journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Medicine and Sport Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578329/the-athlete-biological-passport-how-to-personalize-anti-doping-testing-across-an-athlete-s-career
#1
Neil Robinson, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yorck Olaf Schumacher
For decades, drug testing has been the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities. The availability in the 1980s of substances identical to those produced by the human body, including the "big 3" (erythropoietin, testosterone, and growth hormone), necessitated a new paradigm in anti-doping. The athlete biological passport (ABP) is a new paradigm, complementary to traditional drug testing, based on the personalized monitoring of doping biomarkers. Athletes who abuse doping substances do so to trigger physiological changes that provide performance enhancement...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578328/gene-and-cell-doping-the-new-frontier-beyond-myth-or-reality
#2
Elmo W I Neuberger, Perikles Simon
The advent of gene transfer technologies in clinical studies aroused concerns that these technologies will be misused for performance-enhancing purposes in sports. However, during the last 2 decades, the field of gene therapy has taken a long and winding road with just a few gene therapeutic drugs demonstrating clinical benefits in humans. The current state of gene therapy is that viral vector-mediated gene transfer shows the now long-awaited initial success for safe, and in some cases efficient, gene transfer in clinical trials...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571038/how-will-the-legal-and-sport-environment-influence-a-future-code
#3
Olivier Niggli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571037/conclusion-and-perspectives
#4
David Howman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571033/how-to-develop-intelligence-gathering-in-efficient-and-practical-anti-doping-activities
#5
Mathieu Holz, Jack Robertson
Prior to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the fight against doping in sport was not unified; instead, it relied on individual approaches established by various stakeholders to make it effective. The scandal of the Festina Affair, during the Tour de France 1998, and other drug doping scandals revealed the ineffectiveness and inadequacy of such an approach. The resulting media scandal raised public authorities' awareness about the necessity to deal with doping in sport with a harmonized and a more effective approach...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571028/integration-of-the-forensic-dimension-into-anti-doping-strategies
#6
François Marclay, Martial Saugy
Traditionally, research in anti-doping has been stimulated by the need for technological improvements to accommodate the expansion of the list of prohibited substances and methods. Nevertheless, in recent years, anti-doping found itself at a crossroads due to the increasing complexity and constant refinement of doping methods. As illustrated by the 2012 USADA (United States Anti-Doping Agency) versus Lance Armstrong case, a change in paradigm was necessary. The exploration of new scientific avenues to understand the mechanisms of doping and pinpoint its practice was most needed to allow designing more efficient preventive or disruptive strategies...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571027/structure-and-development-of-the-list-of-prohibited-substances-and-methods
#7
Audrey Kinahan, Richard Budgett, Irene Mazzoni
The list of prohibited substances and methods (the List) is the international standard that determines what is prohibited in sport both in- and out-of-competition. Since 2004, the official text of the List is produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the international independent organization responsible for promoting, coordinating, and monitoring the fight against doping in sport. Originally based on the prohibited lists established by the International Olympic Committee, the List has evolved to incorporate new doping trends, distinguish permitted from prohibited routes of administration, and adjust to new analytical and pharmacological breakthroughs...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571026/sport-society-and-anti-doping-policy-an-ethical-overview
#8
Andrew J Bloodworth, Mike McNamee
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the philosophical and ethical underpinnings of anti-doping policy. The nature of sport and its gratuitous logic is explored. The doping rules in sport, such as the Prohibited List, are ways of drawing a line to facilitate a certain sort of competition. Sports can be understood as a means of testing the natural physical abilities of the athlete, combined with the hard work they put into improving their performance. A test promoted by the anti-doping laws...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571025/the-development-of-the-world-anti-doping-code
#9
Richard Young
This chapter addresses both the development and substance of the World Anti-Doping Code, which came into effect in 2003, as well as the subsequent Code amendments, which came into effect in 2009 and 2015. Through an extensive process of stakeholder input and collaboration, the World Anti-Doping Code has transformed the hodgepodge of inconsistent and competing pre-2003 anti-doping rules into a harmonized and effective approach to anti-doping. The Code, as amended, is now widely recognized worldwide as the gold standard in anti-doping...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571023/is-the-fight-against-doping-in-sport-a-legal-minefield-like-any-other
#10
Ulrich Haas
In the fight against doping, creating a level playing field across all sports is very challenging from a legal perspective. A harmonized approach presupposes first and foremost a supreme regulatory authority on a global level. This task cannot be attributed to the public sector, because there is no supranational authority of public international law capable of dealing with it. Thus, responsibility has to be assumed by a private law entity. This in turn requires complicated contractual agreements by which duties and responsibilities are transferred from the individual to the national level and from there to the top of the pyramid...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571022/therapeutic-use-exemptions
#11
David Gerrard, Andrew Pipe
The introduction, in 2004, of the World Anti-Doping Code and a standardized "prohibited list" of substances and methods proscribed in sport represented a consistent, international response to the escalating challenge of drug misuse in contemporary sport. Simultaneously, it was recognized that athletes experiencing illness or injury might legitimately require the use of "prohibited" medications or procedures, and the concept of the "therapeutic use exemption" (TUE) was introduced. The mechanisms of the TUE process are carefully defined and described in a specific WADA "international standard" (IS)...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571021/brief-history-of-anti-doping
