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International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341538/the-differential-impact-of-oxytocin-receptor-gene-in-violence-exposed-boys-and-girls
#1
Livia C Merrill, Christopher W Jones, Stacy S Drury, Katherine P Theall
Childhood violence exposure is a prevalent public health problem. Understanding the lasting impact of violence requires an enhanced appreciation for the complex effects of violence across behavioral, physiologic, and molecular outcomes. This subject matched, cross-sectional study of 80 children explored the impact of violence exposure across behavioral, physiologic, and cellular outcomes. Externalizing behavior, diurnal cortisol rhythm, and telomere length (TL) were examined in a community recruited cohort of Black youth...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330827/intrauterine-exposure-to-maternal-stress-alters-bdnf-iv-dna-methylation-and-telomere-length-in-the-brain-of-adult-rat-offspring
#2
Jennifer Blaze, Arun Asok, Kristyn Borrelli, Christina Tulbert, Justin Bollinger, April E Ronca, Tania L Roth
DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could contribute to the long-term effects of intrauterine exposure to maternal stress on offspring behavior. Here, we measured methylation of DNA associated with the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene, a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult rat male and female offspring whose mothers were exposed to unpredictable and variable stressors throughout gestation...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#3
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330828/early-postnatal-iron-deficiency-impacts-plasticity-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-in-piglets
#4
Ellis Nelissen, Jochen De Vry, Alexandra Antonides, Dean Paes, Melissa Schepers, Franz Josef van der Staay, Jos Prickaerts, Tim Vanmierlo
In this study, we investigated whether alterations in plasticity markers such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) are underlying iron deficiency (ID)-induced cognitive impairments in iron depleted piglets. Newborn piglets were either fed an iron-depleted diet (21mg Fe/kg) or an iron-sufficient diet (88mg Fe/kg) for four weeks. Subsequently, eight weeks after iron repletion (190-240mg Fe/kg) we found a significant decrease in mature BDNF (14kDa) and proBDNF (18kDa and 24kDa) protein levels in the ventral hippocampus, whereas we found increases in the dorsal hippocampus...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330826/the-influence-of-methamphetamine-on-maternal-behavior-and-development-of-the-pups-during-the-neonatal-period
#5
Mária Ševčíková, Ivana Hrebíčková, Eva Macúchová, Romana Šlamberová
Since it enters breast milk, methamphetamine (MA) abuse during lactation can not only affect the quality of maternal behavior but also postnatal development of pups. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of injected MA (5mg/kg) on maternal behavior of rats and the differences in postnatal development, during postnatal days (PD) 1-11, of pups when the pups were directly exposed (i.e., injected) to MA or received MA indirectly via breast milk. Maternal behavior was examined using observation test (PD 1-22) and pup retrieval test (PD 1-12)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323038/monocular-denervation-of-visual-nuclei-modulates-app-processing-and-sapp%C3%AE-production-a-possible-role-on-neural-plasticity
#7
Juliana Ferreira Vasques, Pedro Vinícius Bastos Heringer, Renata Guedes de Jesus Gonçalves, Paula Campello-Costa, Claudio Alberto Serfaty, Adriana da Cunha Faria-Melibeu
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is essential to physiological processes such as synapse formation and neural plasticity. Sequential proteolysis of APP by beta- and gamma-secretases generates amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer Disease. Alternative APP cleavage by alpha-secretase occurs within Aβ domain, releasing soluble α-APP (sAPPα), a neurotrophic fragment. Among other functions, sAPPα is important to synaptogenesis, neural survival and axonal growth. APP and sAPPα levels are increased in models of neuroplasticity, which suggests an important role for APP and its metabolites, especially sAPPα, in the rearranging brain...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285946/development-of-rostral-inferior-parietal-lobule-area-functional-connectivity-from-late-childhood-to-early-adulthood
#8
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285945/hanging-drop-culture-enhances-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-anterior-neuroectodermal-cells-using-small-molecules
#9
Noushin Amirpour, Shahnaz Razavi, Ebrahim Esfandiari, Batoul Hashemibeni, Mohammad Kazemi, Hossein Salehi
Inspired by in vivo developmental process, several studies were conducted to design a protocol for differentiating of mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells in vitro. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) as mesenchymal stem cells are a promising source for this purpose. At current study, we applied a defined neural induction medium by using small molecules for direct differentiation of hADSCs into anterior neuroectodermal cells. Anterior neuroectodermal differentiation of hADSCs was performed by hanging drop and monolayer protocols...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274759/insulin-deficiency-a-possible-link-between-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#10
Ghazaleh Nameni, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Parviz Shahabi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies proposed a linear connection between developing dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and obesity. Adiposity, insulin resistance and dementia indicated probable mechanistic links in this process. Indeed, it has been known that optimum insulin action in the brain plays critical role in cognitive function; whereas, insulin resistance in obese individuals finally leads to insulin deficiency in central nervous system (CNS) and down regulation of the efficiency of insulin uptake from periphery into CSF...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257945/effect-of-high-fat-diets-on-the-ntpdase-5-nucleotidase-and-acetylcholinesterase-activities-in-the-central-nervous-system
#11
Rosilene Rodrigues Kaizer, Rosélia Maria Spanevello, Eduarda Costa, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger
High fat diets are associated with the promotion of neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). This study aim investigate the high fat diets role to promotion of AD using as biochemistry parameter of status of central nervous system through the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain of young rats. The intake of high fat diets promotes an inhibition of purinergic and cholinergic functions, mainly in the long-term exposure to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242183/evaluation-of-changes-in-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-bilateral-optic-tract-in-monocular-blind-rats
#12
Rong Wang, Yufeng Zhong, Weijun Tang, Zuohua Tang, Xinghuai Sun, Xiaoyuan Feng, Jiawen Fan, Lingjie Wu, Jie Wang, Zebin Xiao, Lixin Jin
