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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232684/beyond-autism-introducing-the-dialectical-misattunement-hypothesis-and-a-bayesian-account-of-intersubjectivity
#1
Dimitris Bolis, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Cristina Becchio, Leonhard Schilbach
Drawing on sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of brain function, in this article we construe psychiatric conditions as disorders of social interaction to fully account for their complexity and dynamicity across levels of description and temporal scales. After an introduction of the theoretical underpinnings of our integrative approach, we take autism spectrum conditions (ASC) as a paradigm example and discuss how neurocognitive hypotheses can be translated into a Bayesian formulation, i.e., in terms of predictive processing and active inference...
December 13, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#2
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151108/a-phenomenological-account-of-sensorimotor-difficulties-in-autism-intentionality-movement-and-proprioception
#3
Till D A Grohmann
During the last decades, the focus in autism research has been progressively extended. Today it offers a large amount of material on sensorimotor disturbances as well as perceptive-cognitive preferences of people with autism. However, there are more and more critical voices against an intellectualist perspective in the cognitive sciences. The "enactive approach" as well as a new "movement perspective" to autism challenge the view of autism as a mere "cognitive" disturbance. They criticize the conception of a cognizing subject which is only interested in the world in as much as she/he can extract knowledge and organize it rationally...
November 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145192/did-the-dsm-5-improve-the-traumatic-stressor-criterion-association-of-dsm-iv-and-dsm-5-criterion-a-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#4
Sadie E Larsen, Howard Berenbaum
OBJECTIVE: A recent meta-analysis found that DSM-III- and DSM-IV-defined traumas were associated with only slightly higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than nontraumatic stressors. The current study is the first to examine whether DSM-5-defined traumas were associated with higher levels of PTSD than DSM-IV-defined traumas. Further, we examined theoretically relevant event characteristics to determine whether characteristics other than those outlined in the DSM could predict PTSD symptoms...
November 17, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131058/nonfunctional-redundant-acts-characterize-ocd-even-in-ocd-unrelated-tasks-a-demonstration-in-questionnaire-completion
#5
Maya Amitai, Nitzan Arnon, Noa Shaham, Shay Gur, Alan Apter, Abraham Weizman, Haggai Hermesh
BACKGROUND: Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls...
November 3, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073600/new-insight-into-affectivity-in-schizophrenia-from-the-phenomenology-of-marc-richir
#6
Tudi Gozé, Till Grohmann, Jean Naudin, Michel Cermolacce
BACKGROUND: According to Karl Jaspers, psychopathology requires a comprehensive method, understood as a systematic exploration of the first-person perspective of the patient's experience. At the same time, however, schizophrenia for Jaspers is characterized by its radical incomprehensibility. In addition, Rümke's so-called "praecox feeling" paradoxically combines the incomprehensibility of schizophrenic experience and the evidence of its pathological manifestation in the encounter. AIM: Through a re-examination of the notions of affectivity and interaffective contact we propose a coherent theoretical model to explain the clinician's paradoxical understanding of schizophrenia...
October 27, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040976/diagnosing-psychopathy-through-emotional-regulation-tasks-heart-rate-variability-versus-implicit-association-test
#7
Gerardo Flórez, Xosé A Vila, María J Lado, Pedro Cuesta, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary...
October 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017153/bipolar-disorder-and-or-creative-bipolarity-robert-schumann-s-exemplary-psychopathology-combining-symptomatological-and-psychosocial-perspectives-with-creativity-research
#8
Rainer Matthias Holm-Hadulla, Asimina Koutsoukou-Argyraki
The psychopathological condition of Robert Schumann has been a prominent object of study in psychiatry since his hospitalization in 1854. Renowned psychiatrists have diagnosed Schumann with syphilis, schizophrenia, and bipolar and personality disorders. Until today, these analyses of his symptomatology have led to contradictory results. Recent discussion has suggested that his hospitalization was due to professional failure and separation wishes on the part of his wife, her family, and her friends. In line with this hypothesis is the opinion that the separation insisted upon by Clara Schumann was reinforced by the economic interests of the psychiatrist who kept Schumann in custody for 2 years until his death in 1856...
October 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950286/intersubjectivity-and-psychopathology-in-the-schizophrenia-spectrum-complicated-we-compensatory-strategies-and-self-disorders
#9
Mads Gram Henriksen, Lars Siersbæk Nilsson
Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends...
September 27, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877532/stereotype-knowledge-and-endorsement-in-schizophrenia
#10
Luigi Castelli, Francesca D'Alpaos, Luciana Carraro, Florencia Pavan, Giovanni Galfano, Bruno Forti
BACKGROUND: Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2)...
September 7, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850956/cognitive-impairments-in-unipolar-depression-the-impact-of-rumination
#11
Christine Schwert, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Matthias Weisbrod, Annette Schröder
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impairments in several cognitive domains. People with depression also tend to focus on and think about their problems ("ruminate") more than people without depression. Recent studies indicate that depressive rumination is connected to cognitive impairments in MDD. However, there is little scientific understanding of the role of rumination in these deficits. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The current study examined the performance of 62 outpatients suffering from unipolar major depression with a low tendency to ruminate versus outpatients with a high tendency to ruminate using a neuropsychological battery covering the 5 cognitive domains: attention, memory, working memory, executive functions and processing speed...
