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Biotechnology Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753882/circulating-tumor-microemboli-progress-in-molecular-understanding-and-enrichment-technologies
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Umer, Ramanathan Vaidyanathan, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Muhammad J A Shiddiky
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their clusters, also known as circulating tumor microemboli (CTM), have emerged as valuable tool that can provide mechanistic insights into the tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution, and stochastic events within the metastatic cascade. However, recent investigations have hinted that CTM may not be mere aggregates of tumor cells but cells comprising CTM exhibit distinct phenotypic and molecular characteristics in comparison to single CTCs. Moreover, in many cases CTM demonstrated higher metastatic potential and resistance to apoptosis as compared to their single cell counterparts...
May 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738813/perfusion-mammalian-cell-culture-for-recombinant-protein-manufacturing-a-critical-review
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Bielser, Moritz Wolf, Jonathan Souquet, Hervé Broly, Massimo Morbidelli
The manufacturing of recombinant protein is traditionally divided in two main steps: upstream (cell culture and synthesis of the target protein) and downstream (purification and formulation of the protein into a drug substance or drug product). Today, cost pressure, market uncertainty and market growth, challenge the existing manufacturing technologies. Leaders in the field are active in designing the process of the future and continuous manufacturing is recurrently mentioned as a potential solution to address some of the current limitations...
May 5, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733891/-connecting-worlds-a-view-on-microfluidics-for-a-wider-application
#3
REVIEW
Ana C Fernandes, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
From its birth, microfluidics has been referenced as a revolutionary technology and the solution to long standing technological and sociological issues, such as detection of dilute compounds and personalized healthcare. Microfluidics has for example been envisioned as: (1) being capable of miniaturizing industrial production plants, thereby increasing their automation and operational safety at low cost; (2) being able to identify rare diseases by running bioanalytics directly on the patient's skin; (3) allowing health diagnostics in point-of-care sites through cheap lab-on-a-chip devices...
May 4, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729870/natural-scaffolds-in-anticancer-therapy-and-precision-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Aloran Mazumder, Claudia Cerella, Marc Diederich
The diversity of natural compounds is essential for their mechanism of action. The source, structures and structure activity relationship of natural compounds contributed to the development of new classes of chemotherapy agents for over 40 years. The availability of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening has fueled the challenge to identify novel compounds that mimic nature's chemistry and to predict their macromolecular targets. Combining conventional and targeted therapies helped to successfully overcome drug resistance and prolong disease-free survival...
May 3, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729378/leveraging-knowledge-engineering-and-machine-learning-for-microbial-bio-manufacturing
#5
REVIEW
Tolutola Oyetunde, Forrest Sheng Bao, Jiung-Wen Chen, Hector Garcia Martin, Yinjie J Tang
Genome scale modeling (GSM) predicts the performance of microbial workhorses and helps identify beneficial gene targets. GSM integrated with intracellular flux dynamics, omics, and thermodynamics have shown remarkable progress in both elucidating complex cellular phenomena and computational strain design (CSD). Nonetheless, these models still show high uncertainty due to a poor understanding of innate pathway regulations, metabolic burdens, and other factors (such as stress tolerance and metabolite channeling)...
May 2, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729377/toolboxes-for-cyanobacteria-recent-advances-and-future-direction
#6
REVIEW
Tao Sun, Shubin Li, Xinyu Song, Jinjin Diao, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are important primary producers and model organisms for studying photosynthesis and elements cycling on earth. Due to the ability to absorb sunlight and utilize carbon dioxide, cyanobacteria have also been proposed as renewable chassis for carbon-neutral "microbial cell factories". Recent progresses on cyanobacterial synthetic biology have led to the successful production of more than two dozen of fuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2 , demonstrating their potential for scale-up application in the future...
May 2, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729376/microbial-fuel-cell-mfc-power-performance-improvement-through-enhanced-microbial-electrogenicity
#7
REVIEW
Ming Li, Minghua Zhou, Xiaoyu Tian, Chaolin Tan, Cameron T McDaniel, Daniel J Hassett, Tingyue Gu
Within the past 5 years, tremendous advances have been made to maximize the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for both "clean" bioenergy production and bioremediation. Most research efforts have focused on parameters including (i) optimizing reactor configuration, (ii) electrode construction, (iii) addition of redox-active, electron donating mediators, (iv) biofilm acclimation and feed nutrient adjustment, as well as (v) other parameters that contribute to enhanced MFC performance. To date, tremendous advances have been made, but further improvements are needed for MFCs to be economically practical...
