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General Physiology and Biophysics

Snjezana Romic, Katarina Krskova, Rafal Olszanecki, Lucia Balazova, Viktoria Lory, Goran Koricanac, Miroslava Slamkova, Stefan Zorad
Fatty acid (FA) uptake and/or intramuscular triglyceride (TG) accumulation in skeletal muscle are increased in obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. FA translocase (FAT/CD36) translocation, lipin-1 subcellular localization and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 protein content in quadriceps muscle of young and old obese Zucker fa/fa rats and their lean controls were analyzed by immunoblot to define obesity- and aging-related alterations in FA uptake, their subsequent metabolic fate and potential to activate pro-inflammatory signaling...
June 27, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Martina Pecimonova, Emil Polak, Frantisek Csicsay, Kamila Reblova, Maja Stojiljkovic, Zdenko Levarski, Ludovit Skultety, Ludevit Kadasi, Andrea Soltysova
Phenylketonuria (PKU) and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) are a group of genetic disorders predominantly caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. To date, more than 950 variants have been identified, however the pathogenic mechanism of many variants remains unknown. In this study, in silico prediction and in vitro prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems were used to functionally characterize five PAH missense variants (p.F233I, p.R270I, p.F331S, p.S350Y, and p.L358F) previously identified in Slovak and Czech patients...
June 27, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Barbara Kaprinay, Ruzena Sotnikova, Karel Frimmel, Jakub Krizak, Iveta Bernatova, Jana Navarova, Ludmila Okruhlicova
The aim of the work was to study the delayed effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on endothelial function of the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension. Further, the possibility to ameliorate LPS-induced changes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was tested. Rats received a bolus of 1 mg/kg LPS i.p.; n-3 PUFA were administered in the dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 10 days p.o.. Ten days after receiving of LPS, the body weight gain of rats was statistically lower compared to control rats (p < 0...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Leelavinothan Pari, Ramasamy Chandramohan
We evaluated the modulatory effects of naringin on altered hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet/low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral treatment of naringin at a doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin and increase in the levels of plasma insulin and blood hemoglobin. The altered activities of the hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen content of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the treatment of naringin in a dose-dependent manner...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mongi Saoudi, Marwa Ncir, Manel Ben Ali, Malek Grati, Kamel Jamoussi, Noureddine Allouche, Abdelfattah El Feki
In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of Artemisia campestris essential oil (ACEO) and the possible protective effects against deltamethrin induced hepatic toxic effects. The ACEO showed radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 47.66 ± 2.51 µg/ml, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) potential (EC50 = 5.36 ± 0.77 µg/ml), superoxide scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.175 ± 0.007 µg/ml) and ˙OH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.034 ± 0.007 µg/ml). The obtained results of phenolic profile demonstrated that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of ACEO...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mona M Allam, Ola A El-Gohary
Ghrelin has been shown to ameliorate gastric injury by several mechanisms in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats and the role of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) pathway as a novel mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effect of ghrelin. In all groups studied, ulcer score (U.S), ulcer index (U.I) and preventive index (P.I) were evaluated and the gastric inflammatory biomarkers including levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), HO-1 and bilirubin as an indicator of heme oxygenase activity were measured...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Asmaa Ms Gomaa, Nasser S Abou Khalil, Mohammed A Abdel-Ghani
There is an increasing concern over male reproductive toxicity caused by lead exposure. Folic acid (FA) is supposed to be a promising therapeutic strategy against lead toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to shed light on the potential protective role of FA on lead-induced testicular dysfunction in rats and its possible underlying mechanistic pathways. Rats (n = 24) were divided into four groups: Control, FA, Lead, and FA+Lead group. After 4 weeks, lead intoxication resulted in a marked reduction in the relative testicular weight and the serum level of testosterone, an impairment in the characters of semen analysis, and an increased content of lead, malondialdehyde and both interleukin-6 and -10 and a decreased antioxidant enzyme levels in the testicular tissue homogenate...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mahmoud S Sherif, Ali A Mervat, Aly M Eman
Cigarette smoking is a serious health problem throughout the world, with a complicated and not totally clear bio-effect. In this study, erythrocytes were obtained from healthy male volunteers aged 22 ± 2 years and, the possible effects of three cigarette smoking rates namely 10, 15 and 20 cigarette/day on erythrocytes membrane characteristics were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate many smoking-dependent variations on erythrocytes membrane without an obvious dose-response relationship...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Veronika Hýsková, Veronika Plisková, Václav Červený, Helena Ryšlavá
Salt stress is one of the most damaging plant stressors, whereas hypoosmotic stress is not considered to be a dangerous type of stress in plants and has been less extensively studied. This study was performed to compare the metabolism of cucumber plants grown in soil with plants transferred to distilled water and to a 100 mM NaCl solution. Even though hypoosmotic stress caused by distilled water did not cause such significant changes in the relative water content, Na+/K+ ratio and Rubisco content as those caused by salt stress, it was accompanied by more pronounced changes in the specific activities of NADP-dependent enzymes...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Fatima Mc Bastos, Sandra A Lopes, Vanessa N Corceiro, Carlos M Matias, Jose C Dionísio, Fernando Ds Sampaio Dos Aidos, Paulo J Mendes, Rosa M Santos, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, M Emilia Quinta-Ferreira
The hippocampal mossy fibers contain a substantial quantity of loosely-bound zinc in their glutamatergic presynaptic vesicles, which is released in synaptic transmission processes. Despite the large number of studies about this issue, the zinc changes related to short and long-term forms of potentiation are not totally understood. This work focus on zinc signals associated with chemically-induced mossy fiber synaptic plasticity, in particular on postsynaptic zinc signals evoked by KCl depolarization. The signals were detected using the medium affinity fluorescent zinc indicator Newport Green...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Neila Marouani, Dorsaf Hallegue, Mohsen Sakly, Moncef Benkhalifa, Khémais Ben Rhouma, Olfa Tebourbi
