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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645530/recent-advances-in-microbial-production-of-aromatic-chemicals-and-derivatives
#1
REVIEW
Shuhei Noda, Akihiko Kondo
Along with the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology tools, various microbes are being used to produce aromatic chemicals. In microbes, aromatics are mainly produced via a common important precursor, chorismate, in the shikimate pathway. Natural or non-natural aromatics have been produced by engineering metabolic pathways involving chorismate. In the past decade, novel approaches have appeared to produce various aromatics or to increase their productivity, whereas previously, the targets were mainly aromatic amino acids and the strategy was deregulating feedback inhibition...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645529/nanoparticle-based-dressing-the-future-of-wound-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Morgane Berthet, Yves Gauthier, Céline Lacroix, Bernard Verrier, Claire Monge
Reconstructing functional skin after a wound remains a challenge due to the complexity of healing. In this regard, biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs) carrying and releasing bioactive drugs in a controlled and sustained manner may significantly improve the efficacy of wound therapies compared with current treatments. Topical administration of drug-loaded NPs allows optimal delivery to the dermis and improves product efficacy. Furthermore, associating NPs with scaffolds represents a new concept of 'dressing'. Experimental in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models have been developed in preclinical assays to evaluate the beneficial effects of nanoparticulate dressings...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633993/microfluidics-as-a-strategic-player-to-decipher-single-cell-omics
#3
REVIEW
Ouriel Caen, Heng Lu, Philippe Nizard, Valerie Taly
Most cell studies are performed at a population level, relying on the assumption of a normal distribution of the function and fate of a cell among a population. However, technologies allowing single-cell analysis (SCA) have recently arisen and have led to increasing evidence of cell population heterogeneity and its importance. Tremendous amounts of new data could now be uncovered to redefine our understanding of cell omics. Microfluidics has emerged as a major technological player in this new era and is gradually increasing in use among biology laboratories, mainly due to the single-cell high-throughput handling solutions it offers...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606405/biotechnological-advances-for-restoring-degraded-land-for-sustainable-development
#4
REVIEW
Vishal Tripathi, Sheikh Adil Edrisi, Bin Chen, Vijai K Gupta, Raivo Vilu, Nicholas Gathergood, P C Abhilash
Global land resources are under severe threat due to pollution and unsustainable land use practices. Restoring degraded land is imperative for regaining ecosystem services, such as biodiversity maintenance and nutrient and water cycling, and to meet the food, feed, fuel, and fibre requirements of present and future generations. While bioremediation is acknowledged as a promising technology for restoring polluted and degraded lands, its field potential is limited for various reasons. However, recent biotechnological advancements, including producing efficient microbial consortia, applying enzymes with higher degrees of specificity, and designing plants with specific microbial partners, are opening new prospects in remediation technology...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554783/carbon-concentration-in-algae-reducing-co2-from-exhaust-gas
#5
Atreyee Ghosh, Bala Kiran
Algal carbon-concentrating mechanisms can be used to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, and the resulting biomass can produce various value-added products. Mechanisms for carbon concentration in algae are complex and sometimes inefficient. We need to understand how algae successfully overcome these challenges while capturing CO2 from their nearby environment.
May 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549804/the-efficient-clade-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-industrial-chemical-production
#6
REVIEW
Michael Sauer, Hannes Russmayer, Reingard Grabherr, Clemens K Peterbauer, Hans Marx
Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522218/engineering-posthumans-to-be-or-not-to-be
#7
Marianna Karamanou, Theodore G Papaioannou, Dimitrios Soulis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Emerging technological innovations have transformed some science fiction ideas into reality, promising radical changes in human nature. New philosophical and intellectual movements such as 'transhumanism' and 'posthumanism' try to foretell and even direct the future of our existence while dealing with new and complex ethical, social, political issues and dilemmas.
May 15, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514998/affibody-molecules-in-biotechnological-and-medical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Stefan Ståhl, Torbjörn Gräslund, Amelie Eriksson Karlström, Fredrik Y Frejd, Per-Åke Nygren, John Löfblom
Affibody molecules are small (6.5-kDa) affinity proteins based on a three-helix bundle domain framework. Since their introduction 20 years ago as an alternative to antibodies for biotechnological applications, the first therapeutic affibody molecules have now entered clinical development and more than 400 studies have been published in which affibody molecules have been developed and used in a variety of contexts. In this review, we focus primarily on efforts over the past 5 years to explore the potential of affibody molecules for medical applications in oncology, neurodegenerative, and inflammation disorders, including molecular imaging, receptor signal blocking, and delivery of toxic payloads...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511936/biotechnologies-for-marine-oil-spill-cleanup-indissoluble-ties-with-microorganisms
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Mapelli, Alberto Scoma, Grégoire Michoud, Federico Aulenta, Nico Boon, Sara Borin, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Daniele Daffonchio
The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501457/pushing-bacterial-biohybrids-to-in-vivo-applications
#10
Morgan M Stanton, Samuel Sánchez
Bacterial biohybrids use the energy of bacteria to manipulate synthetic materials with the goal of solving biomedical problems at the micro- and nanoscale. We explore current in vitro studies of bacterial biohybrids, the first attempts at in vivo biohybrid research, and problems to be addressed for the future.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487123/clusters-in-industrial-biotechnology-and-bioeconomy-the-roles-of-the-public-sector
#11
Jim Philp, David E Winickoff
Government policies across the world seek to create clusters of companies and other stakeholders that specialise in a particular technology to build an 'industrial ecosystem'. This article looks at some examples of clusters created specifically with industrial biotechnology in mind and examines measures for policymakers.
