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Chao Wu, Chuan Shi, Wentian Dong, Bing Li, Rengang Wu
AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to test the path relations between alexithymia, ego-dystonicity, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with OCD (mean age 35.5 years) and 54 healthy participants (mean age 33.5 years) completed an assessment via a structured clinical interview. All of them completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Vancouver Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (VOCI), the Self-Consistency and Congruence Scale (SCCS), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)...
September 20, 2018: Psychopathology
Lena Listunova, Corinna Roth, Marina Bartolovic, Johanna Kienzle, Claudia Bach, Matthias Weisbrod, Daniela Roesch-Ely
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, with a large global impact on both the individual and the society. In this narrative review, we summarize neurocognitive deficits during acute and (partially) remitted states of depression. Furthermore, we outline the potential negative effect of cognitive impairment (CI) on functional recovery, and discuss the role of several variables in the development of CI for MDD patients. Though there is cumulating evidence regarding persistent CI in unipolar depression, research on treatment options specific for this patient group is still scarce...
September 5, 2018: Psychopathology
Mark F Lenzenweger, John F Clarkin, Eve Caligor, Nicole M Cain, Otto F Kernberg
BACKGROUND: Normal and pathological narcissism have been the focus of considerable theoretical discussion and empirical research in recent years in personality psychology and psychopathology. Kernberg [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref1">1</xref>-<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref4">4</xref>] has argued that there is a particularly dysfunctional and impairing variant of narcissistic disturbance known as malignant narcissism. This exploratory study sought to develop, using established assessment methods, a dimensional measure of malignant narcissism that incorporates the key features of grandiose narcissism, paranoid propensities, psychopathic features, and proclivity for a sadistic and aggressive interpersonal style...
September 5, 2018: Psychopathology
Lena Rinnewitz, Julian Koenig, Peter Parzer, Romuald Brunner, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), the intentional, self-directed act of injuring one's own body tissue, is a behavioral phenomenon closely linked to stress and its maladaptive regulation. NSSI is associated with childhood adversity that may underlie altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system response to stress in adolescents engaging in NSSI. Adolescents engaging in NSSI show decreased pain sensitivity and increased psychophysiological response to pain that may underlie the maintenance of the behavior and its stress-regulating function...
August 29, 2018: Psychopathology
Lorenzo Pelizza, Silvia Azzali, Federica Paterlini, Ilaria Scazza, Sara Garlassi, Luigi Rocco Chiri, Michele Poletti, Simona Pupo, Andrea Raballo
BACKGROUND: The Brief, 21-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-B) is a promising screener for psychosis-risk states that could be implemented in routine clinical practice. In this study, we assessed psychometric properties of the Italian version of the PQ-B (iPQ-B) in a sample of 243 help-seekers, aged 13-35 years. SAMPLING AND METHODS: After completing the iPQ-B, participants were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS)...
2018: Psychopathology
Zeno Van Duppen, Rob Sips
BACKGROUND: Experiences of psychosis are often assumed to be strange, bizarre, or incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to offer a new step towards a better understanding of how the psychotic process affects a prereflective background. METHODS: We use concepts from the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein to clarify the first-person perspective on psychosis of one of the authors. RESULTS: We describe the early psychotic process as breaking down the "nest of propositions," shaking the scaffolds of our language games...
2018: Psychopathology
Louis De Page, Jérôme Englebert
In this article, based on literature review, we present an integrated description of heboidophrenia and pseudo-psychopathic schizophrenia. Both diagnostic constructs describe latent psychotic processes inextricably bound with psychopathic features. Although both have been described in different eras and research threads, they are that similar that we could not find divergences. We formulated operational criteria for clinical and research purpose. The recognition of this syndrome improves risk management, treatment, and legal decisions...
2018: Psychopathology
Tabea L K Schweden, Uwe Wolfradt, Sara Jahnke, Juergen Hoyer
BACKGROUND: Based on the assumptions that depersonalization symptoms are relevant for test anxiety maintenance, we examined their frequency, psychological predictors, association with anxiety symptoms, and association with test performance. SAMPLING AND METHODS: In Study 1, 203 students rated their test anxiety severity and depersonalization in their last oral examination. In Study 2, we assessed test anxiety 1 week before an oral examination, depersonalization, safety behaviors, self-focused attention, and negative appraisals of depersonalization directly after the examination, and post-event processing 1 week later among 67 students...
2018: Psychopathology
Ryan Cardinale, Lisa O'Donnell, Jinsoo Chun, Jiyoung Park, Ethan Kross, Masoud Kamali, Melvin McInnis, Patricia Deldin
Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in patients with bipolar I disorder (BPI) and are risk factors for mood episodes. In other populations, central nervous system (CNS) hyperarousal is associated with sleep initiation and maintenance problems, and CNS hypoarousal is associated with increased sleep drive. However, it is unclear whether CNS arousal levels are a useful index of sleep disruption in BPI. This study aimed to investigate daytime CNS arousal levels in relation to perceived sleep quality in BPI...
