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General Physiology and Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218611/auranofin-an-inhibitor-of-thioredoxin-reductase-induces-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hep3b-cells-by-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Hyun Hwang-Bo, Jin-Woo Jeong, Min Ho Han, Cheol Park, Su-Hyun Hong, Gi-Young Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon, Jaehun Cheong, Wun-Jae Kim, Young Hyun Yoo, Yung Hyun Choi
Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) plays a vital role in restoring cellular redox balance disrupted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage. Here, we evaluated whether auranofin, a selective inhibitor of TrxR, could serve as a potential anti-cancer agent through its selective targeting of TrxR activity in Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Auranofin treatment reduced the TrxR activity of these cells and induced apoptosis, which were accompanied by up-regulation of death receptors (DRs) and activation of caspases, as well as promotion of proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase...
February 20, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218608/unequal-size-of-ions-in-modified-wicke-eigen-model-of-electric-double-layer
#2
Ekaterina Gongadze, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Aleš Iglič
Numerous electric double layer models have been developed through the years to capture the complex electrode/electrolyte interface. In the present study, the Wicke-Eigen model of electric double layer is generalized to incorporate the asymmetric size of cations and anions. Analytical expressions for the spatial distribution of ions and water dipoles are derived. Asymmetric and symmetric Wicke-Eigen models are analysed. Arguments are given in favour of changing the recently adopted name of so-called Bikerman model/equation to Wicke-Eigen model/equation...
February 20, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150589/effects-of-heat-and-freeze-on-isolated-erythrocyte-submembrane-skeletons
#3
Ivan T Ivanov, Boyana K Paarvanova, Veselin Ivanov, Kathrin Smuda, Hans Bäumler, Radostina Georgieva
In this study we heated insoluble residues, obtained after Triton-X-100 (0.1 v/v%) extraction of erythrocyte ghost membranes (EGMs). Specific heat capacity, electric capacitance and resistance, and optical transmittance (280 nm) sustained sharp changes at 49°C (TA) and 66°C (TC), the known denaturation temperatures of spectrin and band 3, respectively. The change at TA was selectively inhibited by diamide (1 mM) and taurine mustard (1 mM) while its inducing temperature was selectively decreased by formamide in full concert with the assumed involvement of spectrin denaturation...
February 2, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150588/inhibition-of-kupffer-cell-functions-modulates-arsenic-intoxication-in-wistar-rats
#4
Oluyomi S Adeyemi, Ekong Meyakno, Musbau A Akanji
Study determined the influence of the inhibition of Kupffer cell functions by GdCl3 in arsenic intoxication. Twenty-four Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 160 g were randomly assigned into four groups. Group 1 received sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg b.w.) once a day, Group 2 received GdCl3 (2 mg/kg b.w.) once, 24 hours before commencing the arsenite (1.5 mg/kg b.w.) treatment. Group 3 received GdCl3 (2 mg/kg b.w.) once and subsequently given distilled water. Group 4 received distilled water only. The treatments were daily by oral gavage and lasted for 28 days...
February 2, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150587/salicylic-acid-and-ascorbic-acid-retrieve-activity-of-antioxidative-enzymes-and-structure-of-caralluma-tuberculata-calli-on-peg-stress
#5
Riaz U Rehman, Muhammad Zia, Muhammad F Chaudhary
Biochemical adaptations and morphological changes are cellular aptitude originated on biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induces drought stress in the nutrient solution. In the present investigation, Caralluma tuberculata calli is exposed to PEG and antioxidative molecules. By increasing the level of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR), the PEG-stressed calli falls off upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and salicylic acid). Under PEG-stress, several cellular and sub-cellular changes such as alteration in plasma membrane thickness, change in nucleus shape, increase in nucleoli, deformation of thylakoid membranes, and increase in plastoglobuli are observed through electron microscopic images...
February 2, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150586/novel-seleno-hydantoin-palladium-ii-complex-antimigratory-cytotoxic-and-prooxidative-potential-on-human-colon-hct-116-and-breast-mda-mb-231-cancer-cells
#6
Marko N Živanović, Jelena V Košarić, Biljana Šmit, Dragana S Šeklić, Radoslav Z Pavlović, Snežana D Marković
Selenium and palladium containing compounds separately exert multifunctional effects on cells. While selenium containing compounds usually exert antioxidative properties, palladium(II) containing compounds are cytotoxic and prooxidative. Here we investigated biological effects of bicyclic seleno-hydantoin cis-7a-ethyl-5-methyl-5-phenylselanylmethyl-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1,3-dione (Hid-Se), and its palladium(II) complex, trans-bis-(cis-7a-ethyl-5-methyl-5-phenylselanylmethyl-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1,3-dionato) palladium(II) chloride ((Hid-Se)2Pd) on human colon HCT-116 and breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines...