May 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483159/designer-probiotics-paving-the-way-to-living-therapeutics
#12
Birbal Singh, Gorakh Mal, Francesco Marotta
Enhancing the functional repertoire of probiotics is a promising approach to cope with the inexorable rise of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and the rather slow development of new antibiotics. Probiotics that deliver novel therapeutics efficiently and with site specificity are emerging living therapeutics that may transform existing paradigms of disease diagnosis and prevention.
May 5, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460718/how-does-membrane-oxidation-affect-cell-delivery-and-cell-killing
#13
M Daben J Libardo, Ting-Yi Wang, Jean-Philippe Pellois, Alfredo M Angeles-Boza
The biophysical properties of cellular membranes intimately influence the delivery of cargoes into cells by cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we discuss how lipid oxidation creates important chemical and biophysical changes in membranes, and hypothesize about the observed synergy between oxidized membranes and membrane-active peptides.
April 28, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456344/multiplexed-point-of-care-testing-xpoct
#14
REVIEW
Can Dincer, Richard Bruch, André Kling, Petra S Dittrich, Gerald A Urban
Multiplexed point-of-care testing (xPOCT), which is simultaneous on-site detection of different analytes from a single specimen, has recently gained increasing importance for clinical diagnostics, with emerging applications in resource-limited settings (such as in the developing world, in doctors' offices, or directly at home). Nevertheless, only single-analyte approaches are typically considered as the major paradigm in many reviews of point-of-care testing. Here, we comprehensively review the present diagnostic systems and techniques for xPOCT applications...
April 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527535/computing-in-biotechnology-omics-and-beyond
#15
EDITORIAL
Matthew Pavlovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552428/optogenetic-approaches-to-drug-discovery-in-neuroscience-and-beyond
#16
REVIEW
Hongkang Zhang, Adam E Cohen
Recent advances in optogenetics have opened new routes to drug discovery, particularly in neuroscience. Physiological cellular assays probe functional phenotypes that connect genomic data to patient health. Optogenetic tools, in particular tools for all-optical electrophysiology, now provide a means to probe cellular disease models with unprecedented throughput and information content. These techniques promise to identify functional phenotypes associated with disease states and to identify compounds that improve cellular function regardless of whether the compound acts directly on a target or through a bypass mechanism...
July 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527536/glycoproteomics-a-balance-between-high-throughput-and-in-depth-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Vojtech Franc, Albert J R Heck
Glycoproteomics is an important subdiscipline of proteomics. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics has relied so far on two levels of analysis, targeting either the released glycans or digested glycopeptides. However, limitations of these approaches, caused by the vast structural microheterogeneity that glycoproteins can exhibit, have become evident. Therefore, concomitant methods enabling deep characterization of all discrete glycoforms are essential to extend our functional understanding of the glycoproteome...
July 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511937/hot-start-to-european-pluripotent-stem-cell-banking
#18
Paul A De Sousa, Rachel Steeg, Beate Kreisel, Timothy E Allsopp
Achieving consistency in standards of access to and quality of human induced pluripotent stem cells has lagged behind their use. In Europe, a network of academic and industrial partners has been established to overcome this challenge. The experience reveals the devil in the detail of worthy ambitions informing future efforts.
July 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506573/nanogenerators-for-human-body-energy-harvesting
#19
REVIEW
Antonino Proto, Marek Penhaker, Silvia Conforto, Maurizio Schmid
Humans generate remarkable quantities of energy while performing daily activities, but this energy usually dissipates into the environment. Here, we address recent progress in the development of nanogenerators (NGs): devices that are able to harvest such body-produced biomechanical and thermal energies by exploiting piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric physical effects. In designing NGs, the end-user's comfort is a primary concern. Therefore, we focus on recently developed materials giving flexibility and stretchability to NGs...
July 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501458/in-vivo-molecular-bioluminescence-imaging-new-tools-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Laura Mezzanotte, Moniek van 't Root, Hacer Karatas, Elena A Goun, Clemens W G M Löwik
in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLi) is an optical molecular imaging technique used to visualize molecular and cellular processes in health and diseases and to follow the fate of cells with high sensitivity using luciferase-based gene reporters. The high sensitivity of this technique arises from efficient photon production, followed by the reaction between luciferase enzymes and luciferin substrates. Novel discoveries and developments of luciferase reporters, substrates, and gene-editing techniques, and emerging fields of applications, promise a new era of deeper and more sensitive molecular imaging...
July 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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