2018: Psychopathology
Ka-Fai Chung, Wing-Fai Yeung, Fiona Yan-Yee Ho, Lai-Ming Ho, Kam-Ping Yung, Branda Yee-Man Yu, Chi-Wa Kwok
BACKGROUND: The implications of removing nonrestorative sleep (NRS) and adding quantitative criteria in the most recent diagnostic criteria of insomnia disorder remain unresolved. The study was aimed to investigate how nighttime quantitative measures of sleep quality and NRS relate to daytime functioning in a general population sample. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Data of 905 subjects (mean age = 47.0 years; 64.5% females) in a population-based survey who had insomnia symptoms or NRS at least 1 night in a typical week were analyzed to evaluate their relationship with "functional impairment," "concerns/distress," and "interference with daily activities" over the past 30 days...
2018: Psychopathology
Michael Linden, Isabel Noack
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders can be associated with suicidal or aggressive ideation and behavior, especially in the context of embitterment. The aim of this study is to investigate the types, prevalence, and dangerousness of aggressive and suicidal ideations associated with embitterment. METHODS: When therapists from the department of behavioral medicine detected signs of embitterment, aggression, or suicidal thoughts in their patients, they routinely filled out a questionnaire on aggressive ideation, assessed the embitterment, and contacted a senior psychiatrist...
2018: Psychopathology
Renske C Bosman, Casper J Albers, Jettie de Jong, Nikolaos Batalas, Marije Aan Het Rot
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Before diagnosing premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), 2 months of prospective assessment are required to confirm menstrual cyclicity in symptoms. For a diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), this is not required. Women with PMDD and PMS often report that their symptoms interfere with mood and social functioning, and are said to show cyclical changes in interpersonal behaviour, but this has not been examined using a prospective approach. We sampled cyclicity in mood and interpersonal behaviour for 2 months in women with self- reported PMS...
2018: Psychopathology
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen, Helene Stephensen, Julie Nordgaard, Josef Parnas
This paper serves as an introduction to the Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI) - a novel instrument for a semistructured, phenomenological exploration of psychopathology of imagination. We present an account of the phenomenology of imagination and proceed to a presentation of the disorders of imagination that are addressed in the EAFI. Furthermore, the interrater reliability of the EAFI was examined in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample of 20 in-patients. The interrater agreement ranged from 0...
2018: Psychopathology
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen, Helene Stephensen, Josef Parnas
The Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI) is an instrument for a semistructured, phenomenological exploration of psychopathology of imagination. The EAFI provides a conceptual-descriptive framework to address such experiences. It consists of 16 main items, sometimes divided into subtypes. We suggest that the anomalies of imagination explored by the EAFI reflect an alteration in the structure of consciousness and belong to a fundamental, generative layer of psychopathology with relevance to differential diagnostic purposes...
2018: Psychopathology
Andrea Raballo, Antonio Preti
Self-disorders are temporally persisting, experiential anomalies of subjective experiences that index liability to schizophrenia. They impact on the temporal unfolding of concomitant, diagnostic symptoms and can be suitably characterized through the Examination of Anomalous Self Ex periences (EASE). Capitalizing on the results of a recent longitudinal study, we explored the relevant patterns of interaction within self-disorders' descriptive dimensions (i.e., stream of consciousness, presence, corporeality, demarcation, and solipsism)...
2018: Psychopathology
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
2018: Psychopathology
Franz Caspar
This presentation gives an overview of the methods used for research on the process and outcome of psychotherapy. Possibilities as well as difficulties will be discussed, such as the conflict between internal and external validity and standardized versus individualized procedures as some of the issues deserving particular attention for research on psychotherapy for personality disorder patients. It is argued that good psychotherapy research is also good psychotherapy research for personality disorders, with heterogeneity, ego-syntony, and ambivalent motivation needing special attention...
2018: Psychopathology
Michelle L Moulds, Melissa J Black, Jill M Newby, Colette R Hirsch
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that anxiety is common, perhaps even more prevalent than depression, in the post-partum period. In this review we propose adopting a transdiagnostic approach to perinatal mental health: to delineate psychopathology and identify potential underlying cognitive mechanisms such as repetitive negative thinking (RNT). SAMPLING AND METHODS: We provide an overview of key studies of RNT in perinatal mental health and suggest directions for future work...
2018: Psychopathology
Sabine C Herpertz, Isabella Schneider, Christian Schmahl, Katja Bertsch
Emotion dysregulation is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Most interventions for patients with BPD, therefore, aim at the improvement of emotion regulation. In the current paper, we provide an overview of studies investigating the effects of psychotherapeutic or pharmacological interventions on neurobiological correlates of various aspects of emotion regulation. In fact, studies suggest that the prefrontal-limbic circuit may play a major role in mediating effects of clinically efficacious psychotherapeutic treatments, i...
2018: Psychopathology
Christian C Ruff
Several personality disorders involve pathological behaviors that violate social norms, commonly held expectations about what ought to be done in specific situations. These symptoms usually emerge early in development, are persistent and hard to treat, and are often ego-syntonic. Here I present some recent brain stimulation studies suggesting that pathological changes in different aspects of norm-compliant behavior reflect dysfunctions of brain circuits involving distinct prefrontal brain areas. One set of studies shows that transcranial direct current stimulation of the right lateral prefrontal cortex changes the behavioral sensitivity to social incentives for norm-compliant behavior...
2018: Psychopathology
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