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James Shelly, Anne Uhlmann, Heidi Sinclair, Fleur M Howells, Goodman Sibeko, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein, Henk Temmingh
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine psychosis (MAP) symptomatology has been described as indistinguishable from that of schizophrenia (SZ), yet research comparing these two disorders on specific psychotic symptoms such as schneiderian first-rank symptoms (FRS) is lacking. We aimed to determine and compare the occurrence and associations of FRS in patients diagnosed with MAP and with SZ. SAMPLING AND METHOD: Data from SCID-I interviews performed on patients with either a diagnosis of SZ or MAP were compared...
December 8, 2016: Psychopathology
Stefanie Jung, Miriam Proske, Kai G Kahl, Tillmann H C Krüger, M Axel Wollmer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Agitation is a burdening phenomenon that occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to give a first direction for agitation occurrence in depression, anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well as in healthy controls with and without psychiatric record. METHODS: Using the Hamburg-Hannover Agitation Scale (H2A), an instrument that allows for the measurement of agitation independently of the presence of a specific disorder, a patient sample (n = 158) and a healthy control group (n = 685) with (n = 94) and without (n = 591) psychiatric record were examined...
November 16, 2016: Psychopathology
Silke Braun, Chiara Annovazzi, Cristina Botella, René Bridler, Elisabetta Camussi, Juan P Delfino, Christine Mohr, Ines Moragrega, Costanza Papagno, Alberto Pisoni, Carla Soler, Erich Seifritz, Hans H Stassen
BACKGROUND: Computerized speech analysis (CSA) is a powerful method that allows one to assess stress-induced mood disturbances and affective disorders through repeated measurements of speaking behavior and voice sound characteristics. Over the past decades CSA has been successfully used in the clinical context to monitor the transition from 'affectively disturbed' to 'normal' among psychiatric patients under treatment. This project, by contrast, aimed to extend the CSA method in such a way that the transition from 'normal' to 'affected' can be detected among subjects of the general population through 10-20 self-assessments...
November 15, 2016: Psychopathology
Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Thomas Becker, Thomas G Schulze, Werner Strik, Markus Jäger
BACKGROUND: Despite several previous attempts at subtyping schizophrenia, a typology that reflects neurobiological knowledge and reliably predicts course and outcome is lacking. We applied the system-specific concept of the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) to generate a course typology based on three domains: language, affectivity, and motor behaviour. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders according to DSM-IV criteria underwent psychopathological assessment, and all their available medical records were retrospectively analysed on the basis of the BPS...
November 9, 2016: Psychopathology
Deborah Kaiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2016: Psychopathology
Deborah Kaiser, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: In borderline personality disorder (BPD), attentional bias (AB) to emotional stimuli may be a core component in disorder pathogenesis and maintenance. SAMPLING: 11 emotional Stroop task (EST) studies with 244 BPD patients, 255 nonpatients (NPs) and 95 clinical controls and 4 visual dot-probe task (VDPT) studies with 151 BPD patients or subjects with BPD features and 62 NPs were included. METHODS: We conducted two separate meta-analyses for AB in BPD...
September 20, 2016: Psychopathology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Psychopathology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Psychopathology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Psychopathology
Corinna Reck, Sabine C Herpertz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Psychopathology
Emmanuel Matas, Jörg Bock, Katharina Braun
The development of the brain depends on an individual's nature (genes) and nurture (environments). This interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental events during brain development drives the maturation of functional brain circuits such as sensory, motor, emotional, and complex cognitive pathways. Adverse environmental conditions such as early life stress can interfere with the functional development of emotional and cognitive brain systems and thereby increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later in life...
