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Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915238/pontine-changes-in-metabolites-and-axonal-fibres-of-rats-following-four-week-alcohol-exposure-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-7-0-t
#1
Jianming Luo, Zhiwei Shen, Guang Chen, Dian Wang, Xiaojun Yu
AIMS: We characterized the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine, in vivo, using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner following chronic alcohol administration to explore new indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the EtOH and control groups (water group)...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915237/placental-morphology-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#2
Marlene Tai, Anna Piskorski, Jennifer C W Kao, Lynn A Hess, Suzanne M de la Monte, Füsun Gündoğan
AIMS: Maternal alcohol drinking adversely affects pregnancy outcome. Although fetal health and development are highly dependent upon the integrity of placentation, little is known about placental morphology following gestational exposure to alcohol in humans. METHODS: In this clinical study, subjects were recruited between 2010 and 2013 from an outpatient substance abuse and mental health treatment center for women. Data collected included maternal age, substance abuse history, comorbidities, pregnancy outcomes, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and placental weight...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915236/alcohol-and-alzheimer-s-disease-does-alcohol-dependence-contribute-to-beta-amyloid-deposition-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Ashwin Venkataraman, Nicola Kalk, Gavin Sewell, Craig W Ritchie, Anne Lingford-Hughes
AIMS: To investigate the underlying neurobiology between alcohol use, misuse and dependence and cognitive impairment, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Review of the literature using searches of Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and meeting abstracts and presentations. RESULTS: The role of alcohol as a risk factor and contributor for cognitive decline associated with AD has received little attention. This is despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, the potential reversibility of a degree of cognitive impairment and the global burden of AD...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915235/effect-of-screening-and-advising-on-alcohol-habits-in-sweden-a-repeated-population-survey-following-nationwide-implementation-of-screening-and-brief-intervention
#4
Andreas Lundin, Anna-Karin Danielsson, Mats Hallgren, Margareta Torgén
AIMS: To examine: (a) to what extent individuals in contact with heath care had been asked and advised on their alcohol habits; (b) how self-reports of alcohol consumption and patient characteristics affected the probability of being asked and advised on alcohol consumption; (c) the potential effect of alcohol advice on readiness and ability to change, across levels of high alcohol consumption. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional public health postal questionnaire in Uppsala County among 18-84 year old, covering a period of a national programme encouraging alcohol screening, brief interventions and motivational interviewing (2004-2012)...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915234/the-association-between-health-changes-and-cessation-of-alcohol-consumption
#5
Ji-Eun Park, Yeonhee Ryu, Sung-Il Cho
AIMS: To assess whether health changes affect cessation of alcohol consumption and to compare the health status of former drinkers and abstainers. METHODS: Cohort data from 9001 Korean participants aged 40-69 years old were analyzed. Alcohol consumption was assessed every 2 years for 10 years. Participant age, sex, marital status, education level, employment status, smoking, chronic disease, perceived health and changes in these variables were analyzed to identify factors associated with quitting alcohol drinking...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864186/does-industry-driven-alcohol-marketing-influence-adolescent-drinking-behaviour-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Stephanie Scott, Colin Muirhead, Janet Shucksmith, Rachel Tyrrell, Eileen Kaner
AIM: To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers...
November 17, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836830/using-alcohol-unit-marked-glasses-enhances-capacity-to-monitor-intake-evidence-from-a-mixed-method-intervention-trial
#7
Richard de Visser, Clare Brown, Richard Cooke, Greg Cooper, Anjum Memon
AIMS: In the UK, people tend to have poor knowledge of government guidelines for alcohol use, and lack the motivation and skills required to use them to monitor their drinking. The study aim was to determine whether using glasses marked with such guidelines would improve knowledge and attitudes, increase frequency of counting units and lower alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 450 adults in the UK participated in an intervention vs control study with 1-month follow-up...
November 10, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810847/does-the-tail-wag-the-dog-abstainers-alcohol-dependence-heavy-episodic-drinkers-and-total-alcohol-consumption
#8
Kari Poikolainen
AIMS: To study total alcohol consumption and its correlates, with an emphasis on the direction of causality. METHODS: The associations among total alcohol consumption, abstaining, alcohol dependence (AD) and heavy episodic drinking were compared in 29 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in 2010. RESULTS: Either total alcohol consumption is determined by the number of abstainers and that of alcohol dependents, or the number of alcohol dependents is determined by total alcohol consumption...
November 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797712/prazosin-prevents-increased-anxiety-behavior-that-occurs-in-response-to-stress-during-alcohol-deprivations
#9
Dennis D Rasmussen, Carrie L Kincaid, Janice C Froehlich
AIMS: Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. METHODS: Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles...
October 26, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780800/the-association-between-alcohol-flavoured-non-alcoholic-beverages-and-alcohol-use-in-japanese-adolescents
#10
Aya Kinjo, Aya Imamoto, Maki Ikeda, Osamu Itani, Takashi Ohida, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Hideyuki Kanda, Takeo Tanihata, Susumu Higuchi, Yoneatsu Osaki
AIMS: There are no legal regulations in Japan governing minors' consumption of alcohol-flavoured non-alcoholic beverages (AFNAB); therefore, we examined if their consumption could lead to increased alcohol use among adolescents in Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a nonclinical, nationally representative sample of 38,494 junior (19,662 boys) and 61,556 senior (31,925 boys) high school students recruited in 2012. We measured AFNAB consumption rates and the order that adolescents first consumed AFNAB and alcohol...
