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Corinna Reck, Sabine C Herpertz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Psychopathology
Emmanuel Matas, Jörg Bock, Katharina Braun
The development of the brain depends on an individual's nature (genes) and nurture (environments). This interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental events during brain development drives the maturation of functional brain circuits such as sensory, motor, emotional, and complex cognitive pathways. Adverse environmental conditions such as early life stress can interfere with the functional development of emotional and cognitive brain systems and thereby increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later in life...
September 27, 2016: Psychopathology
Antonello Colli, Annalisa Tanzilli, Ivan Gualco, Vittorio Lingiardi
BACKGROUND: Patient transference patterns play a central role in the psychotherapy of personality disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to: (1) explore the relationship between patients' personality disorders and specific relational patterns and (2) construct empirically derived prototypes of relational patterns for each personality disorder. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A random national sample of 314 clinicians completed the Psychotherapy Relationship Questionnaire, which evaluates patients' relational patterns, and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200, which assesses personality disorders in a randomly selected patient currently in the clinician's care and with whom the clinician has worked for a minimum of 8 sessions and a maximum of 6 months (1 session per week)...
September 22, 2016: Psychopathology
Deborah Kaiser, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: In borderline personality disorder (BPD), attentional bias (AB) to emotional stimuli may be a core component in disorder pathogenesis and maintenance. SAMPLING: 11 emotional Stroop task (EST) studies with 244 BPD patients, 255 nonpatients (NPs) and 95 clinical controls and 4 visual dot-probe task (VDPT) studies with 151 BPD patients or subjects with BPD features and 62 NPs were included. METHODS: We conducted two separate meta-analyses for AB in BPD...
September 20, 2016: Psychopathology
Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Anita Rinner, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has linked insecure attachment styles and borderline personality organization to substance use disorder (SUD). However, it still remains unclear whether those impairments apply to different kinds of SUDs to the same extent. Therefore, in this study we sought to investigate potential differences regarding attachment deficits and borderline personality organization in two different SUD inpatient groups and furthermore in comparison to healthy controls. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 66 (24 female) inpatients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD), 57 (10 female) inpatients diagnosed with polydrug use disorder (PUD), and 114 (51 female) healthy controls completed the Borderline Personality Inventory and the Attachment Style Questionnaire...
September 16, 2016: Psychopathology
Jan Terock, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Carsten Spitzer, Sven Barnow, Martin Miertsch, Harald J Freyberger, Hans-Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of how childhood trauma leads to increased risk for adult dissociation is not sufficiently understood. We sought to investigate the predicting effects and the putatively mediating roles of PTSD and alexithymia on the path from childhood trauma to adult dissociation. METHODS: A total of 666 day-clinic outpatients were administered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and controlled for sex, age, and the Global Symptom Index (GSI)...
September 14, 2016: Psychopathology
Diana Arias, Marcela Peña
BACKGROUND: Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. METHODS: This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother...
September 13, 2016: Psychopathology
Michael Kaess, Romuald Brunner, Peter Parzer, Manju Edanackaparampil, Johannes Schmidt, Melek Kirisgil, Gloria Fischer, Christoph Wewetzer, Gerd Lehmkuhl, Franz Resch
Descriptive diagnoses of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) may detract from underlying dimensional borderline personality pathology (D-BPP). This study aimed to investigate D-BPP in adolescent inpatients with NSSI and SAs. A consecutive sample of 359 adolescent inpatients was assessed for current and past NSSI and life-time SAs. D-BPP and current mental health problems were measured using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively...
September 10, 2016: Psychopathology
Ruiying Kang, Yeqing Wu, Zhiwu Li, Jun Jiang, Qi Gao, Yuncui Yu, Keming Gao, Yuxiang Yan, Yan He
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their ability to improve negative symptoms, quality of life, and medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. The addition of nonpharmacological interventions like social skills training has a positive effect on medication adherence and decreases rehospitalization rates but is limited in improving patients' symptoms, aggressive behaviors, and quality of life. Aerobic exercise, especially Tai-chi, can potentially reduce psychopathological and negative symptoms, decrease aggressive behaviors, and improve quality of life...
