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R Colle, D de Larminat, S Rotenberg, F Hozer, P Hardy, C Verstuyft, B Fève, E Corruble
Introduction: Selective agonists of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We reviewed their efficacy and safety for the treatment of major depression and the association of their potential antidepressant effects with changes in biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation. Methods: From 8 studies, 4 open-label trials, and 4 randomized controlled trials (RCT) (3 vs. placebo and 1 vs. metformin), 448 patients with major depression were included, of which 209 patients received PPAR-γ agonists (pioglitazone or rosiglitazone) for 6-12 weeks, either alone or in add-on therapy to conventional treatments...
December 15, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
G Juckel
The editors of Pharmacopsychiatry have decided in 2016 to prepare special issues regularly in order provide our readers volumes of the journal with a thematic focus 1. The first such special issue is dedicated to the field of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Many young patients are treated with psychotherapeutic, but also pharmacotherapeutic, methods worldwide. Most of our psychopharmacological agents are not approved by the federal institutions for persons under 18 years old. However, severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, ADHD, and bipolar disorder frequently require pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
B Vitiello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Lambert, V Niehaus, C Correll
This review aims to describe the importance of i) detecting individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (schizophrenia) or bipolar disorder, especially in children and adolescents, in order to enable early intervention, and ii) evaluating different intervention strategies, especially pharmacotherapy, during the subsyndromal or "prodromal" stages of these severe and often debilitating disorders. The different approaches regarding the psychotic and bipolar clinical high-risk state are discussed, including reasons and evidence for early (pharmacological) intervention and risks of treatment vs...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
E Trinczek, M Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M Haberhausen, C J Bachmann
Introduction: Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat, which often leads to the initiation of clozapine treatment. Studies in adults have shown that the initiation of clozapine treatment is often delayed. There is a lack of studies concerning the initiation of clozapine in children and adolescents with EOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the time span from first EOS-related psychiatric hospitalization to clozapine initiation. Methods: We retrospectively studied a consecutive cohort of children and adolescents with EOS and first-time clozapine prescriptions from a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatric center in Germany...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Holtmann, B G Schimmelmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
S Langgartner, W Strube, T Oviedo, M Hansbauer, S Karch, S Wirth, P Falkai, A Hasan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Soyka, M Friede, J Schnitker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
F Naudet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
A Blázquez, P Gassó, S Mas, M T Plana, A Lafuente, L Lázaro
Introduction: Differences in response to fluoxetine (FLX) may be influenced by certain genes that are involved in FLX transportation (ABCB1). We examined remission and recovery from the index episode in a cohort of patients treated with FLX, and also investigated associations between genetic variants in ABCB1 and remission, recovery, and suicide risk. Methods: This was a naturalistic 1-year follow-up study of 46 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). At 12 months they underwent a diagnostic interview with the K-SADS-PL...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
A Ghajar, S M Neishabouri, N Velayati, L Jahangard, N Matinnia, M Haghighi, A Ghaleiha, M Afarideh, S Salimi, A Meysamie, S Akhondzadeh
Introduction: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has demonstrated antidepressant effects in clinical studies and extensive anxiolytic effects in experimental animal models. Methods: 66 patients with major depressive disorder accompanied by anxious distress were randomly assigned to receive either saffron (30 mg/day) or citalopram (40 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) were used to assess treatment effect during the trial. Results: 60 participants finished the study...
October 4, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
J Fujioi, K Iwamoto, M Banno, T Kikuchi, B Aleksic, N Ozaki
Introduction: Although adjunctive aripiprazole improves hyperprolactinemia, sufficient evidence for its effects on sexual dysfunction has not been obtained. We assessed the usefulness of adjunctive aripiprazole for schizophrenia with sexual dysfunction. Methods: 22 Japanese schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunction were enrolled, and 19 of them completed the study. Aripiprazole was administrated in a flexible titration schedule to participants according to the judgment of each doctor, and patients were followed for 24 weeks...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
L Kashani, S Eslatmanesh, N Saedi, N Niroomand, M Ebrahimi, M Hosseinian, T Foroughifar, S Salimi, S Akhondzadeh
Introduction: Postpartum depression is a common mental health problem that is associated with maternal suffering. The aim of this double-blind clinical trial was to compare safety and efficacy of saffron and fluoxetine in treatment of mild to moderate postpartum depression. Methods: This was a 6-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Subjects were women aged 18-45 years with mild to moderate postpartum depression who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS 17-item) score≤18. Eligible participants were randomized to receive either a capsule of saffron (15 mg capsule) or fluoxetine (20 mg capsule) twice daily for 6 weeks...
