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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444522/psychotic-symptoms-and-attitudes-toward-medication-mediate-the-effect-of-insight-on-personal-social-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-and-follow-up
#1
Yingjun Zheng, Yuping Ning, Shenglin She, Yongjie Deng, Yuwei Chen, Wenying Yi, Xiaodan Lu, Xinrui Chen, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Jie Zhang, Di Xiao, Haibo Wu, Chao Wu
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the mediating pathway of 3 factors (psychotic symptoms, attitude toward medication, and cognitive processing speed) on the effect of insight on personal-social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 168; mean age 18 ± 50 years) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV were randomly assigned to treatment with antipsychotic medication alone or combined treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI), Assessment of Insight (SAI), and Social-Personal Performance Scale (PSPS) scores were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months...
February 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393279/clinical-components-of-borderline-personality-disorder-and-personality-functioning
#2
Marc Ferrer, Óscar Andión, Natalia Calvo, Susanne Hörz, Melitta Fischer-Kern, Nestor D Kapusta, Gudrun Schneider, John F Clarkin, Stephan Doering
BACKGROUND: Impairment in personality functioning (PF) represents a salient criterion of the DSM-5 alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders (AMPD). The main goal of this study is to analyze the relationship of the borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical components derived from the DSM-5 categorical diagnostic model (affective dysregulation, behavioral dysregulation, and disturbed relatedness) with personality organization (PO), i.e., PF, assessed by the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)...
January 25, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346789/mentalization-and-self-efficacy-as-mediators-between-psychological-symptom-severity-and-disabilities-in-activities-and-participation-in-psychotherapy-patients
#3
Thomas Probst, Maria Dehoust, Anna Levke Brütt, Holger Schulz, Christoph Pieh, Sylke Andreas
BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy patients can be more or less disabled by their psychological symptoms. The present study investigated whether mentalization and self-efficacy contribute to the association between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation. METHODS: The data of 216 psychotherapy inpatients were examined in a cross-sectional design. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were performed to investigate whether self-efficacy and mentalization are mediators between psychological symptom severity and disabilities in activities and participation...
January 19, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339664/cenesthopathy-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-an-exploratory-study-in-schizophrenia
#4
Natalia Jimeno, Martin L Vargas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cenesthopathy is mainly associated with schizophrenia; however, its neurobiological basis is nowadays unclear. The general objective was to explore clinical correlates of cenesthopathy and subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants (n = 30) meeting DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorder were recruited from a psychiatry unit and assessed with: Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)...
January 16, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332091/the-association-among-default-mode-network-functional-connectivity-mentalization-and-psychopathology-in-a-nonclinical-sample-an-eloreta-study
#5
Benedetto Farina, Giacomo Della Marca, Giulia Maestoso, Noemi Amoroso, Enrico Maria Valenti, Giuseppe Alessio Carbone, Chiara Massullo, Anna Contardi, Claudio Imperatori
AIMS: We investigated default mode network (DMN) electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity differences between individuals with self-reported high mentalization capability and low psychopathological symptoms, versus participants with mentalization impairments and high psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: Forty-nine students (35 women) with a mean age of 22.92 ± 2.53 years were administered the Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised...
January 13, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301139/space-and-time-in-the-obsessive-compulsive-phenomenon
#6
Otto Doerr-Zegers
Following the tradition of researchers of the phenomenological-anthropological school such as Straus, von Gebsattel, Tellenbach, and Blankenburg, the author attempts to approach the obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. This means setting aside any previous ideas about the phenomenon in question, including genetic, neurobiological, and clinical-statistical considerations. He takes as his starting point a clinically typical case he studied and treated with psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy for many years...
January 5, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301130/a-brief-measure-of-the-international-classification-of-diseases-11-adjustment-disorder-investigation-of-psychometric-properties-in-an-adult-help-seeking-sample
#7
Evaldas Kazlauskas, Goda Gegieckaite, Jonas Eimontas, Paulina Zelviene, Andreas Maercker
Adjustment disorder is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. However, there are almost no measures available for its assessment. We aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of a brief version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 adjustment disorder scale (Adjustment Disorder New Module-8; ADNM-8) in a help-seeking sample. Data from 1,174 participants with an average age of 35 years who registered for the internet-based self-help adjustment disorder intervention were analyzed. Psychometric properties of the brief 8-item self-report (ADNM-8) scale measuring the 2 core adjustment disorder symptoms of preoccupation and failure to adapt were tested...
January 5, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262415/anorexia-nervosa-and-first-person-perspective-altruism-family-system-and-body-experience
#8
Jérôme Englebert, Valérie Follet, Caroline Valentiny
Based on the case study of Jeanne, the objective of this article is to study patterns of specific subjectivity in anorexic subjects. We seek to identify, in a first-person perspective, the core vulnerability features of anorexic existence, beyond the dimension of food alone. The identification of a psychopathological structure results in a better understanding of Jeanne's clinical situation and helps formulate psychotherapeutic and prophylactic recommendations. We suggest that so-called "denial" is a psychological mechanism that should be reconsidered...
December 21, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232684/beyond-autism-introducing-the-dialectical-misattunement-hypothesis-and-a-bayesian-account-of-intersubjectivity
#9
Dimitris Bolis, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Cristina Becchio, Leonhard Schilbach
Drawing on sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of brain function, in this article we construe psychiatric conditions as disorders of social interaction to fully account for their complexity and dynamicity across levels of description and temporal scales. After an introduction of the theoretical underpinnings of our integrative approach, we take autism spectrum conditions (ASC) as a paradigm example and discuss how neurocognitive hypotheses can be translated into a Bayesian formulation, i.e., in terms of predictive processing and active inference...
