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General Physiology and Biophysics

Natalia Kurhaluk, Olga V Zaitseva, Alina Sliuta, Svitlana Kyriienko, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 10 days) in a model of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by low-dose bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, once 150 μg). Assays were carried out in quadruplicate in the control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute LPS administration (once 150 μg) and LPS plus melatonin groups. Blood morphological examination was performed. Erythrocyte resistance to haemolytic agents, ceruloplasmin, diene conjugates, malondialdehyde, oxidatively modified protein concentrations, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity in plasma were measured...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Eugen Kvašňák, Richard Rokyta
Treatment of pain is one of the most important aims of medicine. Over the past several decades, invasive, semi-invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation methods have been tested and implemented for modulation of the pain. In this review we bring the overview of those methods including stimulation of both the deep brain structures utilizing invasive and semi-invasive techniques and brain cortex stimulated by non-invasive transcranial magnetic and electrical techniques. The potentially beneficial method which could modulate the pain by stimulating the deep brain with the interferential transcranial alternating current are discussed as well...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Corina Rațiu, Diana Uțu, Alexandra Petruș, Pop Norbert, Sorin Olariu, Oana Duicu, Adrian Sturza, Danina M Muntean
Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are the two major pathomechanisms that contribute to the progression of both cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that monoamine oxidases (MAOs), mitochondrial enzymes with two isoforms (A and B), are contributors to the endothelial dysfunction associated with inflammation in mice. The present study was purported to assess the effects of MAOs on endothelial dysfunction in rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammation...
July 31, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Miroslava Mokošáková, Tomáš Senko, Monika Okuliarová, Lucia Kršková, František Hlavačka, Michal Zeman
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral contraceptives on static postural stability in young healthy women during their menstrual cycle. Twenty-three women with the regular menstrual cycle, using or not using oral contraceptives, participated in this study. Salivary progesterone and estradiol levels were measured during one menstrual cycle. Measurements of balance were performed during a quiet stance on a firm and foam surface by the force platform, with eyes either opened or closed, on day 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the cycle...
July 26, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Alexey Sarapultsev, Oleg Chupakhin, Maxim Rantsev, Petr Sarapultsev, Irina Danilova, Svetlana Medvedeva, Larisa Sidorova, Tatyana Tseitler, Svetlana Brilliant, Vadim Tseǐlikman
Based on hypotheses concerning the role of stress in acute pancreatitis development, the experimental approach for the decrease stress damage via the use the compound with proven antistress/neuroleptic action was conducted. The study was aimed to discover 2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine hydrobromide (compound L-17) therapeutic action in experimental acute pancreatitis. The experimental model used was the ligation model. The trial was carried out on 50 male Wistar rats with average body weight 180-240 g...
July 26, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Murat Giriş, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Merva Soluk-Tekkeşin, Vakur Olgaç, Müjdat Uysal
We investigated whether betaine has any regressive effect on existing high fructose diet (HFrD)-induced insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation as well as hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. Rats were fed a HFrD containing 60% fructose for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet for an additional 4-week period (regression groups). One of the regression groups received drinking water containing betaine (1%; w/v), having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions...
