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Population Research and Policy Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391658/stochastic-forecasting-of-labor-supply-and-population-an-integrated-model
#1
Johann Fuchs, Doris Söhnlein, Brigitte Weber, Enzo Weber
This paper presents a stochastic model to forecast the German population and labor supply until 2060. Within a cohort-component approach, our population forecast applies principal components analysis to birth, mortality, emigration, and immigration rates, which allows for the reduction of dimensionality and accounts for correlation of the rates. Labor force participation rates are estimated by means of an econometric time series approach. All time series are forecast by stochastic simulation using the bootstrap method...
2018: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599569/hispanic-concentrated-poverty-in-traditional-and-new-destinations-2010-2014
#2
Sarah Ludwig-Dehm, John Iceland
This paper examines patterns of Hispanic concentrated poverty in traditional, new, and minor destinations. Using data from 2010 to 2014 from the American Community Survey, we find that without controlling for group characteristics, Hispanics experience a lower level of concentrated poverty in new destinations compared to traditional gateways. Metropolitan level factors explain this difference, including ethnic residential segregation, the Hispanic poverty rate, and the percentage of Hispanics who are foreign born...
December 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531423/trajectories-of-unintended-fertility
#3
Sowmya Rajan, S Philip Morgan, Kathleen Mullan Harris, David Guilkey, Sarah R Hayford, Karen Benjamin Guzzo
Having an unintended birth is strongly associated with the likelihood of having later unintended births. We use detailed longitudinal data from the Add Health Study (N=8,300) to investigate whether a host of measured sociodemographic, personality, and psychosocial characteristics select women into this "trajectory" of unintended childbearing. While some measured characteristics and aspects of the unfolding life course are related to unintended childbearing, explicitly modeling these effects does not greatly attenuate the association of an unintended birth with a subsequent one...
December 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398742/getting-under-the-skin-children-s-health-disparities-as-embodiment-of-social-class
#4
Michael R Kramer, Eric B Schneider, Jennifer B Kane, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Jessica Jones-Smith, Katherine King, Pamela Davis-Kean, Joseph G Grzywacz
Social class gradients in children's health and development are ubiquitous across time and geography. The authors develop a conceptual framework relating three actions of class-material allocation, salient group identity, and inter-group conflict-to the reproduction of class-based disparities in child health. A core proposition is that the actions of class stratification create variation in children's mesosystems and microsystems in distinct locations in the ecology of everyday life. Variation in mesosystems (e...
October 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398741/theoretical-insights-into-preconception-social-conditions-and-perinatal-health-the-role-of-place-and-social-relationships
#5
Jennifer B Kane, Claire Margerison-Zilko
Recent efforts to explain the stark social and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes that have persisted for decades in the U.S. have looked beyond prenatal factors, to explore preconception social conditions that may influence perinatal health via dysregulation of physiologic processes. The extant evidence supporting this link however remains limited, both due to a lack of data and theory. To address the latter, this manuscript generates a structured set of theoretical insights that further develop the link between two preconception social conditions - place and social relationships - and perinatal health...
October 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804183/women-s-agency-and-fertility-recent-evidence-from-egypt
#6
Goleen Samari
Fertility reached a two decade high of 3.5 births per woman in Egypt in 2014. Lower status of women is associated with higher fertility. Majority of the studies on women's agency and fertility rely on individual level cross-sectional data from South Asia, which limits the understanding of variation among communities and the direction of the relationship between women's agency and fertility in other global contexts. This study examines the relationship between women's agency and fertility longitudinally and among communities in the most populous country in the Middle East - Egypt...
August 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075048/maternal-household-decision-making-autonomy-and-adolescent-education-in-honduras
#7
C Emily Hendrick, Leticia Marteleto
Maternal decision-making autonomy has been linked to positive outcomes for children's health and well-being early in life in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world. However, there is a dearth of research examining if and how maternal autonomy continues to influence children's outcomes into adolescence and whether it impacts other domains of children's lives beyond health, such as their education. The goal of this study was to determine whether high maternal decision-making was associated with school enrollment for secondary school-aged youth in Honduras...
