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General Physiology and Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061474/melatonin-diminishes-oxidative-stress-in-plasma-retains-erythrocyte-resistance-and-restores-white-blood-cell-count-after-low-dose-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-in-mice
#1
Natalia Kurhaluk, Olga V Zaitseva, Alina Sliuta, Svitlana Kyriienko, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 10 days) in a model of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by low-dose bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, once 150 μg). Assays were carried out in quadruplicate in the control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute LPS administration (once 150 μg) and LPS plus melatonin groups. Blood morphological examination was performed. Erythrocyte resistance to haemolytic agents, ceruloplasmin, diene conjugates, malondialdehyde, oxidatively modified protein concentrations, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity in plasma were measured...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061473/brain-stimulation-methods-for-pain-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Eugen Kvašňák, Richard Rokyta
Treatment of pain is one of the most important aims of medicine. Over the past several decades, invasive, semi-invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation methods have been tested and implemented for modulation of the pain. In this review we bring the overview of those methods including stimulation of both the deep brain structures utilizing invasive and semi-invasive techniques and brain cortex stimulated by non-invasive transcranial magnetic and electrical techniques. The potentially beneficial method which could modulate the pain by stimulating the deep brain with the interferential transcranial alternating current are discussed as well...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061472/monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-improves-vascular-function-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-rats-with-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation
#3
Corina Rațiu, Diana Uțu, Alexandra Petruș, Pop Norbert, Sorin Olariu, Oana Duicu, Adrian Sturza, Danina M Muntean
Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are the two major pathomechanisms that contribute to the progression of both cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that monoamine oxidases (MAOs), mitochondrial enzymes with two isoforms (A and B), are contributors to the endothelial dysfunction associated with inflammation in mice. The present study was purported to assess the effects of MAOs on endothelial dysfunction in rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammation...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047923/effect-of-oral-contraceptives-intake-on-postural-stability-in-young-healthy-women-throughout-the-menstrual-cycle
#4
Miroslava Mokošáková, Tomáš Senko, Monika Okuliarová, Lucia Kršková, František Hlavačka, Michal Zeman
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral contraceptives on static postural stability in young healthy women during their menstrual cycle. Twenty-three women with the regular menstrual cycle, using or not using oral contraceptives, participated in this study. Salivary progesterone and estradiol levels were measured during one menstrual cycle. Measurements of balance were performed during a quiet stance on a firm and foam surface by the force platform, with eyes either opened or closed, on day 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the cycle...
July 26, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047922/effects-of-1-3-4-thiadiazine-compound-with-antidepressant-properties-in-ligation-model-of-acute-pancreatitis
#5
Alexey Sarapultsev, Oleg Chupakhin, Maxim Rantsev, Petr Sarapultsev, Irina Danilova, Svetlana Medvedeva, Larisa Sidorova, Tatyana Tseitler, Svetlana Brilliant, Vadim Tseǐlikman
Based on hypotheses concerning the role of stress in acute pancreatitis development, the experimental approach for the decrease stress damage via the use the compound with proven antistress/neuroleptic action was conducted. The study was aimed to discover 2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine hydrobromide (compound L-17) therapeutic action in experimental acute pancreatitis. The experimental model used was the ligation model. The trial was carried out on 50 male Wistar rats with average body weight 180-240 g...
July 26, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047921/effect-of-betaine-treatment-on-the-regression-of-existing-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats-fed-on-high-fructose-diet
#6
Murat Giriş, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Merva Soluk-Tekkeşin, Vakur Olgaç, Müjdat Uysal
We investigated whether betaine has any regressive effect on existing high fructose diet (HFrD)-induced insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation as well as hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. Rats were fed a HFrD containing 60% fructose for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet for an additional 4-week period (regression groups). One of the regression groups received drinking water containing betaine (1%; w/v), having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions...
