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General Physiology and Biophysics

Hanan Waly, Sohair Mm Ragab, Khaled Ma Hassanein, Nasser S Abou Khalil, Emad A Ahmed
Uranyl acetate (UA), a commercial stock from depleted uranium (DU), has a combined effect of chemical toxicity and mild radioactivity. Here, we investigated the potential antioxidant, antiapoptotic and cytoprotective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against UA-induced testicular damage in rats. UA reduced testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) levels relative to the control group. Interestingly, the testicular SOD activity and NO and GSH levels of UA/TQ- and UA/NAC-treated groups were also significantly lower relative to the control...
December 14, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Yongcai Zhao, Qiaodi Zhu, Wenjuan Song, Binghong Gao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training and dietary restriction on cardiac PINK1/Parkin and Bnip3/Nix pathways involved in mitophagy. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to control (C), exercise training (T), dietary restriction (D) and exercise training + dietary restriction (TD) groups. T group undertook 10 weeks of swimming training. D group was subjected to 40% food reduction. TD group undertook the combination of exercise training and food reduction. Suspectable mitophagy autophagosomes can be observed in T and D groups and more autophagosomes appeared in TD group...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Daniil Grinchii, Ruslan Paliokha, Vadim Tseilikman, Eliyahu Dremencov
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect an inhibitor of cytochrome-P450, proadifen hydrochloride (SKF525), on the excitability of serotonin neurons. Adult male Wistar rats were administered SKF525 forty-eight, twenty-four, and one hour before electrophysiological assessments. Control animals were injected saline. Rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and glass electrodes were stereotaxically inserted into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Serotonin neurons were identified and their firing activity was recorded...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Monika Pávková Goldbergová, Jolana Lipková, Jan Fedorko, Petr Němec, Jindřiška Gatterová, Lucie Válková, Jana Ševčíková, Anna Vašků
The aim of study was to examine relation among miR-124 and serum levels of selected cytokines and chemokines, MMP-3, production of auto-antibodies, and factors describing clinical activity (DAS28) and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 80 RA patients according to the ACR classification criteria, and 32 control subjects were recruited into study. The measurements of miR-124 and U-6 expression, CRP, anti-CCP, rheumatoid factors (RFs), radiographs of both hands with calculation of total sharp score (TSS), DAS28 and cytokines, chemokines and MMP levels in serum were obtained from all RA patients...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Sahar M El Agaty
To evaluate the potential beneficial impact and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of triiodothyronine (T3) on glucose intolerance in aged rats. Rats were divided into adult group, aged group, and T3-treated aged group (T3-aged). T3 was administered at a dose of 8 µg/kg body weight for 2 weeks. In comparison to adult group, aged rats presented significant higher levels of fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Glucose area under the curve (AUC), and peak glycemia, estimated from oral glucose tolerance curve, were significantly increased along with decreased mRNA expression of skeletal muscle sirtuin-1, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) in aged versus adult group...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Evgenia Arkhipova, Igor Piskarev, Irina Ivanova
The aim of the work was to study the influence of UV radiation of a spark discharge plasma and a mercury lamp on the state of membrane structures of peritoneal macrophages. The objects of the study were peritoneal macrophages of rats. The total number of cells after exposure and their viability were analyzed. Oxidative modification of proteins was recorded by fluorescence of tryptophan, tyrosine and products of non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins. The concentration of sialic acids was determined spectrophotometrically, and the intensity of adhesion properties of cells was estimated by the ability to adhere to the plastic...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Simona Saksonová, Mária Brodňanová, Katarína Dibdiaková, Ivana Pilchová, Katarína Klačanová, Jozef Hatok, Peter Račay
The aim our study was to investigate protective effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in the model of proteasome stress of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells induced by bortezomib, an inhibitor of 26S proteasome. We have focused our interests on Hsp70 and activation of caspase 3. Finally, we have compared the effect of CoCl2 with an effect of the pre-treatment of the cells with 17-AAG, an inhibitor of Hsp90 that is capable to induce expression of Hsp70, or with IOX2, an inhibitor of isoform 2 of prolyl hydroxylase that increases stability of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)...
