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General Physiology and Biophysics

Meric A Esmekaya, Ayşe G Canseven, Handan Kayhan, Mehmet Z Tuysuz, Bahriye Sirav, Nesrin Seyhan
This study examines the effects of a 2.1-GHz WCDMA-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in MCF-7 cells. The cells were exposed to the MW at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.528 W/kg for 4 or 24 h. The antiproliferative effect of MW exposure was determined by the MTT test. Cytochrome-c and p53 levels were determined by an ELISA method. The relative ΔΨm was analysed by JC-1 staining using flow cytometer. Apoptotic rate of the cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC staining...
September 12, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Marta Novotová, Bohumila Tarabová, Lucia Tylková, Renee Ventura-Clapier, Ivan Zahradník
Creatine kinase content, isoform distribution, and participation in energy transfer are muscle type specific. We analysed ultrastructural changes in slow muscle fibres of soleus due to invalidation of creatine kinase (CK) to reveal a difference in the remodelling strategy in comparison with fast muscle fibres of gastrocnemius published previously. We have employed the stereological method of vertical sections and electron microscopy of soleus muscles of wild type (WT) and CK-/- mice. The mitochondrial volume density was 1...
September 9, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Rafighe Ghiasi, Farhad Ghadiri Soufi, Gisou Mohaddes, Alireza Alihemmati, Mohammad H Somi, Hadi Ebrahimi, Fariba Mirzaie Bavil, Mohammad R Alipour
Due to key role of inflammation in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), aim of this study was evaluating the influance of regular swimming on serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interlukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. Fourty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, diabetic , exercise and diabetic-exercise groups (n = 10). Diabetes was induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). In exercise groups, after induction of diabetes, animals were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 10 weeks...
September 9, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Yongcai Zhao, Zhiyong Ma
We sought to investigate effects of exercise training on apoptosis-related microRNAs (miRs) and their validated targets, discussing molecular mechanism of the exercise-induced benefit in heart. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups: sedentary (SE), exercise training 1 (ET1) and exercise training 2 (ET2). ET1 swam for 8 weeks, once a day and 5 days per week with incremental load. ET2 performed the same work as ET1 and switched to twice a day by the end of the 5th week. In ET2, positive cell rate (%) tested by TUNEL assay decreased significantly (p < 0...
September 9, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mona M Alaam, Noha I Hussien
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) have been revealed in the pathogenesis of primary osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. This study was designed to assess the effect of 17-β estradiol (E2) treatment and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), captopril, on osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy in rats and discussing the role of OPG/RANKL ratio in their action. Thirty two adult female rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I: control group, Group II: ovariectomized (OVX) non treated group, Group III: OVX rats treated with E2, Group IV: OVX rats treated with captopril...
September 9, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Fatemeh Bagheripuor, Abbas Piryaei, Saleh Zahediasl, Mahsa Noroozzadeh, Asghar Ghasemi
Thyroid hormones (THs) play a crucial role in the development of different systems during fetal life; fetal hypothyroidism (FH) is associated with reduced cardiac function and dimensions in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine whether TH deficiency during fetal life is associated with arterial structural and hemodynamic changes during adulthood. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water throughout pregnancy, while controls consumed only tap water. Hemodynamic parameters, cross-sectional area, intima-media thickness (IMT), and density of nuclei of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells (ECs) in the aorta and mesenteric arteries were measured...
August 16, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Yun-Jung Lee, Kyeong Eun Hyung, Jong-Sun Yoo, Ye Won Jang, Soo Jeong Kim, Do Ik Lee, Sang Joon Lee, So-Young Park, Ji Hoon Jeong, Kwang Woo Hwang
The potential risks that electromagnetic fields (EMF) pose to human physiology have been debated for several decades, especially considering that EMF is almost omnipresent and some occupations involve regular exposure to particularly strong fields. In the present study, the effects of 60 Hz 0.3 mT EMF on CD4+ T cells were evaluated. Production of T cell related cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-2, was not altered in CD4+ T cells that were exposed to EMF, and cell proliferation was also unaffected. The expression of genes present in a subset of Th17 cells was upregulated following EMF exposure, and the production of effector cytokines of the IL-17A subset also increased...
August 16, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Lucia Pavlikova, Mario Seres, Denisa Imrichova, Milan Hano, Andrej Rusnak, Martina Zamorova, Jaroslav Katrlik, Albert Breier, Zdena Sulova
In P-gp-positive cell variants obtained from L1210 cells either by selection with vincristine (L1210/R) or by transfection with the human gene encoding P-gp (L1210/T), we have previously described cross-resistance to tunicamycin (TNM), a protein N-glycosylation inhibitor. Here we studied whether this cross-resistance also underlies P-gp-positive variants of human acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML) derived from SKM-1 and MOLM-13 cells (SKM-1/VCR, SKM-1/LEN, MOLM-13/VCR) by selection with vincristine (VCR) and lenalidomide (LEN)...
October 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Büşra Kaya, Belkis Atasever-Arslan, Zeynep Kalkan, Hazal Gür, Bahri Ülküseven
Thiosemicarbozone complexes that have a broad spectrum of biological activity are formed as a result of condensation reaction between thiosemicarbazide [H2N(C=S)-NH-NH2] and carbonyl-containing compounds. A new Nickel(II) complexes with N1-acetylacetone, N4-4-methoxy-salicylidene-thiosemicarbazidato ligand was synthesized and characterized. We studied the antileukemic activity of the Ni(II) thiosemicarbazone compound and assessed their potential for drug development. Specifically, the effects of this Ni(II) thiosemicarbazone compound on intracellular signal nodes and apoptotic pathways were investigated...