The 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide that persists in the environment and has a risk to human health. We investigated whether p,p'-DDT-induces nephrotoxicity in rats and whether oxidative stress and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of this process. Male rats received the pesticide at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 10 days. Renal damage was evaluated by histopathological examination and serum markers. The oxidative stress was evaluated by lipid peroxidation (LPO), metallothioneins (MTs) and protein carbonyl levels...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Fadel M Ali, Reem H El-Gebaly, Amany M Hamad
Referable to the limited response of the current available cancer treatment modalities, new effective cancer fighting treatments are needed. This work investigates the efficiency of intratumoural injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria combined with a local tumour exposure to extremely low frequency square pulsed magnetic field (ELF SPMF) in the mouse Ehrlich tumour. 64 Ehrlich ascites tumour-implanted female albino BALB/C mice were equally split up into 4 groups. Group 1 (GP1) was the positive control group...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mohammed Elshiekh, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Behjat Seifi, Mina Ranjbaran, Hassan Askari
The effects of erythropoietin (EPO) alone or in conjunction with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on nitric oxide synthase as well as comparing their effects on oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines are studied. Rats underwent bilateral renal ischemia of 50 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. They were administered EPO (5000 iu/kg i.p.) and/or subjected to IPC and sacrificed after 24 h, then plasma and tissue samples were obtained. Treatment of either EPO or IPC and their combination attenuates oxidative stress, decreases histological damages, inhibits proinflammatory response, and up-regulates iNOS and eNOS gene expression compared to IR group...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Paulo Vale
Phototaxis response of the toxic microalgae Gymnodinium catenatum was studied in vitro. The percentage of cells remaining at mid-depth 20 min after stirring increased with solar radio, X-ray and solar flares output. It also increased with geomagnetic activity and temperature, and was dependent on culture time. Increase in the local static magnetic field with a permanent magnet did not influence the positive phototaxis response. However, survival and growth to a provoked hypo-osmotic shock in an altered static magnetic field was dependent on culture time and geomagnetic activity at a threshold below 22 nT...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Sabina Galiniak, Grzegorz Bartosz, Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz
Glycation is the cause of diabetic complications and contributes to the development of other diseases and aging. Numerous exogenous compounds have been tested for their anti-glycating activity. The aim of this study was to answer the question, which endogenous compounds at physiological concentrations can effectively prevent glycation. A set of endogenous compounds has been tested for the ability to protect albumin from glucose-induced glycation in vitro at a concentration of 1 mM and in a physiological concentration range...
April 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Hyun Hwang-Bo, Jin-Woo Jeong, Min Ho Han, Cheol Park, Su-Hyun Hong, Gi-Young Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon, Jaehun Cheong, Wun-Jae Kim, Young Hyun Yoo, Yung Hyun Choi
Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) plays a vital role in restoring cellular redox balance disrupted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage. Here, we evaluated whether auranofin, a selective inhibitor of TrxR, could serve as a potential anti-cancer agent through its selective targeting of TrxR activity in Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Auranofin treatment reduced the TrxR activity of these cells and induced apoptosis, which were accompanied by up-regulation of death receptors (DRs) and activation of caspases, as well as promotion of proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase...
April 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Daria Głogocka, Magdalena Przybyło, Marek Langner
The ionic composition of intracellular space is rigorously maintained in the expense of high-energy expenditure. It has been recently postulated that the cytoplasmic ionic composition is optimized so the energy cost of the fluctuations of calcium ion concentration is minimized. Specifically, thermodynamic arguments have been produced to show that the presence of potassium ions at concentrations higher than 100 mM reduce extend of the energy dissipation required for the dilution of calcium cations. No such effect has been measured when sodium ions were present in the solution or when the other divalent cation magnesium was diluted...
April 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Ji Sook Kang, Gi-Yiung Kim, Byung Woo Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is one of the major sulfur-containing compounds in garlic oil. In this study, we analyzed the effects of DATS against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. DATS preconditioning significantly attenuated H2O2-induced growth inhibition and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis by decreasing the generation of ROS. Treatment with DATS alone effectively upregulated the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), which was associated with the increased phosphorylation of Nrf2...
April 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Ekaterina Gongadze, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Aleš Iglič
Numerous electric double layer models have been developed through the years to capture the complex electrode/electrolyte interface. In the present study, the Wicke-Eigen model of electric double layer is generalized to incorporate the asymmetric size of cations and anions. Analytical expressions for the spatial distribution of ions and water dipoles are derived. Asymmetric and symmetric Wicke-Eigen models are analysed. Arguments are given in favour of changing the recently adopted name of so-called Bikerman model/equation to Wicke-Eigen model/equation...
April 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Ivan T Ivanov, Boyana K Paarvanova, Veselin Ivanov, Kathrin Smuda, Hans Bäumler, Radostina Georgieva
In this study we heated insoluble residues, obtained after Triton-X-100 (0.1 v/v%) extraction of erythrocyte ghost membranes (EGMs). Specific heat capacity, electric capacitance and resistance, and optical transmittance (280 nm) sustained sharp changes at 49°C (TA) and 66°C (TC), the known denaturation temperatures of spectrin and band 3, respectively. The change at TA was selectively inhibited by diamide (1 mM) and taurine mustard (1 mM) while its inducing temperature was selectively decreased by formamide in full concert with the assumed involvement of spectrin denaturation...
April 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
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