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Michael Bauer, A John Rush, Roland Ricken, Maximilian Pilhatsch, Mazda Adli
In spite of multiple new treatment options, chronic and treatment refractory courses still are a major challenge in the treatment of depression. Providing algorithm-guided antidepressant treatments is considered an important strategy to optimize treatment delivery and avoid or overcome treatment-resistant courses of major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical benefits of algorithms in the treatment of inpatients with MDD have been investigated in large-scale, randomized controlled trials. Results showed that a stepwise treatment regimen (algorithm) with critical decision points at the end of each treatment step based on standardized and systematic measurements of response and an algorithm-guided decision-making process increases the chances of achieving remission and optimizes prescription behaviors for antidepressants...
July 9, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Michael Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Emanuel Severus, Cathrin Sauer, Michael Bauer, Michael Ostacher, Ion-George Anghelescu
INTRODUCTION: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were developed to draw rather unbiased conclusions regarding the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of a major depressive episode (internal validity), mostly with the purpose of formal approval of new compounds in this indication. However, at the same time, data suggest that the very process of randomization and blinded administrations of placebo will have a significant impact on the efficacy of the antidepressant tested and therefore may limit the external validity of results obtained from this type of studies...
July 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Laura Kranaster, Johanna Badstübner, Suna Su Aksay, Jan Malte Bumb, Rayan Suliman, Michael Neumaier, Alexander Sartorius
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a remarkably safe procedure. However, there might exist a subgroup of patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. The cardiac-specific enzymes high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (hscTnI) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured before and after ECT in 23 patients. No relevant increase of hscTnI after ECT was found. Mean NT-proBNP levels were higher after ECT and in three patients a new NT-proBNP elevation after ECT was identified...
July 2, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Laina Tatsumi, Takefumi Suzuki, Kazuo Yamada, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
INTRODUCTION: Kampo is a Japanese traditional medicinal system and is represented by unity of mind and body. It is originally based upon Chinese traditional medicine but has uniquely developed in Japan. METHODS: A narrative review on the use of Kampo for psychiatric conditions is provided. RESULTS: Kampo formula is a combination of several crude ingredients; most derive from natural plants and some from animals and minerals. These Kampo formulae are widely prescribed in almost all medical disciplines, including psychiatry, in Japan; they have been used for various psychiatric disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders...
June 25, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Werner Felber, Michael Bauer, Ute Lewitzka, Bruno Müller-Oerlinghausen
Although lithium's serendipitous discovery as a medication for depression dates back more than 200 years, the first scientific evidence that it prevents mania and depression arose only in the 1960s. However, at that time there was a lack of knowledge about how to administer and monitor lithium therapy safely and properly. The lithium clinics in Dresden and Berlin were remarkably similar in their beginnings in the late 1960s regarding patient numbers and scientific expertise without being aware of one another due to the Iron Curtain separating Germany into a western and eastern part until 1990...
June 14, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Emanuel Severus, Michael Bauer, John Geddes
For more than 40 years, lithium has been the gold standard in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorders. In the course of the last 15 years, other drugs have been approved in this indication and are widely used in clinical practice at the expense of lithium. New research from the last few years, however, indicates that lithium is still the first-line treatment in this indication. Against this background and lithium's proven acute antimanic efficacy, we should perhaps be using lithium more regularly (in combination with an atypical antipsychotic, if necessary) right from the start for the acute treatment of a manic episode and, once remission has been achieved and euthymia maintained during continuation treatment, to regularly taper off the atypical antipsychotic, if possible, and continue with lithium as monotherapy for prophylactic treatment...
June 13, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Marylou Selo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Fusaka Minami, Joseph Zohar, Takefumi Suzuki, Teruki Koizumi, Masaru Mimura, Gohei Yagi, Hiroyuki Uchida
INTRODUCTION: While the current nomenclature of psychotropic drugs is disease-based, their approved indications do not always match their classifications. METHODS: Information on approved indications of "second-generation antipsychotics" and "newer antidepressants" that are available in the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), France, Germany, and Japan were extracted from their packet inserts. RESULTS: A significant proportion of "atypical antipsychotics" were approved for psychiatric conditions other than psychotic disorders (i...
