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Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758557/a-phenomenological-approach-to-psychopathology-of-imagination-development-of-a-descriptive-instrument-examination-of-anomalous-fantasy-and-imagination
#1
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen, Helene Stephensen, Julie Nordgaard, Josef Parnas
This paper serves as an introduction to the Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI) - a novel instrument for a semistructured, phenomenological exploration of psychopathology of imagination. We present an account of the phenomenology of imagination and proceed to a presentation of the disorders of imagination that are addressed in the EAFI. Furthermore, the interrater reliability of the EAFI was examined in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample of 20 in-patients. The interrater agreement ranged from 0...
May 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758549/eafi-examination-of-anomalous-fantasy-and-imagination
#2
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen, Helene Stephensen, Josef Parnas
The Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI) is an instrument for a semistructured, phenomenological exploration of psychopathology of imagination. The EAFI provides a conceptual-descriptive framework to address such experiences. It consists of 16 main items, sometimes divided into subtypes. We suggest that the anomalies of imagination explored by the EAFI reflect an alteration in the structure of consciousness and belong to a fundamental, generative layer of psychopathology with relevance to differential diagnostic purposes...
May 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734188/the-self-in-the-spectrum-a-closer-look-at-the-temporal-stability-of-self-disorders-in-schizophrenia
#3
Andrea Raballo, Antonio Preti
Self-disorders are temporally persisting, experiential anomalies of subjective experiences that index liability to schizophrenia. They impact on the temporal unfolding of concomitant, diagnostic symptoms and can be suitably characterized through the Examination of Anomalous Self Ex periences (EASE). Capitalizing on the results of a recent longitudinal study, we explored the relevant patterns of interaction within self-disorders' descriptive dimensions (i.e., stream of consciousness, presence, corporeality, demarcation, and solipsism)...
May 7, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730662/anomalous-self-experiences-markers-of-schizophrenia-vulnerability-or-symptoms-of-depersonalization-disorder-a-phenomenological-investigation-of-two-cases
#4
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694976/studying-effects-and-process-in-psychotherapy-for-personality-disorders
#5
Franz Caspar
This presentation gives an overview of the methods used for research on the process and outcome of psychotherapy. Possibilities as well as difficulties will be discussed, such as the conflict between internal and external validity and standardized versus individualized procedures as some of the issues deserving particular attention for research on psychotherapy for personality disorder patients. It is argued that good psychotherapy research is also good psychotherapy research for personality disorders, with heterogeneity, ego-syntony, and ambivalent motivation needing special attention...
April 25, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694970/repetitive-negative-thinking-and-its-role-in-perinatal-mental-health
#6
Michelle L Moulds, Melissa J Black, Jill M Newby, Colette R Hirsch
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that anxiety is common, perhaps even more prevalent than depression, in the post-partum period. In this review we propose adopting a transdiagnostic approach to perinatal mental health: to delineate psychopathology and identify potential underlying cognitive mechanisms such as repetitive negative thinking (RNT). SAMPLING AND METHODS: We provide an overview of key studies of RNT in perinatal mental health and suggest directions for future work...
April 25, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672301/neurobiological-mechanisms-mediating-emotion-dysregulation-as-targets-of-change-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
Sabine C Herpertz, Isabella Schneider, Christian Schmahl, Katja Bertsch
Emotion dysregulation is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Most interventions for patients with BPD, therefore, aim at the improvement of emotion regulation. In the current paper, we provide an overview of studies investigating the effects of psychotherapeutic or pharmacological interventions on neurobiological correlates of various aspects of emotion regulation. In fact, studies suggest that the prefrontal-limbic circuit may play a major role in mediating effects of clinically efficacious psychotherapeutic treatments, i...
April 19, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642073/brain-stimulation-studies-of-social-norm-compliance-implications-for-personality-disorders
#8
Christian C Ruff
Several personality disorders involve pathological behaviors that violate social norms, commonly held expectations about what ought to be done in specific situations. These symptoms usually emerge early in development, are persistent and hard to treat, and are often ego-syntonic. Here I present some recent brain stimulation studies suggesting that pathological changes in different aspects of norm-compliant behavior reflect dysfunctions of brain circuits involving distinct prefrontal brain areas. One set of studies shows that transcranial direct current stimulation of the right lateral prefrontal cortex changes the behavioral sensitivity to social incentives for norm-compliant behavior...
April 11, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642070/personality-disorders-functioning-and-health
#9
Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635236/a-preliminary-probe-of-personality-predicting-psychotherapy-outcomes-perspectives-from-therapists-and-their-clients
#10
Douglas B Samuel, Meredith A Bucher, Takakuni Suzuki
BACKGROUND: It is widely established that personality disorder has as broad negative impact on psychotherapy outcomes. Given the increased emphasis on dimensional traits for personality pathology in the DSM-5 and the proposal for the ICD-11, it is important to understand how traits are linked to treatment outcomes. Building on past research with general traits, we hypothesized that more nuanced and specific relations would be apparent. Furthermore, much of the past research has relied upon self-reports of personality and little is known about how ratings from therapists might be related to outcomes...
April 10, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566391/psychopathological-symptoms-and-satisfaction-with-mental-health-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Rose McGranahan, Lars Hansson, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: The patient's view of their mental health is a central aspect in research and practice. Yet, little is known about which psychopathological symptoms are linked with patients' satisfaction with their mental health. We aimed to identify these symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: An individual patient data meta-analysis was conducted with data from 2,488 patients from 8 independent studies. Satisfaction with mental health was rated on a 7-point scale, and symptoms were observer-rated using identical items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale...
