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Journal of Comparative Psychology

Claudia Fugazza, Eszter Petro, Ádám Miklósi, Ákos Pogány
A goal-directed action is composed of two main elements on which the observer may focus its attention: the movement performed (i.e., the action) and the outcome (i.e., the goal). In a social learning situation, consequently, the observer may imitate the action of the model or emulate the result of its action. In humans and primates, the tendency to selectively engage in any of these two processes is considered to be dependent upon the availability and saliency of information about the goal, implying the capacity to recognize the goals of others' actions...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Garrett M Fogo, Alyssa M Goodwin, Ohanes S Khacherian, Brandi J Ledbetter, Andrew J Gall
Environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle and temperature, affect the display of circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity patterns in mammals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that manipulating these environmental conditions would affect wheel-running activity patterns in a diurnal rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus). Grass rats are diurnal in the field, however, a subset switch from a day-active pattern to a night-active pattern of activity after the introduction of a running wheel...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Péter Szenczi, Zyanya I Velázquez-López, Andrea Urrutia, Robyn Hudson, Oxána Bánszegi
The comparative study of the perception of visual illusions between different species is increasingly recognized as a useful noninvasive tool to better understand visual perception and its underlying mechanisms and evolution. The aim of the present study was to test whether the domestic cat is susceptible to the Delboeuf illusion in a manner similar to other mammalian species studied to date. For comparative reasons, we followed the methods used to test other mammals in which the animals were tested in a 2-way choice task between same-size food stimuli presented on different-size plates...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Nóra Bunford, Barbara Csibra, Csenge Peták, Bence Ferdinandy, Ádám Miklósi, Márta Gácsi
In humans, behavioral disinhibition is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limitations to rodent models of ADHD-like behaviors/symptoms may be augmented by complementary ones, such as the domestic dog. We examined associations between family dogs' (N = 29; of 14 breeds and 12 mongrels) performance on a self-developed touchscreen behavioral Go/No-Go paradigm and their owner-rated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, accounting for relevant covariates. A greater proportion of commission errors was associated with greater hyperactivity/impulsivity...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Hillary E Swann, Michele R Brumley
The aim of the current study was to provide normative data on spontaneous locomotion and posture behavior in developing rats (Rattus norvegicus), during the first 2 postnatal weeks. Male and female rat pups were tested daily from P1 (postnatal day 1; ∼24 hr after birth) to P15 in a sensory-enriched or sensory-deprived testing environment, which was enclosed in a temperature-controlled incubator. Pups in the sensory-deprived condition were tested individually and placed in a square, Plexiglas box (open-field) for a 20-min test period...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Emma C Tecwyn, Daphna Buchsbaum
It has been suggested that domestic dogs-like young human children-have a "gravity bias"; they expect an unsupported object to fall straight down, regardless of any obstacles that redirect or halt its path. In the diagonal tube task, this bias is revealed by a persistent tendency to search the incorrect location directly beneath the top of the tube the item is dropped into, rather than the correct location attached to the bottom of the tube. We presented dogs (N = 112) with seven different versions of the diagonal tube task, to examine what factors influence their search behavior for an object dropped down a diagonal tube, and investigate their physical reasoning skills more generally...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Thomas R Zentall, Olivia L Raley
Object permanence, often viewed as a measure of human cognitive development, has also been used to assess animals' cognitive abilities. Tests of object permanence have distinguished between visible displacement, in which an object may be placed into one of two (or more) containers to be retrieved, and invisible displacement, in which after the object is placed into the container, the container is moved before retrieval is attempted. We tested pigeons' accuracy on both visible and invisible displacement using a rotational beam with a container at either end...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Álvaro L Caicoya, Federica Amici, Conrad Ensenyat, Montserrat Colell
Although behavior, biology, and ecology of giraffes have been widely studied, little is known about their cognition. Giraffes' feeding ecology and their fission-fusion social dynamics are comparable with those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggesting that they might have complex cognitive abilities. To assess this, we tested 6 captive giraffes on their object permanence, short-term memory, and ability to use acoustic cues to locate food. First, we tested whether giraffes understand that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Yosuke Hachiga, Lindsay P Schwartz, Christopher Tripoli, Samuel Michaels, David Kearns, Alan Silberberg
Martin, Bhui, Bossaerts, Matsuzawa, and Camerer (2014) found that chimpanzee pairs competing in matching-pennies games achieved the Nash equilibrium whereas human pairs did not. They hypothesized this outcome may be due to (a) chimpanzee ecology producing evolutionary changes that give them a cognitive advantage over humans in these games, and (b) humans being disadvantaged because the cognition necessary for optimal game play was traded off in evolution to support language. We provide data relevant to their hypotheses by exposing pairs of pigeons to the same games...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jeremy D Bailoo, Blair Quinius, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins, Allyson J Bennett
Investigations of behavioral lateralization in nonhuman primates yield important insights into brain-behavior relationships. In turn, they provide clues about both proximal and distal factors that shape the development and expression of association between motor asymmetries and underlying neural substrates. Nonhuman primates afford unique comparative opportunities to evaluate potential routes for the evolution of handedness, as well as to uncover relationships between behavioral lateralization and underlying neural, genetic, and physiological correlates...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Sayantan Das, Joseph J Erinjery, Nisarg Desai, Kamaraj Mohan, Honnavalli N Kumara, Mewa Singh