2016: Psychopathology
Antonello Colli, Annalisa Tanzilli, Ivan Gualco, Vittorio Lingiardi
BACKGROUND: Patient transference patterns play a central role in the psychotherapy of personality disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to: (1) explore the relationship between patients' personality disorders and specific relational patterns and (2) construct empirically derived prototypes of relational patterns for each personality disorder. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A random national sample of 314 clinicians completed the Psychotherapy Relationship Questionnaire, which evaluates patients' relational patterns, and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200, which assesses personality disorders in a randomly selected patient currently in the clinician's care and with whom the clinician has worked for a minimum of 8 sessions and a maximum of 6 months (1 session per week)...
2016: Psychopathology
Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Anita Rinner, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has linked insecure attachment styles and borderline personality organization to substance use disorder (SUD). However, it still remains unclear whether those impairments apply to different kinds of SUDs to the same extent. Therefore, in this study we sought to investigate potential differences regarding attachment deficits and borderline personality organization in two different SUD inpatient groups and furthermore in comparison to healthy controls. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 66 (24 female) inpatients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD), 57 (10 female) inpatients diagnosed with polydrug use disorder (PUD), and 114 (51 female) healthy controls completed the Borderline Personality Inventory and the Attachment Style Questionnaire...
2016: Psychopathology
Jan Terock, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Carsten Spitzer, Sven Barnow, Martin Miertsch, Harald J Freyberger, Hans-Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of how childhood trauma leads to increased risk for adult dissociation is not sufficiently understood. We sought to investigate the predicting effects and the putatively mediating roles of PTSD and alexithymia on the path from childhood trauma to adult dissociation. METHODS: A total of 666 day-clinic outpatients were administered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and controlled for sex, age, and the Global Symptom Index (GSI)...
2016: Psychopathology
Diana Arias, Marcela Peña
BACKGROUND: Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. METHODS: This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother...
2016: Psychopathology
Michael Kaess, Romuald Brunner, Peter Parzer, Manju Edanackaparampil, Johannes Schmidt, Melek Kirisgil, Gloria Fischer, Christoph Wewetzer, Gerd Lehmkuhl, Franz Resch
Descriptive diagnoses of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) may detract from underlying dimensional borderline personality pathology (D-BPP). This study aimed to investigate D-BPP in adolescent inpatients with NSSI and SAs. A consecutive sample of 359 adolescent inpatients was assessed for current and past NSSI and life-time SAs. D-BPP and current mental health problems were measured using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively...
2016: Psychopathology
Ruiying Kang, Yeqing Wu, Zhiwu Li, Jun Jiang, Qi Gao, Yuncui Yu, Keming Gao, Yuxiang Yan, Yan He
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their ability to improve negative symptoms, quality of life, and medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. The addition of nonpharmacological interventions like social skills training has a positive effect on medication adherence and decreases rehospitalization rates but is limited in improving patients' symptoms, aggressive behaviors, and quality of life. Aerobic exercise, especially Tai-chi, can potentially reduce psychopathological and negative symptoms, decrease aggressive behaviors, and improve quality of life...
2016: Psychopathology
Ian Brockington
Emotional rejection of the infant is a morbid, clinical phenomenon, central to mother-infant psychiatry. It occurs in about 1% of births in the general population, but much more often in mothers referred to specialist services. It has severe consequences for children, but responds well to treatment. It is now better recognized, but research is required, especially cohort studies and neuroscientific investigations.
2016: Psychopathology
Mitho Müller, Ed Tronick, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Nora Nonnenmacher, Stephan Verschoor, Birgit Träuble
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. METHODS: Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm...
2016: Psychopathology
Diana Morelen, Rena Menke, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Marjorie Beeghly, Maria Muzik
BACKGROUND: This study examined the bidirectional nature of mother-infant positive and negative emotional displays during social interactions across multiple tasks among postpartum women accounting for childhood maltreatment severity. Additionally, effects of maternal postpartum psychopathology on maternal affect and effects of task and emotional valence on dyadic emotional displays were evaluated. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 192 mother-infant dyads (51% male infants) were videotaped during free play and the Still-Face paradigm at 6 months postpartum...
2016: Psychopathology
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