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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094081/emerging-human-fetuin-a-assays-for-biomedical-diagnostics
#1
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, E Marion Schneider, A G Venkatesh, John H T Luong
Human fetuin A (HFA) plays a prominent pathophysiological role in numerous diseases and pathophysiological conditions with considerable biomedical significance; one example is the formation of calciprotein particles in osteoporosis and impaired calcium metabolisms. With impressive advances in in vitro diagnostic assays during the last decade, ELISAs have become a workhorse in routine clinical diagnostics. Recent diagnostic formats involve high-sensitivity immunoassay procedures, surface plasmon resonance, rapid immunoassay chemistries, signal enhancement, and smartphone detection...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094080/respectful-modeling-addressing-uncertainty-in-dynamic-system-models-for-molecular-biology
#2
REVIEW
Areti Tsigkinopoulou, Syed Murtuza Baker, Rainer Breitling
Although there is still some skepticism in the biological community regarding the value and significance of quantitative computational modeling, important steps are continually being taken to enhance its accessibility and predictive power. We view these developments as essential components of an emerging 'respectful modeling' framework which has two key aims: (i) respecting the models themselves and facilitating the reproduction and update of modeling results by other scientists, and (ii) respecting the predictions of the models and rigorously quantifying the confidence associated with the modeling results...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089199/bioelectronic-nose-an-emerging-tool-for-odor-standardization
#3
REVIEW
Manki Son, Ji Youn Lee, Hwi Jin Ko, Tai Hyun Park
Odors are perceived differently as a function of individual human experience, and communicating about odors between individuals is therefore very difficult. There is a need to classify and standardize odors, but appropriate tools have not yet been developed. A bioelectronic nose mimics human olfaction and detects target molecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. This new tool has great potential in many applications and is expected to accelerate odor classification and standardization. In particular, a multiplexed bioelectronic nose can provide complex odor information using pattern recognition techniques, and could even reproduce odors via an integrated olfactory display system...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089198/point-of-care-detection-devices-for-food-safety-monitoring-proactive-disease-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Marie Yung-Chen Wu, Min-Yen Hsu, Shih-Jen Chen, De-Kuang Hwang, Tzung-Hai Yen, Chao-Min Cheng
Food safety has become an increasingly significant public concern in both developed and under-developed nations around the world; it increases morbidity, mortality, human suffering, and economic burden. This Opinion focuses on (i) examining the influence of pathogens and chemicals (e.g., food additives and pesticide residue) on food-borne illnesses, (ii) summarizing food hazards that are present in Asia, and (iii) summarizing the array of current point-of-care (POC) detection devices that have potential applications in food safety monitoring...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069262/advanced-modeling-reconciles-counterintuitive-decisions-in-lead-optimization
#5
REVIEW
Ariel Fernández, L Ridgway Scott
Lead optimization (LO) is essential to fulfill the efficacy and safety requirements of drug-based targeted therapy. The ease with which water may be locally removed from around the target protein crucially influences LO decisions. However, inferred binding sites often defy intuition and the resulting LO decisions are often counterintuitive, with nonpolar groups in the drug placed next to polar groups in the target. We first introduce biophysical advances to reconcile these apparent mismatches. We incorporate three-body energy terms that account for the net stabilization of preformed target structures upon removal of interfacial water concurrent with drug binding...
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069261/de-problematizing-gmos-suggestions-for-communicating-about-genetic-engineering
#6
Stefaan Blancke, Wim Grunewald, Geert De Jaeger
The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public.
