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Medicine and Sport Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287081/preliminaries
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287080/genetic-testing-for-sports-performance-responses-to-training-and-injury-risk-practical-and-ethical-considerations
#2
Alun G Williams, Henning Wackerhage, Stephen H Day
This paper addresses practical and ethical considerations regarding genetic tests to predict performance and/or risk of exercise-related injury or illness. Various people might wish to conduct sport-related genetic tests for a variety of reasons. For example, an individual might seek personal genetic information to help guide their own sport participation. A sports coach might wish to test young athletes to aid team selection or individualize training. A physician might want to predict the risk of injury or illness in athletes and advise regarding selection or preventative measures...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287079/genetics-of-musculoskeletal-exercise-related-phenotypes
#3
Malcolm Collins, Kevin O''Connell, Michael Posthumus
Genetic factors have been shown to associate with various exercise-related phenotypes, including exercise performance, adaptation to training and sports injuries. The genes implicated in the pathogenesis of musculoskeletal soft-tissue injuries all code for either structural components or regulatory components of the extracellular matrix. It has been hypothesized that these genetic associations with injuries are due to genetically regulated changes in mechanical properties of musculoskeletal soft tissue. Thus, the objective of this review is to highlight the research which has advanced our understanding of how genetic variation within these structural genes affects the properties of our connective tissue...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287078/genes-and-musculoskeletal-soft-tissue-injuries
#4
Masouda Rahim, Malcolm Collins, Alison September
There is mounting evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to the susceptibility of sustaining a musculoskeletal soft-tissue injury. To date, more than 70 loci have been implicated in several injury profiles. The genes implicated through these loci encode a broad spectrum of matrix proteins including collagens and non-collagens. The large majority of these studies have followed a candidate gene case-control study design. A small proportion of these loci have been repeated in independent studies, of which some have included different musculoskeletal injuries...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287077/the-future-of-genomic-research-in-athletic-performance-and-adaptation-to-training
#5
Guan Wang, Masashi Tanaka, Nir Eynon, Kathryn N North, Alun G Williams, Malcolm Collins, Colin N Moran, Steven L Britton, Noriyuki Fuku, Euan A Ashley, Vassilis Klissouras, Alejandro Lucia, Ildus I Ahmetov, Eco de Geus, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Yannis P Pitsiladis
Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, an individual's trainability and injury predisposition, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies focusing predominantly on genotyping a limited number of genetic variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts has not generated results of practical significance. Hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will in the future provide more comprehensive coverage and in-depth understanding of the biology underlying sports-related traits and related genetic mechanisms...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287076/genes-and-athletic-performance-an-update
#6
Ildus I Ahmetov, Emiliya S Egorova, Leysan J Gabdrakhmanova, Olga N Fedotovskaya
Humans vary in their ability to achieve success in sports, and this variability mostly depends on genetic factors. The main goal of this work was to review the current progress in the understanding of genetic determinism of athlete status and to describe some novel and important DNA polymorphisms that may underlie differences in the potential to be an elite athlete. In the past 19 years, at least 155 genetic markers (located within almost all chromosomes and mtDNA) were found to be linked to elite athlete status (93 endurance-related genetic markers and 62 power/strength-related genetic markers)...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287075/recent-research-in-the-genetics-of-exercise-training-adaptation
#7
Andrew C Venezia, Stephen M Roth
In the present review, we focus on evaluating the state of the literature in the area of genetic aspects of exercise training adaptation, in particular focusing on findings published since 2009. Our focus is primarily on studies examining genetic polymorphisms and their association with variability in training responses for a number of exercise-related traits, including aerobic fitness, hemodynamic variables, metabolic traits, body composition and obesity, and muscular strength and size. Very few large-scale studies are available to provide the quality scientific evidence needed to conclusively identify specific genetic factors that contribute to exercise training adaptations...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287074/nature-versus-nurture-in-determining-athletic-ability
#8
Xu Yan, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Ronnie Lidor, Nir Eynon
This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27287073/core-concepts-in-human-genetics-understanding-the-complex-phenotype-of-sport-performance-and-susceptibility-to-sport-injury
#9
William T Gibson
High-throughput sequencing of multiple human exomes and genomes is rapidly identifying rare genetic variants that cause or contribute to disease. Microarray-based methodologies have also shed light onto the genes that contribute to common, non-disease human traits such as hair and eye colour. Sport scientists should keep in mind several things when interpreting the literature, and when designing their own genetic studies. First of all, most genetic association methods are more powerful for detecting disease phenotypes (such as susceptibility to injury) than they are for detecting healthy phenotypes (such as sport performance)...
