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Annual Review of Immunology

Dennis R Burton, Lars Hangartner
HIV employs multiple means to evade the humoral immune response, particularly the elicitation of and recognition by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Such antibodies can act antivirally against a wide spectrum of viruses by targeting relatively conserved regions on the surface HIV envelope trimer spike. Elicitation of and recognition by bnAbs are hindered by the arrangement of spikes on virions and the relatively difficult access to bnAb epitopes on spikes, including the proximity of variable regions and a high density of glycans...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Marisella Panduro, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
The immune system is responsible for defending an organism against the myriad of microbial invaders it constantly confronts. It has become increasingly clear that the immune system has a second major function: the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important contributors to both of these critical activities, defense being the primary purview of Tregs circulating through lymphoid organs, and homeostasis ensured mainly by their counterparts residing in parenchymal tissues...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Akiko Iwasaki
Mucosal surfaces provide a remarkably effective barrier against potentially dangerous pathogens. Therefore, enhancing mucosal immunity through vaccines-strengthening that first line of defense-holds significant promise for reducing the burden of viral diseases. The large and varied class of viral pathogens, however, continues to present thorny challenges to vaccine development. Two primary difficulties exist: Viruses exhibit a stunning diversity of strategies for evading the host immune response, and even when we understand the nature of effective immune protection against a given virus, eliciting that protection is technically challenging...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Amnon Altman, Kok-Fai Kong
The protein kinase C (PKC) family, discovered in the late 1970s, is composed of at least 10 serine/threonine kinases, divided into three groups based on their molecular architecture and cofactor requirements. PKC enzymes have been conserved throughout evolution and are expressed in virtually all cell types; they represent critical signal transducers regulating cell activation, differentiation, proliferation, death, and effector functions. PKC family members play important roles in a diverse array of hematopoietic and immune responses...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Thomas Höfer, Katrin Busch, Kay Klapproth, Hans-Reimer Rodewald
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and downstream progenitors have long been studied based on phenotype, cell purification, proliferation, and transplantation into myeloablated recipients. These experiments, complemented by data on expression profiles, mouse mutants, and humans with hematopoietic defects, are the foundation for the current hematopoietic differentiation tree. However, there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative operation of the HSC/progenitor system under physiological and pathological conditions in vivo...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Alexandre Larange, Hilde Cheroutre
Vitamin A is a multifunctional vitamin implicated in a wide range of biological processes. Its control over the immune system and functions are perhaps the most pleiotropic not only for development but also for the functional fate of almost every cell involved in protective or regulatory adaptive or innate immunity. This is especially key at the intestinal border, where dietary vitamin A is first absorbed. Most effects of vitamin A are exerted by its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), which through ligation of nuclear receptors controls transcriptional expression of RA target genes...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Federica Sallusto
CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play a central role in the adaptive immune response by providing help to B cells and cytotoxic T cells and by releasing different types of cytokines in tissues to mediate protection against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. These functions are performed by different types of Th cells endowed with distinct migratory capacities and effector functions. Here we discuss how studies of the human T cell response to microbes have advanced our understanding of Th cell functional heterogeneity, in particular with the discovery of a distinct Th1 subset involved in the response to Mycobacteria and the characterization of two types of Th17 cells specific for extracellular bacteria or fungi...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Isabel E Ishizuka, Michael G Constantinides, Herman Gudjonson, Albert Bendelac
The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Joanna M Peloquin, Gautam Goel, Eduardo J Villablanca, Ramnik J Xavier
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation due to a complex interaction of genetic determinants, disruption of mucosal barriers, aberrant inflammatory signals, loss of tolerance, and environmental triggers. Importantly, the incidence of pediatric IBD is rising, particularly in children younger than 10 years. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of these patients and highlight environmental exposures that may affect disease risk, particularly among people with a background genetic risk...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Irving Weissman
I started research in high school, experimenting on immunological tolerance to transplantation antigens. This led to studies of the thymus as the site of maturation of T cells, which led to the discovery, isolation, and clinical transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The induction of immune tolerance with HSCs has led to isolation of other tissue-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine. Our studies of circulating competing germline stem cells in colonial protochordates led us to document competing HSCs...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Susanne H Baumeister, Gordon J Freeman, Glenn Dranoff, Arlene H Sharpe
The immune system is capable of recognizing tumors and eliminates many early malignant cells. However, tumors evolve to evade immune attack, and the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive. Immune responses are regulated by a number of immunological checkpoints that promote protective immunity and maintain tolerance. T cell coinhibitory pathways restrict the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby limiting immune-mediated tissue damage, controlling resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Lucia Mori, Marco Lepore, Gennaro De Libero
