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International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience

Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Gro H Mathisen, Else Marit Løberg, Ragnhild E Paulsen
Immediate early gene nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B), a nuclear receptor important for differentiation and apoptosis, is expressed in mice and rat cerebellum from an early stage of postnatal development. Following apoptotic stimuli NGFI-B translocates to mitochondria to initiate cell death processes. Controlled cell death is critical for correct cerebellar development. Immunohistochemical analysis of NGFI-B in sections of mice cerebella showed NGFI-B to be expressed in granule neurons in vivo at a time (P8-11) when apoptosis is known to occur...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Bo Chen, Xiaoyuan Deng, Bin Wang, Hongliang Liu
Propofol can induce acute neuronal apoptosis, neuronal loss or long-term cognitive impairment when exposed in neonatal rodents, but the mechanisms by which propofol induces developmental neurotoxicity are unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that propofol can increase the TNF-α level in the developing brain, but there is a lack of direct evidence to show whether TNF-α is partially or fully involved in propofol-induced neurotoxicity. The present study shows that propofol exposure in neonatal rats induces an increase of TNF-α in the cerebral spinal fluid, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira, Charles Francisco Ferreira, Carine Lampert, Danusa Mar Arcego, Ana Paula Toniazzo, Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi, Diego Carrilho da Silva, Eduardo Von Poser Toigo, Luisa Amalia Diehl, Rachel Krolow, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Carla Dalmaz
Neonatal handling (H) and maternal separation (MS) both induce changes in maternal care, but the contribution of these changes to the behavioral and neurochemical outcomes of the offspring remains unclear, as studies often find opposite results concerning the frequency of maternal behaviors, particularly in the MS paradigm. In this study, behavior displayed by H, MS and non-handled (NH) Wistar rat dams were observed during the first 10days after birth. A tentative assessment of the quality of maternal care was made, using a previously reported score that reflects behavior fragmentation and inconsistency...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mikaela Therrien, Rishel Vohnoutka, Edward Boumil, Mary Guaraldi, Sangmook Lee, Thomas B Shea
The nervous system is composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. One major class of inhibitory neurons release the neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABAergic inhibitory activity maintains the balance that is disrupted in conditions such as epilepsy. At least some GABAergic neurons are initially excitatory and undergo a developmental conversion to convert to inhibitory neurons. The mechanism(s) behind this conversion are thought to include a critical developmental increase in excitatory activity...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Susan Cohen, Xingrao Ke, Qiuli Liu, Qi Fu, Amber Majnik, Robert Lane
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Panayotis K Thanos, Jianmin Zhuo, Lisa Robison, Ronald Kim, Mala Ananth, Ilon Choai, Adam Grunseich, Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Foteini Delis, Teresa M Reyes
Birthweight is a marker for suboptimal fetal growth and development in utero. Offspring can be born large for gestational age (LGA), which is linked to maternal obesity or excessive gestational weight gain, as well as small for gestational age (SGA), arising from nutrient or calorie deficiency, placental dysfunction, or other maternal conditions (hypertension, infection). In humans, LGA and SGA babies are at an increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and social and mood disorders...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
June Bryan de la Peña, Hafiz Muhammad Ahsan, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Taeseon Woo, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Adolescence is a critical period for cigarette smoking. Studies have shown that adolescent smokers are more likely to become addicted, are less likely to quit, and are more prone to relapse. In the present study, we examined the affective symptoms experienced by adolescents during withdrawal from cigarette smoke exposure. Towards this goal, adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke, through an automated smoking machine, for 14 days. Then, cigarette smoke exposure was discontinued to induce spontaneous withdrawal...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Xiaosong Zhang, Qi Wang, Yan Wang, Jingmin Hu, Han Jiang, Wenwen Cheng, Yuchao Ma, Mengxi Liu, Anji Sun, Xinxin Zhang, Xiaobai Li
Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Seyun Roh, Da-Som Yang, Sangyun Jeong
Plexins (Plexs) are a large family of phylogenetically conserved guidance receptors that bind specifically to semaphorins (Semas), another large family of guidance molecules. In the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS), the secreted semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b both act as ligands for PlexB, but mediate mutually independent and opposite functions (repulsive and attractive guidance, respectively). PlexB is also known to regulate motor axon guidance in the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Manoel Jorge Nobre
Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mathilde Chevin, Clémence Guiraut, Caroline Maurice-Gelinas, Jessica Deslauriers, Sylvain Grignon, Guillaume Sébire
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent introduction of hypothermia as a mandatory standard of care, the incidence of neonatal encephalopathy in full-term newborns and its devastating neuro-behavioral outcomes continues to be a major individual, familial and social issue. Neonatal encephalopathy is mainly due to the compounding and interacting effects of hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation resulting from placental and other perinatal infections. It is unclear why hypothermia is effective in alleviating neonatal encephalopathy in some, but not all, full-term newborns...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Rosaline V Waworuntu, Taleen Hanania, Steven R Boikess, Christopher S Rex, Brian M Berg
Early life nutrition plays an important role in brain development. Emerging research in rodents, piglets and humans suggest that prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may each play unique roles in brain development and cognitive functions. However, knowledge of their combined impact is lacking. We show here that providing weanling rats with a diet containing milk fat globule membrane, lactoferrin and a polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide prebiotic blend led to a significant increase in total dendritic spine density in hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Kunio Yui, Nasoyuki Tanuma, Hiroshi Yamada, Yohei Kawasaki
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impaired detoxification capacity. Investigating the neurobiological bases of impaired antioxidant capacity is thus a research priority in the pathophysiology of ASD. We measured the urinary levels of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) which is a new oxidative stress biomarker, total antioxidant power (TAP) and DNA methylation biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a major antioxidant enzyme...