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063621/biodegradation-of-carbon-nanotubes-graphene-and-their-derivatives
#7
REVIEW
Ming Chen, Xiaosheng Qin, Guangming Zeng
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene (GRA), and their derivatives are promising materials for a wide range of applications such as pollutant removal, enzyme immobilization, bioimaging, biosensors, and drug delivery and are rapidly increasing in use and increasingly mass produced. The biodegradation of carbon nanomaterials by microbes and enzymes is now of great importance for both reducing their toxicity to living organisms and removing them from the environment. Here we review recent progress in the biodegradation field from the point of view of the primary microbes and enzymes that can degrade these nanomaterials, along with experimental and molecular simulation methods for the exploration of nanomaterial degradation...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007307/human-based-biological-and-biomimetic-autologous-therapies-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Sabino Padilla, Mikel Sánchez, Gorka Orive, Eduardo Anitua
Repairing and regenerating damaged musculoskeletal tissues is one of the greatest challenges in regenerative medicine. Blood contains the essential ingredients to biologically engineer drug delivery devices that provide spatiotemporal control over the availability of a wide range of autologous agents, including small molecules, cytokines, and growth factors. This opinion article summarizes our current knowledge of blood-derived biological drug delivery therapies. The potential mechanisms that control protein release are discussed, along with the biological rationale and effects of their use in different relevant musculoskeletal tissues, including articular cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle, and nerve tissue injuries...
December 19, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988057/the-rna-epistructurome-uncovering-rna-function-by-studying-structure-and-post-transcriptional-modifications
#9
REVIEW
Danny Incarnato, Salvatore Oliviero
A large fraction of higher metazoan genomes transcribe RNA molecules whose functions extend far beyond carrying instructions for protein synthesis. Although RNA is apparently a simple molecule, the ways in which it performs many of its functions have remained highly elusive for decades. As learned from studying ribosomal and transfer RNAs, two of the key features influencing the function of RNA are its structure and post-transcriptional modifications. A deep understanding of RNA function therefore requires rapid and straightforward approaches to study the complex and intricate landscape of RNA structures and modifications...
December 14, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908451/allogeneic-platelet-rich-plasma-at-the-dawn-of-an-off-the-shelf-therapy
#10
Eduardo Anitua, Roberto Prado, Gorka Orive
A new therapeutic tool is emerging based on a biomimetic strategy: platelet-rich plasma (PRP) technology. Allogeneic off-the-shelf PRP represents a safe and cost-effective treatment for osteoarthritis and related diseases. This breakthrough opens the door not only to improved treatments and opportunities but also to new challenges with multiple uncertainties.
November 28, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816255/extracellular-electron-uptake-among-autotrophs-and-mediated-by-surfaces
#11
REVIEW
Pier-Luc Tremblay, Largus T Angenent, Tian Zhang
Autotrophic microbes can acquire electrons from solid donors such as steel, other microbial cells, or electrodes. Based on this feature, bioprocesses are being developed for the microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of useful products from the greenhouse gas CO2. Extracellular electron-transfer mechanisms involved in the acquisition of electrons from metals by electrical microbially influenced corrosion (EMIC), from other living cells by interspecies electron transfer (IET), or from an electrode during MES rely on: (i) mediators such as H2; (ii) physical contact through electron-transfer proteins; or (iii) mediator-generating enzymes detached from cells...
November 2, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789063/human-endothelial-cell-models-in-biomaterial-research
#12
REVIEW
Sandra Hauser, Friedrich Jung, Jens Pietzsch
Endothelial cell (EC) models have evolved as important tools in biomaterial research due to ubiquitously occurring interactions between implanted materials and the endothelium. However, screening the available literature has revealed a gap between material scientists and physiologists in terms of their understanding of these biomaterial-endothelium interactions and their relative importance. Consequently, EC models are often applied in nonphysiological experimental setups, or too extensive conclusions are drawn from their results...
October 24, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889241/natural-and-synthetic-coral-biomineralization-for-human-bone-revitalization
#13
REVIEW
David W Green, Besim Ben-Nissan, Kyung Sik Yoon, Bruce Milthorpe, Han-Sung Jung
Coral skeletons can regenerate replacement human bone in nonload-bearing excavated skeletal locations. A combination of multiscale, interconnected pores and channels and highly bioactive surface chemistry has established corals as an important alternative to using healthy host bone replacements. Here, we highlight how coral skeletal systems are being remolded into new calcified structures or synthetic corals by biomimetic processes, as places for the organized permeation of bone tissue cells and blood vessels...