February 2, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150585/the-first-slovak-legius-syndrome-patient-carrying-the-spred1-gene-mutation
#7
Martina Sekelska, Lenka Briatkova, Tomas Olcak, Anna Bolcekova, Denisa Ilencikova, Ludevit Kadasi, Andrea Zatkova
Autosomal dominant disorder Legius syndrome (NF1- like syndrome) shows phenotype features that overlap with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), such as CALMs, freckling, macrocephaly and learning disability. Mutation analysis provides an important tool in order to distinguish two entities that have different clinical implications. We analyzed SPRED1 gene by cDNA and/or gDNA sequencing in a cohort of 46 Slovak patients in whom previously NF1 mutation was excluded. In one case we identified a nonsense mutation c...
February 2, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901474/cerebellar-neurochemical-and-histopathological-changes-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-induced-by-intrastriatal-injection-of-rotenone
#8
Yasser A Khadrawy, Iman M Mourad, Haitham S Mohammed, Neveen A Noor, Heba S Aboul Ezz
The aim of the present work was to investigate the neurochemical changes induced in the cerebellum of rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into two groups; control and rat model of PD induced by the intrastriatal injection of rotenone. As compared to control, a significant increase in the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters; glutamate and aspartate together with a significant decrease in the inhibitory amino acids, GABA, glycine and taurine were observed in the cerebellum of rat model of PD...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901473/influence-of-solar-and-geomagnetic-activity-in-gymnodinium-catenatum-dinophyceae-cultures
#9
Paulo Vale
Laboratory cultures of the paralytic shellfish poisoning producing microalga Gymnodinium catenatum were subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock and changes in cell concentration were observed in two separate experiments of 8 and 24 hours duration, respectively. The increase in geomagnetic activity (GMA), radio and X-ray fluxes and solar X-ray flares were negatively correlated with cell numbers. Cell losses were observed in the short experiment, but not in the longest one. GMA action was related to the course of the experimental period, while electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was only significantly related when the previous hours before the experiments were considered...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901472/effects-of-low-and-high-deprenyl-dose-on-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#10
Maria Lalkovicova, Frantiska Horvathova, Igor Sulla, Jozef Mihalik, Viera Danielisova
We evaluated the effects of low dose deprenyl (LDD, 0.0025 mg/kg per day) and high dose deprenyl (HDD, 0.25 mg/kg per day) treatment of male Wistar rats for 30 days on the activities of SOD and CAT in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Total SOD and MnSOD activities were increased with LDD (p <0.05) in the cortex (0.74 ± 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.02), striatum (0.75 ± 0.02; 0.27 ± 0.03) and CA1 region of the hippocampus (0.75 ± 0.02; 0.29 ± 0.03) compared to the control (0.53 ± 0.02; 0.15 ± 0.02), but reduced (p <0...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901471/esculetin-exerts-anti-proliferative-effects-against-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-by-suppressing-specificity-protein-1-in-vitro
#11
Ra H Lee, Young-Joo Jeon, Jin H Cho, Jeong-Yun Jang, Il-Keun Kong, Seok-Ho Kim, MinSeok S Kim, Hak-Jae Chung, Keon B Oh, Seon-Min Park, Jae-Cheon Shin, Jae-Min Seo, Sungho Ko, Jung-Hyun Shim, Jung-Il Chae
Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901470/sinomenine-prevents-the-development-of-cardiomyopathy-in-diabetic-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-responses-and-blocking-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#12
Cheng Jiang, Yun-Long Tong, Dan Zhang, Li-Zhi Liu, Ju-Fei Wang
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The goal of current work was to study the effects of sinomenine on streptozotocin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. DM in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Cardiac function was evaluated by measuring left ventricle end-diastolic diameter, left ventricle end-systolic diameter and ejection fraction. Cardiac inflammation was evaluated by the degree of infiltration of T lymphocytes and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901469/obestatin-improves-hepatic-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-role-of-nitric-oxide
#13
Ola A El-Gohary
Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common clinical problem. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of obestatin against I/R-induced liver injury. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): control sham-operated group, I/R group and obestatin treatment group. Rats of I/R group and obestatin treatment group underwent partial hepatic ischemia for 60 min followed by 90 min reperfusion. At the beginning of the 90-min reperfusion period, rats of obestatin treatment group were injected with obestatin (100 μg/kg) intravenously...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787232/the-response-of-rat-and-human-uterus-to-oxytocin-from-different-gestational-stages-in-vitro
#14
Mohammed F Alotaibi
Oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptors (OTRs) play essential roles in parturition and the effect of OT on uterine contractility is greatly influenced by the expression of OTRs in myometrium. We investigated the effect of OT on uterine strips isolated from non-pregnant, late-pregnant, term-pregnant, and labouring rats and from labouring and non-labouring women. Longitudinal uterine strips (from each gestational stage) were dissected and mounted vertically in an organ bath setup system and challenged with 5 nM OT and the effect was investigated on uterine contractility...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787231/the-influence-of-prenatal-10-ghz-microwave-radiation-exposure-on-a-developing-mice-brain
#15
Archana Sharma, Kavindra K Kesari, Virender K Saxena, Rashmi Sisodia
Our objective was to investigate alterations in the developing mice brain after intrauterine microwave exposure from different gestation days (0.25 and 11.25) till term. Pregnant mice from 0.25 and 11.25 days of gestation were isolated from an inbred colony and divided into sham-exposed (control) and microwave-exposed (10 GHz) groups. The follow-up study of mice at 3 weeks of age showed significant reduction in the brain and body weight of microwave-exposed group. Results showed an increased level of lipid peroxidation, decreased level of glutathione and protein after microwave exposure on both 0...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787230/integrated-in-silico-in-vitro-characterization-identification-and-disruption-of-the-intermolecular-interaction-between-sh3-domain-containing-protein-kinases-and-human-pituitary-tumor-transforming-gene-1
#16
Yanan Li, Mengmeng Li, Weijie Min, Guosheng Han, Laixing Wang, Chao Chen, Zifu Li, Yuhui Zhang, Jianmin Li, Zhijian Yue
The human pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (hPTTG1) has been found to be overexpressed in various cancers. Accumulated evidences implicate that some of protein kinases can specifically recognize two PXXP motifs at hPTTG1 C-terminus through their Src homology (SH3) domain and then phosphorylate the protein by their catalytic domain. Here, we integrate in silico analysis and in vitro assay to characterize the intermolecular interaction between the two hPTTG1 motif peptides 161LGPPSPVK168 (M1P) and 168KMPSPPWE175 (M2P) and the SH3 domains of Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases MAP3K and PI3K...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787229/imaging-of-striatal-injury-in-a-songbird-brain
#17
Kristina Lukacova, Ladislav Baciak, Eva Pavukova, Katarina Pichova, Svatava Kasparova, Lubica Kubikova
Neurological insults affect both, brain structure and behavior. The injury-induced brain plasticity and associated changes in behavior are difficult to study using classical histological methods. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, enables repeated inspection of the brain in the same individual. Here we took advantage of the songbird model with discrete brain circuitry controlling song learning and production and assessed if a conventional MRI is suitable to detect even relatively small brain changes...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787228/ubiquitination-and-proteasome-mediated-degradation-of-voltage-gated-ca2-channels-and-potential-pathophysiological-implications
#18
Ricardo Felix, Norbert Weiss
Recent findings have revealed a fundamental role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). It has been proposed that the ubiquitination-deubiquitination balance dictates the number of channels expressed at the plasma membrane, which in turn influences a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. This minireview surveys recent studies showing that VGCCs may be ubiquitinated in an unexpectedly complex manner, and highlights the role of the UPS in the regulation of the channels, focusing on the mechanisms that control their cell surface expression...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447403/the-effect-of-maternal-stress-on-blastocyst-quality-depends-on-maternal-physiological-status
#19
Žofia Janštová, Ján Burkuš, Janka Kubandová, Dušan Fabian, Juraj Koppel, Štefan Čikoš
The effect of maternal stress on blastocyst quality, with respect to maternal metabolic status, was investigated in this study. We exposed female mice with different amounts of body fat to restraint stress and examined their blastocyst quality. Blood concentrations of corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose were measured in these females. Significantly lower stress-induced corticosterone elevations were observed in females with high and low amounts of body fat, indicating that the stress response was altered in these females...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921997/comparative-molecular-dynamics-study-of-dimeric-and-monomeric-forms-of-hiv-1-protease-in-ligand-bound-and-unbound-state
#20
Monikaben Padariya, Umesh Kalathiya
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease is a viral-encoded enzyme and it is essential for replication and assembly of the virus. Inactivation of HIV-1 protease causes production of immature, noninfectious viral particles and thus HIV-1 protease is an attractive target in anti-AIDS drug design. In our current work, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) calculations (500 ns) for two different ligands (COM5 - designed in our previous study, and Darunavir) and made effort to understand dynamics behaviour of our designed compound COM5...
December 6, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
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