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Journal of Comparative Psychology

Katherine A Clements, Suzanne L Gray, Brya Gross, Irene M Pepperberg
Research has shown that some forms of inferential reasoning are likely widespread throughout the animal kingdom (e.g., exclusion, in which a subject infers the placement of a reward by eliminating potential alternative sites), but other types of inferential tasks have not been extensively tested. We examined whether a nonhuman might succeed in an experiment based on probabilistic reasoning, specifically, the ability to make inferences about a sample based on information about a population. A Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), previously trained to use English labels referentially to identify objects, observed a human researcher deposit 2 different types of items in a 3:1 ratio (e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Alban Lemasson, Hugo Pereira, Florence Levréro
Authors have raised the possibility of identifying primitive forms of conversational rules in monkeys: temporally ruled vocal interactions, call overlap avoidance, and socially based calling partner preferences. The question as to how these abilities have evolved in the primate lineage remains open to debate, particularly because studies based on apes are scarce and controversial. We studied a captive group of western lowland gorillas and tested the influence of caller characteristics and the type of bond between calling partners on vocal behavior based on the following: age, dominance, spatial proximity, sociopositive contact, and gaze...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Reciprocal cooperation has been observed in a wide range of taxa, but the proximate mechanisms underlying the exchange of help are yet unclear. Norway rats reciprocate help received from partners in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. For donors, this involves accepting own costs to the benefit of a partner, without obtaining immediate benefits in return. We studied whether such altruistic acts are conditional on the communication of the recipient's need. Our results show that in a 2-player mutual food-provisioning task, prospective recipients show a behavioral cascade reflecting increasing intensity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Lauren H Howard, Cassandra Festa, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf
The ability to learn socially is of critical importance across a wide variety of species, as it allows knowledge to be passed quickly among individuals without the need of time-consuming trial-and-error learning. Among primates, social learning research has been particularly focused on foraging tasks, including transmission dynamics and the demonstration characteristics that appear to support social learning. Less work has focused on the attentional salience of the information being viewed, especially in New World monkeys...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Margot Fortin, Mathilde Valenchon, Frédéric Lévy, Ludovic Calandreau, Cécile Arnould, Léa Lansade
Emotions are recognized as strong modulators of cognitive capacities. However, studies have mainly focused on the effect of negative emotions, with few investigating positive emotions. Recent studies suggest that traits of personality can modulate the effects of emotion on cognitive performance. This study aimed to assess whether emotional states differing according to their valence influenced the ability to achieve instrumental conditioning and learning flexibility and to determine the influence of personality...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Katsuo Sekiguchi, Tomokazu Ushitani, Kosuke Sawa
Landmark-based goal-searching tasks that were similar to those for pigeons (Ushitani & Jitsumori, 2011) were provided to human participants to investigate whether they could learn and use multiple sources of spatial information that redundantly indicate the position of a hidden target in both an open field (Experiment 1) and on a computer screen (Experiments 2 and 3). During the training in each experiment, participants learned to locate a target in 1 of 25 objects arranged in a 5 × 5 grid, using two differently colored, arrow-shaped (Experiments 1 and 2) or asymmetrically shaped (Experiment 3) landmarks placed adjacent to the goal and pointing to the goal location...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Tomer J Czaczkes, Birgit Brandstetter, Isabella di Stefano, Jürgen Heinze
Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Juliane Bräuer, Julia Belger
There has been a growing interest in the cognitive skills of domestic dogs, but most current knowledge about dogs' understanding of their environment is limited to the visual or auditory modality. Although it is well known that dogs have an excellent olfactory sense and that they rely on olfaction heavily when exploring the environment or recognizing individuals, it remains unclear whether dogs perceive odors as representing specific objects. In the current study, we examined this aspect of dogs' perception of the world...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Kevin Leonard, Na Tian, Tammy L Ivanco, Debbie M Kelly
Orienting is a critical skill for all mobile animals. Two commonly studied visual components used to guide orientation in an environment are geometric (e.g., distance or direction) and featural cues (e.g., color or texture). Previous research has shown that visual-cue use and cue weighing can depend on the navigator's previous experience, the nature and reliability of the cues, and genetic factors. Accordingly, the domestic mouse (Mus musculus) is a species of increasing interest because of its potential as a model for human neurological disorders with associated spatial disorientation, as is seen in Alzheimer's disease...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Saho Takagi, Kazuo Fujita
Whereas evidence has accumulated that nonhuman animals have access to the strength of their memory trace, it is unclear whether such metamemory contains components, as proposed by Hampton (2005). We assessed whether capuchin monkeys could recognize details of memorized items using a delayed matching-to-sample task. We used compound stimuli separable into 2 dimensions, "what" and "where." Two monkeys were trained to memorize both "what" and "where" a sample was and answer both/either "what" and/or "where" the sample was depending on each task after a delay...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Amelia Wein, Raoul Schwing, Martine Hausberger, Rogelio Rodriguez, Ludwig Huber
