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Investigational New Drugs

Midori Tanaka, Hidenobu Ishii, Hayato Moribuchi, Yoshiko Naito, Norikazu Matsuo, Masayuki Nakamura, Takaaki Tokito, Koichi Azuma, Kazuhiko Yamada, Tomoaki Hoshino
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is extremely rare, and standard chemotherapeutic strategies have not yet been established. In the present study, we report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with combined SCLC with EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion). Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan was initiated as first-line chemotherapy, and computed tomography findings revealed tumor shrinkage after two cycles of chemotherapy. However, after the third cycle of the treatment, disease progression was observed including the appearance of pleural and pericardial effusion...
March 15, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Motohiro Tamiya, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takayuki Shiroyama, Ayako Tanaka, Naoko Morishita, Norio Okamoto, Kenichi Sakai, Hironori Shigeoka, Kunimitsu Kawahara, Tomonori Hirashima
Background Bevacizumab (Bev) is generally well-tolerated, and Bev-associated intestinal perforation (BAP) is a rare albeit serious side effect in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the present study aimed to identify clinical predictors of BAP to help predict and manage the development of life-threatening intestinal complications among patients receiving Bev. Methods This retrospective study evaluated demographic, clinical, and treatment factors for patients with NSCLC who were treated with Bev between February 2010 and August 2015 at our center...
March 14, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Xavier García Del Muro, Joan Maurel, Javier Martínez Trufero, Javier Lavernia, Antonio López Pousa, Ramón de Las Peñas, Ricardo Cubedo, José Pablo Berros, Antonio Casado Herráez, Ana de Juan, Javier Martín Broto
Background Sorafenib is a potent targeted-therapy that blockades angiogenesis and has demonstrated activity against some sarcoma subtypes. Preclinical studies suggested that treatment with sorafenib plus cytotoxic agents could result in additive efficacy. Methods Patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma, with or without anthracycline pretreatment were included. Patients received oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily starting on Day +2, ifosfamide 2.0 g/m2 iv infusion lasting 4 h on days 1, 2 and 3 with concurrent mesna 400 mg/m2 every three weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or up to a maximum of 6 cycles of ifosfamide (sorafenib could be continued until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity)...
March 12, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Hyungwoo Cho, Dok Hyun Yoon, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Kyun-Seop Bae, Won Seog Kim, Hyeon-Seok Eom, Jin Seok Kim, Jung Yong Hong, Seok Jin Kim, Hyewon Lee, Soo-Jeong Kim, Cheolwon Suh
Background The objective of this study was to assess the safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor efficacy of CKD-581, a novel pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) refractory to standard therapy. Methods In this phase I study, CKD-581 was intravenously administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. A standard 3 + 3 cohort design was used to determine the MTD. Acetylated histones H3 and H4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured for pharmacodynamic assessment in a subpopulation of patients...
March 9, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
March 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Songlin Liu, Yunhong Tang, Xianrui Yuan, Dun Yuan, Junyu Liu, Buyan Li, Yifeng Li
Genomic studies have established a set of three core-signaling pathways, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) signaling pathways, contributing glioblastoma (GBM) and revealed that dysregulation of at least two pathways is required for GBM progression. In the present study, we investigate efficacy of combination of palbociclib, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, and erlotinib, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor in GBM cell systems with different p53 status. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays showed that the combination treatment synergistically suppressed GBM cell proliferation...
March 6, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Herbert Hurwitz, Eric Van Cutsem, Johanna Bendell, Manuel Hidalgo, Chung-Pin Li, Marcelo Garrido Salvo, Teresa Macarulla, Vaibhav Sahai, Ashwin Sama, Edward Greeno, Kenneth H Yu, Chris Verslype, Fitzroy Dawkins, Chris Walker, Jason Clark, Eileen M O'Reilly
Background Ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/JAK2 inhibitor, plus capecitabine improved overall survival (OS) vs capecitabine in a subgroup analysis of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] >13 mg/dL) in the randomized phase II RECAP study. We report results from two randomized phase III studies, JANUS 1 (NCT02117479) and JANUS 2 (NCT02119663). Patients and Methods Adults with advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer, one prior chemotherapy regimen and CRP >10 mg/L were randomized 1:1 (stratified by modified Glasgow Prognostic Score [1 vs 2] and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status [0/1 vs 2]) to 21-day cycles of ruxolitinib 15 mg twice daily plus capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 /day (Days 1-14) or placebo plus capecitabine...
