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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137814/biofabrication-a-guide-to-technology-and-terminology
#1
REVIEW
Lorenzo Moroni, Thomas Boland, Jason A Burdick, Carmelo De Maria, Brian Derby, Gabor Forgacs, Jürgen Groll, Qing Li, Jos Malda, Vladimir A Mironov, Carlos Mota, Makoto Nakamura, Wenmiao Shu, Shoji Takeuchi, Tim B F Woodfield, Tao Xu, James J Yoo, Giovanni Vozzi
Biofabrication holds the potential to generate constructs that more closely recapitulate the complexity and heterogeneity of tissues and organs than do currently available regenerative medicine therapies. Such constructs can be applied for tissue regeneration or as in vitro 3D models. Biofabrication is maturing and growing, and scientists with different backgrounds are joining this field, underscoring the need for unity regarding the use of terminology. We therefore believe that there is a compelling need to clarify the relationship between the different concepts, technologies, and descriptions of biofabrication that are often used interchangeably or inconsistently in the current literature...
November 11, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132754/the-engineering-potential-of-rhodosporidium-toruloides-as-a-workhorse-for-biotechnological-applications
#2
REVIEW
Young-Kyoung Park, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro
Moving our society towards a bioeconomy requires efficient and sustainable microbial production of chemicals and fuels. Rhodotorula (Rhodosporidium) toruloides is a yeast that naturally synthesizes substantial amounts of specialty chemicals and has been recently engineered to (i) enhance its natural production of lipids and carotenoids, and (ii) produce novel industrially relevant compounds. The use of R. toruloides by companies and research groups has exponentially increased in recent years as a result of recent improvements in genetic engineering techniques and the availability of multiomics information on its genome and metabolism...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132753/multi-product-microalgae-biorefineries-from-concept-towards-reality
#3
REVIEW
G P 't Lam, M H Vermuë, M H M Eppink, R H Wijffels, C van den Berg
Although microalgae are a promising biobased feedstock, industrial scale production is still far off. To enhance the economic viability of large-scale microalgae processes, all biomass components need to be valorized, requiring a multi-product biorefinery. However, this concept is still too expensive. Typically, downstream processing of industrial biotechnological bulk products accounts for 20-40% of the total production costs, while for a microalgae multi-product biorefinery the costs are substantially higher (50-60%)...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126572/functionally-relevant-morphological-profiling-a-tool-to-assess-cellular-heterogeneity
#4
REVIEW
Ross A Marklein, Johnny Lam, Murat Guvendiren, Kyung E Sung, Steven R Bauer
Heterogeneity in cell function has presented a significant hurdle to the successful clinical translation of many cellular therapies. Current techniques for assessing cell quality and the effects of microenvironmental cues and manufacturing processes on cell behavior often inadequately address heterogeneity due to issues such as population versus single-cell measurements and the therapeutic relevance and throughput/robustness of the assay. Due to the well-established relationship between morphology and cellular function, morphological profiling has become increasingly utilized to better understand functional heterogeneity and its impact on therapeutic development...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126571/potential-applications-of-the-escherichia-coli-heat-shock-response-in-synthetic-biology
#5
REVIEW
Joana L Rodrigues, Lígia R Rodrigues
The Escherichia coli heat shock response (HSR) is a complex mechanism triggered by heat shock and by a variety of other growth-impairing stresses. We explore here the potential use of the E. coli HSR mechanism in synthetic biology approaches. Several components of the regulatory mechanism (such as heat shock promoters, proteins, and RNA thermosensors) can be extremely valuable in the creation of a toolbox of well-characterized biological parts to construct biosensors or microbial cell factories with applications in the environment, industry, or healthcare...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126570/genomics-driven-natural-product-discovery-in-actinomycetes
#6
Guoqing Niu
The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens has highlighted the urgent need for new drugs. Actinomycetes have been the most prominent sources of natural products for drug discovery and development. Advances in genomics have inspired several emerging strategies to reinvigorate the field of natural product discovery, especially in actinomycete-derived natural products.
November 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122288/bioprocessing-strategies-for-pluripotent-stem-cells-based-on-waddington-s-epigenetic-landscape
#7
REVIEW
Mee-Hae Kim, Masahiro Kino-Oka
As increasing numbers of cell-based therapies advance through clinical trials towards approval for use in humans, the need for robust and well-characterized cell culturing strategies is becoming increasingly apparent. We discuss here novel stem cell bioprocessing strategies based on the concept of using Waddington's epigenetic landscape to represent the process of cellular decision-making during development. Specifically, we focus on the manner in which cell behavior triggers cell signaling pathways related to the initial cell fate decision...
November 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107319/thermodynamic-activity-based-progress-curve-analysis-in-enzyme-kinetics
#8
Jürgen Pleiss
Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition.
October 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102240/emerging-biomedical-applications-of-enzyme-like-catalytic-nanomaterials
#9
REVIEW
David P Cormode, Lizeng Gao, Hyun Koo
Nanomaterials have been developed for many biomedical applications, including medical imaging, drug delivery, and antimicrobial coatings. Intriguingly, nanoparticles can display 'enzyme-like' activity and have been explored as alternatives to natural enzymes in several industrial and energy-related applications. Recently, these catalytic nanomaterials with enzyme-mimetic properties have found new biomedical applications, from biofilm disruption to protection against neurodegeneration and tumor prevention. In this review we focus on recent in vivo studies demonstrating potential therapeutic uses of catalytic nanomaterials...