June 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056801/life-course-changes-in-smoking-by-gender-and-education-a-cohort-comparison-across-france-and-the-united-states
#8
Fred C Pampel, Damien Bricard, Myriam Khlat, Stéphane Legleye
Widening of educational disparities and a narrowing female advantage in mortality stem in good part from disparities in smoking. The changes in smoking and mortality disparities across cohorts and countries have been explained by an epidemic model of cigarette use but are also related to life course changes. To better describe and understand changing disparities over the life course, we compare age patterns of smoking in three cohorts and two nations (France and the United States) using smoking history measures from the 2010 French Health Barometer (N = 20,940) and the 2010 U...
June 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366968/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-health-insurance-coverage-dynamics-of-gaining-and-losing-coverage-over-the-life-course
#9
Heeju Sohn
Health insurance coverage varies substantially between racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin had persistently lower insurance coverage rates at all ages. This article describes age- and group-specific dynamics of insurance gain and loss that contribute to inequalities found in traditional cross-sectional studies. It uses the longitudinal 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (N=114,345) to describe age-specific patterns of disparity prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA)...
April 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461712/black-white-disparities-in-adult-mortality-implications-of-differential-record-linkage-for-understanding-the-mortality-crossover
#10
Joseph T Lariscy
Mortality rates among black individuals exceed those of white individuals throughout much of the life course. The black-white disparity in mortality rates is widest in young adulthood, and then rates converge with increasing age until a crossover occurs at about age 85 years, after which black older adults exhibit a lower mortality rate relative to white older adults. Data quality issues in survey-linked mortality studies may hinder accurate estimation of this disparity and may even be responsible for the observed black-white mortality crossover, especially if the linkage of surveys to death records during mortality follow-up is less accurate for black older adults...
February 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151660/neighbourhood-ethnic-density-effects-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-problems-among-young-racial-ethnic-minority-children-in-the-us-and-england-a-cross-national-comparison
#11
Nan Zhang, Jennifer L Beauregard, Michael R Kramer, Laia Bécares
Studies on adult racial/ethnic minority populations show that the increased concentration of racial/ethnic minorities in a neighbourhood-a so-called ethnic density effect-is associated with improved health of racial/ethnic minority residents when adjusting for area deprivation. However, this literature has focused mainly on adult populations, individual racial/ethnic groups, and single countries, with no studies focusing on children of different racial/ethnic groups or comparing across nations. This study aims to compare neighbourhood ethnic density effects on young children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in the US and in England...
2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769142/child-home-care-allowance-and-the-transition-to-second-and-third-order-births-in-finland
#12
Anni Erlandsson
Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20-44 in Finland during the period 1992-2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further birth more quickly, and (iii) whether the risk to proceed to a subsequent birth is related to educational level...
2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190908/transitions-between-compensated-work-disability-joblessness-and-self-sufficiency-a-cohort-study-1997-2010-of-those-jobless-in-1995
#13
Michael Wiberg, Staffan Marklund, Kristina Alexanderson
Associations between unemployment, work, and disability have been researched in many studies. The findings are often based on cross-sectional data and single outcomes. The present study analysed multiple outcomes over a period of 15 years among long-term unemployed individuals. Based on all individuals aged 20-40 living in Sweden in 1995, prospective cohort analyses were conducted. Individual annual labour market proximity 1995-2010 was estimated and categorised into three mutually exclusive categories: "Jobless", "Self-sufficient" (i...
2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190907/old-habits-die-hard-lingering-son-preference-in-an-era-of-normalizing-sex-ratios-at-birth-in-south-korea
#14
Sam Hyun Yoo, Sarah R Hayford, Victor Agadjanian
South Korea was among the first countries to report both an abnormally high sex ratio at birth (SRB) and its subsequent normalization. We examine the role of son preference in driving fertility intentions during a period of declining SRB and consider the contribution of individual characteristics and broader social context to explaining changes in intentions. We employ data from the National Survey on Fertility, Family Health and Welfare that span 1991-2012. We find that reported son preference declined to a great extent but remained substantial by the end of the observation period, and that the intention to have a third child still differed by sex of existing children...
