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Trends in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197225/smart-bandages-the-future-of-wound-care
#1
REVIEW
Hossein Derakhshandeh, Sara Saheb Kashaf, Fariba Aghabaglou, Ian O Ghanavati, Ali Tamayol
Chronic non-healing wounds are major healthcare challenges that affect a noticeable number of people; they exert a severe financial burden and are the leading cause of limb amputation. Although chronic wounds are locked in a persisting inflamed state, they are dynamic and proper therapy requires identifying abnormalities, administering proper drugs and growth factors, and modulating the conditions of the environment. In this review article, we discuss technologies that have been developed to actively monitor the wound environment...
September 6, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193737/differential-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-for-detailed-analysis-of-the-proteome
#2
REVIEW
Daniel L Winter, Marc R Wilkins, William A Donald
The field of proteomics is increasingly concerned with the diversity and functional relevance of protein modifications. Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) is emerging as a tool to detect and quantify additional peptide and protein species that are difficult to analyse with conventional instrumental methods. In this review, recent advances in DMS are discussed, with a focus on the different types of DMS instruments now available to researchers in proteomics. Furthermore, the combination of DMS with mass spectrometry (MS) for increased proteome coverage and the targeted analysis of modification patterns on single proteins is highlighted...
September 4, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177380/rnai-crispr-screens-from-a-pool-to-a-valid-hit
#3
REVIEW
Anne Schuster, Hélène Erasimus, Sabrina Fritah, Petr V Nazarov, Eric van Dyck, Simone P Niclou, Anna Golebiewska
High-throughput genetic screens interfering with gene expression are invaluable tools to identify gene function and phenotype-to-genotype interactions. Implementing such screens in the laboratory is challenging, and the choice between currently available technologies based on RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) is not trivial. Identifying reliable candidate hits requires a streamlined experimental setup adjusted to the specific biological question. Here, we provide a critical assessment of the various RNAi/CRISPR approaches to pooled screens and discuss their advantages and pitfalls...
August 31, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172385/harnessing-underground-metabolism-for-pathway-development
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Rosenberg, Fabian M Commichau
Fermentative production of valuable substances is an economically competitive and ecologically sustainable alternative to chemical synthesis, but it is often hampered by detrimental interactions between the heterologous pathway and the host metabolic network. These interactions are diverse and often not understood. However, the growing knowledge about convergently evolved pathways offers an expansive toolbox to engineer novel, hybrid pathways that could circumvent current problems by recruiting the host 'underground metabolism'...
August 29, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170875/a-vision-for-teaching-the-values-of-synthetic-biology
#5
Natalie G Farny
Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing field defined more by its process and values than by experimental goals. These values include the importance of diverse teams, open science, and the power of novice perspectives. Educating the next generation of synthetic biologists means teaching its values as well as its processes.
August 28, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30135027/strategies-for-the-enrichment-and-selection-of-genetically-modified-cells
#6
REVIEW
Chonghua Ren, Kun Xu, David Jay Segal, Zhiying Zhang
Programmable artificial nucleases have transitioned over the past decade from ZFNs and TALENs to CRISPR/Cas systems, which have been ubiquitously used with great success to modify genomes. The efficiencies of knockout and knockin vary widely among distinct cell types and genomic loci and depend on the nuclease delivery and cleavage efficiencies. Moreover, genetically modified cells are almost phenotypically indistinguishable from normal counterparts, making screening and isolating positive cells rather challenging and time-consuming...
August 19, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131184/constructing-rna-viruses-for-long-term-transcriptional-gene-silencing
#7
REVIEW
Juozas Baltusnikas, Saulius Satkauskas, Kenneth Lundstrom
Recent discoveries have shown that self-replicating RNA viruses can produce small RNAs (sRNAs) in host cells. Given their potential to be modified to generate short-term transgene expression without integrating viral sequences into the host genome, these viruses could be used as safe delivery vehicles for sRNAs to induce long-term transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). This might open new avenues for therapeutic approaches, where a single administration would safely induce long-term therapeutic effects for various diseases...
August 18, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126620/nanowire-sensors-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Marie-Agnès Doucey, Sandro Carrara
In 2006, the group of Dr C.M. Lieber pioneered the field of nanowire sensors by fabricating devices for the ultra-sensitive label-free detection of biological macromolecules. Since then, nanowire sensors have demonstrated their ability to detect cancer-associated analytes in peripheral blood, tumor tissue, and the exhaled breath of cancer patients. These innovative developments have marked a new era with unprecedented detection performance, capable of addressing crucial needs such as cancer diagnosis and monitoring disease progression and patient response to therapy...
August 17, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115375/single-molecule-sequencing-towards-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Adam Ameur, Wigard P Kloosterman, Matthew S Hestand
In the past several years, single-molecule sequencing platforms, such as those by Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore Technologies, have become available to researchers and are currently being tested for clinical applications. They offer exceptionally long reads that permit direct sequencing through regions of the genome inaccessible or difficult to analyze by short-read platforms. This includes disease-causing long repetitive elements, extreme GC content regions, and complex gene loci. Similarly, these platforms enable structural variation characterization at previously unparalleled resolution and direct detection of epigenetic marks in native DNA...
August 13, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115374/communities-of-niche-optimized-strains-small-genome-organism-consortia-in-bioproduction
#10
REVIEW
Stephan Noack, Meike Baumgart
Bacterial genome reduction is a common phenomenon in nature that has also inspired several projects with biotechnologically relevant organisms. In many cases, however, no performance improvements with the streamlined chassis were obtained. A comparative analysis of natural and synthetic reduced genomes and their corresponding ecological niches reveals that: (i) deleting expressed genes can lead to noticeable energy conservation usable for improved biomass or product synthesis; and (ii) the simplified strains depend on the environment (e...