December 13, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#10
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151108/a-phenomenological-account-of-sensorimotor-difficulties-in-autism-intentionality-movement-and-proprioception
#11
Till D A Grohmann
During the last decades, the focus in autism research has been progressively extended. Today it offers a large amount of material on sensorimotor disturbances as well as perceptive-cognitive preferences of people with autism. However, there are more and more critical voices against an intellectualist perspective in the cognitive sciences. The "enactive approach" as well as a new "movement perspective" to autism challenge the view of autism as a mere "cognitive" disturbance. They criticize the conception of a cognizing subject which is only interested in the world in as much as she/he can extract knowledge and organize it rationally...
November 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145192/did-the-dsm-5-improve-the-traumatic-stressor-criterion-association-of-dsm-iv-and-dsm-5-criterion-a-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#12
Sadie E Larsen, Howard Berenbaum
OBJECTIVE: A recent meta-analysis found that DSM-III- and DSM-IV-defined traumas were associated with only slightly higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than nontraumatic stressors. The current study is the first to examine whether DSM-5-defined traumas were associated with higher levels of PTSD than DSM-IV-defined traumas. Further, we examined theoretically relevant event characteristics to determine whether characteristics other than those outlined in the DSM could predict PTSD symptoms...
November 17, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131058/nonfunctional-redundant-acts-characterize-ocd-even-in-ocd-unrelated-tasks-a-demonstration-in-questionnaire-completion
#13
Maya Amitai, Nitzan Arnon, Noa Shaham, Shay Gur, Alan Apter, Abraham Weizman, Haggai Hermesh
BACKGROUND: Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls...
November 3, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073600/new-insight-into-affectivity-in-schizophrenia-from-the-phenomenology-of-marc-richir
#14
Tudi Gozé, Till Grohmann, Jean Naudin, Michel Cermolacce
BACKGROUND: According to Karl Jaspers, psychopathology requires a comprehensive method, understood as a systematic exploration of the first-person perspective of the patient's experience. At the same time, however, schizophrenia for Jaspers is characterized by its radical incomprehensibility. In addition, Rümke's so-called "praecox feeling" paradoxically combines the incomprehensibility of schizophrenic experience and the evidence of its pathological manifestation in the encounter. AIM: Through a re-examination of the notions of affectivity and interaffective contact we propose a coherent theoretical model to explain the clinician's paradoxical understanding of schizophrenia...
October 27, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040976/diagnosing-psychopathy-through-emotional-regulation-tasks-heart-rate-variability-versus-implicit-association-test
#15
Gerardo Flórez, Xosé A Vila, María J Lado, Pedro Cuesta, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary...
October 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017153/bipolar-disorder-and-or-creative-bipolarity-robert-schumann-s-exemplary-psychopathology-combining-symptomatological-and-psychosocial-perspectives-with-creativity-research
#16
Rainer Matthias Holm-Hadulla, Asimina Koutsoukou-Argyraki
The psychopathological condition of Robert Schumann has been a prominent object of study in psychiatry since his hospitalization in 1854. Renowned psychiatrists have diagnosed Schumann with syphilis, schizophrenia, and bipolar and personality disorders. Until today, these analyses of his symptomatology have led to contradictory results. Recent discussion has suggested that his hospitalization was due to professional failure and separation wishes on the part of his wife, her family, and her friends. In line with this hypothesis is the opinion that the separation insisted upon by Clara Schumann was reinforced by the economic interests of the psychiatrist who kept Schumann in custody for 2 years until his death in 1856...
October 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950286/intersubjectivity-and-psychopathology-in-the-schizophrenia-spectrum-complicated-we-compensatory-strategies-and-self-disorders
#17
Mads Gram Henriksen, Lars Siersbæk Nilsson
Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends...
September 27, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877532/stereotype-knowledge-and-endorsement-in-schizophrenia
#18
Luigi Castelli, Francesca D'Alpaos, Luciana Carraro, Florencia Pavan, Giovanni Galfano, Bruno Forti
BACKGROUND: Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2)...
September 7, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850956/cognitive-impairments-in-unipolar-depression-the-impact-of-rumination
#19
Christine Schwert, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Matthias Weisbrod, Annette Schröder
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impairments in several cognitive domains. People with depression also tend to focus on and think about their problems ("ruminate") more than people without depression. Recent studies indicate that depressive rumination is connected to cognitive impairments in MDD. However, there is little scientific understanding of the role of rumination in these deficits. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The current study examined the performance of 62 outpatients suffering from unipolar major depression with a low tendency to ruminate versus outpatients with a high tendency to ruminate using a neuropsychological battery covering the 5 cognitive domains: attention, memory, working memory, executive functions and processing speed...
August 30, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848181/schizophrenia-self-and-person-eugen-bleuler-and-arthur-kronfeld-on-a-conceptual-alliance
#20
Anke Maatz, Paul Hoff
The conceptual history of schizophrenia is marked by considerable dissent about its nosological status, and the question of whether it represents a distinct disease entity remains hotly debated. Another recurring feature in the conceptual history of schizophrenia is the reference to concepts of self and person. This paper brings in connection these two debates by interrogating the nosological function of "self" and "person" by means of a fictitious dialogue between Eugen Bleuler, the inventor of schizophrenia, and his contemporary Arthur Kronfeld...
August 26, 2017: Psychopathology
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