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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Li-Xin Hu, Fei Tian, Francis L Martin, Guang-Guo Ying
Carrier solvents are often used in aquatic toxicity testing for test chemicals with hydrophobic properties. However, the knowledge of solvent effects on test organisms remains limited. This study aimed to understand biochemical effects of the four common solvents ((methanol, ethanol, acetone and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)) on two test species Lemna minor and Raphidocelis subcapitata by applying Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with multivariate analysis in order to select appropriate solvents in the toxicity testing...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Heather P Forth, Carys L Mitchelmore, Jeffrey M Morris, Claire R Lay, Joshua Lipton
In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the Natural Resource Trustees implemented a toxicity testing program that included four different DWH oils that ranged from fresh to weathered, and three different oil-in-water preparation methods (including one that used the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500) to prepare a total of 12 chemically unique water accommodated fractions (WAFs). We determined how the different WAF preparation methods, WAF concentrations, and oil types influenced the chemical composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved and particulate phases over time periods used in standard toxicity tests...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alan J Bergmann, Robert L Tanguay, Kim A Anderson
Using effects-directed analysis (EDA), we investigate associations previously observed between PAHs and embryotoxicity in field-deployed low-density polyethylene (LDPE). We conducted EDA using a zebrafish embryo assay and iterative fractionation of extracts of LDPE that were deployed in Portland Harbor Superfund Megasite, Oregon. Whole extracts induced toxicity including mortality, edema, and notochord distortion at EC20s of approximately 100, 100, and 10 mg LDPE/mL, respectively. Through fractionation, we determined that PAHs at concentrations similar to previous research did not contribute markedly to toxicity...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
April Feswick, Meghan Isaacs, Adam Biales, Robert W Flick, David C Bencic, Rong-Lin Wang, Chris Vulpe, Marianna Brown-Augustine, Alex Loguinov, Francesco Falciani, Philipp Antczak, John Herbert, Lorraine Brown, Nancy D Denslow, Kevin J Kroll, Candice Lavelle, Viet Dang, Lynn Escalon, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Fundamental questions remain about the application of omics in environmental risk assessments, such as the consistency of data across laboratories. The objective of this study was to determine the congruence of transcript data across six independent laboratories. Male fathead minnows (FHM) were exposed to a measured concentration of 15.8 ng /L EE2 for 96 h. Livers were divided equally and sent to the participating laboratories for transcriptomic analysis using the same FHM microarray. Each laboratory was free to apply bioinformatics pipelines of their choice...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Takashi Nagai
The validity of the application of mixture toxicity models, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), to species sensitivity distribution (SSD) for calculation of multi-substance potentially affected fraction (msPAF) was examined in laboratory experiments. Toxicity assays of herbicide mixtures using 5 species of periphytic algae were conducted. Two mixture experiments were designed: a mixture of 5 herbicides with similar mode of action (MoA) and a mixture of 5 herbicides with dissimilar MoA, corresponding to the assumptions of the CA and IA models, respectively...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Juho E Rajala, Eeva-Riikka Vehniäinen, Ari Väisänen, Jussi V K Kukkonen
Sediments are believed to be a major sink for the silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the aquatic environment, but there is a lack of knowledge about the environmental effects and behaviour of AgNP in sediments. The release of highly toxic Ag(+) through dissolution of AgNP is one mechanism leading to toxic effects in sediments. We applied an ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction method to evaluate the dissolution of AgNP and to study the partitioning of dissolved Ag in sediments. Ag was spiked into artificial (AS) and 2 natural sediments (HS, KS) as silver nitrate (AgNO3 ), uncoated AgNP (uc-AgNP), or polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNP (PVP-AgNP)...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Lianzhong Luo, Qinghong Zhang, Xue Kong, Heqing Huang, Weiwei You, Caihuan Ke
Oysters accumulate Zn as an adaptation to Zn exposure; however, it is not known whether male and female oysters respond differently to Zn exposure. Here, proteomic and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to investigate differential responses of male and female oysters (Crassostrea angulata) to Zn exposure. After exposure to 50 µg.L(-1) or 500 µg.L(-1) Zn for 30 days, gonads of female oysters accumulated more Zn than those of males, and gonadal development was accelerated in females but was abnormal in males...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hui Zhang, Yun Teng, Tra Thi Thanh Doan, Yun Wei Yat, Sheot Harn Chan, Barry C Kelly
Studies of trophodynamics and contaminant bioaccumulation in tropical marine ecosystems are limited. This study employed stable isotope and trace contaminant analysis to assess sources of primary productivity, trophic interactions and chemical bioaccumulation behavior in two mangrove food webs and one offshore coastal marine food web in Singapore. Samples of sediment, phytoplankton, mangrove leaves, clams, snails, crabs, worms, prawns, and fishes were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values, as well as concentrations of persistent organic pollutants...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Amy M P Oen, Arne Pettersen, Espen Eek, Tormod Glette, Lucy Brooks, Gijs D Breedveld
The recovery of the confined aquatic disposal (CAD) facility located at Malmøykalven in Oslofjord, Norway has been assessed using an array of field measurement techniques. These methods were used prior to the disposal of dredged sediments as well as during 3 annual post-disposal monitoring campaigns. Traditional sampling to assess chemical recovery indicate an immediate reduction in total sediment concentrations and surface sediments can be characterized as having good quality. Deposition of new material indicates that the quality of depositing material at the CAD is stabile and representative of the natural background quality in the area...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
David K DeForest, Kevin V Brix, James R Elphick, Carrie J Rickwood, Adrian M H deBruyn, Lucinda M Tear, Guy Gilron, Sarah A Hughes, William J Adams
There is consensus that fish are the most sensitive aquatic organisms to selenium (Se) and that Se concentrations in fish tissue are the most reliable indicators of potential toxicity. Differences in Se speciation, biological productivity, Se concentration, and parameters that affect Se bioavailability (e.g., sulphate), may influence the relationship between Se concentrations in water and fish tissue. It is desirable to identify environmentally-protective waterborne Se guidelines that, if not exceeded, reduce the need to directly measure Se concentrations in fish tissue...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Júlia Carina Niemeyer, Sónia Chelinho, José Paulo Sousa