August 30, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848181/schizophrenia-self-and-person-eugen-bleuler-and-arthur-kronfeld-on-a-conceptual-alliance
#12
Anke Maatz, Paul Hoff
The conceptual history of schizophrenia is marked by considerable dissent about its nosological status, and the question of whether it represents a distinct disease entity remains hotly debated. Another recurring feature in the conceptual history of schizophrenia is the reference to concepts of self and person. This paper brings in connection these two debates by interrogating the nosological function of "self" and "person" by means of a fictitious dialogue between Eugen Bleuler, the inventor of schizophrenia, and his contemporary Arthur Kronfeld...
August 26, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810245/the-etiology-of-hoarding-disorder-a-review
#13
Mary E Dozier, Catherine R Ayers
This article will review the evidence of various proposed factors that contribute to the onset and maintenance of hoarding disorder (HD). Data suggests that hoarding is a chronic condition that starts early in life and does not remit if left untreated. There is emerging evidence that a number of factors contribute to the expression of HD symptoms, including genetics, neurocognitive functioning, attachments to possessions, beliefs, avoidance, personality factors, and life events. The extent to which each etiological factor uniquely contributes to hoarding is still unknown...
August 16, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285316/the-interaction-of-childhood-maltreatment-sex-and-borderline-personality-features-in-the-prediction-of-the-cortisol-awakening-response-in-adolescents
#14
Michael Kaess, Sarah Whittle, Julian G Simmons, Martina Jovev, Nicholas B Allen, Andrew M Chanen
AIMS: The study aimed to investigate childhood maltreatment, sex, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms as prospective predictors of adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. METHOD: A sample of 69 adolescents (30 female and 39 male) were selected from a larger longitudinal study of adolescent development and assessed at 3 time points. BPD symptoms were assessed at T1 (approx. 12.5 years), childhood maltreatment was assessed at T2 (approx...
March 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020682/the-impact-of-theoretical-orientation-and-training-on-preference-for-diagnostic-models-of-personality-pathology
#15
Amy Paggeot, Sharon Nelson, Steven Huprich
The role of theoretical orientation in determining preference for different methods of diagnosis has been largely unexplored. The goal of the present study was to explore ratings of the usefulness of 4 diagnostic methods after applying them to a patient: prototype ratings derived from the SWAP-II, the DSM-5 Section III specific personality disorders, the DSM-5 Section III trait model, and prototype ratings derived from the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM). Three hundred and twenty-nine trainees in APA-accredited doctoral programs and internships rated one of their current patients with each of the 4 diagnostic methods...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797004/-lanthanic-presentation-in-first-episode-psychosis-predicts-long-service-delay-the-challenge-of-detecting-masked-psychosis
#16
Erling Inge Kvig, Beate Brinchmann, Cathrine Moe, Steinar Nilssen, Tor Ketil Larsen, Knut Sørgaard
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies of pathways to care in first-episode psychosis have documented a substantial treatment delay occurring after patients enter mental health services. An initial presentation with neurotic rather than psychotic symptoms is common in first-episode psychosis. The term "lanthanic patient" has been used to refer to patients presenting with a reason for help-seeking that is unrelated to the underlying pathology. The aim of this study is to explore whether a lanthanic presentation is related to prolonged service delay...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787726/disturbances-of-embodiment-as-core-phenomena-of-depression-in-clinical-practice
#17
Otto Doerr-Zegers, Leonor Irarrázaval, Adrian Mundt, Virginie Palette
This paper proposes a phenomenological approach to the diagnosis of depression, with the aim of overcoming the broadness and nonspecificity of the concept of major depressive disorder (MDD) in current systems of diagnostic classification of mental disorders. Firstly, we outline the methodological limitations of the current classification systems for the diagnosis of MDD. Secondly, we offer a conceptual differentiation between a "symptomatological" versus a "phenomenological" diagnosis of depression. Thirdly, we propose characteristic "disturbances of embodiment" as the fundamental phenomena of "core depression", which manifest themselves in 3 dimensions: embodied self, embodied intentionality, and embodied time...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738347/negative-beliefs-about-voices-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-are-associated-with-distress-a-plea-for-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#18
Christina W Slotema, Jan Dirk Blom, Mathijs Deen, Marieke B A Niemantsverdriet, Mark van der Gaag, Hans W Hoek, Iris E C Sommer
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are experienced by 21-54% of patients diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), and ensuing distress is often high. Little is known about the beliefs these patients foster about their voices, and the influence thereof on distress and need for hospitalisation. METHODS: In a convenience sample of 38 BPD outpatients with AVH, data were collected with the aid of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ), Social Comparison Rating Scale (SCRS), and Voice Power Differential Scale (VPDS)...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704829/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-secondary-traumatization-in-interpreters-for-refugees-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
David Kindermann, Carolin Schmid, Cassandra Derreza-Greeven, Daniel Huhn, Rupert Maria Kohl, Florian Junne, Maritta Schleyer, Judith K Daniels, Beate Ditzen, Wolfgang Herzog, Christoph Nikendei
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of refugees, fleeing persecution, torture, and war, are estimated to suffer from psychological traumatization. After being sheltered in reception centers, the refugees come in close contact with different occupational groups, e.g., physicians, social workers, and interpreters. Previous studies ascertained that such interpreters themselves often suffer from primary psychological traumatization. Moreover, through translating refugees' potentially traumatic depictions, the interpreters are in danger of developing a so-called secondary traumatization...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601869/rejoinder-to-commentary-panic-self-disorder-and-ease-research-methodological-considerations
#20
COMMENT
Luís Madeira, Sergio Carmenates, Cristina Costa, Ludgero Linhares, Giovanni Stanghellini, Maria Luísa Figueira, Louis Sass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Psychopathology
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