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M Lambert, V Niehaus, C Correll
This review aims to describe the importance of i) detecting individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (schizophrenia) or bipolar disorder, especially in children and adolescents, in order to enable early intervention, and ii) evaluating different intervention strategies, especially pharmacotherapy, during the subsyndromal or "prodromal" stages of these severe and often debilitating disorders. The different approaches regarding the psychotic and bipolar clinical high-risk state are discussed, including reasons and evidence for early (pharmacological) intervention and risks of treatment vs...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
E Trinczek, M Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M Haberhausen, C J Bachmann
Introduction: Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat, which often leads to the initiation of clozapine treatment. Studies in adults have shown that the initiation of clozapine treatment is often delayed. There is a lack of studies concerning the initiation of clozapine in children and adolescents with EOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the time span from first EOS-related psychiatric hospitalization to clozapine initiation. Methods: We retrospectively studied a consecutive cohort of children and adolescents with EOS and first-time clozapine prescriptions from a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatric center in Germany...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Holtmann, B G Schimmelmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
A Ghajar, S M Neishabouri, N Velayati, L Jahangard, N Matinnia, M Haghighi, A Ghaleiha, M Afarideh, S Salimi, A Meysamie, S Akhondzadeh
Introduction: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has demonstrated antidepressant effects in clinical studies and extensive anxiolytic effects in experimental animal models. Methods: 66 patients with major depressive disorder accompanied by anxious distress were randomly assigned to receive either saffron (30 mg/day) or citalopram (40 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) were used to assess treatment effect during the trial. Results: 60 participants finished the study...
October 4, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
J Fujioi, K Iwamoto, M Banno, T Kikuchi, B Aleksic, N Ozaki
Introduction: Although adjunctive aripiprazole improves hyperprolactinemia, sufficient evidence for its effects on sexual dysfunction has not been obtained. We assessed the usefulness of adjunctive aripiprazole for schizophrenia with sexual dysfunction. Methods: 22 Japanese schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunction were enrolled, and 19 of them completed the study. Aripiprazole was administrated in a flexible titration schedule to participants according to the judgment of each doctor, and patients were followed for 24 weeks...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
G Juckel
The editors of Pharmacopsychiatry have decided in 2016 to prepare special issues regularly in order provide our readers volumes of the journal with a thematic focus 1. The first such special issue is dedicated to the field of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Many young patients are treated with psychotherapeutic, but also pharmacotherapeutic, methods worldwide. Most of our psychopharmacological agents are not approved by the federal institutions for persons under 18 years old. However, severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, ADHD, and bipolar disorder frequently require pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
B Vitiello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Soyka, M Friede, J Schnitker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
L Kashani, S Eslatmanesh, N Saedi, N Niroomand, M Ebrahimi, M Hosseinian, T Foroughifar, S Salimi, S Akhondzadeh
Introduction: Postpartum depression is a common mental health problem that is associated with maternal suffering. The aim of this double-blind clinical trial was to compare safety and efficacy of saffron and fluoxetine in treatment of mild to moderate postpartum depression. Methods: This was a 6-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Subjects were women aged 18-45 years with mild to moderate postpartum depression who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS 17-item) score≤18. Eligible participants were randomized to receive either a capsule of saffron (15 mg capsule) or fluoxetine (20 mg capsule) twice daily for 6 weeks...
September 5, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
T Takeuchi, S Takenoshita, F Taka, M Nakao, K Nomura
Introduction: Very few studies have explored the adverse effect of psychotropic drugs worldwide. Methods: This study analyzed 1 813 suicide-related drug reports involving 553 patients collected from the Japanese National Adverse Drug Report Database between October 2001 and January 2012 to investigate psychotropic drugs associated with completed suicide vs. other suicide-related behaviors, including ideation and self-injury. The drugs investigated included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and other drugs...