CD1- and MHC-related molecule-1 (MR1)-restricted T lymphocytes recognize nonpeptidic antigens, such as lipids and small metabolites, and account for a major fraction of circulating and tissue-resident T cells. They represent a readily activated, long-lasting population of effector cells and contribute to the early phases of immune response, orchestrating the function of other cells. This review addresses the main aspects of their immunological functions, including antigen and T cell receptor repertoires, mechanisms of nonpeptidic antigen presentation, and the current evidence for their participation in human and experimental diseases...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Sandra Thiemann, Linda G Baum
Galectins are a family of mammalian carbohydrate-binding proteins expressed by many cell types. Galectins can function intracellularly and can also be secreted to bind to cell surface glycoconjugate counterreceptors. Some galectins are made by immune cells, whereas other galectins are secreted by different cell types, such as endothelial or epithelial cells, and bind to immune cells to regulate immune responses. Galectin binding to a single glycan ligand is a low-affinity interaction, but the multivalency of galectins and the glycan ligands presented on cell surface glycoproteins results in high-avidity binding that can reversibly scaffold or cluster these glycoproteins...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Olga Schulz, Swantje I Hammerschmidt, G Leandros Moschovakis, Reinhold Förster
The continuous migration of immune cells between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs is a key feature of the immune system, facilitating the distribution of effector cells within nearly all compartments of the body. Furthermore, reaching their correct position within primary, secondary, or tertiary lymphoid organs is a prerequisite to ensure immune cells' unimpaired differentiation, maturation, and selection, as well as their activation or functional silencing. The superfamilies of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of major importance in guiding immune cells to and within lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Carola G Vinuesa, Michelle A Linterman, Di Yu, Ian C M MacLennan
Although T cell help for B cells was described several decades ago, it was the identification of CXCR5 expression by B follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and the subsequent discovery of their dependence on BCL6 that led to the recognition of Tfh cells as an independent helper subset and accelerated the pace of discovery. More than 20 transcription factors, together with RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs, control the expression of chemotactic receptors and molecules important for the function and homeostasis of Tfh cells...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Emil R Unanue, Vito Turk, Jacques Neefjes
MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules are critical in the control of many immune responses. They are also involved in most autoimmune diseases and other pathologies. Here, we describe the biology of MHC-II and MHC-II variations that affect immune responses. We discuss the classic cell biology of MHC-II and various perturbations. Proteolysis is a major process in the biology of MHC-II, and we describe the various components forming and controlling this endosomal proteolytic machinery. This process ultimately determines the MHC-II-presented peptidome, including cryptic peptides, modified peptides, and other peptides that are relevant in autoimmune responses...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Sébastien Talbot, Simmie L Foster, Clifford J Woolf
Evolution has yielded multiple complex and complementary mechanisms to detect environmental danger and protect tissues from damage. The nervous system rapidly processes information and coordinates complex defense behaviors, and the immune system eliminates diverse threats by virtue of mobile, specialized cell populations. The two systems are tightly integrated, cooperating in local and systemic reflexes that restore homeostasis in response to tissue injury and infection. They further share a broad common language of cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides that enables bidirectional communication...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Antony Rosen, Livia Casciola-Rosen
Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by specific targeting of a limited group of ubiquitously expressed autoantigens by the immune system. This review examines the mechanisms underlying their selection as immune targets. Initiation of autoimmune responses likely reflects the presentation of antigens with a distinct structure not previously encountered by the immune system, in a proimmune context (injury, malignancy, or infection). Causes of modified structure include somatic mutation and posttranslational modifications (including citrullination and proteolysis)...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
David A Rhodes, Walter Reith, John Trowsdale
Butyrophilin molecules (commonly contracted to BTN), collectively take their name from the eponymous protein in cow's milk. They are considered to be members of the B7 family of costimulatory receptors, which includes B7.1 (CD80), B7.2 (CD86), and related molecules, such as PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274), ICOS-L (CD275), and B7-H3 (CD276). These coreceptors modulate T cell responses upon antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex and cognate αβ T cell receptor engagement. Molecules such as BTN3A1 (CD277), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and mouse Skint1 and Btnl2, all members of the butyrophilin family, show greater structural and functional diversity than the canonical B7 receptors...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Bernardo S Franklin, Matthew S Mangan, Eicke Latz
The formation and accumulation of crystalline material in tissues is a hallmark of many metabolic and inflammatory conditions. The discovery that the phase transition of physiologically soluble substances to their crystalline forms can be detected by the immune system and activate innate immune pathways has revolutionized our understanding of how crystals cause inflammation. It is now appreciated that crystals are part of the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including gout, silicosis, asbestosis, and atherosclerosis...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
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