Some studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter development of the visual pathway in humans and animals after visual deprivation. However, the alterations in the bilateral optic tract after the transection of unilateral optic nerve have not been well explored. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural integrity of and pathological changes to the bilateral optic tract after transection of the unilateral optic nerve in rats using DTI. Eight healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 4 in each group...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238464/type-1-diabetes-cognition-and-the-neurologist-exploring-go-no-go-and-maze-tasks-in-the-search-for-a-practical-screening-tool
#13
Jullyanna S M Shinosaki, Joaquim C Rossini, Maria Luiza P M Jorge, Lorena B C Macedo, Paulo J Tannús
AIMS: The objectives were to use inexpensive and easy-to-apply tasks in order to investigate the differences between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and controls regarding attention and impulsivity, which are the basis for key-executive function components that are traditionally assessed using subjective, long and difficult to reproduce questionnaires. Additionally, we sought to correlate these differences with clinical characteristics, and to explore correlations between the tasks...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219764/gabaa-receptor-expression-and-white-matter-disruption-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets
#14
Viskasari P Kalanjati, Julie A Wixey, Stephanie M Miller, Paul B Colditz, Stella T Bjorkman
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. White matter and neuronal injury are major pathophysiological features of the IUGR neonatal brain. GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptors have been shown to play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and proliferation in the neonatal brain and may be a key factor in white matter injury and myelination in IUGR neonates. Whether there are impairments to the GABAergic system and neuronal cytoskeleton in IUGR brain has yet to be elucidated...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229923/epigenetic-regulation-of-reln-and-gad1-in-the-frontal-cortex-fc-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-subjects
#15
Adrian Zhubi, Ying Chen, Alessandro Guidotti, Dennis R Grayson
Both Reelin (RELN) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We have previously shown that both mRNAs are reduced in the cerebella (CB) of ASD subjects through a mechanism that involves increases in the amounts of MECP2 binding to the corresponding promoters. In the current study, we examined the expression of RELN, GAD1, GAD2, and several other mRNAs implicated in this disorder in the frontal cortices (FC) of ASD and CON subjects. We also focused on the role that epigenetic processes play in the regulation of these genes in ASD brain...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161254/pharmacological-inhibition-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-from-rodent-and-human-nasal-olfactory-stem-progenitor-cell-cultures
#16
I Franco, L Ortiz-López, B Roque-Ramírez, G B Ramírez-Rodríguez, M Lamas
Nasal olfactory stem and neural progenitor cells (NOS/PCs) are considered possible tools for regenerative stem cell therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurogenesis is a complex process regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic signals that include DNA-methylation and other chromatin modifications that could be experimentally manipulated in order to increase neuronal differentiation. The aim of the present study was the characterization of primary cultures and consecutive passages (P2-P10) of NOS/PCs isolated from male Swiss-Webster (mNOS/PCs) or healthy humans (hNOS/PCs)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153524/cellular-protein-and-mrna-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-in-brain-skeletal-muscle-and-placenta
#17
Atqiya Aishah, Tina Hinton, Rita Machaalani
The β1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is a muscle type subunit of this family and as such, is found predominantly in muscle. Recent reports document its expression in other tissues and cell lines including adrenal glands, carcinomas, lung and brain. However, the majority of studies were of tissue lysates, thus the cellular distribution was not determined. This study aimed to determine the cellular distribution of the β1 nAChR subunit in the brain, at both the mRNA and protein levels, using non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, and to compare it to two muscle tissue types, skeletal and placenta...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130065/measuring-neuroplasticity-associated-with-cerebral-palsy-rehabilitation-an-mri-based-power-analysis
#18
Lee B Reid, Alex M Pagnozzi, Simona Fiori, Roslyn N Boyd, Nicholas Dowson, Stephen E Rose
Researchers in the field of child neurology are increasingly looking to supplement clinical trials of motor rehabilitation with neuroimaging in order to better understand the relationship between behavioural training, brain changes, and clinical improvements. Randomised controlled trials are typically accompanied by sample size calculations to detect clinical improvements but, despite the large cost of neuroimaging, not equivalent calculations for concurrently acquired imaging neuroimaging measures of changes in response to intervention...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122258/effects-of-early-or-late-prenatal-immune-activation-in-mice-on-behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-abnormalities-relevant-to-schizophrenia-in-the-adulthood
#19
Vivian T da Silveira, Daniel de Castro Medeiros, Jivago Ropke, Patricia A Guidine, Gustavo H Rezende, Marcio Flavio D Moraes, Eduardo Mazoni A M Mendes, Danielle Macedo, Fabricio A Moreira, Antonio Carlos P de Oliveira
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy in rodents increases the risk of the offspring to develop schizophrenia-related behaviors, suggesting a relationship between the immune system and the brain development. Here we tested the hypothesis that MIA induced by the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in early or late gestation of mice leads to behavioral and neuroanatomical disorders in the adulthood. On gestational days (GDs) 9 or 17 pregnant dams were treated with poly I:C or saline via intravenous route and the offspring behaviors were measured during adulthood...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119021/reduced-relative-volume-in-motor-and-attention-regions-in-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#20
Jess E Reynolds, Melissa K Licari, Siobhan L Reid, Catherine Elliott, Anne M Winsor, Michael Bynevelt, Jac Billington
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a prevalent childhood movement disorder, impacting the ability to perform movement skills at an age appropriate level. Although differences in grey matter (GM) volumes have been found in related developmental disorders, no such evidence has been linked with DCD to date. This cross-sectional study assessed structural brain differences in children with and without DCD. METHODS: High-resolution structural images were acquired from 44 children aged 7...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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