September 5, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
K Kamei, T Terao, Y Katayama, K Hatano, K Kodama, M Shirahama, A Sakai, H Hirakawa, Y Mizokami, I Shiotsuki, N Ishii, Y Inoue
Introduction: Lamotrigine is one of several mood stabilizers and its effects for the treatment and prevention of depressive episodes, particularly in bipolar disorder, are generally accepted. Although the findings about a therapeutic window of lamotrigine are yet to be determined, it seems important to obtain information on individual pharmacokinetic peculiarities. This study was conducted to formulate the predictive model of plasma lamotrigine levels. Methods: Using the data of 47 patients whose lamotrigine levels, liver function, and renal function were measured, predictive models of lamotrigine levels were formulated by stepwise multiple regression analyses...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
U J Müller, F Schuermann, H Dobrowolny, T Frodl, B Bogerts, S Mohr, J Steiner
Introduction: Despite the fact, that symptom-triggered alcohol withdrawal treatment is recommended by German guidelines on alcoholism, many hospitals continue to use fixed-schedule protocols, as they have been successfully applied for many years. Methods: This retrospective study compared all patients' records of alcohol withdrawal treatment from October 2010 to November 2011 at Magdeburg's University Department of Psychiatry (n=120). A symptom-triggered protocol with clomethiazole (AESB, n=46) was used in parallel with the existing fixed-schedule protocol with diazepam (n=74)...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
C H Ng, C Bousman, D J Smith, N Dowling, K Byron, J King, J Sarris
No studies to date have evaluated SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 genetic polymorphisms influencing antidepressant response to desvenlafaxine. We conducted an 8-week, open-label, prospective pilot study in 35 patients with major depressive disorder to assess the effects of genetic variations in SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 on both efficacy and side effect profile of desvenlafaxine. Results revealed that homozygotes for the SLC6A4 HTTLPR S allele showed a 33% HDRS reduction compared to a 58% reduction for L allele carriers (p=0.037)...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Y P Ooi, S J Weng, J Kossowsky, H Gerger, M Sung
Aim: Oxytocin presents an exciting potential to target the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pharmacologically in an easily administered, cost-effective form with possibly minimal adverse effects. But, there are still major gaps in this area of research. This paper reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of oxytocin administration on social cognition and restricted, repetitive behaviors in individuals with an ASD. Method: Electronic literature searches were conducted from PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE for RCTs published through June 2015...
August 30, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Deuschle, A Böhringer, A Meyer-Lindenberg, A Sartorius
Introduction: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition with delirium, vegetative and neuromuscular symptoms as well as neural hyperexcitability. The main causes are combinations of serotonergic drugs, excessive dosages of serotonergic agents or the recreational use of certain drugs. Methods and Results: We report a case of a patient who started developing serotonin syndrome after a cumulative dose of only 900 mg lithium carbonate given in temporal association with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
July 26, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
S Langgartner, W Strube, T Oviedo, M Hansbauer, S Karch, S Wirth, P Falkai, A Hasan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
F J Zamora Rodríguez, C Benítez Vega, M R Sánchez-Waisen Hernández, J A Guisado Macías, F J Vaz Leal
Introduction: Paliperidone palmitate treatment of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is effective and well tolerated, but there is almost no data on its safety during pregnancy. Case report: An analysis is made of the safety and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate treatment throughout the gestation period in a 34-year-old patient diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. Discussion: Paliperidone palmitate treatment throughout the gestation period was safe and well tolerated by both mother and foetus, there being no malformations or other perinatal complications in the newborn to date...
July 14, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
F M Daray, D Rodante, L G Carosella, M E Silva, M Martínez, M V Fernández Busch, D F Faccone, R P Rothlin, P C Maffía
Introduction: The HTR2C gene is an important candidate in pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). However, inconsistent results have been obtained. The present study investigated the association between -759C>T, functional polymorphism of the HTR2C receptor, and AIWG. Methods: A prospective cohort of 48 female inpatients with schizophrenia and related illness treated according to normal clinical practice with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, and olanzapine were evaluated...
July 14, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
A Pałasz, E Rojczyk, A Suszka-Świtek, R Wiaderkiewicz
Introduction: Kisspeptin has a multidirectional neuroendocrinal activity. It is especially considered to be a central regulator of reproductive function. Numerous data proved that neuroleptic administration may affect the peptidergic signaling in the various brain structures. However, there is no information concerning the relationship between treatment with neuroleptics and brain kisspeptin mRNA expression. Methods: We assessed the kisspeptin mRNA level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats shortly and chronically (28 days) treated with haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and olanzapine using a quantitative Real-Time PCR method...
July 7, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
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