March 6, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Laura Graham, Kalyan Banda, Alba Torres, Brett S Carver, Yu Chen, Katie Pisano, Greg Shelkey, Tracy Curley, Howard I Scher, Tamara L Lotan, Andrew C Hsieh, Dana E Rathkopf
Background MLN0128 is a first-in-class, dual mTOR inhibitor with potential to outperform standard rapalogs through inhibition of TORC1 and TORC2. This phase II study was designed to assess antitumor activity of MLN0128 in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Methods Eligible patients had mCRPC previously treated with abiraterone acetate and/or enzalutamide. Five patients started MLN0128 at 5 mg once daily, subsequently dose reduced to 4 mg because of toxicity. Four subsequent patients started MLN0128 at 4 mg daily...
March 6, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Songlin Liu, Yunhong Tang, Maomao Yan, Weixi Jiang
Breast cancer has been emerging as a most common threat among women, thus many efforts were made to find drugs for fighting breast cancer. So far, PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase) inhibitors have been believed to be effective drugs until frequent resistance emerged. Recently, PI3K H1047R mutation has been reported to sensitize breast cancer cells to PI3K inhibition by aspirin. Considering aspirin activates AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) simultaneously, it is possible that AMPK activators and PI3K inhibitors can synergistically inhibit breast cancers...
March 5, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Jianan Zhou, Canjing Zhang, Xianxian Sui, Shengxuan Cao, Feng Tang, Shuhui Sun, Songmei Wang, Bobin Chen
We investigated the anti-tumour effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of a new oral histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), chidamide, in NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL), a rare and highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor outcomes. SNT-8 and SNK-10 NKTCL cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of chidamide for the indicated time. The treated cells were analysed for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell apoptosis. Proteins in the AKT/mTOR and MAPK signalling pathways and the DNA damage response (DDR) cell cycle checkpoint pathway were measured by Western blotting...
March 5, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Staci L Haney, Yashpal S Chhonker, Michelle L Varney, Geoffrey Talmon, Daryl J Murry, Sarah A Holstein
Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) is the enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that catalyzes the synthesis of the 20-carbon isoprenoid GGPP, which serves as the isoprenoid donor for protein geranylgeranylation reactions. Rab proteins mediate vesicle trafficking within the cell and their activity is dependent on geranylgeranylation. Our prior work has demonstrated that agents that disrupt Rab geranylgeranylation disrupt monoclonal protein trafficking in myeloma cells, resulting in induction of the unfolded protein response pathway and apoptosis...
March 2, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Teresa Di Desidero, Paola Orlandi, Anna Fioravanti, Chiara Cremolini, Fotios Loupakis, Federica Marmorino, Carlotta Antoniotti, Gianluca Masi, Sara Lonardi, Francesca Bergamo, Vittorina Zagonel, Alfredo Falcone, Guido Bocci
The aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of metronomic capecitabine and its metabolites in a population of refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Thirty-four patients (M/F, 22/12) with a diagnosis of mCRC received capecitabine 800 mg p.o. twice a day and cyclophosphamide 50 mg/day p.o. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h and 5 h at day 1 after capecitabine administration. Plasma concentrations of capecitabine and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography and the main PK parameters were calculated...
February 27, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Pedro Barata, Matthew Cooney, Allison Tyler, John Wright, Robert Dreicer, Jorge A Garcia
Background The inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) induces cell cycle arrest and enhancing the effect of castration by delay of progression of human prostate cancer models. Linsitinib is a small molecule and potent dual inhibitor of IGF-1R and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We report results of a single-arm, phase II study evaluating the safety and efficacy of linsitinib in men with chemotherapy-naïve asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)...