October 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102241/from-genetic-stock-to-genome-editing-gene-exploitation-in-wheat
#10
REVIEW
Meng Wang, Shubin Wang, Zhen Liang, Weiming Shi, Caixia Gao, Guangmin Xia
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) ranks as one of our most important staple crops. However, its hexaploid nature has complicated our understanding of the genetic bases underlying many of its traits. Historically, functional genetic studies in wheat have focused on identifying natural variations and have contributed to assembling and enriching its genetic stock. Recently, mold-breaking advances in whole genome sequencing, exome-capture based mutant libraries, and genome editing have revolutionized strategies for genetic research in wheat...
October 25, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074309/fully-artificial-exosomes-towards-new-theranostic-biomaterials
#11
Pablo García-Manrique, Gemma Gutiérrez, Maria Carmen Blanco-López
Bionanotechnology routes have been recently developed to produce fully artificial exosomes: biomimetic particles designed to overcome certain limitations in extracellular vesicle (EV) biology and applications. These particles could soon become true therapeutic biomaterials. Here, we outline their current preparation techniques, their explored and future possibilities, and their present limits.
October 23, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061328/artificial-metalloenzymes-on-the-verge-of-new-to-nature-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Markus Jeschek, Sven Panke, Thomas R Ward
Residing at the interface of chemistry and biotechnology, artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) offer an attractive technology to combine the versatile reaction repertoire of transition metal catalysts with the exquisite catalytic features of enzymes. While earlier efforts in this field predominantly comprised studies in well-defined test-tube environments, a trend towards exploiting ArMs in more complex environments has recently emerged. Integration of these artificial biocatalysts in enzymatic cascades and using them in whole-cell biotransformations and in vivo opens up entirely novel prospects for both preparative chemistry and synthetic biology...
October 20, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054313/imaging-biomaterial-tissue-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Yu Shrike Zhang, Junjie Yao
Modern biomedical imaging has revolutionized life science by providing anatomical, functional, and molecular information of biological species with high spatial resolution, deep penetration, enhanced temporal responsiveness, and improved chemical specificity. In recent years, these imaging techniques have been increasingly tailored for characterizing biomaterials and probing their interactions with biological tissues. This in turn has spurred substantial advances in engineering material properties to accommodate different imaging modalities that was previously unattainable...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054312/flow-bioreactors-as-complementary-tools-for-biocatalytic-process-intensification
#14
REVIEW
Lucia Tamborini, Pedro Fernandes, Francesca Paradisi, Francesco Molinari
Biocatalysis has widened its scope and relevance since new molecular tools, including improved expression systems for proteins, protein and metabolic engineering, and rational techniques for immobilization, have become available. However, applications are still sometimes hampered by low productivity and difficulties in scaling up. A practical and reasonable step to improve the performances of biocatalysts (including both enzymes and whole-cell systems) is to use them in flow reactors. This review describes the state of the art on the design and use of biocatalysis in flow reactors...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993012/can-microalgae-remove-pharmaceutical-contaminants-from-water
#15
REVIEW
Jiu-Qiang Xiong, Mayur B Kurade, Byong-Hun Jeon
The increase in worldwide water contamination with numerous pharmaceutical contaminants (PCs) has become an emerging environmental concern due to their considerable ecotoxicities and associated health issues. Microalgae-mediated bioremediation of PCs has recently gained scientific attention, as microalgal bioremediation is a solar-power driven, ecologically comprehensive, and sustainable reclamation strategy. In this review, we comprehensively describe the current research on the possible roles and applications of microalgae for removing PCs from aqueous media...
October 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987922/the-impact-of-systems-biology-on-bioprocessing
#16
REVIEW
Kate Campbell, Jianye Xia, Jens Nielsen
Bioprocessing offers a sustainable and green approach to the production of chemicals. However, a bottleneck in introducing bioprocesses is cell factory development, which is costly and time-consuming. A systems biology approach can expedite cell factory design by using genome-wide analyses alongside mathematical modeling to characterize and predict cellular physiology. This approach can drive cycles of design, build, test, and learn implemented by metabolic engineers to optimize the cell factory performance...
October 4, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965747/challenges-of-the-nano-bio-interface-in-lateral-flow-and-dipstick-immunoassays
#17
REVIEW
Helena de Puig, Irene Bosch, Lee Gehrke, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are highly attractive for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious disease, food safety, and many other medical uses. The unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties that arise from the nanostructured and material characteristics of nanoparticles provide an opportunity to increase LFA sensitivity and impart novel capabilities. However, interfacing to nanomaterials in complex biological environments is challenging and can result in undesirable side effects such as non-specific adsorption, protein denaturation, and steric hindrance...
September 28, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964595/fast-science-and-sluggish-policy-the-herculean-task-of-regulating-biodiscovery
#18
Rachel Wynberg, Sarah A Laird
New rules for access and benefit sharing (ABS) of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge have been established by the Nagoya Protocol but have not kept up with rapid scientific and technological advances in biodiscovery. This suggests the need for innovative, transdisciplinary approaches to regulate ABS and emerging technologies.
September 27, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947211/nanoparticle-based-dressing-the-future-of-wound-treatment-trends-in-biotechnology-35-770-784-2017
#19
Morgane Berthet, Yves Gauthier, Céline Lacroix, Bernard Verrier, Claire Monge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943031/improving-biopharmaceutical-safety-through-verification-based-quality-control
#20
REVIEW
Yihua Bruce Yu, Marc B Taraban, Weizhen Wang, Katharine T Briggs
Biopharmaceuticals and small-molecule drugs have different approval pathways but the same quality control (QC) paradigm, where the quality of released but untested units is inferred from that of tested but destroyed units. This inference-based QC will likely miss rare prerelease defects, and defects emerging after product release. The likelihood for such defects is heightened for biopharmaceuticals due to their complexity, which makes manufacturing errors more likely, and fragility, which makes postrelease damage more likely...
September 21, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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