2016: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226809/exercise-for-people-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Ian W Gallen
Exercise in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) can produce large changes in blood glucose, with hypo- and hyperglycaemia before and following exercise. Different exercise types, intensity and duration have significantly different effects on blood glucose control, and on the endocrine response to exercise. Exercise performance can also be impaired in T1DM. There have been significant recent improvements in the knowledge of what underlies these changes and in the appropriate management to support the maintenance of euglycaemia...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226808/public-health-recommendations-for-physical-activity-in-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Estelle Victoria Lambert, Fiona Bull
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226807/diabetes-and-exercise-in-the-elderly
#12
REVIEW
Eduardo Ferriolli, Fernanda Pinheiro Amador S Pessanha, Juliana Cristina Lemos S Marchesi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the elderly. Age-associated changes in body composition, obesity and sedentary behavior are some of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of diabetes in this population. Elderly patients experience important and specific issues, including the association of comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, use of many medications, the presence of dependencies and frailty. Physical activity has been shown to be as effective for the treatment of diabetes in the elderly as in younger patients, so that its practice must be strongly encouraged...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226806/physical-activity-in-children-prevention-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Elaine Rush, David Simmons
There is strong evidence that increased physical activity is beneficial for blood glucose homeostasis and the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This chapter takes a life course approach with an emphasis on the intrauterine and childhood stages of life. Firstly, growth and development at critical periods with a focus on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue; then, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered in relation to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The importance of the development of fundamental movement skills in early childhood for both physical fitness and also growth and development is emphasised...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226805/physical-activity-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Mireille N M van Poppel, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Michelle F Mottola
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy'. GDM is associated with several detrimental health consequences during pregnancy and delivery for both mother and baby. The largest public health impact of GDM is through its role on future diabetes in the mother and obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Physical activity (PA) is likely an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of GDM, given its known effectiveness in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226804/gene-physical-activity-interactions-and-their-impact-on-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Paul W Franks
Physical activity exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis that are channeled through our genes. Where variation in the target genes of physical activity exists, gene-physical activity interactions may occur, such that individual genetic profiles inflict differing physiological responses to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the biological mechanisms of how type 2 diabetes develops, which could open up new avenues for the development of novel treatments...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226803/the-effect-of-exercise-on-obesity-body-fat-distribution-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Julia H Goedecke, Lisa K Micklesfield
It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226802/mechanisms-in-exercise-induced-increase-in-glucose-disposal-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
REVIEW
Edward O Ojuka, Veeraj Goyaram
This chapter reviews current knowledge of the various signaling pathways that cause the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4)-containing vesicles to translocate from intracellular compartments of skeletal muscle cells to the plasma membrane in response to exercise. Specifically, the signaling cascades that arise from increases in AMP (adenosine monophosphate), nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca2+) are described. Evidence is provided that these signaling pathways converge with the insulin signaling cascade at: (a) aPKC (atypical protein kinase C), which signals via GTPases to remodel microtubules along which GLUT4-containing vesicles translocate, and (b) AS160 (a 160-kDa Akt substrate that has Rab-GTPase activity) to activate microtubule motor kinesin proteins that power vesicle translocation...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226801/interaction-between-lipid-availability-endurance-exercise-and-insulin-sensitivity
#18
REVIEW
Sean A Newsom, Simon Schenk
This chapter summarizes current knowledge regarding the interaction between lipid availability, endurance exercise, and insulin sensitivity. We discuss the role of lipid availability as a key mediator of insulin resistance in obesity, the proposed cellular mechanisms underlying this relationship, recent studies demonstrating that acute exercise protects against lipid-induced insulin resistance, how fatty acid partitioning may contribute to this protective effect of endurance exercise and finally remaining questions and future directions in the field...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226800/relationships-between-exercise-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Anna-Maria Joseph, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the body. Central to this process is oxidative metabolism, which is controlled by mitochondria. Therefore, defects in the biogenesis of this organelle can impact the ability of muscle to oxidize substrates and can have grave consequences on the action of insulin on glucose uptake. In healthy muscle, glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) are efficiently metabolized preventing the accumulation of harmful lipid by-products. In contrast, in pre-diabetic conditions, reduced oxidative capacity, high levels of reactive oxygen species, and chronic elevations in FFAs culminate in greater intramyocellular lipids and lipid metabolites that interfere with insulin signaling pathways, and contribute to lower insulin sensitivity...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25226799/exercise-interventions-to-prevent-and-manage-type-2-diabetes-physiological-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Flemming Dela, Clara Prats, Jørn Wulff Helge
Physical training is known to markedly increase insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This effect occurs predominantly in skeletal muscle and it has been shown in healthy individuals, people with impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanism/s behind this adaptation includes an increase in glucose delivery, as well as an increase in glucose transport into the myocytes, and increases in glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Furthermore, the capacity for glycogen synthesis increases with physical training...
2014: Medicine and Sport Science
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