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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342941/is-there-any-crosstalk-between-the-chemotaxis-and-virulence-induction-signaling-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#1
REVIEW
Minliang Guo, Zhiwei Huang, Jing Yang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil-born phytopathogenic bacterium, is well known as a nature's engineer due to its ability to genetically transform the host by transferring a DNA fragment (called T-DNA) from its Ti plasmid to host-cell genome. To combat the harsh soil environment and seek the appropriate host, A. tumefaciens can sense and be attracted by a large number of chemical compounds released by wounded host. As a member of α-proteobacterium, A. tumefaciens has a chemotaxis system different from that found in Escherichia coli, since many chemoattractants for A...
March 23, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323062/new-strategies-and-approaches-for-engineering-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-of-microbial-natural-products
#2
REVIEW
Lei Li, Weihong Jiang, Yinhua Lu
With the rapidly growing number of sequenced microbial (meta)genomes, enormous cryptic natural product (NP) biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been identified, which are regarded as a rich reservoir for novel drug discovery. A series of powerful tools for engineering BGCs has accelerated the discovery and development of pharmaceutically active NPs. Here, we describe recent advances in the strategies for BGCs manipulation, which are driven by emerging technologies, including efficient DNA recombination systems, versatile CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tools and diverse DNA assembly methods...
March 16, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300614/towards-combinatorial-transcriptional-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Rajesh Mehrotra, Kaushik Renganaath, Harsh Kanodia, Gary J Loake, Sandhya Mehrotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288861/biotechnology-approaches-to-produce-potent-self-adjuvanting-antigen-adjuvant-fusion-protein-subunit-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
Peter Michael Moyle
Traditional vaccination approaches (e.g. live attenuated or killed microorganisms) are among the most effective means to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These approaches, nevertheless, have failed to yield successful vaccines against many important pathogens. To overcome this problem, methods have been developed to identify microbial components, against which protective immune responses can be elicited. Subunit antigens identified by these approaches enable the production of defined vaccines, with improved safety profiles...
March 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286148/nanocarriers-for-microrna-delivery-in-cancer-medicine
#5
REVIEW
I Fernandez-Piñeiro, I Badiola, A Sanchez
The number of deaths caused by cancer is expected to increase partly due to the lack of selectivity and undesirable systemic effects of current treatments. Advances in the understanding of microRNA (miRNA) functions and the ideal properties of nanosystems have brought increasing attention to the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy. This review covers the different miRNA therapeutic strategies and delivery challenges for its application in cancer medicine. Current trends in inorganic, polymeric and lipid nanocarrier development for miRNA replacement or inhibition are summarized...
March 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284994/brewing-up-a-storm-the-genomes-of-lager-yeasts-and-how-they-evolved
#6
REVIEW
Chandre Monerawela, Ursula Bond
Yeasts used in the production of lager beers belong to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. The hybridisation event happened approximately 500-600years ago and therefore S. pastorianus may be considered as a newly evolving species. The happenstance of the hybridisation event created a novel species, with unique genetic characteristics, ideal for the fermentation of sugars to produce flavoursome beer. Lager yeast strains retain the chromosomes of both parental species and also have sets of novel hybrid chromosomes that arose by recombination between the homeologous parental chromosomes...
March 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284993/pediococcus-spp-an-important-genus-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-pediocin-producers
#7
REVIEW
Maria Carolina W Porto, Taís Mayumi Kuniyoshi, P O S Azevedo, Michele Vitolo, R P S Oliveira
Probiotics have gained increasing attention due to several health benefits related to the human digestive and immune systems. Pediococcus spp. are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are widely described as probiotics and characterized as coccus-shaped bacteria (arranged in tetrads), Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobes. There are many Pediococcus strains that produce pediocin, an effective antilisterial bacteriocin. Pediocins are small, cationic molecules consisting of a conserved hydrophilic N-terminal portion containing the YGNGV motif and an amphiphilic or hydrophobic C-terminal variable portion...
March 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279699/metabolic-engineering-for-the-microbial-production-of-marine-bioactive-compounds
#8
REVIEW
Xiangzhao Mao, Zhen Liu, Jianan Sun, Sang Yup Lee
Many marine bioactive compounds have medicinal and nutritional values. These bioactive compounds have been prepared using solvent-based extraction from marine bio-resources or chemical synthesis, which are costly, inefficient with low yields, and environmentally unfriendly. Recent advances in metabolic engineering allowed to some extent more efficient production of these compounds, showing promises to meet the increasing demand of marine natural bioactive compounds. In this paper, we review the strategies and statuses of metabolic engineering applied to microbial production of marine natural bioactive compounds including terpenoids and their derivatives, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and marine natural drugs, and provide perspectives...
March 6, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216008/computational-tools-for-exploring-sequence-databases-as-a-resource-for-antimicrobial-peptides
#9
REVIEW
W F Porto, A S Pires, O L Franco
Data mining has been recognized by many researchers as a hot topic in different areas. In the post-genomic era, the growing number of sequences deposited in databases has been the reason why these databases have become a resource for novel biological information. In recent years, the identification of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in databases has gained attention. The identification of unannotated AMPs has shed some light on the distribution and evolution of AMPs and, in some cases, indicated suitable candidates for developing novel antimicrobial agents...