2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042192/exploring-new-life-course-patterns-of-mother-s-continuing-secondary-and-college-education
#15
Jennifer March Augustine
A mounting body of evidence suggests that the life course sequence that once defined contemporary U.S. women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their education after the transition to motherhood. Despite such evidence, we know little about this changing pattern of life course events for many U.S. women. The aim of this study, therefore, is to produce population-based estimates that describe the prevalence of mothers' school reentry and secondary and college degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-à-vis their transition into motherhood, and the characteristics of mothers who pursue additional schooling...
December 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794575/caregiver-decision-making-household-response-to-child-illness-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
Hayley Pierce, Ashley Larsen Gibby, Renata Forste
We draw upon a framework outlining household recognition and response to child illness proposed by Colvin and colleagues (2013) to examine factors predictive of treatment sought for a recent child illness. In particular, we model whether no treatment, middle layer treatment (traditional healer, pharmacy, community health worker, etc.), or biomedical treatment was sought for recent episodes of diarrhea, fever, or cough. Based on multinomial, multilevel analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys from 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we determine that if women have no say in their own healthcare, they are unlikely to seek treatment in response to child illness...
October 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867239/legal-status-and-health-care-mexican-origin-children-in-california-2001-2014
#17
R S Oropesa, Nancy S Landale, Marianne M Hillemeier
Using restricted data from the 2001-2014 California Health Interview Surveys, this research illuminates the role of legal status in health care among Mexican-origin children. The first objective is to provide a population-level overview of trends in health care access and utilization, along with the legal statuses of parents and children. The second objective is to examine the nature of associations between children's health care and legal status over time. We identify specific status-based distinctions that matter and investigate how their importance is changing...
October 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482124/educational-attainment-and-mortality-in-the-united-states-effects-of-degrees-years-of-schooling-and-certification
#18
Elizabeth M Lawrence, Richard G Rogers, Anna Zajacova
Researchers have extensively documented a strong and consistent education gradient for mortality, with more highly educated individuals living longer than those with less education. This study contributes to our understanding of the education-mortality relationship by determining the effects of years of education and degree attainment on mortality, and by including nondegree certification, an important but understudied dimension of educational attainment. We use data from the mortality-linked restricted-use files of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) sample (N=9,821) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk among U...
August 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593367/a-case-for-reverse-one-child-policies-in-japan-and-south-korea-examining-the-link-between-education-costs-and-lowest-low-fertility
#19
Poh Lin Tan, S Philip Morgan, Emilio Zagheni
Household spending on children's pre-tertiary education is exceptionally high in Japan and South Korea, and has been cited as a cause of low fertility. Previous research attributes this high spending to a cultural emphasis on education in East Asian countries. In this paper, we argue that institutional factors, namely higher education and labor market systems, play an important role in reinforcing the pressure on parents to invest in their children's education. We review evidence showing that graduating from a prestigious university has very high economic and social returns in Japan and South Korea, and examine the implications for fertility within the framework of quantity-quality models...
June 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593366/the-emergence-of-two-distinct-fertility-regimes-in-economically-advanced-countries
#20
Ronald R Rindfuss, Minja Kim Choe, Sarah R Brauner-Otto
Beginning in 2000, in economically advanced countries, a remarkable bifurcation in fertility levels has emerged, with one group in the moderate range of period total fertility rates (TFR), about 1.9, and the other at 1.3. The upper branch consists of countries in Northern and Western Europe, Oceania and the United States; the lower branch includes Central, Southern and Eastern Europe, and East and Southeast Asia. A review of the major theories for low fertility countries reveals that none of them would have predicted this specific bifurcation...
June 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
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