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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720284/modeling-of-plasmas-for-biomedicine
#1
REVIEW
Natalia Yu Babaeva, George V Naidis
Studies in plasma medicine, which are currently actively expanding, are of multidisciplinary character, involving physical, chemical and biological processes. Rapid progress has been achieved in this field due to synergy between experimental and theoretical/computational methods. Joint use of diagnostic tools and computations gives a better understanding of mechanisms of interaction of plasma with bio-objects. This review focuses on recent achievements in modeling of plasma for biomedical applications. Various computational approaches used in these studies are described...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720283/addressing-the-digital-divide-in-contemporary-biology-lessons-from-teaching-unix
#2
Serghei Mangul, Lana S Martin, Alexander Hoffmann, Matteo Pellegrini, Eleazar Eskin
Life and medical science researchers increasingly rely on applications that lack a graphical interface. Scientists who are not trained in computer science face an enormous challenge analyzing high-throughput data. We present a training model for use of command-line tools when the learner has little to no prior knowledge of UNIX.
July 15, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711155/manufacturing-cell-therapies-using-engineered-biomaterials
#3
REVIEW
Amr A Abdeen, Krishanu Saha
Emerging manufacturing processes to generate regenerative advanced therapies can involve extensive genomic and/or epigenomic manipulation of autologous or allogeneic cells. These cell engineering processes need to be carefully controlled and standardized to maximize safety and efficacy in clinical trials. Engineered biomaterials with smart and tunable properties offer an intriguing tool to provide or deliver cues to retain stemness, direct differentiation, promote reprogramming, manipulate the genome, or select functional phenotypes...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693858/plasma-in-dentistry-brief-history-and-current-status
#4
Matteo Gherardi, Riccardo Tonini, Vittorio Colombo
We briefly discuss the history of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) applications in dentistry. The reasons for seeking innovative solutions in dentistry are reported, highlighting results showing the potential of plasma along with some still-open questions. Finally, we suggest the next steps on the road from the laboratory to the dental chair.
July 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693857/how-not-to-drown-in-data-a-guide-for-biomaterial-engineers
#5
REVIEW
Aliaksei S Vasilevich, Aurélie Carlier, Jan de Boer, Shantanu Singh
High-throughput assays that produce hundreds of measurements per sample are powerful tools for quantifying cell-material interactions. With advances in automation and miniaturization in material fabrication, hundreds of biomaterial samples can be rapidly produced, which can then be characterized using these assays. However, the resulting deluge of data can be overwhelming. To the rescue are computational methods that are well suited to these problems. Machine learning techniques provide a vast array of tools to make predictions about cell-material interactions and to find patterns in cellular responses...
July 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666545/biotechnological-perspectives-of-pyrolysis-oil-for-a-bio-based-economy
#6
REVIEW
Stefanie Arnold, Karin Moss, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann
Lignocellulosic biomass is an important feedstock for a potential future bio-based economy. Owing to its compact structure, suitable decomposition technologies will be necessary to make it accessible for biotechnological conversion. While chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis are currently established methods, a promising alternative is provided by fast pyrolysis. The main resulting product thereof, referred to as pyrolysis oil, is an energy-rich and easily transportable liquid. Many of the identified constituents of pyrolysis oil, however, have previously been reported to display adverse effects on microbial growth...
June 27, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666544/advances-in-alzheimer-s-diagnosis-and-therapy-the-implications-of-nanotechnology
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Michelle R Santoso, Farhad Rezaee, Haniyeh Aghaverdi, Morteza Mahmoudi, George Perry
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of dementia that causes major issues for patients' memory, thinking, and behavior. Despite efforts to advance AD diagnostic and therapeutic tools, AD remains incurable due to its complex and multifactorial nature and lack of effective diagnostics/therapeutics. Nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated the potential to overcome the challenges and limitations associated with traditional diagnostics/therapeutics. Nanotechnology is now offering new tools and insights to advance our understanding of AD and eventually may offer new hope to AD patients...
