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Journal of Comparative Psychology

Laurent Prétôt, Sarah F Brosnan
The capacity for planning in nonhuman species has long been an interest of many comparative and cognitive psychologists. There is now considerable evidence that at least great apes show both motor planning and planning for future needs in various contexts and modalities. Few studies, however, have investigated planning ability in a monkey species, and most of these exceptions have used computerized procedures. To gain a broader view, in the current study, we tested capuchin monkeys' capacity for motor planning using the "paddle-box" apparatus, a manual maze task originally designed for testing planning skills in apes (Tecwyn, Thorpe, & Chappell, 2013)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Merel A Burgering, Jean Vroomen, Carel Ten Cate
Humans can categorize vowels based on spectral quality (vowel identity) or pitch (speaker sex). Songbirds show similarities to humans with respect to speech sound discrimination and categorization, but it is unclear whether they can categorize harmonically structured vowel-like sounds on either spectrum or pitch, while ignoring the other parameter. We trained zebra finches in two experimental conditions to discriminate two sets of harmonic vowel-like sounds that could be distinguished either by spectrum or fundamental frequency (pitch)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Allison B Kaufman, Matthew R Reynolds, Alan S Kaufman
We used contemporary psychometric theory of intelligence and confirmatory factor analysis to reanalyze data obtained on samples of nonhuman primates administered the Primate Cognition Test Battery. Our main goals were to interpret stability of the Primate Cognition Test Battery tasks and factors over time and to determine whether the cognitive factors that emerge from confirmatory factor analysis for apes can be interpreted from the perspective of a major theory of human intelligence, namely, the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Matteo De Tommaso, Gisela Kaplan, Cinzia Chiandetti, Giorgio Vallortigara
Nonsongbirds can produce rhythmical sounds that, at times, have been shown to be meaningful in their communication. This raises the possibility that rhythm is a separate ability that might have evolved earlier than song. We asked whether nearly completely naïve domestic chicks perceive rhythm and respond in specific ways to different rhythmic patterns. To do so, specific constituent parameters of rhythmicity were used based on the sound of a natural mother hen's cluck. The sound samples created ranged from a continuous sound to articulated rhythmic patterns of alternating strong and weak events...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jinook Oh, Vedrana Šlipogor, W Tecumseh Fitch
Experimenters often use images of real objects to simulate interactions between animal subjects or visual stimuli on a touchscreen to test animal cognition. However, the degree to which nonhuman animals recognize 2-D images as representing the corresponding real objects remains debated. The common marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus ) has been described as a species that spontaneously shows natural behaviors to 2-D images, for example, grasping behaviors to insects and fear responses to snakes. In this study, we tested 10 monkeys with their favorite food item (crickets), 2-D images (a photo and videos of a cricket), and a 3-D plastic model to reevaluate marmoset's spontaneous responses to 2-D images and to explore which artificial visual stimuli can motivate spontaneous interactions...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Sam George Bradley Roberts, Anna Ilona Roberts
The challenges of life in complex social groups may select for complex communication to regulate interactions among conspecifics. Whereas the association between social living and vocalizations has been explored in nonhuman primates, great apes also have a rich repertoire of gestures, and how the complexity of gestural communication relates to sociality is still unclear. We used social network analysis to examine the relationship between the duration of time pairs of chimpanzees spent in proximity (within 10 m) and the rates of gestural communication accompanied by visual attention of the signaler, one-to-one calls, indicative gestures (collectively self-relevance cues), and synchronized pant-hoot calls...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Zachary Aidala, Bill M Strausberger, Mark E Hauber
Hosts of obligate brood parasitic birds can offset the costs of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs. Like the vast majority of brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater ) hosts, the eastern phoebe ( Sayornis phoebe ) paradoxically incurs substantial fitness costs by accepting cowbird parasitism. We investigated whether acceptance of brown-headed cowbird eggs may be mediated via lack of recognition due to crypsis in eastern phoebe nests, and whether egg-rejection behavior could be induced by manipulating egg-nest visual contrast as a means of facilitating parasitic egg detection in an artificial parasitism experiment...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Catherine Wallez, Jacques Vauclair, Marie Bourjade
Two methodologies have traditionally been used to measure hemispheric specialization for perception and expression of emotions in human and nonhuman primates. The first refers to objective measures, that is, measures of area and length of facial features, and the second concerns subjective "measures," that is, assessment of chimeric faces by human judges. We proposed a refined approach to the subjective assessment of hemispheric specializations, which aims at delimiting methodological issues in the study of orofacial asymmetries...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Sarah J Davis, Steven J Schapiro, Susan P Lambeth, Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture is rare, if not altogether absent in nonhuman species. At the foundation of cumulative learning is the ability to modify, relinquish, or build upon previous behaviors flexibly to make them more productive or efficient. Within the primate literature, a failure to optimize solutions in this way is often proposed to derive from low-fidelity copying of witnessed behaviors, suboptimal social learning heuristics, or a lack of relevant sociocognitive adaptations. However, humans can also be markedly inflexible in their behaviors, perseverating with, or becoming fixated on, outdated or inappropriate responses...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Christina Hansen Wheat, John Fitzpatrick, Ingrid Tapper, Hans Temrin
The domestication of animals and plants offers an exceptional opportunity to study evolutionary adaptations. In particular, domesticated animals display several behavioral alterations, including increased sociability and decreased fearfulness and aggression, when compared with their wild ancestors. However, studies quantifying simultaneous changes in multiple behaviors during domestication are lacking. Moreover, the role of human-directed play behavior has been largely neglected when studying the domestication process...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Ken Cheng, Richard W Byrne