October 25, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780799/internet-support-for-dealing-with-problematic-alcohol-use-a-survey-of-the-soberistas-online-community
#11
Julia M A Sinclair, Sophia E Chambers, Christopher C Manson
AIMS: Advances in technology have led to an increased range of possibilities for forms of mutual aid in addictions, and patient empowerment in the management of long-term conditions. However, the effective processes involved may be different online than for those that meet in person. Soberistas is a 'social network site for people who are trying to resolve their problematic drinking patterns'. We aim to describe the population, component parts and processes that define this online community, and consider potential mechanisms of action for future research...
October 25, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797711/influence-of-body-mass-index-on-hair-ethyl-glucuronide-concentrations
#12
Cleo L Crunelle, Hugo Neels, Kristof Maudens, Mireille De Doncker, Delphine Cappelle, Frieda Matthys, Geert Dom, Erik Fransen, Peter Michielsen, Steven De Keukeleire, Adrian Covaci, Michel Yegles
AIM: Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in hair is increasingly used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Linear correlations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the concentration of EtG in hair have been reported, and several variables that may influence this correlation have been investigated: e.g. cosmetic hair treatments, gender influences or hair color. Here, we investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on this correlation. METHODS: A post hoc analysis on the influence of BMI on the relation between amounts of alcohol consumed and the measured EtG concentrations in hair in 199 participants...
October 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760741/nerve-growth-factor-protects-against-alcohol-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-via-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#13
Liping Liu, Tiedong Sun, Feng Xin, Wei Cui, Jianquan Guo, Jian Hu
AIMS: To study whether autophagy participates in the neuroprotective effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on neurons treated with alcohol. METHODS: The autophagy-related markers were used to explore the role of autophagy in PC12 cells exposed to alcohol or pre-incubated with NGF before initiating the treatment with alcohol (100 mM; 6 h). PC12 cells were pre-incubated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (10 mM; 1 h) or rapamycin (100 nM; 1 h) before co-incubated with alcohol (100 mM; 6 h) in order to investigate the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy...
October 19, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737831/impact-of-financial-incentives-on-alcohol-consumption-recording-in-primary-health-care-among-adults-with-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses-a-cross-sectional-and-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Zarnie Khadjesari, Sarah L Hardoon, Irene Petersen, Fiona L Hamilton, Irwin Nazareth
AIMS: Lack of financial incentive is a frequently cited barrier to alcohol screening in primary care. The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) pay for performance scheme has reimbursed UK primary care practices for alcohol screening in people with schizophrenia since April 2011. This study aimed to determine the impact of financial incentives on alcohol screening by comparing rates of alcohol recording in people with versus those without schizophrenia between 2000 and 2013. METHODS: Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study...
October 13, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659607/hops-humulus-lupulus-content-in-beer-modulates-effects-of-beer-on-the-liver-after-acute-ingestion-in-female-mice
#15
Marianne Landmann, Cathrin Sellmann, Anna Janina Engstler, Doreen Ziegenhardt, Finn Jung, Christine Brombach, Ina Bergheim
AIM: Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 J mice were either fed one iso-alcoholic and iso-caloric bolus dose of ethanol, beer, beer without hops (6 g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric bolus of maltodextrin control solution. Markers of steatosis, intestinal barrier function, activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling cascades, lipid peroxidation and lipogenesis were determined in liver, small intestine and plasma 2 h and 12 h after acute alcohol ingestion...
September 22, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651285/comparing-three-cognitive-biases-for-alcohol-cues-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
Corinde E Wiers, Thomas E Gladwin, Vera U Ludwig, Sonja Gröpper, Heiner Stuke, Christiane K Gawron, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl
AIMS: There is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias)...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651284/the-differential-effects-of-alcohol-and-nicotine-specific-nitrosamine-ketone-on-white-matter-ultrastructure
#17
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
AIMS: The chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651283/implicit-and-explicit-alcohol-cognitions-the-moderating-effect-of-executive-functions
#18
Andrea M Lavigne, Mark D Wood, Tim Janssen, Reinout W Wiers
AIMS: Research informed by dual-process models of addictions has clearly demonstrated an association between implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol consumption. However, the literature is limited with respect to examination of the cognitive abilities that may moderate these associations across populations. This study examined relations among alcohol associations, inhibition and alcohol consumption in a sample of college students. It was hypothesized that the executive ability of response inhibition would moderate relations between alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol consumption, such that individuals with weaker response inhibition would demonstrate stronger relations between implicit cognitions and use, while individuals with stronger response inhibition would demonstrate more robust relations between explicit cognitions and use...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651282/intracerebral-stem-cell-administration-inhibits-relapse-like-alcohol-drinking-in-rats
#19
Yedy Israel, Fernando Ezquer, María Elena Quintanilla, Paola Morales, Marcelo Ezquer, Mario Herrera-Marschitz
Study describes the blockade of relapse-like alcohol drinking by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). High alcohol-intake bred rats consumed alcohol for 3 months and were subjected to repeated alcohol deprivations for 7-14 days, followed by alcohol reaccess. Upon reaccess, animals consumed 2.2 g alcohol/kg in 60 minutes. A single intra-cerebroventricular MSC administration inhibited relapse-like drinking up to 80-85% for 40 days (P < 0.001). An alcohol-use-disorder was prevented.
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267907/alcohol-use-after-liver-transplantation-is-independent-of-liver-disease-etiology
#20
Kirk B Russ, Nai-Wei Chen, Patrick S Kamath, Vijay H Shah, Yong-Fang Kuo, Ashwani K Singal
AIM: To assess alcohol use after liver transplantation (LT) and compare liver transplant recipients for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) with recipients for non-ALD causes. METHODS: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases liver transplant database stratified to ALD and non-ALD causes. RESULTS: Among 488 LT recipients reporting pre-transplant alcohol use (147 ALD), proportion of LT recipients reporting alcohol use was similar comparing ALD and non-ALD transplants (25...
November 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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