#12
Arne Ljungqvist
The fight against doping in sport as we know it today commenced by the creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission in 1961 following the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games the year before. After a slow start, the fight got under way as from the early 1970s under the leadership of the IOC and of the International Association of Athletics Federations. Despite a lack of understanding and weak support even from the sports community, a series of measures were taken during the 1970s and 1980s which still form cornerstones of today's anti-doping strategy...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571018/achievements-and-challenges-in-anti-doping-research
#13
Larry D Bowers, Xavier Bigard
The most important element in achieving athlete compliance with anti-doping rules is the certainty of detection. Thus, scientific research plays a mission critical role in achieving clean competition. Many factors contribute to the advances in detection. Incremental advances in the ability to detect prohibited substances and methods, and identification of long-lived metabolites continue to lengthen detection windows. While the athlete biological passport hematological and steroidal modules hold great promise, experience shows that new research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the approach for current doping techniques...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571017/can-we-better-integrate-the-role-of-anti-doping-in-sports-and-society-a-psychological-approach-to-contemporary-value-based-prevention
#14
Andrea Petróczi, Paul Norman, Sebastian Brueckner
In sport, a wide array of substances with established or putative performance-enhancing properties is used. Most substances are fully acceptable, whilst a defined set, revised annually, is prohibited; thus, using any of these prohibited substances is declared as cheating. In the increasingly tolerant culture of pharmacological and technical human enhancements, the traditional normative approach to anti-doping, which involves telling athletes what they cannot do to improve their athletic ability and performance, diverges from the otherwise positive values attached to human improvement and enhancement in society...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571016/next-generation-omics-approaches-in-the-fight-against-blood-doping
#15
Guan Wang, Antonia Karanikolou, Ioanna Verdouka, Theodore Friedmann, Yannis Pitsiladis
Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), blood manipulations such as the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusions are a well-known method used by athletes to enhance performance. Direct detection of illicit blood manipulation has been partially successful due to the short detection window of the substances/methods, sample collection timing, and the use of sophisticated masking strategies. In response, WADA introduced the athlete biological passport (ABP) in 2009, which is an individualised longitudinal monitoring approach that tests primarily haematologic biomarkers of doping in order to identify atypical variability in response(s) in athletes, highlighting a potential doping violation...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571014/a-moral-foundation-for-anti-doping-how-far-have-we-progressed-where-are-the-limits
#16
Thomas H Murray
Clarity about the ethical justification of anti-doping is essential. In its absence, critics multiply and confusion abounds. Three broad reasons are typically offered in anti-doping's defense: to protect athletes' health; to promote fairness; and to preserve meaning and values in sport - what the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Code refers to as the spirit of sport. Protecting health is itself an important value, but many sports encourage athletes to take significant risks. The case against doping is buttressed by concern for athletes' health, but it cannot be the sole foundation...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571013/education-in-anti-doping-the-art-of-self-imposed-constraints
#17
Sigmund Loland
The pillars of anti-doping are detection, deterrence, and prevention. Detection takes the form of testing for banned substances. Deterrence builds on testing and gathering evidence. Athletes who test positive are exposed to penalties. The main tool of prevention is education. Education takes many forms and can be implemented in many ways. This chapter addresses the nature and challenges of current anti-doping education. Firstly, general goals of education and their connection to sport are discussed. Secondly, three normative interpretations of sport are presented, and their implications for anti-doping education are examined...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571012/challenges-in-modern-anti-doping-analytical-science
#18
Christiane Ayotte, John Miller, Mario Thevis
The challenges facing modern anti-doping analytical science are increasingly complex given the expansion of target drug substances, as the pharmaceutical industry introduces more novel therapeutic compounds and the internet offers designer drugs to improve performance. The technical challenges are manifold, including, for example, the need for advanced instrumentation for greater speed of analyses and increased sensitivity, specific techniques capable of distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous metabolites, or biological assays for the detection of peptide hormones or their markers, all of which require an important investment from the laboratories and recruitment of highly specialized scientific personnel...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287081/preliminaries
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287080/genetic-testing-for-sports-performance-responses-to-training-and-injury-risk-practical-and-ethical-considerations
#20
Alun G Williams, Henning Wackerhage, Stephen H Day
This paper addresses practical and ethical considerations regarding genetic tests to predict performance and/or risk of exercise-related injury or illness. Various people might wish to conduct sport-related genetic tests for a variety of reasons. For example, an individual might seek personal genetic information to help guide their own sport participation. A sports coach might wish to test young athletes to aid team selection or individualize training. A physician might want to predict the risk of injury or illness in athletes and advise regarding selection or preventative measures...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
journal
journal
28723
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"