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793352/the-unknowns-and-possible-implications-of-mandatory-labeling
#14
Brandon R McFadden
The National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard requires a mandatory label for genetically modified (GM) food. Currently, some aspects of the bill are unknown, including what constitutes a food to be considered GM. The costs associated with this legislation will depend on how actors in the food value chain respond.
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712920/using-prokaryotes-for-carbon-capture-storage
#15
REVIEW
Natalie Hicks, Unni Vik, Peter Taylor, Efthymios Ladoukakis, Joonsang Park, Frangiskos Kolisis, Kjetill S Jakobsen
Geological storage of CO2 is a fast-developing technology that can mitigate rising carbon emissions. However, there are environmental concerns with the long-term storage and implications of a leak from a carbon capture storage (CCS) site. Traditional monitoring lacks clear protocols and relies heavily on physical methods. Here, we discuss the potential of biotechnology, focusing on microbes with a natural ability to utilize and assimilate CO2 through different metabolic pathways. We propose the use of natural microbial communities for CCS monitoring and CO2 utilization, and, with examples, demonstrate how synthetic biology may maximize CO2 uptake within and above storage sites...
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666729/optimizing-microplate-biofilm-assays-to-screen-anti-infective-surfaces
#16
LETTER
Yue Qu, Helmut Thissen, David McGiffin, Anton Y Peleg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612568/biotechnology-and-the-mine-of-tomorrow
#17
REVIEW
W Scott Dunbar
Biotechnology could provide many innovative alternatives for changing the way metals are obtained. Microbes have been used to dissolve metallic minerals and release metal ions into solution, from which pure metal can be obtained by electrolysis. Plants that accumulate metals in their roots and leaves have been used to concentrate metals, and mineral-binding peptides might be used to separate minerals. However, for billions of years microbes have been interacting with metals. Microbial communities in and near mineral sources are therefore a rich source of genetic information which could be used to create synthetic or modified microbiomes that concentrate metals...
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612567/artificial-nose-technology-status-and-prospects-in-diagnostics
#18
REVIEW
Jessica E Fitzgerald, Eric T H Bui, Naomi M Simon, Hicham Fenniri
Biomimetic crossreactive sensor arrays have been used to detect and analyze a wide variety of vapor and liquid components in applications such as food science, public health and safety, and diagnostics. As technology has advanced over the past three decades, these systems have become selective, sensitive, and affordable. Currently, the need for noninvasive and accurate devices for early disease diagnosis remains a challenge. This Opinion article provides an overview of the various types of biomimetic crossreactive sensor arrays (also referred to as electronic noses or tongues in the literature), their current use and future directions, and an outlook for future technological development...
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499275/finding-knowledge-gaps-in-aerobic-granulation-technology
#19
REVIEW
Saurabh Jyoti Sarma, Joo Hwa Tay, Angus Chu
This review identifies the knowledge gaps in aerobic granulation technology and defines some problems for future studies. In particular, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) should be further characterized to understand the intermolecular interactions among these polymers, the role of chelating agents in destabilizing EPS ionic bridges needs further elucidation, and early detection of the quorum-quenching enzymes should be considered to avoid granule segregation and process failure. Furthermore, the process should be supplemented with volatile fatty acids as electron donors/carbon sources, and appropriate anoxic/anaerobic conditions should be provided for enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal...
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424151/a-bigger-toolbox-biotechnology-in-biodiversity-conservation
#20
REVIEW
Richard T Corlett
Conservation biology needs a bigger toolbox to meet unprecedented challenges. Genomics, fueled by declining sequencing costs, offers novel tools with increased precision for genetic questions previously answered with a few molecular markers, as well as completely new possibilities. Metabarcoding promises quicker, cheaper, and more accurate assessments of biodiversity in groups that are difficult to assess by traditional methods, while sequencing low-quality DNA extends the range of useable materials to include museum specimens, archeological remains, and environmental samples...
January 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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