September 5, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
T Takeuchi, S Takenoshita, F Taka, M Nakao, K Nomura
Introduction: Very few studies have explored the adverse effect of psychotropic drugs worldwide. Methods: This study analyzed 1 813 suicide-related drug reports involving 553 patients collected from the Japanese National Adverse Drug Report Database between October 2001 and January 2012 to investigate psychotropic drugs associated with completed suicide vs. other suicide-related behaviors, including ideation and self-injury. The drugs investigated included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and other drugs...
September 5, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
N Sarubin, T C Baghai, J M Lima-Ojeda, D Melchner, H Hallof-Buestrich, L Wolf, S Hilbert, V M Milenkovic, C H Wetzel, R Rupprecht, C Nothdurfter
Introduction: A promising candidate in the field of pharmacological treatment options regarding major depressive disorder (MDD) is the mitochondrial translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO). TSPO is crucial for neurosteroid synthesis, which is in turn important for the regulation of emotions. It has already been shown that TSPO expression in platelets of depressed patients is reduced compared to healthy subjects. Methods: We measured TSPO levels in platelets of 37 depressed patients before and after 6 weeks of pharmacological treatment to test the hypotheses that i) such treatment would increase TSPO expression and ii) that this increase would be correlated with therapeutic response...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
W Yu, X Sun, Y Li, M Li, K Wang, H Li
Aim: To investigate the population pharmacokinetics (PK) model of lithium carbonate in young male healthy Chinese subjects. Methods: This study was conducted using a 2-period crossover design. 20 healthy male subjects received lithium carbonate tablets from 2 different Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturers. Plasma samples were obtained by blood sampling over 72 h in each period. Population PK analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects model (NONMEM) software. The final models were validated using bootstrap and visual predictive check (VPC) approaches...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
K Kamei, T Terao, Y Katayama, K Hatano, K Kodama, M Shirahama, A Sakai, H Hirakawa, Y Mizokami, I Shiotsuki, N Ishii, Y Inoue
Introduction: Lamotrigine is one of several mood stabilizers and its effects for the treatment and prevention of depressive episodes, particularly in bipolar disorder, are generally accepted. Although the findings about a therapeutic window of lamotrigine are yet to be determined, it seems important to obtain information on individual pharmacokinetic peculiarities. This study was conducted to formulate the predictive model of plasma lamotrigine levels. Methods: Using the data of 47 patients whose lamotrigine levels, liver function, and renal function were measured, predictive models of lamotrigine levels were formulated by stepwise multiple regression analyses...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
D Kamp, M Paschali, C Lange-Asschenfeldt
Hypothermia is a potentially life-threatening side effect of antipsychotic drugs, especially those with strong 5-HT2 antagonist properties. However, the exact underlying mechanism is still under debate. We discuss a case of hypothermia following pipamperone treatment in an elderly female inpatient with Alzheimer's disease, which occurred at day 4 after medication onset and vanished after dose reduction. Thus, this case demonstrates 1) the importance of monitoring body temperature even in low-potency antipsychotics, at least in the elderly, and 2) that in some cases, dose reduction may be a sufficient countermeasure...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
U J Müller, F Schuermann, H Dobrowolny, T Frodl, B Bogerts, S Mohr, J Steiner
Introduction: Despite the fact, that symptom-triggered alcohol withdrawal treatment is recommended by German guidelines on alcoholism, many hospitals continue to use fixed-schedule protocols, as they have been successfully applied for many years. Methods: This retrospective study compared all patients' records of alcohol withdrawal treatment from October 2010 to November 2011 at Magdeburg's University Department of Psychiatry (n=120). A symptom-triggered protocol with clomethiazole (AESB, n=46) was used in parallel with the existing fixed-schedule protocol with diazepam (n=74)...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
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