June 27, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645530/recent-advances-in-microbial-production-of-aromatic-chemicals-and-derivatives
#8
REVIEW
Shuhei Noda, Akihiko Kondo
Along with the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology tools, various microbes are being used to produce aromatic chemicals. In microbes, aromatics are mainly produced via a common important precursor, chorismate, in the shikimate pathway. Natural or non-natural aromatics have been produced by engineering metabolic pathways involving chorismate. In the past decade, novel approaches have appeared to produce various aromatics or to increase their productivity, whereas previously, the targets were mainly aromatic amino acids and the strategy was deregulating feedback inhibition...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645529/nanoparticle-based-dressing-the-future-of-wound-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Morgane Berthet, Yves Gauthier, Céline Lacroix, Bernard Verrier, Claire Monge
Reconstructing functional skin after a wound remains a challenge due to the complexity of healing. In this regard, biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs) carrying and releasing bioactive drugs in a controlled and sustained manner may significantly improve the efficacy of wound therapies compared with current treatments. Topical administration of drug-loaded NPs allows optimal delivery to the dermis and improves product efficacy. Furthermore, associating NPs with scaffolds represents a new concept of 'dressing'. Experimental in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models have been developed in preclinical assays to evaluate the beneficial effects of nanoparticulate dressings...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633993/microfluidics-as-a-strategic-player-to-decipher-single-cell-omics
#10
REVIEW
Ouriel Caen, Heng Lu, Philippe Nizard, Valerie Taly
Most cell studies are performed at a population level, relying on the assumption of a normal distribution of the function and fate of a cell among a population. However, technologies allowing single-cell analysis (SCA) have recently arisen and have led to increasing evidence of cell population heterogeneity and its importance. Tremendous amounts of new data could now be uncovered to redefine our understanding of cell omics. Microfluidics has emerged as a major technological player in this new era and is gradually increasing in use among biology laboratories, mainly due to the single-cell high-throughput handling solutions it offers...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606405/biotechnological-advances-for-restoring-degraded-land-for-sustainable-development
#11
REVIEW
Vishal Tripathi, Sheikh Adil Edrisi, Bin Chen, Vijai K Gupta, Raivo Vilu, Nicholas Gathergood, P C Abhilash
Global land resources are under severe threat due to pollution and unsustainable land use practices. Restoring degraded land is imperative for regaining ecosystem services, such as biodiversity maintenance and nutrient and water cycling, and to meet the food, feed, fuel, and fibre requirements of present and future generations. While bioremediation is acknowledged as a promising technology for restoring polluted and degraded lands, its field potential is limited for various reasons. However, recent biotechnological advancements, including producing efficient microbial consortia, applying enzymes with higher degrees of specificity, and designing plants with specific microbial partners, are opening new prospects in remediation technology...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554783/carbon-concentration-in-algae-reducing-co2-from-exhaust-gas
#12
Atreyee Ghosh, Bala Kiran
Algal carbon-concentrating mechanisms can be used to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, and the resulting biomass can produce various value-added products. Mechanisms for carbon concentration in algae are complex and sometimes inefficient. We need to understand how algae successfully overcome these challenges while capturing CO2 from their nearby environment.
May 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549804/the-efficient-clade-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-industrial-chemical-production
#13
REVIEW
Michael Sauer, Hannes Russmayer, Reingard Grabherr, Clemens K Peterbauer, Hans Marx
Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522218/engineering-posthumans-to-be-or-not-to-be
#14
Marianna Karamanou, Theodore G Papaioannou, Dimitrios Soulis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Emerging technological innovations have transformed some science fiction ideas into reality, promising radical changes in human nature. New philosophical and intellectual movements such as 'transhumanism' and 'posthumanism' try to foretell and even direct the future of our existence while dealing with new and complex ethical, social, political issues and dilemmas.
May 15, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514998/affibody-molecules-in-biotechnological-and-medical-applications
#15
REVIEW
Stefan Ståhl, Torbjörn Gräslund, Amelie Eriksson Karlström, Fredrik Y Frejd, Per-Åke Nygren, John Löfblom
Affibody molecules are small (6.5-kDa) affinity proteins based on a three-helix bundle domain framework. Since their introduction 20 years ago as an alternative to antibodies for biotechnological applications, the first therapeutic affibody molecules have now entered clinical development and more than 400 studies have been published in which affibody molecules have been developed and used in a variety of contexts. In this review, we focus primarily on efforts over the past 5 years to explore the potential of affibody molecules for medical applications in oncology, neurodegenerative, and inflammation disorders, including molecular imaging, receptor signal blocking, and delivery of toxic payloads...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511936/biotechnologies-for-marine-oil-spill-cleanup-indissoluble-ties-with-microorganisms
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Mapelli, Alberto Scoma, Grégoire Michoud, Federico Aulenta, Nico Boon, Sara Borin, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Daniele Daffonchio
The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501457/pushing-bacterial-biohybrids-to-in-vivo-applications
#17
Morgan M Stanton, Samuel Sánchez
Bacterial biohybrids use the energy of bacteria to manipulate synthetic materials with the goal of solving biomedical problems at the micro- and nanoscale. We explore current in vitro studies of bacterial biohybrids, the first attempts at in vivo biohybrid research, and problems to be addressed for the future.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487123/clusters-in-industrial-biotechnology-and-bioeconomy-the-roles-of-the-public-sector
#18
Jim Philp, David E Winickoff
Government policies across the world seek to create clusters of companies and other stakeholders that specialise in a particular technology to build an 'industrial ecosystem'. This article looks at some examples of clusters created specifically with industrial biotechnology in mind and examines measures for policymakers.
May 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483159/designer-probiotics-paving-the-way-to-living-therapeutics
#19
Birbal Singh, Gorakh Mal, Francesco Marotta
Enhancing the functional repertoire of probiotics is a promising approach to cope with the inexorable rise of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and the rather slow development of new antibiotics. Probiotics that deliver novel therapeutics efficiently and with site specificity are emerging living therapeutics that may transform existing paradigms of disease diagnosis and prevention.
May 5, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460718/how-does-membrane-oxidation-affect-cell-delivery-and-cell-killing
#20
M Daben J Libardo, Ting-Yi Wang, Jean-Philippe Pellois, Alfredo M Angeles-Boza
The biophysical properties of cellular membranes intimately influence the delivery of cargoes into cells by cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we discuss how lipid oxidation creates important chemical and biophysical changes in membranes, and hypothesize about the observed synergy between oxidized membranes and membrane-active peptides.
April 28, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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