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Population Research and Policy Review

Michael Wiberg, Staffan Marklund, Kristina Alexanderson
Associations between unemployment, work, and disability have been researched in many studies. The findings are often based on cross-sectional data and single outcomes. The present study analysed multiple outcomes over a period of 15 years among long-term unemployed individuals. Based on all individuals aged 20-40 living in Sweden in 1995, prospective cohort analyses were conducted. Individual annual labour market proximity 1995-2010 was estimated and categorised into three mutually exclusive categories: "Jobless", "Self-sufficient" (i...
2017: Population Research and Policy Review
Sam Hyun Yoo, Sarah R Hayford, Victor Agadjanian
South Korea was among the first countries to report both an abnormally high sex ratio at birth (SRB) and its subsequent normalization. We examine the role of son preference in driving fertility intentions during a period of declining SRB and consider the contribution of individual characteristics and broader social context to explaining changes in intentions. We employ data from the National Survey on Fertility, Family Health and Welfare that span 1991-2012. We find that reported son preference declined to a great extent but remained substantial by the end of the observation period, and that the intention to have a third child still differed by sex of existing children...
2017: Population Research and Policy Review
Jennifer March Augustine
A mounting body of evidence suggests that the life course sequence that once defined contemporary U.S. women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their education after the transition to motherhood. Despite such evidence, we know little about this changing pattern of life course events for many U.S. women. The aim of this study, therefore, is to produce population-based estimates that describe the prevalence of mothers' school reentry and secondary and college degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-à-vis their transition into motherhood, and the characteristics of mothers who pursue additional schooling...
December 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
R S Oropesa, Nancy S Landale, Marianne M Hillemeier
Using restricted data from the 2001-2014 California Health Interview Surveys, this research illuminates the role of legal status in health care among Mexican-origin children. The first objective is to provide a population-level overview of trends in health care access and utilization, along with the legal statuses of parents and children. The second objective is to examine the nature of associations between children's health care and legal status over time. We identify specific status-based distinctions that matter and investigate how their importance is changing...
October 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
Elizabeth M Lawrence, Richard G Rogers, Anna Zajacova
Researchers have extensively documented a strong and consistent education gradient for mortality, with more highly educated individuals living longer than those with less education. This study contributes to our understanding of the education-mortality relationship by determining the effects of years of education and degree attainment on mortality, and by including nondegree certification, an important but understudied dimension of educational attainment. We use data from the mortality-linked restricted-use files of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) sample (N=9,821) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk among U...
August 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
Jennifer Van Hook, Susana Quiros, Michelle L Frisco, Emnet Fikru
Health and immigration researchers often implicate dietary acculturation in explanations of Mexican children of immigrants' weight gain after moving to the U.S., but rarely explore how diet is shaped by immigrants' structural incorporation. We used data from the 1999/00-2009/10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess how indicators of Mexican-origin children's acculturation and structural incorporation influence two outcomes: how healthy and how "Americanized" children's diets are. Indicators of acculturation were strongly associated with more Americanized and less healthy diets...
April 1, 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
Hui Zheng, Y Claire Yang, Kenneth C Land
This paper investigates historical changes in both single-year-of-age adult mortality rates and variation of the single-year mortality rates around expected values within age intervals over the past two centuries in 15 developed countries. We apply an integrated Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort-Variance Function Regression Model to data from the Human Mortality Database. We find increasing variation of the single-year rates within broader age intervals over the life course for all countries, but the increasing variation slows down at age 90 and then increases again after age 100 for some countries; the variation significantly declined across cohorts born after the early 20th century; and the variation continuously declined over much of the last two centuries but has substantially increased since 1980...
February 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
Mathias Lerch
The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models...
2016: Population Research and Policy Review
Esther Havekes, Michael Bader, Maria Krysan
The housing search process is an overlooked mechanism in the scholarly research that seeks to understand the causes of persistent racial residential segregation in the United States. Past research has explored in detail the preferences people hold in terms of the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods, and more recently some have also examined the correspondence between racial and ethnic neighborhood preferences and current neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. But an intermediate stage-the racial/ethnic composition of where people search-has not been investigated...
