley, Qiu-Ye Lin
For centuries, fermented soy foods have been dietary staples in Asia and, now, in response to consumer demand, they are available throughout the world. Fermentation bestows unique flavors, boosts nutritional values and increases or adds new functional properties. In this review, we describe the functional properties and underlying action mechanisms of soy-based fermented foods such as Natto, fermented soy milk, Tempeh and soy sauce. When possible, the contribution of specific bioactive components is highlighted...
December 4, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Kerstin Petroll, Dominik Kopp, Andrew Care, Peter L Bergquist, Anwar Sunna
Single enzyme systems or engineered microbial hosts have been used for decades but the notion of assembling multiple enzymes into cell-free synthetic pathways is a relatively new development. The extensive possibilities that stem from this synthetic concept makes it a fast growing and potentially high impact field for biomanufacturing fine and platform chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, the translation of individual single enzymatic reactions into cell-free multi-enzyme pathways is not trivial...
December 3, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Clement Gaignard, Nesrine Gargouch, Pascal Dubessay, Cedric Delattre, Guillaume Pierre, Celine Laroche, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi, Philippe Michaud
Research on marine microalgae has been abundantly published and patented these last years leading to the production and/or the characterization of some biomolecules such as pigments, proteins, enzymes, biofuels, polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes and hydrocolloids. This literature focusing on metabolic pathways, structural characterization of biomolecules, taxonomy, optimization of culture conditions, biorefinery and downstream process is often optimistic considering the valorization of these biocompounds...
November 27, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Zheng Pang, Renee Raudonis, Bernard R Glick, Tong-Jun Lin, Zhenyu Cheng
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients and immunocompromised individuals. Eradication of P. aeruginosa has become increasingly difficult due to its remarkable capacity to resist antibiotics. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known to utilize their high levels of intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms to counter most antibiotics. In addition, adaptive antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa is a recently characterized mechanism, which includes biofilm-mediated resistance and formation of multidrug-tolerant persister cells, and is responsible for recalcitrance and relapse of infections...
November 27, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Gabriela Kratošová, Veronika Holišová, Zuzana Konvičková, Avinash P Ingle, Swapnil Gaikwad, Kateřina Škrlová, Aleš Prokop, Mahendra Rai, Daniela Plachá
Chemical, physical and mechanical methods of nanomaterial preparation are still regarded as mainstream methods, and the scientific community continues to search for new ways of nanomaterial preparation. The major objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using green chemistry and bionanotechnology in the preparation of functional low-cost catalysts. Bionanotechnology employs biological principles and processes connected with bio-phase participation in both design and development of nano-structures and nano-materials, and the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is becoming even more popular due to; (i) economic and ecologic effectiveness, (ii) simple one-step nanoparticle formation, stabilisation and biomass support and (iii) the possibility of bio-waste valorisation...
November 24, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Sadia Afrin, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Danila Cianciosi, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, Jiaojiao Zhang, Piera Pia Manna, Maria Daglia, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Maurizio Battino
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cancer type and leading cause of death. Unfortunately, current medical treatments are not sufficient due to lack of effective therapy, adverse side effects, chemoresistance and disease recurrence. In recent decades, epidemiologic observations have highlighted the association between the ingestion of several phytochemical-enriched foods and nutrients and the lower risk of CRC. According to preclinical studies, dietary phytochemicals exert chemopreventive effects on CRC by regulating different markers and signaling pathways; additionally, the gut microbiota plays a role as vital effector in CRC onset and progression, therefore, any dietary alterations in it may affect CRC occurrence...
November 23, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Mirela Teodorescu, Maria Bercea, Simona Morariu
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has attracted considerable research interest and is recognized among the largest volume of synthetic polymers that have been produced worldwide for almost one century. This is due to its exceptional properties which dictated its extensive use in a wide variety of applications, especially in medical and pharmaceutical fields. However, studies revealed that PVA-based biomaterials present some limitations that can restrict their use or performances. To overcome these limitations, various methods have been reported, among which blending with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) showed promising results...
November 22, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Vipin Chandra Kalia, Sanjay K S Patel, Yun Chan Kang, Jung-Kul Lee
The mechanisms through which microbes communicate using signal molecules has inspired a great deal of research. Microbes use this exchange of information, known as quorum sensing (QS), to initiate and perpetuate infectious diseases in eukaryotic organisms, evading the eukaryotic defense system by multiplying and expressing their pathogenicity through QS regulation. The major issue to arise from such networks is increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, resulting from QS-dependent mediation of the formation of biofilm, the induction of efflux pumps, and the production of antibiotics...
November 22, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Dunja Šamec, Michał Tomczyk, Luigi Milella, Daniela Russo, Solomon Habtemariam, Ipek Suntar, Luca Rastrelli, Maria Daglia, Jianbo Xiao, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Bahman Yousefi, Philippe Jeandet, Suowen Xu, Samira Shirooie
Plants, fungi, and microorganisms are equipped with biosynthesis machinery for producing thousands of secondary metabolites. These compounds have important functions in nature as a defence against predators or competitors as well as other ecological significances. The full utilization of these compounds for food, medicine, and other purposes requires a thorough understanding of their structures and the distinct biochemical pathways of their production in cellular systems. In this review, flavonoids as classical examples of secondary metabolites are employed to highlight recent advances in understanding how valuable compounds can be regulated at various levels...
November 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Alexander Rapoport, Elena A Golovina, Patrick Gervais, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney
Under natural conditions yeast cells as well as other microorganisms are regularly subjected to the influence of severe drought, which leads to their serious dehydration. The dry seasons are then changed by rains and there is a restoration of normal water potential inside the cells. To survive such seasonal changes a lot of vegetative microbial cells, which belong to various genera and species, may be able to enter into a state of anhydrobiosis, in which their metabolism is temporarily and reversibly suspended or delayed...
November 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
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