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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527536/glycoproteomics-a-balance-between-high-throughput-and-in-depth-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Vojtech Franc, Albert J R Heck
Glycoproteomics is an important subdiscipline of proteomics. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics has relied so far on two levels of analysis, targeting either the released glycans or digested glycopeptides. However, limitations of these approaches, caused by the vast structural microheterogeneity that glycoproteins can exhibit, have become evident. Therefore, concomitant methods enabling deep characterization of all discrete glycoforms are essential to extend our functional understanding of the glycoproteome...
May 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522218/engineering-posthumans-to-be-or-not-to-be
#2
Marianna Karamanou, Theodore G Papaioannou, Dimitrios Soulis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Emerging technological innovations have transformed some science fiction ideas into reality, promising radical changes in human nature. New philosophical and intellectual movements such as 'transhumanism' and 'posthumanism' try to foretell and even direct the future of our existence while dealing with new and complex ethical, social, political issues and dilemmas.
May 15, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514998/affibody-molecules-in-biotechnological-and-medical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Stefan Ståhl, Torbjörn Gräslund, Amelie Eriksson Karlström, Fredrik Y Frejd, Per-Åke Nygren, John Löfblom
Affibody molecules are small (6.5-kDa) affinity proteins based on a three-helix bundle domain framework. Since their introduction 20 years ago as an alternative to antibodies for biotechnological applications, the first therapeutic affibody molecules have now entered clinical development and more than 400 studies have been published in which affibody molecules have been developed and used in a variety of contexts. In this review, we focus primarily on efforts over the past 5 years to explore the potential of affibody molecules for medical applications in oncology, neurodegenerative, and inflammation disorders, including molecular imaging, receptor signal blocking, and delivery of toxic payloads...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511937/hot-start-to-european-pluripotent-stem-cell-banking
#4
Paul A De Sousa, Rachel Steeg, Beate Kreisel, Timothy E Allsopp
Achieving consistency in standards of access to and quality of human induced pluripotent stem cells has lagged behind their use. In Europe, a network of academic and industrial partners has been established to overcome this challenge. The experience reveals the devil in the detail of worthy ambitions informing future efforts.
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511936/biotechnologies-for-marine-oil-spill-cleanup-indissoluble-ties-with-microorganisms
#5
REVIEW
Francesca Mapelli, Alberto Scoma, Grégoire Michoud, Federico Aulenta, Nico Boon, Sara Borin, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Daniele Daffonchio
The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506573/nanogenerators-for-human-body-energy-harvesting
#6
REVIEW
Antonino Proto, Marek Penhaker, Silvia Conforto, Maurizio Schmid
Humans generate remarkable quantities of energy while performing daily activities, but this energy usually dissipates into the environment. Here, we address recent progress in the development of nanogenerators (NGs): devices that are able to harvest such body-produced biomechanical and thermal energies by exploiting piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric physical effects. In designing NGs, the end-user's comfort is a primary concern. Therefore, we focus on recently developed materials giving flexibility and stretchability to NGs...
May 12, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501458/in-vivo-molecular-bioluminescence-imaging-new-tools-and-applications
#7
REVIEW
Laura Mezzanotte, Moniek van 't Root, Hacer Karatas, Elena A Goun, Clemens W G M Löwik
in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLi) is an optical molecular imaging technique used to visualize molecular and cellular processes in health and diseases and to follow the fate of cells with high sensitivity using luciferase-based gene reporters. The high sensitivity of this technique arises from efficient photon production, followed by the reaction between luciferase enzymes and luciferin substrates. Novel discoveries and developments of luciferase reporters, substrates, and gene-editing techniques, and emerging fields of applications, promise a new era of deeper and more sensitive molecular imaging...
May 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501457/pushing-bacterial-biohybrids-to-in-vivo-applications
#8
Morgan M Stanton, Samuel Sánchez
Bacterial biohybrids use the energy of bacteria to manipulate synthetic materials with the goal of solving biomedical problems at the micro- and nanoscale. We explore current in vitro studies of bacterial biohybrids, the first attempts at in vivo biohybrid research, and problems to be addressed for the future.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487123/clusters-in-industrial-biotechnology-and-bioeconomy-the-roles-of-the-public-sector
#9
Jim Philp, David E Winickoff
Government policies across the world seek to create clusters of companies and other stakeholders that specialise in a particular technology to build an 'industrial ecosystem'. This article looks at some examples of clusters created specifically with industrial biotechnology in mind and examines measures for policymakers.
May 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483159/designer-probiotics-paving-the-way-to-living-therapeutics
#10
Birbal Singh, Gorakh Mal, Francesco Marotta
Enhancing the functional repertoire of probiotics is a promising approach to cope with the inexorable rise of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and the rather slow development of new antibiotics. Probiotics that deliver novel therapeutics efficiently and with site specificity are emerging living therapeutics that may transform existing paradigms of disease diagnosis and prevention.