May 23, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Susanne Englisch, Hanna Sophie Jung, Antje Lewien, Anna Becker, Ulrike Nowak, Hanna Braun, Sarah Eisenacher, Jascha Thiem, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking influences response to antidepressant treatment. It accelerates the metabolism of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) subtypes, including CYP1A2, and therefore bears the risk of pharmacokinetic interactions with psychotropic drugs using that pathway. Agomelatine is a substrate of CYP1A2; the association between nicotine use and agomelatine dosage, however, has never been studied before. METHODS: Smoking habits were correlated with agomelatine doses and treatment outcomes in a sample of 27 patients with lifetime diagnoses within the schizophrenia spectrum who received agomelatine treatment in addition to their stable antipsychotic treatment regimen because of depressive symptoms...
May 7, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
John R Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Floor van Dijk, Iris de Wit, Matthijs Blankers, Iris Sommer, Lieuwe de Haan
INTRODUCTION: We present an online decision aid to involve patients with a psychotic disorder in shared decision-making concerning the selection of antipsychotic medication. METHOD: Patients selected effectiveness and adverse effects criteria from the Subject's Response to Antipsychotics-34 questionnaire. Numerical data from meta-analyses, clinical trial data, receptor affinities and expert opinions were used to rank antipsychotics on each criterion. When using the the tool, patients indicate on a 5-point Likert scale how they value each (adverse) effect...
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Kazunari Yoshida, Hiroyuki Uchida, Takefumi Suzuki, Masahiro Watanabe, Nariyasu Yoshino, Hitoshi Houchi, Masaru Mimura, Noriyasu Fukuoka
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary for lithium, but clinical application of several prediction strategies is still limited because of insufficient predictive accuracy. We herein proposed a suitable model, using creatinine clearance (CLcr)-based lithium clearance (Li-CL). METHODS: Patients receiving lithium provided the following information: serum lithium and creatinine concentrations, time of blood draw, dosing regimen, concomitant medications, and demographics...
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Xian-Bin Li, Wei Zheng, Yu-Ping Ning, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Chuan-Yue Wang, Yu-Tao Xiang
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to systematically review the efficacy and safety of adjunctive erythropoietin (EPO) in treating cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Two evaluators independently and systematically searched and selected studies, extracted data, and conducted quality assessment. RESULTS: Four RCTs with 144 patients (71 in the EPO group and 73 in the placebo group) met the study entry criteria...
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Klara Meister, Georg Juckel
INTRODUCTION: Despite empirical evidence for the efficacy of body-oriented yoga as add-on treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), the specific mechanisms by which yoga leads to therapeutic changes remain unclear. By means of a systematic review, we evaluate how the field is progressing in its empirical investigation of mechanisms of change in yoga for MDD. METHODS: To identify relevant studies, a systematic search was conducted. RESULTS: The search produced 441 articles, of which 5 were included, that empirically examined 2 psychological mechanisms (mindfulness, rumination) and 3 biological mechanisms (vagal control, heart rate variability [HRV], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], cortisol)...
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Shahin Akhondzadeh, Alireza Ghajar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Leonardo Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
INTRODUCTION: Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression in major depressive (MDD) and bipolar (BD) disorders, especially with associated behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. A rare intervention with evidence of suicide risk-reducing as well as mood-stabilizing effects in mood disorder patients is lithium. METHODS: We reviewed available research evidence on associations of long-term treatment with lithium with risk of suicidal behavior. We meta-analyzed 12 randomized trials in 10 reports (with at least 1 suicide in either treatment arm) including both BD and MDD subjects, with particular attention to comparisons of lithium with placebo or other pharmacological treatments...
April 19, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Chia-Jui Tsai, Wei-Che Chiu, Chia-Ju Chen, Pau-Chung Chen, Roger S McIntyre, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, concern about safety of antidepressants has been raised but the risk between antidepressants and lung cancer has not yet been established. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted by using a nationwide database in Taiwan. The case groups were new onset lung cancer diagnosis during 1999-2008 and age- and gender-matched controls were selected among those without any cancer. The cumulative exposure dose before the lung cancer diagnosis was added and risks were calculated according to the levels of defined daily dose and classes of antidepressants...
April 16, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Lisa Deuse, Olga Wudarczyk, Lena Rademacher, Peter Kaleta, Wolfram Karges, Stella Kacheva, Gerhard Gründer, Sarah E Lammertz
INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical oxytocin (OT) administration is being tested as a novel treatment for social deficits in various psychiatric populations. However, little is known about how naturally occurring variation in peripheral OT relates to differences in social cognition. This study investigates whether healthy individuals with very high or very low levels of empathy differ in endogenous OT and whether OT plasma levels can predict performance in a mentalizing task. METHODS: 40 healthy men were included based upon their score above the 85th or below the 15th percentile of the empathy quotient inventory 1...
March 28, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
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