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Journal of Comparative Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447805/do-tiger-keelback-snakes-rhabdophis-tigrinus-recognize-how-toxic-they-are
#1
Akira Mori, Gordon M Burghardt
Animals that depend on defensive chemicals acquired from food may face a decision when attempting to deter predatory attacks: Should they exhibit antipredator behavior that relies on the toxicity of the sequestered chemicals or should they adopt other behaviors that can avoid predation without using the chemical defense, such as flight? Thus, it is reasonable to assume that animals that sequester prey toxins have evolved the ability to flexibly change their antipredator responses according to the amount of toxin-resource they have consumed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414470/association-between-lateral-bias-and-personality-traits-in-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#2
Shanis Barnard, Deborah L Wells, Peter G Hepper, Adam D S Milligan
Behavioral laterality reflects the cerebral functional asymmetry. Measures of laterality have been associated with emotional stress, problem-solving, and personality in some vertebrate species. Thus far, the association between laterality and personality in the domestic dog has been largely overlooked. In this study, we investigated whether lateralized (left or right) and ambilateral dogs differed in their behavioral response to a standardized personality test. The dog's preferred paw to hold a Kong ball filled with food and the first paw used to step-off from a standing position were scored as laterality measures...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358547/schedule-of-human-controlled-periods-structures-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-behavior-in-their-free-time
#3
Isabella L K Clegg, Heiko G Rödel, Marjorie Cellier, Dennis Vink, Isaure Michaud, Birgitta Mercera, Martin Böye, Martine Hausberger, Alban Lemasson, Fabienne Delfour
Behavioral patterns are established in response to predictable environmental cues. Animals under human care frequently experience predictable, human-controlled events each day, but very few studies have questioned exactly how behavioral patterns are affected by such activities. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) maintained for public display are good models to study such patterns since they experience multiple daily human-controlled periods (e.g., shows, training for shows, medical training). Thus, we investigated the effect of training session schedule on their "free-time" behavior, studying 29 individuals within 4 groups from 3 European facilities...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333487/adaptation-of-the-arizona-cognitive-task-battery-for-use-with-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-mus-musculus-of-down-syndrome
#4
Michael R Hunsaker, Genevieve K Smith, Raymond P Kesner
We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333486/transitive-inference-in-humans-homo-sapiens-and-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-after-massed-training-of-the-last-two-list-items
#5
Greg Jensen, Yelda Alkan, Fabian Muñoz, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333485/visual-acuity-in-the-striped-skunk-mephitis-mephitis
#6
Zoe Johnson-Ulrich, Eric Hoffmaster, Audrey Robeson, Jennifer Vonk
The visual acuity of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) was tested using a 2 alternative forced-choice task with square wave gratings. Skunks were reinforced with food items for touching a ball in front of a striped stimulus when paired with a ball in front of a solid gray stimulus. Skunks demonstrated a maximum visual acuity of 0.42 cycles per degree when tested with bright outdoor illumination. This poor visual acuity may be due to their nocturnal lifestyle, lack of predation, and is consistent with their preferential use of smell and sound during foraging...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318293/yawning-and-social-styles-different-functions-in-tolerant-and-despotic-macaques-macaca-tonkeana-and-macaca-fuscata
#7
Alessandra Zannella, Roscoe Stanyon, Elisabetta Palagi
Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318292/from-play-to-proficiency-the-ontogeny-of-stone-tool-use-in-coastal-foraging-long-tailed-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-from-a-comparative-perception-action-perspective
#8
Amanda W Y Tan
Macaques crack shellfish in coastal environments with specialized stone-hammering techniques. I provide the first examination of skill development from 866 object-manipulation and 7,400 tool-use bouts, collected over 15 months, using longitudinal analyses of infants' object manipulation (N = 7) and cross-sectional comparisons of manipulative and tool-use behavior (N = 69). I adopt a Perception-action approach, examining how the emergence of actions on objects relate to the spatial-relational and percussive challenges of tool use...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318291/consistent-individual-differences-in-standard-exploration-tasks-in-the-black-rat-rattus-rattus
#9
Barbora Žampachová, Barbora Kaftanová, Hana Šimánková, Eva Landová, Daniel Frynta
In a fluctuating environment, the optimal level of exploratory behavior depends on the proportion of current risks and benefits. The exploratory behavior is, therefore, often subjected to heterogenous selection. In populations of commensal rodents living in close proximity of humans, this pressure is further increased by pest management. We hypothesize that the black rat (Rattus rattus) responds to this pressure by either high behavioral flexibility or by development of personality types. The aim of this study was to analyze exploratory behavior and boldness of wild black rats and its changes over time to determine whether exploratory behavior is a personality trait in black rats...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301172/myrmica-rubra-ants-are-more-communicative-when-young-do-they-need-experience
#10
Natalia V Atsarkina, Sofia N Panteleeva, Zhanna I Reznikova
The role of experience in the development of communication in animals is a matter of special interest to many ethologists and psychologists. Ants are known to possess sophisticated and flexible communication systems based mainly on their antennal movements (Reznikova & Ryabko, 2011). However, it is still enigmatic whether young ants need stimulation performances by adults to develop their communication capacities. Experiments with pairwise interactions of Myrmica rubra ants revealed significant differences in individual behavior and the mode of communication in callow (newly emerged) and adult workers...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287756/early-expression-of-manual-lateralization-in-bipedal-marsupials
#11
Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina, Janeane Ingram, Yegor Malashichev