May 5, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460718/how-does-membrane-oxidation-affect-cell-delivery-and-cell-killing
#11
M Daben J Libardo, Ting-Yi Wang, Jean-Philippe Pellois, Alfredo M Angeles-Boza
The biophysical properties of cellular membranes intimately influence the delivery of cargoes into cells by cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we discuss how lipid oxidation creates important chemical and biophysical changes in membranes, and hypothesize about the observed synergy between oxidized membranes and membrane-active peptides.
April 28, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456344/multiplexed-point-of-care-testing-xpoct
#12
REVIEW
Can Dincer, Richard Bruch, André Kling, Petra S Dittrich, Gerald A Urban
Multiplexed point-of-care testing (xPOCT), which is simultaneous on-site detection of different analytes from a single specimen, has recently gained increasing importance for clinical diagnostics, with emerging applications in resource-limited settings (such as in the developing world, in doctors' offices, or directly at home). Nevertheless, only single-analyte approaches are typically considered as the major paradigm in many reviews of point-of-care testing. Here, we comprehensively review the present diagnostic systems and techniques for xPOCT applications...
April 26, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527535/computing-in-biotechnology-omics-and-beyond
#13
EDITORIAL
Matthew Pavlovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438340/applications-of-phlip-technology-for-cancer-imaging-and-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Linden C Wyatt, Jason S Lewis, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak, Donald M Engelman
Acidity is a biomarker of cancer that is not subject to the blunting clonal selection effects that reduce the efficacy of other biomarker technologies, such as antibody targeting. The pH (low) insertion peptides (pHLIP(®)s) provide new opportunities for targeting acidic tissues. Through the physical mechanism of membrane-associated folding, pHLIPs are triggered by the acidic microenvironment to insert and span the membranes of tumor cells. The pHLIP platform can be applied to imaging acidic tissues, delivering cell-permeable and impermeable molecules to the cytoplasm, and promoting the cellular uptake of nanoparticles...
April 21, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391988/what-s-the-regulatory-value-of-a-target-product-profile
#15
Christopher D Breder, Wenny Du, Adria Tyndall
Target product profiles (TPPs) are used as a regulatory tool for dialog on clinical development or manufacturing plans. Drugs and biologics approved by the FDA that mention TPPs are associated with more efficient regulatory review times, perhaps as a result of increased planning or because the TPP promotes well-organized regulatory dialog.
April 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389030/harnessing-prefrontal-cognitive-signals-for-brain-machine-interfaces
#16
REVIEW
Byoung-Kyong Min, Ricardo Chavarriaga, José Del R Millán
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) enable humans to interact with devices by modulating their brain signals. Despite impressive technological advancements, several obstacles remain. The most commonly used BMI control signals are derived from the brain areas involved in primary sensory- or motor-related processing. However, these signals only reflect a limited range of human intentions. Therefore, additional sources of brain activity for controlling BMIs need to be explored. In particular, higher-order cognitive brain signals, specifically those encoding goal-directed intentions, are natural candidates for enlarging the repertoire of BMI control signals and making them more efficient and intuitive...
April 4, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366290/microbiome-tools-for-forensic-science
#17
REVIEW
Jessica L Metcalf, Zhenjiang Z Xu, Amina Bouslimani, Pieter Dorrestein, David O Carter, Rob Knight
Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system...
March 30, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365132/exosomes-in-cancer-nanomedicine-and-immunotherapy-prospects-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Nicholas L Syn, Lingzhi Wang, Edward Kai-Hua Chow, Chwee Teck Lim, Boon-Cher Goh
Exosomes (versatile, cell-derived nanovesicles naturally endowed with exquisite target-homing specificity and the ability to surmount in vivo biological barriers) hold substantial promise for developing exciting approaches in drug delivery and cancer immunotherapy. Specifically, bioengineered exosomes are being successfully deployed to deliver potent tumoricidal drugs (siRNAs and chemotherapeutic compounds) preferentially to cancer cells, while a new generation of exosome-based therapeutic cancer vaccines has produced enticing results in early-phase clinical trials...
March 29, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363407/endolichenic-fungi-a-hidden-reservoir-of-next-generation-biopharmaceuticals
#19
Brahma N Singh, Dalip K Upreti, Vijai K Gupta, Xiao-Feng Dai, Yueming Jiang
Endolichenic fungi (ELF) offer an opportunity to discover emerging natural drugs. ELF are promising bioresources given their ability to produce bioactive metabolites that represent unique and diverse structural classes. Here, we assess the potential of recent technologies to provide insight into the chemical diversity of ELF for biopharmaceutical development.
March 28, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283197/making-targeted-therapy-compatible-with-checkpoint-immunotherapy
#20
Ariel Fernández
Immune checkpoint blockades induced by antibodies are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Combinations of checkpoint immunotherapies with kinase inhibitors (KIs) are being clinically evaluated as oncogenic mutations arise. Off-target KI cross-reactivity will often compromise synergistic efficacy, with KIs suppressing T-cell functionalities that checkpoint blockers are purportedly boosting. This incompatibility may be removed through molecular optimization.
March 8, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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