February 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163194/recent-advances-and-state-of-the-art-strategies-in-strain-and-process-engineering-for-biobutanol-production-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum
#10
REVIEW
Chuang Xue, Jingbo Zhao, Lijie Chen, Shang-Tian Yang, Fengwu Bai
Butanol as an advanced biofuel has gained great attention due to its environmental benefits and superior properties compared to ethanol. However, the cost of biobutanol production via conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum is not economically competitive, which has hampered its industrial application. The strain performance and downstream process greatly impact the economics of biobutanol production. Although various engineered strains with carefully orchestrated metabolic and sporulation-specific pathways have been developed, none of them is ideal for industrial biobutanol production...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153517/microfluidics-for-cryopreservation
#11
REVIEW
Gang Zhao, Jianping Fu
Cryopreservation has utility in clinical and scientific research but implementation is highly complex and includes labor-intensive cell-specific protocols for the addition/removal of cryoprotective agents and freeze-thaw cycles. Microfluidic platforms can revolutionize cryopreservation by providing new tools to manipulate and screen cells at micro/nano scales, which are presently difficult or impossible with conventional bulk approaches. This review describes applications of microfluidic tools in cell manipulation, cryoprotective agent exposure, programmed freezing/thawing, vitrification, and in situ assessment in cryopreservation, and discusses achievements and challenges, providing perspectives for future development...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131814/molecular-characterization-of-genetically-modified-crops-challenges-and-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Rong Li, Sheng Quan, Xiaofang Yan, Sukumar Biswas, Dabing Zhang, Jianxin Shi
Molecular characterization lays a foundation for safety assessment and subsequent monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops. Due to the target-specific nature, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods cannot comprehensively detect unintended gene insertions, let alone unknown GM events. As more and more new developed GM crops including new plant breeding technology (NPBT) generated crops are in the pipeline for commercialization, alternative -omics approaches, particularly next generation sequencing, have been developed for molecular characterization of authorized or unauthorized GM (UGM) crops...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111316/enzymatic-approaches-to-rare-sugar-production
#13
REVIEW
Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
Rare sugars have recently attracted much attention because of their potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. A systematic strategy for enzymatic production of rare sugars, named Izumoring, was developed >10years ago. The strategy consists of aldose-ketose isomerization, ketose C-3 epimerization, and monosaccharide oxidation-reduction. Recent development of the Izumoring strategy is reviewed herein, especially the genetic approaches to the improvement of rare sugar-producing enzymes and the applications of target-oriented bioconversion...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108354/abcs-of-dna-aptamer-and-related-assay-development
#14
REVIEW
Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G Bruno, Abhijeet Dhiman
This review is intended to guide the novice in aptamer research and development to understand virtually all of the aptamer development options and currently available assay modalities. Aptamer development topics range from discussions of basic and advanced versions of Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX) and SELEX variations involving incorporation of exotic unnatural nucleotides to expand library diversity for even greater aptamer affinity and specificity to improved next generation methods of DNA sequencing, screening and tracking aptamer development throughout the SELEX process and characterization of lead aptamer candidates...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095322/competent-processing-techniques-for-scaffolds-in-tissue-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Ranjna C Dutta, Madhuri Dey, Aroop K Dutta, Bikramjit Basu
Engineering a functional tissue ex vivo requires a synchronized effort towards developing technologies for ECM mimicking scaffold and cultivating tissue-specific cells in an integrated and controlled manner. Cell-interactive scaffolds in three dimensions (3D), designed and processed appropriately with an apt biomaterial to yield optimal porosity and mechanical strength is the key in tissue engineering (TE). In order to accomplish these facets in a 3D scaffold, multiple techniques and processes have been explored by researchers all over the world...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095321/cellulose-to-depolymerize%C3%A2-or-not-to
#16
REVIEW
Sergiu Coseri
Oxidation of the primary OH groups in cellulose is a pivotal reaction both at lab and industrial scale, leading to the value-added products, i.e. oxidized cellulose which have tremendous applications in medicine, pharmacy and hi-tech industry. Moreover, the introduction of carboxyl moieties creates prerequisites for further cellulose functionalization through covalent attachment or electrostatic interactions, being an essential achievement designed to boost the area of cellulose-based nanomaterials fabrication...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057483/the-bioink-a-comprehensive-review-on-bioprintable-materials
#17
REVIEW
Monika Hospodiuk, Madhuri Dey, Donna Sosnoski, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
This paper discusses "bioink", bioprintable materials used in three dimensional (3D) bioprinting processes, where cells and other biologics are deposited in a spatially controlled pattern to fabricate living tissues and organs. It presents the first comprehensive review of existing bioink types including hydrogels, cell aggregates, microcarriers and decellularized matrix components used in extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting processes. A detailed comparison of these bioink materials is conducted in terms of supporting bioprinting modalities and bioprintability, cell viability and proliferation, biomimicry, resolution, affordability, scalability, practicality, mechanical and structural integrity, bioprinting and post-bioprinting maturation times, tissue fusion and formation post-implantation, degradation characteristics, commercial availability, immune-compatibility, and application areas...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017905/stem-cell-derived-kidney-cells-and-organoids-recent-breakthroughs-and-emerging-applications
#19
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kai Chin Chuah, Daniele Zink
The global rise in the numbers of kidney patients and the shortage in transplantable organs have led to an increasing interest in kidney-specific regenerative therapies, renal disease modelling and bioartificial kidneys. Sources for large quantities of high-quality renal cells and tissues would be required, also for applications in in vitro platforms for compound safety and efficacy screening. Stem cell-based approaches for the generation of renal-like cells and tissues would be most attractive, but such methods were not available until recently...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017904/raman-tags-novel-optical-probes-for-intracellular-sensing-and-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Yuee Li, Zhong Wang, Xijiao Mu, Aning Ma, Shu Guo
Optical labels are needed for probing specific target molecules in complex biological systems. As a newly emerging category of tags for molecular imaging in live cells, the Raman label attracts much attention because of the rich information obtained from targeted and untargeted molecules by detecting molecular vibrations. Here, we list three types of Raman probes based on different mechanisms: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) probes, bioorthogonal Raman probes, and Resonance Raman (RR) probes. We review how these Raman probes work for detecting and imaging proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules in vitro, within cells, or in vivo...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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