Robust lateralization in forelimb use has recently been found in bipedal, but not quadrupedal, marsupial mammals. The link between bipedality and handedness, occurring in both marsupials and primates, remains to be investigated. To shed light on the developmental origins of marsupial manual lateralization, infants of macropod marsupials were examined before and shortly after the acquisition of habitual bipedal posture and locomotion. Forelimb preferences were assessed in natural, not artificially evoked, behaviors of infant red-necked wallaby in the wild and infant eastern gray kangaroo in free-ranging captivity...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287755/female-bearded-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-use-objects-to-solicit-the-sexual-partner
#12
Elisabetta Visalberghi, Cecilia Di Bernardi, Luca A Marino, Dorothy Fragaszy, Patricia Izar
Female wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) that use stone and stick tools during foraging occasionally toss or throw stones at the male during courtship. We report similar behaviors in a different population that uses stones as tools in foraging. We video-recorded the sexual behavior of four females (27 days during nine proceptive periods) belonging to a group of wild capuchins living in Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV), 320 km from SCNP. Three females used stones or branches when they solicited the alpha male (79 episodes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287754/characterizing-autism-relevant-social-behavior-in-poodles-via-owner-report
#13
Rachel M Zamzow, Lisa Lit, Shelley Hamilton, David Q Beversdorf
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277720/artificial-grammar-learning-in-tamarins-saguinus-oedipus-in-varying-stimulus-contexts
#14
Julie J Neiworth, Justin M London, Michael J Flynn, Deborah D Rupert, Owen Alldritt, Caleb Hyde
The human ability to detect regularities in sound sequences is a fundamental substrate of our language faculty. However, is this an ability exclusive to human language processing, or have we usurped a more general learning mechanism for this purpose, one shared with other species? The current study is an attempt to replicate and extend Hauser, Weiss, and Marcus's (2002) retracted study (2010) of artificial grammar learning in tamarins to determine if tamarins can detect an underlying grammatical structure in a pattern of sounds...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277719/stick-weaving-innovative-behavior-in-tamarins-saguinus-oedipus
#15
Charles T Snowdon, Thomas R Roskos
Some captive cotton-top tamarins spontaneously weave sticks in the mesh of their enclosures so that the stick is lodged between two mesh openings. Sticks are broken from natural branches placed in the enclosures and often modified by biting them in the center before weaving through the mesh. To investigate this further, we systematically surveyed all animals in our colony and found that all successful stick-weaving tamarins were descendants from only 2 of the 16 breeding groups contributing to the colony membership at the time of surveying or were the mates of these descendants, suggesting stick-weaving is a socially learned behavior...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277718/environmental-enrichment-of-young-adult-rats-rattus-norvegicus-in-different-sensory-modalities-has-long-lasting-effects-on-their-ability-to-learn-via-specific-sensory-channels
#16
Vassilissa Dolivo, Michael Taborsky
Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263620/object-permanence-in-the-food-storing-coal-tit-periparus-ater-and-the-non-storing-great-tit-parus-major-is-the-mental-representation-required
#17
Lucie Marhounová, Daniel Frynta, Roman Fuchs, Eva Landová
Object permanence is a cognitive ability that enables animals to mentally represent the continuous existence of temporarily hidden objects. Generally, it develops gradually through six qualitative stages, the evolution of which may be connected with some specific ecological and behavioral factors. In birds, the advanced object permanence skills were reported in several storing species of the Corvidae family. In order to test the association between food-storing and achieved performance within the stages, we compared food-storing coal tits (Periparus ater) and nonstoring great tits (Parus major) using an adapted version of Uzgiris & Hunt's Scale 1 tasks...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182489/do-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-apella-prefer-symmetrical-face-shapes
#18
Annika Paukner, Lauren J Wooddell, Carmen E Lefevre, Eric Lonsdorf, Elizabeth Lonsdorf
In humans, facial symmetry has been linked to an individual's genetic quality, and facial symmetry has a small yet significant effect on ratings of facial attractiveness. The same evolutionary processes underlying these phenomena may also convey a selective advantage to symmetrical individuals of other primate species, yet to date, few studies have examined sensitivity to facial symmetry in nonhuman primates. Here we presented images of symmetrical and asymmetrical human and monkey faces to tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) and hypothesized that capuchins would visually prefer symmetrical faces of opposite-sex conspecifics...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182488/experimental-evidence-of-contagious-stretching-and-ingroup-bias-in-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus
#19
Andrew C Gallup, Janine Militello, Lexington Swartwood, Serena Sackett
Previous observational research suggests that stretching is contagious in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Here we report the first experimental evidence of this response through a reanalysis of a previous experiment testing for contagious yawning in this species. Using a repeated measures design, 16 birds were tested as pairs alongside familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics with and without visual barriers. Our results show that stretching behavior was temporally clustered only when the birds could see one another, corroborating previous observational findings supporting contagion...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182487/exploring-whether-nonhuman-primates-show-a-bias-to-overestimate-dense-quantities
#20
Audrey E Parrish, Brielle T James, Michael J Beran
The density bias, documented within the foraging domain for some monkey species and for human infants, emerges when perceived numerosity is affected by interstimulus distance such that densely arranged food items appear more numerous relative to the same amount of food sparsely arranged. In this study, capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys were presented with a computerized relative discrimination task that allowed for the control of stimulus size, interelemental distance, and overall array pattern. The main objective was to determine whether the density bias was a more widespread and general perceptual phenomenon that extends beyond the foraging domain, similar to other numerosity illusions and biases...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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