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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939181/new-light-for-phytochemicals
#1
Jarmo K Holopainen, Minna Kivimäenpää, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting technology with narrow-bandwidth illumination helps to reduce energy consumption on covered crops. Here, we discuss how this new technology, which provides flexible modification of light spectra, will open new avenues for natural modulation of medicinal and crop plant metabolomes for better colour, flavour, fragrance, and antioxidant properties.
September 19, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927991/deciphering-cell-intrinsic-properties-a-key-issue-for-robust-organoid-production
#2
REVIEW
Nathalie Picollet-D'hahan, Monika E Dolega, Delphine Freida, Donald K Martin, Xavier Gidrol
We highlight the disposition of various cell types to self-organize into complex organ-like structures without necessarily the support of any stromal cells, provided they are placed into permissive 3D culture conditions. The goal of generating organoids reproducibly and efficiently has been hampered by poor understanding of the exact nature of the intrinsic cell properties at the origin of organoid generation, and of the signaling pathways governing their differentiation. Using microtechnologies like microfluidics to engineer organoids would create opportunities for single-cell genomics and high-throughput functional genomics to exhaustively characterize cell intrinsic properties...
September 16, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916049/optical-imaging-paves-the-way-for-autophagy-research
#3
REVIEW
Yimin Wang, Yu Li, Fujing Wei, Yixiang Duan
Autophagy is a degradation process in eukaryotic cells that recycles cellular components for nutrition supply under environmental stress and plays a double-edged role in development of major human diseases. Noninvasive optical imaging enables us to clearly visualize various classes of structures involved in autophagy at macroscopic and microscopic dynamic levels. In this review, we discuss important trends of emerging optical imaging technologies used to explore autophagy and provide insights into the mechanistic investigation and structural study of autophagy in mammalian cells...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893405/genome-editing-for-global-food-security
#4
Xingliang Ma, Martin Mau, Timothy F Sharbel
Global food security is increasingly challenging in light of population increase, the impact of climate change on crop production, and limited land available for agricultural expansion. Here we outline how genome editing provides excellent and timely methods to optimize crop plants, and argue the urgency for societal acceptance and support.
September 8, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893404/3d-quantitative-chemical-imaging-of-tissues-by-spectromics
#5
REVIEW
Cyril Petibois
Mid-infrared (IR), Raman, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy methods, as well as mass spectrometry (MS), can be used for 3D chemical imaging. These techniques offer an invaluable opportunity to access chemical features of biological samples in a nonsupervised way. The global chemical information they provide enables the exploitation of a large array of chemical species or parameters, so-called 'spectromics'. Extracting chemical data from spectra is critical for the high-quality chemical analysis of biosamples...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890138/unlocking-marine-biotechnology-in-the-developing-world
#6
Cristiane C Thompson, Ricardo H Kruger, Fabiano L Thompson
Fulfilling the promise of marine biotechnology as a source for environmental and biomedical applications remains challenging. New technologies will be necessary to harness marine biodiversity, and collaboration across government, academic, and private sectors will be crucial to create mechanisms of technology transfer and promote the development of new marine biotechnology companies.
September 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870409/frugal-biotech-applications-of-low-temperature-plasma
#7
Zdenko Machala, David B Graves
Gas discharge low-temperature air plasma can be utilized for a variety of applications, including biomedical, at low cost. We term these applications 'frugal plasma' - an example of frugal innovation. We demonstrate how simple, robust, low-cost frugal plasma devices can be used to safely disinfect instruments, surfaces, and water.
September 1, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865804/flashing-leds-for-microalgal-production
#8
REVIEW
Peter S C Schulze, Rui Guerra, Hugo Pereira, Lisa M Schüler, João C S Varela
Flashing lights are next-generation tools to mitigate light attenuation and increase the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgal cultivation systems illuminated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Optimal flashing light conditions depend on the reaction kinetics and properties of the linear electron transfer chain, energy dissipation, and storage mechanisms of a phototroph. In particular, extremely short and intense light flashes potentially mitigate light attenuation in photobioreactors without impairing photosynthesis...
August 30, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865803/microbial-identification-using-electrochemical-detection-of-metabolites
#9
Edgar D Goluch
Curbing antibiotic use requires the development of simple diagnostic tests that provide caregivers with reliable, immediately actionable information to identify whether there is a need to prescribe a specific antibiotic. This Forum article highlights advances in infection screening approaches that use electrochemistry to detect molecular biomarkers for distinct pathogenic infections.
August 30, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843839/tracking-the-penetration-of-plasma-reactive-species-in-tissue-models
#10
REVIEW
Endre J Szili, Sung-Ha Hong, Jun-Seok Oh, Nishtha Gaur, Robert D Short
Electrically generated cold atmospheric plasma is being intensively researched for novel applications in biology and medicine. Significant attention is being given to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), initially generated upon plasma-air interactions, and subsequently delivered to biological systems. Effects of plasma exposure are observed to millimeter depths within tissue. However, the exact nature of the initial plasma-tissue interactions remains unknown, including RONS speciation and delivery depth, or how plasma-derived RONS intervene in biological processes...