July 26, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Tamaz Mdzinarashvili, Mariam Khvedelidze, Eka Shekiladze, Nino Shengelia, Tibor Hianik
The commercial solution of fourth generation (G4) of poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers contains methanol, which is toxic for human body. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study of dendrimers confirmed the existence of this threat. The recommendation is done on how to prepare dendrimer solutions for practical and safely use in gene delivery. DSC have been also used to study the thermodynamic properties of DNA/dendrimer complexes (dendriplexes). We showed that up to DNA/dendrimer ratio 43 ± 3 (w/w) the solution was homogeneous, but stable aggregates were formed at higher PAMAM content...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Lucia Toporova, Peter Illes, Zdenek Dvorak, Pavel Bobal, Jan Otevrel, Julius Brtko
Both, the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), are ligand-inducible transcription factors that control expressions of various genes involved in essential biological processes. Structurally diverse chemical substances are capable to bind to VDR and PPARγ, consequently acting in agonistic or antagonistic mode. Ubiquitous triorganotin compounds, key components of antifouling, disinfectant and biocidal agents were found to act as cognate ligands of several nuclear receptors...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Sergey Y Tsibulnikov, Leonid N Maslov, Natalia V Naryzhnaya, Huijie Ma, Yury B Lishmanov, Peter R Oeltgen, Keith Garlid
It was established that adaptation to chronic continuous normobaric hypoxia (CCNH) increases cardiac tolerance to ischemia and reperfusion. It was performed coronary artery occlusion (20 min) and reperfusion (3 h) in Wistar rats. CCNH promoted a decrease in the infarct size/area at risk ratio in 2-fold. CCNH promoted an increase in the nitrite/nitrate levels in blood serum and myocardium. Pretreatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine, NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea, KATP channel blocker glibenclamide, mitoKATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoic acid abolished the infarct-reducing effect of CCNH...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Olga Otrubova, Monika Jerigova, Sona Halaszova, Ladislav Turecky, Jana Muchova, Dusan Velic
This work provides complex characterisation of cirrhotic rat liver tissue induced by carbon tetrachloride using biochemical and histopathological analyses, and also presents a novel approach, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). According to our knowledge, this is the first report that compares these three different approaches in study of liver damage. We observed increased levels of triacylglycerols and total cholesterol in the liver and decreased levels of those parameters in the plasma. Histopathological observations include fat accumulation in the cells and changes in internal configuration of cells such as shift of position of organelles from the centre to the edge...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Isidora M Stojic, Vladimir Lj Jakovljevic, Vladimir I Zivkovic, Ivan M Srejovic, Tamara R Nikolic, Jovana N Jeremic, Nevena S Jeremic, Dragan M Djuric, Katarina G Radonjic, Milica Labudovic-Borovic, Zivadin D Bugarcic, Jovana Bogojeski, Slobodan S Novokmet
The therapeutic use of cisplatin for the treatment of solid tumours is associated with organ toxicity. Amongst those, the cardiotoxicity is an occasional but very serious and severe side effect. To prevent or reduce these negative effects, many cisplatin analogues have been synthesized and evaluated in terms of being a less toxic and more effective agent. In present study, we examined the effects of cisplatin and its three analogues in the isolated rat heart to determine whether changes in the structure of the platinum complexes (changing of carrier ligands - ethylenediamine; 1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) can influence their cardiotoxic effects...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Nina Kosikova, Martin Cente, Viera Cigankova, Peter Koson, Peter Filipcik
After many decades of research in the field of neurodegeneration, we have no effective cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major form of dementia. It is mainly due to the lack of early, reliable and sensitive biomarkers and incomplete understanding of disease mechanisms at molecular level. Several recently employed biomarkers, especially their combinations, can discriminate advanced stages of AD from other forms of dementia or neuropathy. They do not provide much information on molecular mechanisms of disease rather they reflect the amount of key histopathological markers in the diseased brain...