September 2, 2016: Psychopathology
Ian Brockington
Emotional rejection of the infant is a morbid, clinical phenomenon, central to mother-infant psychiatry. It occurs in about 1% of births in the general population, but much more often in mothers referred to specialist services. It has severe consequences for children, but responds well to treatment. It is now better recognized, but research is required, especially cohort studies and neuroscientific investigations.
September 2, 2016: Psychopathology
Mitho Müller, Ed Tronick, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Nora Nonnenmacher, Stephan Verschoor, Birgit Träuble
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. METHODS: Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm...
September 1, 2016: Psychopathology
Diana Morelen, Rena Menke, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Marjorie Beeghly, Maria Muzik
BACKGROUND: This study examined the bidirectional nature of mother-infant positive and negative emotional displays during social interactions across multiple tasks among postpartum women accounting for childhood maltreatment severity. Additionally, effects of maternal postpartum psychopathology on maternal affect and effects of task and emotional valence on dyadic emotional displays were evaluated. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 192 mother-infant dyads (51% male infants) were videotaped during free play and the Still-Face paradigm at 6 months postpartum...
September 1, 2016: Psychopathology
Svenja Taubner, Laura Zimmermann, Axel Ramberg, Paul Schröder
AIM: The present study investigates the role of attachment representation and mentalization as possibly protective factors in the relationship between early maltreatment and potential for violence in adolescence. METHODS: For the current study, 161 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, were recruited from high schools and youth psychiatry. Early maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, and mentalization was coded with the Reflective Functioning Scale from Adult Attachment Interviews...
August 23, 2016: Psychopathology
Eerika Flinkkilä, Anna Keski-Rahkonen, Mauri Marttunen, Anu Raevuori
BACKGROUND: The objective of this descriptive review is to summarize the current scientific evidence on the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal infection and immune response on the offspring's risk for mental disorders (schizophrenia spectrum disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, anorexia nervosa, and mood disorders). SAMPLING AND METHODS: Studies were searched from PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE (R) databases with the following keywords: 'prenatal exposure delayed effects' and 'infection', and 'inflammation' and 'mental disorders'...
August 17, 2016: Psychopathology
Maria Licata, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Birgit Träuble, Beate Sodian, Corinna Reck
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. METHODS: The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children...
August 6, 2016: Psychopathology
Hannah F Behrendt, Kerstin Konrad, Tamme W Goecke, Roya Fakhrabadi, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Christine Firk
BACKGROUND: Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated...
August 5, 2016: Psychopathology
Laura Bozicevic, Leonardo De Pascalis, Nicole Schuitmaker, Mark Tomlinson, Peter J Cooper, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: The ability to regulate emotions is a key developmental achievement acquired during social interactions and associated with better behavioral and social outcomes. We examined the influence of culture on child emotion regulation (ER) and aggression and on early parenting practices, and the role of parenting in child ER. METHODS: We assessed 48 mother-infant dyads from three cultures (1 UK, 2 South African) at infant age of 3 months for maternal sensitivity during face-to-face interactions and responses to infant distress during daily life, and at 2 years for child ER strategies and maternally reported aggression...
August 3, 2016: Psychopathology
Karen Hillmann, Corinne Neukel, Dirk Hagemann, Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Bertsch
INTRODUCTION: Early-life maltreatment (ELM) has long-lasting negative consequences and is the most important general risk factor for mental disorders. Nevertheless, a number of maltreated children grow up to become healthy adults and have therefore been called 'resilient'. The aim of the current study is to investigate 'resilience factors' in the context of severe ELM. METHOD: The study was part of the large multicenter project Understanding and Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse (UBICA)...
July 15, 2016: Psychopathology
Cristina Riva Crugnola, Elena Ierardi, Valentino Ferro, Marcello Gallucci, Cinzia Parodi, Marina Astengo
BACKGROUND: While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress...
July 14, 2016: Psychopathology
Corinna Reck, Nora Nonnenmacher, Anna-Lena Zietlow
BACKGROUND: Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers...
July 12, 2016: Psychopathology
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