February 23, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Agnieszka Karbownik, Edyta Szałek, Katarzyna Sobańska, Tomasz Grabowski, Agnieszka Klupczynska, Szymon Plewa, Anna Wolc, Magdalena Magiera, Joanna Porażka, Zenon J Kokot, Edmund Grześkowiak
Lapatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of breast cancer. Paracetamol is an analgesic commonly applied to patients with mild or moderate pain and fever. Cancer patients are polymedicated, which involves high risk of drug interactions during therapy. The aim of the study was to assess the interaction between lapatinib and paracetamol in rats. The rats were divided into three groups of eight animals in each. One group received lapatinib + paracetamol (IL + PA ), another group received lapatinib (IIL ), whereas the last group received paracetamol (IIIPA )...
February 20, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Michael W van Kalleveen, Maudy Walraven, Mathijs P Hendriks
Introduction Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening emergency caused by rapid cell death as a result of anti-tumor therapy. In the era of targeted therapy it has increasingly been observed in solid malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Case We describe the case of a 58-year old man with the medical history of a memorial sloan kettering cancer centre (MSKCC) poor prognosis metastasized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who developed TLS within six days after initiating therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) pazopanib...
February 20, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Jade K Pollock, Lisa M Greene, Seema M Nathwani, Paula Kinsella, Niamh M O'Boyle, Mary J Meegan, Daniela M Zisterer
Purpose The combretastatins (CAs) are known to exhibit anti-tumour activity but the underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Inflammation plays a critical role in altering the function of cancer cells and evasion of cell death and increased proliferation are characteristics of transformed malignancies. Many of the proteins involved in these pathways are regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB which can be activated by tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by both malignant and immune cells within the tumour microenvironment...
February 19, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Anastasios Stathis, Ian W Flinn, Sumit Madan, Kami Maddocks, Arnold Freedman, Steven Weitman, Emanuele Zucca, Mihaela C Munteanu, M Lia Palomba
Background CD37 is expressed on B-cell lymphoid malignancies, thus making it an attractive candidate for targeted therapy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). IMGN529 is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a CD37-binding antibody linked to the maytansinoid DM1, a potent anti-mitotic agent. Methods This first-in-human, phase 1 trial recruited adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary objectives were to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity...
February 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Hideki Ueno, Shunsuke Kondo, Shusuke Yoshikawa, Koichi Inoue, Valérie Andre, Masaomi Tajimi, Haruyasu Murakami
Background This phase I dose-escalation study investigated the safety of the Smoothened inhibitor taladegib in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods Patients received taladegib orally once daily for 28-day cycles, using a 3 + 3 dose-escalation method. The primary objective was the safety and tolerability of taladegib at doses up to the global recommended dose (400 mg). Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics, changes in skin glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) transcript levels, and antitumor activity...
February 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Sumimasa Nagai, Keiya Ozawa
Background As relapsed disease is frequently the first target of newly developed therapies, it is vital to address the difficulty in demonstrating the efficacy of new drugs for relapsed malignancy in randomized phase 3 trials. Methods We analyzed the approved indications, target populations, and development status of post-marketing confirmatory trials of all oncology-related drugs that were granted accelerated approval for both hematological and solid malignancies. Furthermore, we searched for randomized phase 3 trials for adult patients with relapsed lymphoid malignancy, other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM)...
February 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Ruud Oerlemans, Celia R Berkers, Yehuda G Assaraf, George L Scheffer, Godefridus J Peters, Sue Ellen Verbrugge, Jacqueline Cloos, Jerry Slootstra, Rob H Meloen, Robert H Shoemaker, Ben A C Dijkmans, Rik J Scheper, Huib Ovaa, Gerrit Jansen
Background The hexapeptide 4A6 (Ac-Thr(tBu)-His(Bzl)-Thr(Bzl)-Nle-Glu(OtBu)-Gly-Bza) was isolated from a peptide library constructed to identify peptide-based transport inhibitors of multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps including P-glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 1. 4A6 proved to be a substrate but not an inhibitor of these MDR efflux transporters. In fact, 4A6 and related peptides displayed potent cytotoxic activity via an unknown mechanism. Objective To decipher the mode of cytotoxic activity of 4A6...
February 14, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
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