Existing models of attachment do not explain how death of offspring affects maternal behavior. Previous descriptions of maternal responsiveness to dead offspring in nonhuman anthropoids have not expounded the wide variation of deceased-infant carrying (DIC) behavior. Through the current study, we attempt to (a) identify determinants of DIC through a systematic survey across anthropoids, (b) quantitatively assess behavioral changes of mother during DIC, and (c) infer death perception of conspecifics. Firstly, we performed phylogenetic regression using duration of DIC as the dependent variable...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Laurent Prétôt, Sarah F Brosnan
The capacity for planning in nonhuman species has long been an interest of many comparative and cognitive psychologists. There is now considerable evidence that at least great apes show both motor planning and planning for future needs in various contexts and modalities. Few studies, however, have investigated planning ability in a monkey species, and most of these exceptions have used computerized procedures. To gain a broader view, in the current study, we tested capuchin monkeys' capacity for motor planning using the "paddle-box" apparatus, a manual maze task originally designed for testing planning skills in apes (Tecwyn, Thorpe, & Chappell, 2013)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Merel A Burgering, Jean Vroomen, Carel Ten Cate
Humans can categorize vowels based on spectral quality (vowel identity) or pitch (speaker sex). Songbirds show similarities to humans with respect to speech sound discrimination and categorization, but it is unclear whether they can categorize harmonically structured vowel-like sounds on either spectrum or pitch, while ignoring the other parameter. We trained zebra finches in two experimental conditions to discriminate two sets of harmonic vowel-like sounds that could be distinguished either by spectrum or fundamental frequency (pitch)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Allison B Kaufman, Matthew R Reynolds, Alan S Kaufman
We used contemporary psychometric theory of intelligence and confirmatory factor analysis to reanalyze data obtained on samples of nonhuman primates administered the Primate Cognition Test Battery. Our main goals were to interpret stability of the Primate Cognition Test Battery tasks and factors over time and to determine whether the cognitive factors that emerge from confirmatory factor analysis for apes can be interpreted from the perspective of a major theory of human intelligence, namely, the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Matteo De Tommaso, Gisela Kaplan, Cinzia Chiandetti, Giorgio Vallortigara
Nonsongbirds can produce rhythmical sounds that, at times, have been shown to be meaningful in their communication. This raises the possibility that rhythm is a separate ability that might have evolved earlier than song. We asked whether nearly completely naïve domestic chicks perceive rhythm and respond in specific ways to different rhythmic patterns. To do so, specific constituent parameters of rhythmicity were used based on the sound of a natural mother hen's cluck. The sound samples created ranged from a continuous sound to articulated rhythmic patterns of alternating strong and weak events...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jinook Oh, Vedrana Šlipogor, W Tecumseh Fitch
Experimenters often use images of real objects to simulate interactions between animal subjects or visual stimuli on a touchscreen to test animal cognition. However, the degree to which nonhuman animals recognize 2-D images as representing the corresponding real objects remains debated. The common marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus ) has been described as a species that spontaneously shows natural behaviors to 2-D images, for example, grasping behaviors to insects and fear responses to snakes. In this study, we tested 10 monkeys with their favorite food item (crickets), 2-D images (a photo and videos of a cricket), and a 3-D plastic model to reevaluate marmoset's spontaneous responses to 2-D images and to explore which artificial visual stimuli can motivate spontaneous interactions...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Sam George Bradley Roberts, Anna Ilona Roberts
The challenges of life in complex social groups may select for complex communication to regulate interactions among conspecifics. Whereas the association between social living and vocalizations has been explored in nonhuman primates, great apes also have a rich repertoire of gestures, and how the complexity of gestural communication relates to sociality is still unclear. We used social network analysis to examine the relationship between the duration of time pairs of chimpanzees spent in proximity (within 10 m) and the rates of gestural communication accompanied by visual attention of the signaler, one-to-one calls, indicative gestures (collectively self-relevance cues), and synchronized pant-hoot calls...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Klara Kittler, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
Apes and some New and Old World monkeys (i.e., haplorhine primates) are known to routinely use tools. In strepsirrhine primates (i.e., lemurs and lorises), no tool use has been reported, even though they appear to have some basic understanding of the spatial relations required for using a pulling tool. To facilitate direct comparisons of the underlying abilities between haplorhine and strepsirrhine primate species, we experimentally examined instrumental problem-solving abilities in three captive lemur species (Microcebus murinus, Varecia variegata, and Lemur catta), using methods from previous experiments with haplorhine primates...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Divergent personality structures of brown ( Sapajus apella ) and white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus )" by Lauren M. Robinson, F. Blake Morton, Marieke C. Gartner, Jane Widness, Annika Paukner, Jennifer L. Essler, Sarah F. Brosnan and Alexander Weiss ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Nov], Vol 130[4], 305-312). In the article, there is an error in several of the Tables in the Results. The coefficients related to Attentiveness were unintentionally reversed-scored. As these associations were not significant, this error had no effect on the interpretation of the results...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
In the Featured Article for this issue of the Journal of Comparative Psychology, Scarf, Johnston, and Colombo (2018) showed that pigeons learned to reproduce (by pecking icons presented on a screen) a four-item serially ordered list without specific training on that list, as macaques did (Figure 1). In Scarf et al.'s (2018) study, all five birds given structured training subsequently mastered multiple sets of two-item, then three-item, and finally four-item lists, with a diminishing training regime for the later four-item lists...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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