July 26, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956673/reshaping-acetylated-peptide-selectivity-between-human-bet-brd2-bromodomains-bd-i-and-bd-ii-in-glioblastoma-by-rationally-grafting-secondary-anchor-residuesl
#7
Xifeng Fei, Anqi Wang, Xuan Meng, Zhimin Wang
Selective inhibition of BET Brd2 BD-I and BD-II bromodomains is expected to elicit subtle pharmacological difference in anti-glioblastoma therapy. Here, structural basis and energetic property underlying the selective interaction of acetylated peptide ligands with Brd2 BD-I and BD-II were investigated in detail using molecular simulation and computational analysis. It is revealed that the acetyl-lysine is, as expected, a primary anchor residue that confers affinity and stability to bromodomain-peptide binding, while few secondary anchor residues flanking the acetyl-lysine determine specificity and selectivity of peptide interaction with different bromodomains...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956672/effect-of-melatonin-on-the-behaviour-of-rats-with-continuous-light-induced-hypertension
#8
Kristina Repova, Kristina Krajcirovicova, Martina Mullerova, Silvia Aziriova, Tomas Baka, Stefan Zorad, Peter Slavkovsky, Julius Hodosy, Peter Celec, Michaela Adamcova, Ludovit Paulis, Fedor Simko
This study investigated whether continuous light exposure (CLE) results in behavioural disturbances in rats and whether melatonin can modify these potential changes. Four groups of 3-month-old Wistar rats were treated as follows for six weeks: control, melatonin, CLE, and CLE with melatonin. CLE increased systolic blood pressure and melatonin reduced it. No changes in behavioural patterns by CLE were observed. In the controls, melatonin reduced both exploration and locomotion but these parameters remained uninfluenced in the CLE...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956671/asthma-exacerbation-by-aspirin-and-chemical-additives-use-of-a-nucleotide-template-model-to-investigate-potential-mechanisms
#9
Wynford R Williams
Aspirin exacerbated asthma (AEA) affects approximately 10% of the asthmatic population. Clinical studies with a focus on abnormalities in arachidonate metabolism do not adequately account for susceptibility. Other pharmacological targets of aspirin receive less attention. Further investigation is required to elucidate mechanisms, improve on diagnosis and treatment. This study employs a molecular modeling approach, based on use of a nucleotide template, to standardise and compare molecular structures of compounds known to induce or prevent asthma...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956670/involvement-of-calcium-regulating-ion-channels-in-contractility-of-human-isolated-urinary-bladder
#10
Jan Luptak, Michaela Kocmalova, Sona Franova, Juraj Sutovsky, Marian Grendar, Jan Svihra, Jan Kliment, Robert Dusenka, Martina Sutovska
This study specified the role of several key calcium-operating ion channels in contraction/relaxation of human detrusor muscle as possible target for overactive bladder (OAB) treatment. Detrusor samples, obtained from 18 males (average age 61.5 ± 5.9 years), were investigated by organ tissue bath method with following agents: diltiazem for L-type voltage-gated calcium channels; 3-fluropyridine-4-carboxylic acid (FPCA) for Orai-STIM channels; SKF 96365-hydrochloride for transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, T-type channels and Orai-STIM channels; 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) for inositol-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and Orai-STIM channels...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956669/deterministic-approximation-of-stochastic-spatially-explicit-model-of-actin-myosin-interaction-in-discrete-filament-lattice
#11
Artem M Mishchenko, Olga I Dotsenko, Galina V Taradina
One of commonly used approaches of biophysical modeling of muscle contractile apparatus is spatially explicit discrete lattice models in Monte Carlo simulation. Such models allow to reproduce structural features and actin-myosin interaction in the muscle contractile system more accurately. Limitation of such models is their low computational efficiency and stochasticity under certain circumstances. This work introduces deterministic approximation of stochastic model that considers a pair of rigid contractile filaments interaction...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956668/h2s-attenuates-acute-lung-inflammation-induced-by-administration-of-lipopolysaccharide-in-adult-male-rats
#12
Fatma F Ali, Heba A Abdel-Hamid, Nisreen Dm Toni
. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is gasotransmitter which plays an important role in human physiology. In this study, we aimed to check the effect of H2S treatment on acute lung inflammation (ALI). Thirty-six adult male albino rats were used and divided into: control group, ALI group which was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, ALI group treated by the H2S donor; sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight i.p. and ALI group treated by i...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956667/exercise-preconditioning-attenuates-atrophic-mediators-and-preserves-muscle-mass-in-acute-sepsis
#13
Saad Al-Nassan, Hidemi Fujino
Sepsis is an inflammatory condition that causes a severe and rapid loss of body proteins, especially skeletal muscles. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a major role in skeletal muscle proteolysis. Understanding the effects of exercise preconditioning on septic-induced ubiquitin-proteasome activation plays a pivotal role in planning rehabilitation strategies for patients who are susceptible for developing cachexia. In this study, we applied mild preconditioning exercises in the form of treadmill running for adult mice for a period of two weeks, before they were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce sepsis...