In laboratory studies of vocal behavior in animals, subjects are normally isolated in a sound-insulated chamber for recording, but such socially isolated conditions may reduce the chances that they will vocalize. Indeed, past studies using such methods have faced the challenge that subjects remained silent. Knowledge of conditions under which subjects are more likely to vocalize could thus improve experimental design. This study investigated (a) whether kea (Nestor notabilis) could be trained to increase vocal production using operant conditioning and (b) the conditions under which such training was feasible...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
With this issue, the editors inaugurate the Featured Article Essay in the Journal of Comparative Psychology . This brief essay, written by one or both of the editors, highlights one of the articles in each issue that is found to be particularly important, interesting, or innovative. The editors' choice for this issue is the article by Pellis and Pellis (2018) about play fighting in gray mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus ). (PsycINFO Database Record
February 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
This editorial serves as an introduction for the new editorial team of the Journal of Comparative Psychology which is shifting from Chief Editor Josep Call and Associate Editor Irene Pepperberg to Chief Editor Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy and Associate Editor Todd Freeberg. (PsycINFO Database Record
February 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Audrey E Parrish, Michael J Beran, Christian Agrillo
The solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion that occurs when the spatial arrangement of items influences quantity estimation. To date, this illusion has been reported in monkeys, although it seems to be weaker compared with its prevalence in humans, and no study has investigated whether nonprimate species perceive it. In the present work, we asked whether a more distantly related species, fish, perceived the solitaire illusion. To achieve this goal, adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were trained to select the array containing the larger quantity of black dots in the presence of 2 mixed arrays containing white and black dots...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Eliza L Nelson, Giulianna A Kendall
Behavioral laterality refers to a bias in the use of one side of the body over the other and is commonly studied in paired organs (e.g., hands, feet, eyes, antennae). Less common are reports of laterality in unpaired organs (e.g., trunk, tongue, tail). The goal of the current study was to examine tail use biases across different tasks in the Colombian spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris) for the first time (N = 14). We hypothesized that task context and task complexity influence tail laterality in spider monkeys, and we predicted that monkeys would exhibit strong preferences for using the tail for manipulation to solve out-of-reach feeding problems, but not for using the tail at rest...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Catherine F Talbot, Audrey E Parrish, Julia Watzek, Jennifer L Essler, Kelly L Leverett, Annika Paukner, Sarah F Brosnan
Recent evidence within the field of comparative psychology has demonstrated that small differences in procedure may lead to significant differences in outcome. Therefore, failing to fully explore the impact of different contexts on a behavior limits our ability to fully understand that behavior. A behavior that has exhibited substantial variation, both within and across studies, is animals' responses to violations of their expectations, either when expectations were based on another's outcome (inequity) or one's previous outcome (contrast)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Barbara A Church, J David Smith
Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Vanessa A D Wilson, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Alexander Weiss
Personality has been studied in all of the great apes, many Old World monkey species, but only a handful of New World monkey species. Because understanding the personalities of New World monkeys is crucial to understanding personality evolution in primates, we used the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire to assess personality in 55 common squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and 40 Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). We found 4 personality components in each species, and labeled them Openness, Neuroticism, Assertiveness, and Agreeableness...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Sonja E Koski, Hannah M Buchanan-Smith, Hayley Ash, Judith M Burkart, Thomas Bugnyar, Alexander Weiss
Increasing evidence suggests that personality structure differs between species, but the evolutionary reasons for this variation are not fully understood. We built on earlier research on New World monkeys to further elucidate the evolution of personality structure in primates. We therefore examined personality in 100 family-reared adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) from 3 colonies on a 60-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses revealed 5 domains that were largely similar to those found in a previous study on captive, ex-pet, or formerly laboratory-housed marmosets that were housed in a sanctuary...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Brittany A Coppinger, Anasthasia Sanchez de Launay, Todd M Freeberg
Signalers can vary their vocal behavior, depending on the presence or absence of conspecific group members, and on the composition of the group. Here we asked whether Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) signalers varied their vocal behavior, depending on whether they were in the presence of familiar or unfamiliar flockmates. We sorted 32 Carolina chickadees into 4 groups with 4 familiar birds each and 4 groups with 4 unfamiliar birds each and recorded their behavior in seminatural aviary settings. We presented the familiar and unfamiliar aviary groups with a variety of stimuli ranging in level of threat and assessed birds' calling behavior in these contexts...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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