October 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Lubica Lacinova, Norbert Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Žofia Janštová, Ján Burkuš, Janka Kubandová, Dušan Fabian, Juraj Koppel, Štefan Čikoš
The effect of maternal stress on blastocyst quality, with respect to maternal metabolic status, was investigated in this study. We exposed female mice with different amounts of body fat to restraint stress and examined their blastocyst quality. Blood concentrations of corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose were measured in these females. Significantly lower stress-induced corticosterone elevations were observed in females with high and low amounts of body fat, indicating that the stress response was altered in these females...
July 22, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Monika Buríková, Boris Bilčík, Mariana Máčajová, Pavel Výboh, Jozef Bizik, Anton Mateašík, Pavol Miškovský, Ivan Čavarga
There has been increasing interest in fluorescence-based imaging techniques in clinical practice, with the aim to detect and visualize the tumour configuration and the border with healthy tissue. Strong photodynamic activity of hypericin (Hyp) can be improved by various molecular transport systems (e.g. LDL). Our aim was to examine pharmacokinetics of Hyp in the presence of LDL particles on ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail with implanted TE1 tumour spheroids (human squamocellular carcinoma)...
July 22, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Kensaku Uchida, Minoru Tanaka, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
Decreased capillary number is observed in atrophied muscle. The change in capillary number is regulated by angiogenic factors. L-arginine enhances expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), angiogenic factor, in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine supplementation on capillary regression during hindlimb unloading. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) L-arginine supplementation, (3) hindlimb unloading, and (4) hindlimb unloading with L-arginine supplementation...
July 22, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Roman Moravčík, Katarína Stebelová, Andrej Boháč, Michal Zeman
Inhibition of angiogenesis involves blocking of tyrosine kinases (TK) implicated in signalling of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEFGR). The inhibition of TK results in a disruption of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. We evaluated recently developed TK inhibitor 22SYM and compared its anti-angiogenic effects with an approved multitargeted TK inhibitor sunitinib L-malate (sunitinib). Both compounds significantly inhibited migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation induced by VEGF...
July 22, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Srdjan Čalošević, Kristijan Dinjar, Suzana Čalošević, Sven Kurbel, Robert Steiner
This study is aimed to estimate spatial variability of normal QRS loops trajectories in successive cardiac cycles analyzed in XYZ phase space among 27 young and 27 older subjects, both male and female. Among young subjects, 10 individuals were professional football players, while the remaining 17 were students without regular physical activities. Modified three-axial leads (Frank's lead system) were used continually to record high-resolution ECG (1 kHz sampling rate) at rest during 200 seconds by Biopac Student Lab System...
July 22, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Anna Kościarz-Grzesiok, Karolina Sieroń-Stołtny, Malgarzata Polak, Aleksander Sieroń, Waldemar Karcz
The effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on gravitropic response, endogenous growth and growth in the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was studied in coleoptiles of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Medium pH changes, measured simultaneously with growth of coleoptile segments, were also determined. In seedlings grown in the presence of PMF, elongation growth of coleoptiles was inhibited by 16%, while growth of roots and mesocotyls did not depend on PMF. Magnetic field also inhibited (by 36%) the gravitropic response of maize seedlings...
July 22, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Joanna Lazniewska, Norbert Weiss
Bosentan, an endothelin-1 (ET) receptor antagonist is an important drug for the effective management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Bosentan has a rather complicated pharmacokinetics in humans involving multiple physiological components that have a profound influence on its drug disposition. Bosentan is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C9 enzymes with the involvement of multiple transporters that control its hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. The involvement of phase 2 metabolism of bosentan is a key to have an enhanced biliary excretion of the drug-related products...
July 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Michal Pokusa, Natasa Hlavacova, Agnesa Csanova, Michael Franklin, Stefan Zorad, Daniela Jezova
Next to epithelial tissues, mineralocorticoid receptors are also expressed in adipose tissue and are involved in the process of adipogenesis. Mineralocorticoid receptors in adipose tissue are likely to be activated mainly by glucocorticoids. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the processes related to adipogenesis are modified under the conditions associated with high circulating aldosterone. We have made advantage of a model of depression based on tryptophan depletion in which we have previously demonstrated that the elevation of serum aldosterone precedes that of corticosterone...
July 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Noha I Hussien, Ayman M Mousa
Oxytocin (OT) was revisited recently as a hormone of cardiovascular system with several new functions in cardiovascular regulation. But less is known about its role in acute myocardial injury (MI). The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of OT on the biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical changes of MI induced by isoprenaline (ISO) in adult male albino rats and studying the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in its action. Forty male albino rats were divided into 5 groups: control rats (Group I), acute MI rats (Group II), rats pretreated with OT prior to induction of MI (Group III), rats injected with a combination of OT and atosiban (ATO, OT receptor antagonist) prior to induction of MI (Group IV)...
July 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Jarmil Prachař
Mitochondrial nucleoids (hereafter nucleoids) contain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA, prerequisite for mitochondrial functioning, particularly information required for mitochondrial electron transport. To understand nucleoid functioning, it is imperative to know its ultrastructure and dynamics in the context of the actual mitochondrial state. In this study, we document the internal structure, different positions of nucleoids inside the mitochondrial tube and their different morphology. The nucleoid cores appear in section as circular or slightly oval objects ranging from 50 to 100 nm in diameter...
July 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
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