August 21, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Jenna L N Sprowles, Jillian R Hufgard, Arnold Gutierrez, Rebecca A Bailey, Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) block the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake transporter (SERT) and increase synaptic 5-HT. 5-HT is also important in brain development; hence when SSRIs are taken during pregnancy there exists the potential for these drugs to affect CNS ontogeny. Prenatal SSRI exposure has been associated with an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and peripheral 5-HT is elevated in some ASD patients. Perinatal SSRI exposure in rodents has been associated with increased depression and anxiety-like behavior, decreased sociability, and impaired learning in the offspring, behaviors often seen in ASD...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Toros A Dincman, Jason E Beare, Sujata Saraswat Ohri, Vittorio Gallo, Michal Hetman, Scott R Whittemore
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition mediated by small molecule HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) has demonstrated divergent effects including toxicity towards transformed cell lines, neuroprotection in neurological disease models, and inhibition of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation to mature oligodendrocytes (OL). However, it remains unknown if transient HDAC inhibition may promote OPC survival. Using mouse cortical OPC primary cultures, we investigated the effects of the FDA approved pan-HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on OPC survival...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Dan Li, Tingting Song, Lin Yang, Xueying Wang, Changhong Yang, Yongsheng Jiang
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage causes acute mortality and morbidity in newborns and long-term neurological disorders in the survivors. Pterostilbene (PTE) is a natural compound possessing various biological and pharmacological activities. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of PTE on neonatal HI brain damagein P7 rat model and to explore the possible mechanisms. Neonatal HI brain damage was induced in rat pups (P7). Prior to the induction of HI injury, PTE was injected with or without zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Guangping Dai, Avilash Das, Emiko Hayashi, Qin Chen, Emi Takahashi
Three-dimensional reconstruction of developing fiber pathways is essential to assessing the developmental course of fiber pathways in the whole brain. We applied diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography to five juvenile ex vivo cat brains at postnatal day (P) 35, when the degree of myelination varies across brain regions. We quantified diffusion properties (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) and other measurements (number, volume, and voxel count) on reconstructed pathways for projection (cortico-spinal and thalamo-cortical), corpus callosal, limbic (cingulum and fornix), and association (cortico-cortical) pathways, and characterized regional differences in maturation patterns by assessing diffusion properties...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
L K Friedman, A Sharma, M Corcia, T Webster, L Qazi, D Simsovits, Y Khalil, S Hu, M Kantrowitz, H Hong
The present study examined whether a single or multiple episode(s) of status epilepticus induced with kainic acid (KA) during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) development would aberrantly stimulate proliferation zones that alters migration to potentially injured areas and whether they would be blocked by selective Group I mGluR antagonists. mGluR1α (LY367385) and mGluR5 (MPEP) antagonists were administered 2h following KA-induced status epilepticus and animals were examined after 7days. Proliferating cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), third ventricle, hippocampus, amygdala cortical complex were analyzed with the proliferative marker, Ki67; and two complementary retrograde dye tracers...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Maira Yiliyasi, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
The actions and responses of hypothalamic appetite regulatory factors change markedly during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period in order to maintain appropriate metabolic and nutritional conditions. In this study, we examined the developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a potent anorectic factor and the changes in the sensitivity of the hypothalamic expression of this factor to fasting during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period. Under fed conditions, hypothalamic BDNF mRNA expression decreased during development in both male and female rats...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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