May 2, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684502/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-as-a-therapeutic-target-part-1-molecular-targets-and-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Dongdong Wang, Pavel Uhrin, Andrei Mocan, Birgit Waltenberger, Johannes M Breuss, Devesh Tewari, Judit Mihaly-Bison, Łukasz Huminiecki, Rafał R Starzyński, Nikolay T Tzvetkov, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Atanas G Atanasov
Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of human death worldwide. Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells contributes to the etiology of such diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary hypertension. The control of vascular cell proliferation is complex and encompasses interactions of many regulatory molecules and signaling pathways. Herein, we recapitulated the importance of signaling cascades relevant for the regulation of vascular cell proliferation. Detailed understanding of the process underlying this process is essential for the identification of new lead compounds (e...
April 20, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678389/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-as-a-therapeutic-target-part-2-natural-products-inhibiting-proliferation
#9
REVIEW
Pavel Uhrin, Dongdong Wang, Andrei Mocan, Birgit Waltenberger, Johannes M Breuss, Devesh Tewari, Judit Mihaly-Bison, Łukasz Huminiecki, Rafał R Starzyński, Nikolay T Tzvetkov, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Atanas G Atanasov
Many natural products have been so far tested regarding their potency to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, a process involved in atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and restenosis. Compounds studied in vitro and in vivo as VSMC proliferation inhibitors include, for example indirubin-3'-monoxime, resveratrol, hyperoside, plumericin, pelargonidin, zerumbone and apamin. Moreover, taxol and rapamycin, the most prominent compounds applied in drug-eluting stents to counteract restenosis, are natural products...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678388/leveraging-algal-omics-to-reveal-potential-targets-for-augmenting-tag-accumulation
#10
REVIEW
Neha Arora, Philip T Pienkos, Vikas Pruthi, Krishna Mohan Poluri, Michael T Guarnieri
Ongoing global efforts to commercialize microalgal biofuels have expedited the use of multi-omics techniques to gain insights into lipid biosynthetic pathways. Functional genomics analyses have recently been employed to complement existing sequence-level omics studies, shedding light on the dynamics of lipid synthesis and its interplay with other cellular metabolic pathways, thus revealing possible targets for metabolic engineering. Here, we review the current status of algal omics studies to reveal potential targets to augment TAG accumulation in various microalgae...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673973/using-agro-industrial-wastes-for-the-cultivation-of-microalgae-and-duckweeds-contamination-risks-and-biomass-safety-concerns
#11
REVIEW
Giorgos Markou, Liang Wang, Jianfeng Ye, Adrian Unc
Aquatic organisms, such as microalgae (Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina), Tetrasselmis, Dunalliela etc.) and duckweed (Lemna spp., Wolffia spp. etc.) are a potential source for the production of protein-rich biomass and for numerous other high-value compounds (fatty acids, pigments, vitamins etc.). Their cultivation using agro-industrial wastes and wastewater (WaW) is of particular interest in the context of a circular economy, not only for recycling valuable nutrients but also for reducing the requirements for fresh water for the production of biomass...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673972/microalgae-as-multi-functional-options-in-modern-agriculture-current-trends-prospects-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Nirmal Renuka, Abhishek Guldhe, Radha Prasanna, Poonam Singh, Faizal Bux
Algae are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic organisms comprising eukaryotic green algae and Gram-negative prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which have immense potential as a bioresource for various industries related to biofuels, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and feed. This fascinating group of organisms also has applications in modern agriculture through facilitating increased nutrient availability, maintaining the organic carbon and fertility of soil, and enhancing plant growth and crop yields, as a result of stimulation of soil microbial activity...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656090/naturally-occurring-compounds-in-differentiation-based-therapy-of-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Sanja Mijatović, Alessia Bramanti, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Paolo Fagone, Goran Kaluđerović, Danijela Maksimović-Ivanić
Differentiation of cancer cells entails the reversion of phenotype from malignant to the original. The conversion to cell type characteristic for another tissue is named transdifferentiation. Differentiation/transdifferentiation of malignant cells in high grade tumor mass could serve as a nonaggressive approach that potentially limits tumor progression and augments chemosensitivity. While this therapeutic strategy is already being used for treatment of hematological cancers, its feasibility for solid malignancies is still debated...