August 13, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104012/pyrolysis-of-torrefied-biomass
#11
REVIEW
Zhiwen Chen, Mingfeng Wang, Enchen Jiang, Donghai Wang, Ke Zhang, Yongzhi Ren, Yang Jiang
Pyrolysis, one of the most promising thermal conversion technologies for biomass conversion, can decompose biomass into solid bio-char, liquid bio-oil, and combustible gas to meet different energy needs. However, pyrolysis efficiency and product quality are not as good as expected when raw biomass is used owing to the properties of raw biomass (e.g., high moisture, oxygen, and alkali metal contents). Torrefaction is an emerging biomass pretreatment technology that can improve the physical and chemical properties of raw biomass, and pyrolysis efficiency and final product quality can therefore be improved by using torrefied biomass...
August 10, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104011/we-must-not-avoid-germline-gene-editing-to-preserve-social-values-a-response-to-saha-et-al
#12
LETTER
Iñigo de Miguel Beriain
A recent paper suggested that although the effects of germline gene editing in certain individuals might benefit them, their genomes should not be edited because societal interest might be affected. This statement contradicts the idea that human beings may never be used as means to an end.
August 10, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104010/angels-and-devils-dilemmas-in-dual-use-biotechnology
#13
Landon J Getz, Graham Dellaire
Dual-use research, which results in knowledge that can be used for both good and ill, has become increasingly accessible in the internet age to both scientists and the general public. Here, we outline some major milestones for dual-use policy and present three vignettes that highlight contemporary dual-use issues in biotechnology.
August 10, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220578/the-open-insulin-project-a-case-study-for-biohacked-medicines
#14
REVIEW
Jenna E Gallegos, Christopher Boyer, Eleanore Pauwels, Warren A Kaplan, Jean Peccoud
New innovation ecosystems are emerging that challenge the complex intellectual property and regulatory landscape surrounding drug development in the United States (US). A prime example is an initiative known as the Open Insulin Project. The goal of the project is to sidestep patents and enable generic manufacturers to produce cheaper insulin. However, the US regulatory environment, not patent exclusivity, is the main barrier to insulin affordability. If the Open Insulin Project succeeds in releasing an open protocol for insulin manufacturing, follow-on work could enable a number of new insulin production ecosystems, including 'home-brewed' insulin...
August 9, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213453/protein-and-peptide-based-biosensors-in-artificial-olfaction
#15
REVIEW
Arménio J M Barbosa, Ana Rita Oliveira, Ana C A Roque
Animals' olfactory systems rely on proteins, olfactory receptors (ORs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), as their native sensing units to detect odours. Recent advances demonstrate that these proteins can also be employed as molecular recognition units in gas-phase biosensors. In addition, the interactions between odorant molecules and ORs or OBPs are a source of inspiration for designing peptides with tunable odorant selectivity. We review recent progress in gas biosensors employing biological units (ORs, OBPs, and peptides) in light of future developments in artificial olfaction, emphasizing examples where biological components have been employed to detect gas-phase analytes...
August 9, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100229/crispr-in-sub-saharan-africa-applications-and-education
#16
Christian E Ogaugwu, Stanley O Agbo, Modinat A Adekoya
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology has enabled genetic engineering feats previously considered impracticable, offering great hopes for solutions to problems facing society. We consider it timely to highlight how CRISPR can benefit public health, medicine, and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and offer recommendations for successful implementation.
August 9, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075862/imaging-the-microprocesses-in-biofilm-matrices
#17
REVIEW
Peng Zhang, You-Peng Chen, Ju-Hui Qiu, You-Zhi Dai, Bo Feng
Biofilms, which are aggregates of microorganisms and extracellular matrices, widely colonize natural water bodies, wastewater treatment systems, and body tissues, and have vital roles in water purification, biofouling, and infectious diseases. Recently, multiple imaging modalities have been developed to visualize the morphological structure and material distribution within biofilms and to probe the microprocesses in biofilm matrices, including biofilm formation, transfer and metabolism of substrates, and cell-cell communication...
July 31, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064888/modular-metabolic-engineering-for-biobased-chemical-production
#18
REVIEW
Hongyuan Lu, Juan C Villada, Patrick K H Lee
Microorganisms can manufacture a wide range of biobased chemicals that are useful for diverse industrial applications. However, the overexpression of heterologous enzymes in recombinant strains often leads to metabolic imbalance, resulting in growth retardation and suboptimal production of the target compounds. Here we discuss the recent development of modular metabolic engineering approaches that enable the global fine-tuning of engineered pathways by modularizing the synthetic pathway in single or multiple hosts...
July 28, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049417/lignocellulosic-biorefineries-in-europe-current-state-and-prospects
#19
Shady S Hassan, Gwilym A Williams, Amit K Jaiswal
Lignocellulosic biorefining processes plant-derived biomass into a range of bio-based products. Currently, more than 40 lignocellulosic biorefineries are operating across Europe. Here, we address the challenges and future opportunities of this nascent industry by elucidating key elements of the biorefining sector, including feedstock sourcing, processing methods, and the bioproducts market.
July 23, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041828/near-infrared-fluorescent-proteins-multiplexing-and-optogenetics-across-scales
#20
REVIEW
Daria M Shcherbakova, Olesya V Stepanenko, Konstantin K Turoverov, Vladislav V Verkhusha
Since mammalian tissue is relatively transparent to near-infrared (NIR) light, NIR fluorescent proteins (FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes have become widely used probes for non-invasive in vivo imaging. Recently, these genetically encoded NIR probes have been substantially improved, enabling imaging experiments that were not possible previously. Here, we discuss the use of monomeric NIR FPs and NIR biosensors for multiplexed imaging with common visible GFP-based probes and blue light-activatable optogenetic tools...
July 21, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
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