October 19, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Zdenka Gasparova, Pavol Janega, Peter Weismann, Hisham El Falougy, Barbara Tyukos Kaprinay, Boris Liptak, Dominika Michalikova, Ruzena Sotnikova
Fat-rich diet (FRD) triggers health complications like hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, known as the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which may result in neurological deficits. The impact of MetS on neuronal functions and brain morphology are poorly understood. We induced MetS-like conditions by exposing hypertriacylglycerolemic (HTG) rats to FRD for eight weeks with the aim to study possible neurological dysfunctions. HTG-FRD rats were compared to HTG rats and Wistar rats on standard diet...
October 19, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Tomasz Wybranowski, Blanka Ziomkowska, Michał Cyrankiewicz, Stefan Kruszewski
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on drug binding affinity, free and bound fraction. The fluorescence anisotropy method was used to examine the interactions of commercial human serum albumin (HSA) and human plasma proteins with ochratoxin A (OTA) or carboxylate form of camptothecin (CPT-C). In-vitro method revealed significant reduction in bound fraction of drugs to HSA oxidized by chloramine T. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the plasma level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP)...
October 19, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Seung-Shick Shin, Myeong-Cheol Ko, Dae-Hwa Noh, Byungdoo Hwang, Yujin Park, Sung Lyea Park, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon
Hyper-proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are closely associated with atherosclerosis. Recently, the flavonol morin has been reported to exhibit potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, we investigated molecular mechanisms of morin in VSMCs stimulated by PDGF. Morin effectively inhibited PDGF-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs through a G1 cell-cycle arrest, leading to down-regulation of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E proteins. Interestingly, PDGF markedly down-regulated p27KIP1 protein expression; however, morin treatment restored the p27KIP1expression to the basal level...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mohamed Elderdfi, Aleksander F Sikorski
Membrane palmitoylated protein-1 (MPP1) plays an important role in the formation of raft domains in erythroid membranes. We have shown recently that MPP1 interacts with membrane lipids composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol. Here we further extend this investigation. Our results obtained from FRET assays revealed that MPP1 binds liposomes with high affinity (KD ~ 135 ± 15 nM). Preincubation of MPP1 with cholesterol before its addition to the Langmuir subphase resultedin a dramatic reduction in the membrane insertion/binding of MPP1, indicating the role of direct MPP1/cholesterol complexes in the interaction of MPP1 with membrane lipids...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Tamaz Mdzinarashvili, Mariam Khvedelidze, Eka Shekiladze, Nino Shengelia, Tibor Hianik
The commercial solution of fourth generation (G4) of poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers contains methanol, which is toxic for human body. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study of dendrimers confirmed the existence of this threat. The recommendation is done on how to prepare dendrimer solutions for practical and safely use in gene delivery. DSC have been also used to study the thermodynamic properties of DNA/dendrimer complexes (dendriplexes). We showed that up to DNA/dendrimer ratio 43 ± 3 (w/w) the solution was homogeneous, but stable aggregates were formed at higher PAMAM content...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Lucia Toporova, Peter Illes, Zdenek Dvorak, Pavel Bobal, Jan Otevrel, Julius Brtko
Both, the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), are ligand-inducible transcription factors that control expressions of various genes involved in essential biological processes. Structurally diverse chemical substances are capable to bind to VDR and PPARγ, consequently acting in agonistic or antagonistic mode. Ubiquitous triorganotin compounds, key components of antifouling, disinfectant and biocidal agents were found to act as cognate ligands of several nuclear receptors...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Sergey Y Tsibulnikov, Leonid N Maslov, Natalia V Naryzhnaya, Huijie Ma, Yury B Lishmanov, Peter R Oeltgen, Keith Garlid
It was established that adaptation to chronic continuous normobaric hypoxia (CCNH) increases cardiac tolerance to ischemia and reperfusion. It was performed coronary artery occlusion (20 min) and reperfusion (3 h) in Wistar rats. CCNH promoted a decrease in the infarct size/area at risk ratio in 2-fold. CCNH promoted an increase in the nitrite/nitrate levels in blood serum and myocardium. Pretreatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine, NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea, KATP channel blocker glibenclamide, mitoKATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoic acid abolished the infarct-reducing effect of CCNH...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Olga Otrubova, Monika Jerigova, Sona Halaszova, Ladislav Turecky, Jana Muchova, Dusan Velic