April 12, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654903/host-cell-protein-removal-from-biopharmaceutical-preparations-towards-the-implementation-of-quality-by-design
#14
REVIEW
Cher Hui Goey, Sakhr Alhuthali, Cleo Kontoravdi
Downstream processing of protein products of mammalian cell culture currently accounts for the largest fraction of the total production cost. A major challenge is the removal of host cell proteins, which are cell-derived impurities. Host cell proteins are potentially immunogenic and can compromise product integrity during processing and hold-up steps. There is an increasing body of evidence that the type of host cell proteins present in recombinant protein preparations is a function of cell culture conditions and handling of the harvest cell culture fluid...
April 11, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631017/electron-transport-chains-in-organohalide-respiring-bacteria-and-bioremediation-implications
#15
REVIEW
Shanquan Wang, Lan Qiu, Xiaowei Liu, Guofang Xu, Michael Siegert, Qihong Lu, Philippe Juneau, Ling Yu, Dawei Liang, Zhili He, Rongliang Qiu
In situ remediation employing organohalide-respiring bacteria represents a promising solution for cleanup of persistent organohalide pollutants. The organohalide-respiring bacteria conserve energy by utilizing H2 or organic compounds as electron donors and organohalides as electron acceptors. Reductive dehalogenase (RDase), a terminal reductase of the electron transport chain in organohalide-respiring bacteria, is the key enzyme that catalyzes halogen removal. Accumulating experimental evidence thus far suggests that there are distinct models for respiratory electron transfer in organohalide-respirers of different lineages, e...
April 6, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608951/aspergillus-specific-antibodies-targets-and-applications
#16
REVIEW
Max Schubert, Holger Spiegel, Stefan Schillberg, Greta Nölke
Aspergillus is a fungal genus comprising several hundred species, many of which can damage the health of plants, animals and humans by direct infection and/or due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins. Aspergillus-specific antibodies have been generated against polypeptides, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites found in the cell wall or secretions, and these can be used to detect and monitor infections or to quantify mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. However, most Aspergillus-specific antibodies are generated against heterogeneous antigen preparations and the specific target remains unknown...
March 30, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608950/process-engineering-for-microbial-production-of-3-hydroxypropionic-acid
#17
REVIEW
Florence de Fouchécour, Ana-Karen Sánchez-Castañeda, Claire Saulou-Bérion, Henry Éric Spinnler
Due to concerns about the unsustainability and predictable shortage of fossil feedstocks, research efforts are currently being made to develop new processes for production of commodities using alternative feedstocks. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (CAS 503-66-2) was recognised by the US Department of Energy as one of the most promising value-added chemicals that can be obtained from biomass. This article aims at reviewing the various strategies implemented thus far for 3-hydroxypropionic acid bioproduction. Special attention is given here to process engineering issues...
March 30, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608949/recent-advances-on-production-of-2-3-butanediol-using-engineered-microbes
#18
REVIEW
Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
As a significant platform chemical, 2, 3-butanediol (2, 3-BD) has found wide applications in industry. The success of microbial 2, 3-BD production was limited by the use of pathogenic microorganisms and low titer in engineered hosts. The utilization of cheaply available feedstock such as lignocellulose was another major challenge to achieve economic production of 2, 3-BD. To address those issues, engineering strategies including both genetic modifications and process optimization have been employed. In this review, we summarized the state-of-the-art progress in the biotechnological production of 2, 3-BD...
March 30, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597031/clinical-technological-and-economic-issues-associated-with-developing-new-lung-surfactant-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Hyun Chang Kim, You-Yeon Won
Discovery of lung surfactant deficiency as a main cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) has influenced a steep increase in lung surfactant research. Although this has yielded impactful scientific discoveries, much of the basic research on lung surfactants has failed to translate into clinical practices. This is attributed to insufficient information covering the entire lung surfactant ecosystem, from the basic science to economics surrounding the development and clinical practices. In this manuscript, developments related to improving therapeutic lung surfactant as well as the degree of unmet need are analyzed from both technical and economic perspectives...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597030/state-of-the-art-of-aerobic-granulation-in-continuous-flow-bioreactors
#20
REVIEW
Timothy R Kent, Charles B Bott, Zhi-Wu Wang
In the wake of the success of aerobic granulation in sequential batch reactors (SBRs) for treating wastewater, attention is beginning to turn to continuous flow applications. This is a necessary step given the advantages of continuous flow treatment processes and the fact that the majority of full-scale wastewater treatment plants across the world are operated with aeration tanks and clarifiers in a continuous flow mode. As in SBRs, applying a selection pressure, based on differences in either settling velocity or the size of the biomass, is essential for successful granulation in continuous flow reactors (CFRs)...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
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