March 22, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566390/cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-borderline-personality-disorder-diagnostic-comparisons-and-associations-with-potentially-harmful-behaviors
#12
Alexander R Daros, Mylann A Guevara, Amanda A Uliaszek, Shelley F McMain, Anthony C Ruocco
BACKGROUND: Although difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) are considered a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD), the specific strategies that individuals with BPD most commonly use, their diagnostic specificity, and their associations with harmful behaviors have not been firmly established. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Individuals with BPD (n = 30), mixed anxiety and/or depressive disorders (MAD; n = 30), and healthy controls (HC; n = 32) completed questionnaires assessing both cognitive ER strategies (e...
March 22, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539627/behavioral-and-neurobiological-correlates-of-disturbed-emotion-processing-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
Katja Bertsch, Karen Hillmann, Sabine C Herpertz
One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotion dysregulation, which comprises emotion sensitivity, heightened and labile negative affect, deficient appropriate regulation strategies, and a surplus of maladaptive regulation strategies. Although earlier studies provided some evidence for threat hypersensitivity in terms of a negatively biased perception of other people ("negativity bias") and deficits in the recognition of full-blown anger, i.e., higher error rates and slower reaction times, researchers have only recently started studying effects of interindividual differences (e...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539617/psychosis-is-mutable-over-time-a-longitudinal-psychopathology-study
#14
Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Annabel S Müller-Stierlin, Lea Reichhardt, Silvana Trif, Thomas G Schulze, Werner Strik, Thomas Becker, Markus Jäger
BACKGROUND: A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533951/an-arabic-version-of-the-geriatric-depression-scale-30-items-psychometric-properties-and-some-findings-in-a-lebanese-elderly-sample
#15
Souheil Hallit, Rabih Hallit, Marie-Claude Daher, Dory Hachem, Nelly Kheir, Pascale Salameh
BACKGROUND/AIM: Although the rates of depression and anxiety disorders have been shown to be higher in older people, especially those living in institutional settings, most of this population remains undiagnosed and untreated. The objective is to translate the full-scale Geriatric Depression Scale (30 items, GDS) into Arabic for use in elderly patients in Lebanon, to check its validity and reproducibility in comparison to the original version of the questionnaire, and assess the risk factors associated with depression in the Lebanese geriatric population...
March 13, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486480/improving-family-functioning-to-hopefully-improve-treatment-efficacy-of-borderline-personality-disorder-an-opportunity-not-to-dismiss
#16
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma
People having intimate relationships with persons suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) - for instance, members of their family - are likely to be involved in stormy, roller coaster relationships. Thus, they may feel overwhelmed by extreme, unpredictable feelings and situations, even when they do not suffer from any mental disorder or have no problems with mentalization. As a consequence of living with a BPD relative, family members often experience an emotional and financial burden, and may blame themselves for their relative's illness or for not being able to do more to help...
February 27, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478063/epigenetics-early-adversity-and-child-and-adolescent-mental-health
#17
Edward D Barker
Epigenetic modification, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), is a mechanism that can help explain how early adversities can engender long-term vulnerability for mental health problems. At present, there is preliminary evidence to support the possibility of epigenetic mediation: environmental factors are reported to influence offspring DNAm, which in turn associate with child and adolescent psychopathology. However, all analyses have been correlational in nature and, as these studies have focussed on children and adolescents, DNAm has been based on peripheral tissue (cord blood, whole blood, buccal cells)...
February 23, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471296/ambulatory-assessment-of-borderline-personality-disorder
#18
Timothy J Trull
Ambulatory assessment (AA) is an important tool that promises to minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data, including self-reports, physiological or biological data, and observed behavior, for example, from daily life experiences. AA is well suited for studying borderline personality disorder (BPD) because it can measure moods and emotion (as well as dynamic mood processes, mood changes, and mood instability), problematic behaviors (including interpersonal conflicts, addictive behaviors, binge and purge episodes, and motoric activity), and problematic cognitions/expectancies/urges (e...
February 22, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466805/personality-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder-an-overview
#19
Giles Newton-Howes, James Foulds
BACKGROUND: Clinically, personality disorder (PD) commonly coexists with alcohol use disorder (AUD), although within mainstream mental health services both of these mental disorders are routinely overlooked. Despite a rich literature examining the interactions between AUD and personality functioning, personality traits, and PD, there remains conflicting evidence as to the degree of association and impact of one on the other. METHODS: A narrative review and a synthesis of the literature were done...
February 21, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466803/grandiose-and-vulnerable-narcissism-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#20
Sebastian Euler, Dominik Stöbi, Julia Sowislo, Franziska Ritzler, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Johannes Wrege, Marc Walter
BACKGROUND: Little is known about narcissistic traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This exploratory study aimed to illustrate the associations between total, grandiose, and vulnerable narcissism and gender, diagnostic features of BPD and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), and psychopathology in BPD patients. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The Pathological Narcissism Inventory and psychometric measures for impulsivity, anger, borderline symptom severity, personality organization, depression, and rejection sensitivity were completed by 65 BPD patients...
February 21, 2018: Psychopathology
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