June 29, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938682/links-between-brain-cortical-regions-and-eeg-recording-sites-derived-from-forward-modelling
#14
Milan Mitka, Igor Riečanský
Electroencephalography (EEG) provides no direct link between electrode positions and underlying signal generators. Inferences based on spatial proximity between scalp positions and cortical structures are not reliable. More accurate source localization is obtained by solving both the forward and the inverse problem, but is technically challenging. In this paper, we provide a reference table of correspondence between EEG sensors and cortical anatomical regions based on a realistic head model. We also present a universal algorithm to compute the solution by using a forward model to determine the sensitivity for electrodes of any defined electrode positioning system and cortical anatomical parcellation...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938681/overexpression-of-the-abcb1-drug-transporter-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-latrophilin-1
#15
Zuzana Kocibalova, Martina Guzyova, Denisa Imrichova, Zdena Sulova, Albert Breier
Finding new markers with appropriate prognostic levels for the differential diagnosis of neoplastic diseases represents an important issue for biomedical research. Recently, latrophilin-1 (LPHN1) was reported to be expressed in human monocytic leukemia cell lines and in primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, this expression was found to be absent in healthy leukocytes. LPHN1 was therefore considered a novel biomarker of human AML. In previous papers, we established two P-gp-positive variants (SKM-1/VCR and MOLM-13/VCR) of AML cell lines derived from parental human AML cells SKM-1 and MOLM-13 by selection with VCR...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938680/acute-sleep-deprivation-induces-cardioprotection-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-reducing-inflammatory-responses-the-role-of-central-gaba-a-receptors
#16
Hoda Parsa, Mahdieh Faghihi, Gholam A Kardar, Alireza Imani
Sleep is considered as a physiological regulator in the body. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that modulates sleep and affects cardiac functions. We evaluated effects of acute sleep deprivation (SD) on cardiac hemodynamic parameters, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Heat shock protein (Hsp70), serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and prooxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB). Male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) and saline or bicuculline was injected 24 hours prior to induction of 30 minute ischemia following 120 minute reperfusion...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938679/antitussive-activity-of-alcoxyphenyl-carbamic-acid-analogues
#17
Jana Jurecekova, Gabriela Nosalova, Ludovit Jurecek, Jozef Csollei, Veronika Sivova, Slavomir Nosal
In this study we report pharmacological evaluation of four newly synthetized analogues of alcoxyphenyl carbamic acid, structurally related to butamirate citrate that is frequently used as cough suppressing drug, and marked as ATK 231, ATK 241, ATK 251 and ATK 261. These agents with various modifications of the molecular structure have been tested for antitussive activity in cough induced by inhalation of aerosol of citric acid (0.3 M) over 3 minutes using conscious guinea pigs. Results revealed significant cough suppressing activity without significant influence on specific airways resistances in all tested substances...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938678/the-effect-of-curcumin-and-pi3k-akt-inhibitor-on-monosodium-glutamate-induced-rat-thymocytes-toxicity
#18
Miodrag Vucic, Irena Cojbasic, Jelena Vucic, Voja Pavlovic
Monosodium glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of glutamic acid, is widely used in modern nutrition as flavor enhancer. However, it has been shown that curcumin has ability to induce apoptosis in the cells of the immune system. In the present study, we evaluate the potential protective effects of curcumin in MSG-induced apoptosis and signaling pathway which may be involved. Rat thymocytes were treated with increased (1, 10, 50 mM) MSG concentrations and/or curcumin (3 μM). Cell apoptosis rate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), Bcl-2, Bax protein expression and caspase-3 activity were determined after 24 hours of incubation...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938677/the-effect-of-ellagic-acid-on-photodynamic-therapy-in-leukemia-cells
#19
Dan Sun, Yao Lu, Su-Juan Zhang, Kai-Ge Wang, Yuan Li
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally phenolic acid presented in different foods. It has a variety of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbiological and anti-cancer properties. On account of its antioxidant activity, EA might protect cancer cells from free radical damage in photodynamic therapy (PDT) during which reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was stimulated leading to irreversible tumor cell injury. In this study, the influence of EA on K562 cells in 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based PDT is demonstrated...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938676/exercise-training-increased-gene-expression-of-ldl-r-and-pcsk9-in-intestine-link-to-transintestinal-cholesterol-excretion
#20
Zahra Farahnak, Natalie Chapados, Jean-Marc Lavoie
Transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) is known as an alternate non-biliary route of cholesterol excretion from the body. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise training has effects on intestinal membrane receptors involved in TICE in intact and ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were first divided into 4 groups: Sham operated and Ovx rats fed a standard diet (Sham-SD; Ovx-SD), or a high cholesterol diet (Sham-Chol; Ovx-Chol). These 4 groups were subsequently subdivided into either sedentary or voluntary wheel running groups for 6 weeks...
May 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
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