September 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Chhoteylal Jonwal, Rashmi Sisodia, Virandra K Saxena, Kavindra K Kesari
A number of studies have reported that male reproductive organs are susceptible to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of microwave radiation exposures on 6-8 weeks old male Swiss albino mice. Mice were divided into two groups: group I - sham-exposed (Control), and group II - microwaves-exposed (MWs). Mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz with power density 0.25 mW/cm2 and specific absorbtion rate (SAR) 0.09 W/kg. Exposure was given in Plexiglas cages for 2 h/day for 30 days...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Paulina Gronesova, Danka Cholujova, Katarina Kozic, Michaela Korbuly, Miroslav Vlcek, Adela Penesova, Richard Imrich, Jan Sedlak, Luba Hunakova
The aim of our prospective, interventional, pre-post, single arm study was to supplement the lack of knowledge of the effect of short-term Pilates intervention on selected blood parameters of healthy women. Female volunteers were recruited for 2-weeks Pilates intervention. Blood has been collected and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after exercise period (EP). Plasma insulin, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels, erythrocyte antioxidant activity, glutathione levels, NK cytotoxicity and plasma cytokines were analysed...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Binnaz E Cosgun, Mehmet E Erdeml, Mehmet Gul, Semir Gul, Harika G Bag, Zeynep Aksungur, Eyup Altinoz
Saffron is used in traditional medicine for its hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties as a natural remedy in treatment of diseases. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the protective effect of crocin (one of the main ingredients of saffron) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) damage in intestinal mucosa. MDA, GSH, SOD, CAT, TAS and TOS levels were measured in experimental animal tissue samples and these were compared with histologic lesions induced by CCl4. CCl4 caused an increase in MDA, SOD, CAT and TOS levels and a significant decrease in GSH and TAS levels in rat intestinal tracts...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Monika Olszewska, Aleksandra Haduch-Sendecka, Mariusz Pietruszka
Plant growth and intracellular H+ ion kinetics are known to be strictly correlated, although the history of this discovery, which is known as the acid-growth hypothesis, has faced many difficulties and provoked a long-lasting discussion. Simultaneous measurements of the plant cell extension and pH of the incubation medium helped to defend the theory and together with some of the newest physics-based models, offered a new insight at the molecular level. This article focuses on both the biological and physical aspects of plant growth in the presence of endogenous auxin...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Xifeng Fei, Anqi Wang, Xuan Meng, Zhimin Wang
Selective inhibition of BET Brd2 BD-I and BD-II bromodomains is expected to elicit subtle pharmacological difference in anti-glioblastoma therapy. Here, structural basis and energetic property underlying the selective interaction of acetylated peptide ligands with Brd2 BD-I and BD-II were investigated in detail using molecular simulation and computational analysis. It is revealed that the acetyl-lysine is, as expected, a primary anchor residue that confers affinity and stability to bromodomain-peptide binding, while few secondary anchor residues flanking the acetyl-lysine determine specificity and selectivity of peptide interaction with different bromodomains...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Kristina Repova, Kristina Krajcirovicova, Martina Mullerova, Silvia Aziriova, Tomas Baka, Stefan Zorad, Peter Slavkovsky, Julius Hodosy, Peter Celec, Michaela Adamcova, Ludovit Paulis, Fedor Simko
This study investigated whether continuous light exposure (CLE) results in behavioural disturbances in rats and whether melatonin can modify these potential changes. Four groups of 3-month-old Wistar rats were treated as follows for six weeks: control, melatonin, CLE, and CLE with melatonin. CLE increased systolic blood pressure and melatonin reduced it. No changes in behavioural patterns by CLE were observed. In the controls, melatonin reduced both exploration and locomotion but these parameters remained uninfluenced in the CLE...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Wynford R Williams
Aspirin exacerbated asthma (AEA) affects approximately 10% of the asthmatic population. Clinical studies with a focus on abnormalities in arachidonate metabolism do not adequately account for susceptibility. Other pharmacological targets of aspirin receive less attention. Further investigation is required to elucidate mechanisms, improve on diagnosis and treatment. This study employs a molecular modeling approach, based on use of a nucleotide template, to standardise and compare molecular structures of compounds known to induce or prevent asthma...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Jan Luptak, Michaela Kocmalova, Sona Franova, Juraj Sutovsky, Marian Grendar, Jan Svihra, Jan Kliment, Robert Dusenka, Martina Sutovska
This study specified the role of several key calcium-operating ion channels in contraction/relaxation of human detrusor muscle as possible target for overactive bladder (OAB) treatment. Detrusor samples, obtained from 18 males (average age 61.5 ± 5.9 years), were investigated by organ tissue bath method with following agents: diltiazem for L-type voltage-gated calcium channels; 3-fluropyridine-4-carboxylic acid (FPCA) for Orai-STIM channels; SKF 96365-hydrochloride for transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, T-type channels and Orai-STIM channels; 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) for inositol-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and Orai-STIM channels...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
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