This work provides complex characterisation of cirrhotic rat liver tissue induced by carbon tetrachloride using biochemical and histopathological analyses, and also presents a novel approach, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). According to our knowledge, this is the first report that compares these three different approaches in study of liver damage. We observed increased levels of triacylglycerols and total cholesterol in the liver and decreased levels of those parameters in the plasma. Histopathological observations include fat accumulation in the cells and changes in internal configuration of cells such as shift of position of organelles from the centre to the edge...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Isidora M Stojic, Vladimir Lj Jakovljevic, Vladimir I Zivkovic, Ivan M Srejovic, Tamara R Nikolic, Jovana N Jeremic, Nevena S Jeremic, Dragan M Djuric, Katarina G Radonjic, Milica Labudovic-Borovic, Zivadin D Bugarcic, Jovana Bogojeski, Slobodan S Novokmet
The therapeutic use of cisplatin for the treatment of solid tumours is associated with organ toxicity. Amongst those, the cardiotoxicity is an occasional but very serious and severe side effect. To prevent or reduce these negative effects, many cisplatin analogues have been synthesized and evaluated in terms of being a less toxic and more effective agent. In present study, we examined the effects of cisplatin and its three analogues in the isolated rat heart to determine whether changes in the structure of the platinum complexes (changing of carrier ligands - ethylenediamine; 1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) can influence their cardiotoxic effects...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Nina Kosikova, Martin Cente, Viera Cigankova, Peter Koson, Peter Filipcik
After many decades of research in the field of neurodegeneration, we have no effective cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major form of dementia. It is mainly due to the lack of early, reliable and sensitive biomarkers and incomplete understanding of disease mechanisms at molecular level. Several recently employed biomarkers, especially their combinations, can discriminate advanced stages of AD from other forms of dementia or neuropathy. They do not provide much information on molecular mechanisms of disease rather they reflect the amount of key histopathological markers in the diseased brain...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Eugen Kvašňák, Richard Rokyta
Treatment of pain is one of the most important aims of medicine. Over the past several decades, invasive, semi-invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation methods have been tested and implemented for modulation of the pain. In this review, we bring an overview of those methods including stimulation of both deep brain structures utilizing invasive and semi-invasive techniques and the brain cortex stimulated by non-invasive transcranial magnetic and electrical techniques. Another potentially beneficial method that could modulate pain by stimulating the deep brain with interferential transcranial alternating current is discussed as well...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Natalia Kurhaluk, Olga V Zaitseva, Alina Sliuta, Svitlana Kyriienko, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 10 days) in a model of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by low-dose bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, once 150 μg). Assays were carried out in quadruplicate in the control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute LPS administration (once 150 μg) and LPS plus melatonin groups. Blood morphological examination was performed. Erythrocyte resistance to haemolytic agents, ceruloplasmin, diene conjugates, malondialdehyde, oxidatively modified protein concentrations, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity in plasma were measured...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Corina Rațiu, Diana Uțu, Alexandra Petruș, Pop Norbert, Sorin Olariu, Oana Duicu, Adrian Sturza, Danina M Muntean
Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are the two major pathomechanisms that contribute to the progression of both cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that monoamine oxidases (MAOs), mitochondrial enzymes with two isoforms (A and B), are contributors to the endothelial dysfunction associated with inflammation in mice. The present study was purported to assess the effects of MAOs on endothelial dysfunction in rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammation...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
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