August 23, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838636/mechanistic-fermentation-models-for-process-design-monitoring-and-control
#11
REVIEW
Lisa Mears, Stuart M Stocks, Mads O Albaek, Gürkan Sin, Krist V Gernaey
Mechanistic models require a significant investment of time and resources, but their application to multiple stages of fermentation process development and operation can make this investment highly valuable. This Opinion article discusses how an established fermentation model may be adapted for application to different stages of fermentation process development: planning, process design, monitoring, and control. Although a longer development time is required for such modeling methods in comparison to purely data-based model techniques, the wide range of applications makes them a highly valuable tool for fermentation research and development...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822599/limitations-in-clinical-translation-of-nanoparticle-based-gene-therapy
#12
LETTER
Joanna K L Wong, Rashin Mohseni, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Robert E MacLaren, Nagy Habib, Alexander M Seifalian
Organic nanoparticle-based (ONP) gene therapy is a potential strategy to cure human cancer. However, there are still many practical barriers before the promising results from in vitro and preclinical studies can be translated to clinical success. We discuss the reasons behind the hesitant uptake by the clinic.
August 16, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818304/organic-nanoparticle-based-combinatory-approaches-for-gene-therapy
#13
LETTER
Brahma N Singh, Prateeksha, Vijai K Gupta, Jieyin Chen, Atanas G Atanasov
Engineered organic nanoparticle (ONP)-mediated co-delivery of genes and therapeutic agents is emerging as a powerful tool in the treatment of several genetic and non-genetic disorders. The ONP-based combinatory approach provides a technological platform that delivers genes with chemo/radio/photo/immunotherapies for the prevention or treatment of disease progression.
August 14, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789815/bioprinting-and-cellular-therapies-for-type-1-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Dino J Ravnic, Ashley N Leberfinger, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of beta (β) cells in the pancreatic islets, leading to loss of insulin production and resultant hyperglycemia. Recent developments in stem cell biology have generated much excitement for β-cell replacement strategies; β cells are one of many cell types in the complex islet environment and pancreas. In this Opinion, we discuss recent successful attempts to generate β cells and how this can be coupled with bioprinting technologies in order to fabricate pancreas tissues, which holds great potential for type 1 diabetes...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778607/the-business-of-anti-aging-science
#15
REVIEW
João Pedro de Magalhães, Michael Stevens, Daniel Thornton
Age-related conditions are the leading causes of death and health-care costs. Reducing the rate of aging would have enormous medical and financial benefits. Myriad genes and pathways are known to regulate aging in model organisms, fostering a new crop of anti-aging companies. Approaches range from drug discovery efforts to big-data methods and direct-to-consumer (DTC) strategies. Challenges and pitfalls of commercialization include reliance on findings from short-lived model organisms, poor biological understanding of aging, and hurdles in performing clinical trials for aging...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778606/advances-in-industrial-biotechnology-using-crispr-cas-systems
#16
REVIEW
Paul D Donohoue, Rodolphe Barrangou, Andrew P May
The term 'clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats' (CRISPR) has recently become synonymous with the genome-editing revolution. The RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), in particular, has attracted attention for its promise in basic research and gene editing-based therapeutics. CRISPR-Cas systems are efficient and easily programmable nucleic acid-targeting tools, with uses reaching beyond research and therapeutic development into the precision breeding of plants and animals and the engineering of industrial microbes...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760478/engaging-the-senses-understanding-publics-research-methods-science-engagement-and-synthetic-biology
#17
Robert Meckin, Andrew Balmer
Scientists and government actors often fear a 'public rejection' of biotechnology, especially regarding genetic modification. Through a research project aimed at engaging people's senses, we support an alternative way for scientists to consider non-scientists in their research.
July 28, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755977/plasmas-for-treating-cancer-opportunities-for-adaptive-and-self-adaptive-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Michael Keidar, Dayun Yan, Isak I Beilis, Barry Trink, Jonathan H Sherman
Plasma is an ionized gas that is typically formed under high-temperature laboratory conditions. Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) devices with ion temperatures close to room temperature. The unique chemical and physical properties of CAP have led to its use in various biomedical applications including cancer therapy. CAP exhibits a spontaneous transition from a spatially homogeneous state to a modifiable pattern that is subject to self-organization. In this Opinion article, we discuss some new applications for plasma in cancer therapy based on plasma self-organization, which enables adaptive features in plasma-based therapeutic systems...
July 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755976/g-quadruplexes-prediction-characterization-and-biological-application
#19
REVIEW
Chun Kit Kwok, Catherine J Merrick
Guanine (G)-rich sequences in nucleic acids can assemble into G-quadruplex structures that involve G-quartets linked by loop nucleotides. The structural and topological diversity of G-quadruplexes have attracted great attention for decades. Recent methodological advances have advanced the identification and characterization of G-quadruplexes in vivo as well as in vitro, and at a much higher resolution and throughput, which has greatly expanded our current understanding of G-quadruplex structure and function...
July 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755975/microfluidic-mass-spectrometry-interfaces-for-translational-proteomics
#20
REVIEW
R Daniel Pedde, Huiyan Li, Christoph H Borchers, Mohsen Akbari
Interfacing mass spectrometry (MS) with microfluidic chips (μchip-MS) holds considerable potential to transform a clinician's toolbox, providing translatable methods for the early detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of noncommunicable diseases by streamlining and integrating laborious sample preparation workflows on high-throughput, user-friendly platforms. Overcoming the limitations of competitive immunoassays - currently the gold standard in clinical proteomics - μchip-MS can provide unprecedented access to complex proteomic assays having high sensitivity and specificity, but without the labor, costs, and complexities associated with conventional MS sample processing...
July 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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