2016: Population Research and Policy Review
Connor M Sheehan, Robert A Hummer, Brenda L Moore, Kimberly R Huyser, John Sibley Butler
Given their unique occupational hazards and sizable population, military veterans are an important population for the study of health. Yet veterans are by no means homogeneous, and there are unanswered questions regarding the extent of, and explanations for, racial and ethnic differences in veterans' health. Using the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, we first documented race/ethnic differences in self-rated health and limitations in Activities of Daily Living among male veterans aged 30-84. Second, we examined potential explanations for the disparities, including socioeconomic and behavioral differences, as well as differences in specific military experiences...
December 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Paula Fomby, Laurie James-Hawkins, Stefanie Mollborn
Overall, children born to teen parents experience disadvantaged cognitive achievement at school entry compared to children born to older parents. However, within this population there is variation, with a significant fraction of teen parents' children acquiring adequate preparation for school entry during early childhood. We ask whether the family background of teen parents explains this variation. We use data on children born to teen mothers from three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N~700) to study the association of family background with children's standardized reading and mathematics achievement scores at kindergarten entry...
October 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Kelly Stamper Balistreri, Kara Joyner, Grace Kao
Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships...
October 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Krista Perreira, Lisa Spees
Latino immigrant adolescents have the highest high school dropout rates of any race-ethnic or nativity group in the United States. One potential reason for high dropout rates among Latino immigrant youth is that many are unauthorized entrants. These unauthorized Latino immigrant youth have few opportunities to attend college, and, as they become aware of barriers to their educational progress and employment, they may lower their educational expectations. Using data from the Latino Adolescent Migration, Health, and Adaptation Project (N=275), we examine the association of unauthorized entry into the U...
October 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Margaret M Weden, Christine E Peterson, Jeremy N Miles, Regina A Shih
The American Community Survey (ACS) multiyear estimation program has greatly advanced opportunities for studying change in the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of U.S. communities. Challenges remain, however, for researchers studying years prior to the full implementation of the ACS or areas smaller than the thresholds for ACS annual estimates (i.e., small counties and census tracts). We evaluate intercensal estimates of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of U.S. counties and census tracts produced via linear interpolation between the 2000 census and both the 2010 census and 2005-2009 ACS...
August 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Alma Vega
International migration has long been considered the preserve of working-age adults. However, the rapid diversification of the elderly population calls for increased attention to the migration patterns of this group and its possible motivations. This study examines whether Latin American immigrants who are primary Social Security beneficiaries are more likely to return to their home countries during later life if they receive lower Social Security benefits. Using a regression discontinuity approach on restricted data from the U...
June 1, 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Tse-Chuan Yang, Leif Jensen
While there is evidence to suggest that socioeconomic inequality within places is associated with mortality rates among people living within them, the empirical connection between the two remains unsettled as potential confounders associated with racial and social structure are overlooked. This study seeks to test this relationship, to determine whether it is due to differential levels of deprivation and social capital, and does so with intrinsically conditional autoregressive Bayesian spatial modeling that effectively addresses the bias introduced by spatial dependence...
June 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Rhiannon A Kroeger, Reanne Frank, Kammi K Schmeer
We use data from Wave 3 of the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 7276) and discrete-time regression analyses to evaluate changes in the association between educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of women in Mexico, including a mature cohort (born between 1930 and 1949), a middle cohort (born between 1950 and 1969), and a young cohort (born between 1970 and 1979). Mirroring prior research, we find a curvilinear pattern between educational attainment and timing to first union for women born between 1930 and 1969, such that once we account for the delaying effect of school enrollment, those with the lowest (0-5 years) and highest levels of education (13+ years) are characterized by the earliest transition to a first union...
June 1, 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Wendy D Manning, Jessica A Cohen
Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child...
April 1, 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
James M Raymo, Kelly Musick, Miho Iwasawa
We examine educational differences in the intendedness of first births in Japan using data from a nationally representative survey of married women (N = 2,373). We begin by describing plausible scenarios for a negative, null, and positive educational gradient in unintended first births. In contrast to well-established results from the U.S., we find evidence of a positive educational gradient in Japan. Net of basic demographic controls, university graduates are more likely than less-educated women to report first births as unintended...
April 1, 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
Yujin Kim, R Kelly Raley
Research in the 1980s pointed to the lower marriage rates of blacks as an important factor contributing to race differences in non-marital fertility. Our analyses update and extend this prior work to investigate whether cohabitation has become an important contributor to this variation. We use data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and to identify the relative contribution of population composition (i.e. percent sexually active single and percent cohabiting) versus rates (pregnancy rates, post-conception marriage rates) to race-ethnic variation in non-marital fertility rates (N=7,428)...
February 2015: Population Research and Policy Review
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