Soils from some Latin American (LA) countries support the highest biodiversity levels on the planet and, simultaneously, have some of the most serious environmental impacts attributed to both historical, and current agricultural practices and industrial activities. Soil contamination has resulted from intensive use of pesticides, extensive mining and other industrial activities, and uncontrolled management of waste within inappropriate regulatory frameworks. This manuscript presents an overview of the scientific research on soil ecotoxicology conducted in LA, summarizing the recent advances and highlighting the needs for further refinements in this research field...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jared Bozich, Mimi Hang, Robert Hamers, Rebecca Klaper
Lithium intercalation compounds such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) are used extensively in lithium batteries. Because there is currently little economic incentive for recycling, chances are greater that batteries will end up in landfills or waste in the environment. In addition, the toxicity of these battery materials has not been traditionally part of the design process. Therefore, to determine the environmental impact and the possibility of alternative battery materials, representative complex battery nanomaterials, LCO and NMC, were synthesized and toxicity was assessed in Daphnia magna...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Paul J Van den Brink, Sylvan L Klein, Andreu Rico
This study investigated effects of species interactions like competition and (intraguild) predation on the sensitivity of aquatic organisms to the insecticide chlorpyrifos. In the first experiment, combined effects of chlorpyrifos and different levels of intra- and inter-specific interaction were assessed on Gammarus pulex survival using Asellus aquaticus as an interacting species. Intra- and inter-specific interactions increased the time to extinction of G. pulex up to a factor of two, most likely due to the cannibalistic nature of G...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
W Tyler Mehler, Michael J Keough, Vincent Pettigrove
Most of the public literature and available guidance documents on the conduct of freshwater whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) detail the use of test organisms and amending agents that are readily available in North America. These commonly used test organisms and the supported amending agents, however, are not available and largely inappropriate (i.e. not native species) for conducting whole-sediment TIEs outside of North America. The overall objective of the present study was to build foundational methods for performing freshwater whole-sediment TIEs in Australia...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Paul E Drevnick, Barbara A Brooks
Models and data from the North Pacific Ocean indicate that mercury concentrations in water and biota are increasing in response to (global or hemispheric) anthropogenic mercury releases. In the present study, we provide an updated record of mercury in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) caught near Hawaii that confirms an earlier conclusion that mercury concentrations in these fish are increasing at a rate similar to that observed in waters shallower than 1000 m. We also compiled and reanalyzed data from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) caught near Hawaii in the 1970s and 2000s...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Parichehr Saranjampour, Emily N Vebrosky, Kevin L Armbrust
Salinity has been reported to influence the water solubility of organic chemicals entering marine ecosystems. However, there is limited data available on salinity impacts for chemicals potentially entering seawater. Impacts on water solubility would correspondingly impact chemical sorption as well as overall bioavailability and exposure estimates used in the regulatory assessment. Pesticides atrazine, fipronil, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, as well as crude oil constituents dibenzothiophene as well as 3 of its alkyl derivatives all have different polarities and were selected as model compounds to demonstrate the impact of salinity on their solubility and partitioning behavior...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sara M Nedrich, G Allen Burton
Increased variability in lake and river water levels associated with changing climate, could impact the fate and effects of metals in redox sensitive sediments through the alteration of microbial communities, acid-base and redox chemistry. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of water level fluctuation on metal speciation in pore water and predict environmental risk to high carbonate systems. Using experimental microcosms with sediments collected from four metal contaminated coastal freshwater wetlands in Michigan, we conducted water level fluctuation experiments...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
D James Minick, Kim A Anderson
Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present day anthropogenic activities especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water, and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund site (PHSS) and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site (MCBSS)...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Richard A Brain, Jeff Perine, Catriona Cooke, Clare Butler Ellis, Paul Harrington, Andrew Lane, Christine Sullivan, Mark Ledson
Nature of exposure is a fundamental driver in non-target terrestrial plant (NTTP) risk assessment for pesticides, consequently a novel study was designed to generate field-based drift exposure and evaluate corresponding biological effects of the herbicide mesotrione. The approach used a combination of U.S. guideline drift reduction technology (DRT) and vegetative vigor approaches. In each of three independent replicate spray application trials, ten pots each of lettuce and tomato were placed at distances of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ft (∼3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m) from the downwind edge of the spray boom...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alexander Protasov, Jean-Francois Bardeau, Irina Morozovskaya, Mariia Boretska, Tetyana Chernyavska, Lyudmyla Petrus, Oksana Tarasyuk, Larisa Metelytsia, Iryna Kopernyk, Larisa Kalashnikova, Oleg Dzhuzha, Sergiy Rogalsky
New polymeric biocide polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) molybdate has been synthesized. The obtained cationic polymer has limited water solubility of 0.015 g/100 ml, and is insoluble in paint solvents. The results of acute toxicity studies indicate on moderate toxicity of PHMG molybdate which has LD50 , 48 h of 0.7 mg/L for Daphnia magna and LD50 , 96 h of 17 mg/L for Danio rerio (zebrafish) freshwater model organisms. Commercial ship paint was then modified by the addition of low concentration of polymeric biocide 5% (w/w)...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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