Formal training programs, which can be called education, enhance cognition in human and nonhuman animals alike. However, even informal exposure to human contact in human environments can enhance cognition. We review selected literature to compare animals' behavior with objects among keas and great apes, the taxa that best allow systematic comparison of the behavior of wild animals with that of those in human environments such as homes, zoos, and rehabilitation centers. In all cases, we find that animals in human environments do much more with objects...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Mariska E Kret, Akiho Muramatsu, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
For social species, recognizing and adequately yet quickly responding to the emotions of others is crucial for their survival. The current study investigates attentional biases toward emotions in two closely related species, humans and chimpanzees. Prior research has demonstrated that humans typically show an attentional bias toward emotions. We here build on that literature by studying the underlying unconscious mechanisms within and across humans and chimpanzees and aim to gain insight into the evolutionary continuity of expressions...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Janko Međedović
Personality research has a long and fruitful history in psychology. In the past 15 years, this topic emerged as an important subfield in behavioral ecology as well. A large amount of empirical data has been gathered, and promising theoretical models have been developed. Despite all of this, there is almost no communication between personality research in humans and the behavioral ecology of animal personality. The aim of this article is to present contemporary research on animal personality and thus, to facilitate its integration into human personality psychology...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jessica L Yorzinski, Maria E Tovar, Richard G Coss
Even prey that successfully evade attack incur costs when responding to predators. These nonlethal costs can impact their reproductive success and survival. One strategy that prey can use to minimize these costs is to adjust their antipredator behavior based on the perceived level of risk. We tested whether humans adopt this strategy by presenting participants with photographic arrays of predators (lions) that varied in their level of risk. While their eye movements were recorded, the participants searched for a forward-facing predator (signifying potential predator interest; high-risk target) among an array of inattentive predators that were facing away (low-risk distractors) or searched for a predator that was facing away from them among an array of forward-facing predators...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Klara Kittler, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
Apes and some New and Old World monkeys (i.e., haplorhine primates) are known to routinely use tools. In strepsirrhine primates (i.e., lemurs and lorises), no tool use has been reported, even though they appear to have some basic understanding of the spatial relations required for using a pulling tool. To facilitate direct comparisons of the underlying abilities between haplorhine and strepsirrhine primate species, we experimentally examined instrumental problem-solving abilities in three captive lemur species (Microcebus murinus, Varecia variegata, and Lemur catta), using methods from previous experiments with haplorhine primates...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Divergent personality structures of brown ( Sapajus apella ) and white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus )" by Lauren M. Robinson, F. Blake Morton, Marieke C. Gartner, Jane Widness, Annika Paukner, Jennifer L. Essler, Sarah F. Brosnan and Alexander Weiss ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Nov], Vol 130[4], 305-312). In the article, there is an error in several of the Tables in the Results. The coefficients related to Attentiveness were unintentionally reversed-scored. As these associations were not significant, this error had no effect on the interpretation of the results...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
In the Featured Article for this issue of the Journal of Comparative Psychology, Scarf, Johnston, and Colombo (2018) showed that pigeons learned to reproduce (by pecking icons presented on a screen) a four-item serially ordered list without specific training on that list, as macaques did (Figure 1). In Scarf et al.'s (2018) study, all five birds given structured training subsequently mastered multiple sets of two-item, then three-item, and finally four-item lists, with a diminishing training regime for the later four-item lists...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Mark A Krause, Monique A R Udell, David A Leavens, Lyra Skopos
The past 30 years have witnessed a continued and growing interest in the production and comprehension of manual pointing gestures in nonhuman animals. Captive primates with diverse rearing histories have shown evidence of both pointing production and comprehension, though there certainly are individual and species differences, as well as substantive critiques of how to interpret pointing or "pointing-like" gestures in animals. Early literature primarily addressed basic questions about whether captive apes point, understand pointing, and use the gesture in a way that communicates intent (declarative) rather than motivational states (imperative)...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Damian Scarf, Melissa Johnston, Michael Colombo
The aim of the current study was to assess whether pigeons could acquire a four-item list by trial and error. Pigeons received either extensive list training prior to being tested on a novel four-item list (i.e., the full-training group) or very limited training (i.e., the limited-training group). Specifically, subjects in the full-training group were trained to acquire a large set of two-item lists by trial and error, then a large set of three-item lists, and finally a large set of four-item lists. In addition, within each set, the number of training phases was gradually reduced...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Daniel Schmidtke, Sandra Ammersdörfer, Marine Joly, Elke Zimmermann
A recent study suggests that a specific, touchscreen-based task on visual object-location paired-associates learning (PAL), the so-called Different PAL (dPAL) task, allows effective translation from animal models to humans. Here, we adapted the task to a nonhuman primate (NHP), the gray mouse lemur, and provide first evidence for the successful comparative application of the task to humans and NHPs. Young human adults reach the learning criterion after considerably less sessions (one order of magnitude) than young, adult NHPs, which is likely due to faster and voluntary rejection of ineffective learning strategies in humans and almost immediate rule generalization...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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