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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Roman G Kuperman, Morgan L Minyard, Ronald T Checkai, Geoffrey I Sunahara, Sylvie Rocheleau, Sabine G Dodard, Louise Paquet, Jalal Hawari
We investigated individual toxicities of nitrogen-based energetic materials (EMs) 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT); 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT); 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT); and nitroglycerin (NG) on microbial activity in Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) soil, which has physicochemical characteristics that support "very high" qualitative relative bioavailability for organic chemicals. Batches of SSL soil for basal respiration (BR) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR) assays were separately amended with individual EMs or acetone carrier control...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Amanda N Curtis, M Gabriela Bidart
Invasive plants impact amphibians by altering habitat, species interactions, and by releasing potentially toxic secondary chemicals. Despite being costly and having the potential for impacts to non-target wildlife, chemical management is commonly used to control invasive plants. Prior research has indicated that individual effects of invasive plants or herbicides can be harmful to aquatic organisms; however, information is lacking on the combined effect of these factors on amphibians. A laboratory experiment was performed to assess the impact of leachates of the invasive plants Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), the herbicide Renovate® 3 (triclopyr), and combined effects of each plant leachate and the herbicide on the growth, morphology and survival of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B Schäfer, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler
The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), being the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change; that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Edward B Williams, Matthew M Chumchal, Ray W Drenner, James H Kennedy
Methyl mercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects such as odonates (dragonflies and damselflies). We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on odonate-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent odonate biomass x MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds and the potential risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) posed by consuming MeHg-contaminated odonates. Emergent odonates were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) (n = 5) and semi-permanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over an 8-month period (January - August, 2015)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Meaghean S Finnegan, Leilan R Baxter, Jon Maul, Mark L Hanson, Paul F Hoekstra
Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. Here we report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices (GLP) for over 30 freshwater species (i.e., insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, fish) and four marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Thanh-Luu Pham, Kazuya Shimizu, Thanh-Son Dao, Utsumi Motoo
The free and covalently bound microcystins (MCs) in three fish and two bivalves from the Dau Tieng Reservoir (DTR) were investigated for the first time in the present study. The results showed that all species were contaminated with MCs. Our findings indicated that eating the muscle of fish from the DTR is safe but not the bivalves during toxic cyanobacterial bloom episodes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jenna E Cavallin, Gerald T Ankley, Brett R Blackwell, Chad A Blanksma, Kellie A Fay, Kathleen M Jensen, Michael D Kahl, Dries Knapen, Patricia A Kosian, Shane Poole, Eric C Randolph, Anthony L Schroeder, Lucia Vergauwen, Daniel L Villeneuve
Inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder are processes previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. We investigated whether inhibition of deiodinases, which convert thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact swim bladder inflation. Two experiments were conducted using a model deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (IOP). First, fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.6, 1.9, or 6.0 mg/L or control water until 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) at which time posterior swim bladder inflation was assessed...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Fátima C F Santos, Susana I L Gomes, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Valéria Freitas Mónica J B
Nanoparticles (NPs) such as nickel (Ni) are widely used in several applications. Nevertheless the environmental effects of NiNPs are still poorly understood. In the present study, the toxicity of NiNPs and NiNO3 was assessed using the standard test species in soil ecotoxicology Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta) in a Full Life Cycle test, adding the endpoints hatching, growth and time to reach maturity, besides survival and reproduction as in the standard OECD Guideline 220 and/or ISO 16387. Overall, NiNO3 was more toxic than NiNPs and toxicity seemed to occur via different mechanisms...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Leonard Böhm, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Christian Schlechtriem
With regard to a refinement of water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies, automated solidy-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as alternative approach to conventional solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, LLE) for the extraction of 3 hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) (log KOW 5.5-7.8) from flow-through studies with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results proved that total concentrations extracted by SPME combined with internal standards and LLE are equal. Results further verify the possibility for a simultaneous extraction of total and freely dissolved HOC concentrations by SPME...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ana Maria Gómez Ortiz, Elena Okada, Francisco Bedmar, José Luis Costa
In Argentina, glyphosate use has increased exponentially in the past years due to the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. This massive use of glyphosate has created concern about its potential environmental impact. Sorption-desorption of glyphosate was studied in three Argentinean soils with contrasting characteristics. Glyphosate sorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the sorption coefficient (Kf ). Glyphosate sorption was high and the Kf varied from 115...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Emily E Burns, Jane Thomas-Oates, Dana W Kolpin, Edward T Furlong, Alistair B A Boxall
Prioritisation methodologies are often used for identifying those pharmaceuticals that pose the greatest risk to the natural environment and to focus laboratory testing or environmental monitoring towards pharmaceuticals of greatest concern. Risk-based prioritisation approaches, employing models to derive exposure concentrations, are commonly used but the reliability of these models is unclear. The present study evaluated the accuracy of exposure models commonly used for pharmaceutical prioritisation. Targeted monitoring was conducted for 95 pharmaceuticals in the Rivers Foss and Ouse in the City of York, UK...
May 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tijana B Radovanović, Mohammed Nasia, Imre I Krizmanić, Marko D Prokić, Jelena P Gavrić, Svetlana G Despotović, Branka R Gavrilović, Slavica S Borković-Mitić, Slađan Z Pavlović, Zorica S Saičić
Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides widely used in agriculture, public health and veterinary medicine. Deltamethrin, a type II of pyrethroid insecticide, has attracted particular attention because of its frequent use. The mechanisms of the toxicity of most pesticides, including pyrethroids, in nontarget organisms is linked to the production of free radicals, oxidative stress induction, increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and disruption of the total antioxidant potential. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of acute toxicity of three different concentrations (8 mg/kg body weight (bw), 16 mg/kg bw and 32 mg/kg bw) of orally applied deltamethrin after 96 hours of treatment...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ning Wang, Chris D Ivey, Eric L Brunson, Danielle Cleveland, Chris G Ingersoll, William A Stubblefield, Allison S Cardwell
The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is reviewing the protectiveness of the national ambient water quality criteria (WQC) for aluminum (Al) and compiling a toxicity dataset to update the WQC. Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, but little is known about the sensitivity of mussels to Al. The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute 96-h and chronic 28-d toxicity of Al to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and a commonly tested amphipod (Hyalella azteca) at a pH of 6 and water hardness of 100 mg/L as CaCO3 ...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Marjolein VAN Ginneken, Ronny J P Blust, Lieven Bervoets
Metal pollution is a serious threat to environmental health. While the aquatic isopod Asellus aquaticus L. (Isopoda) is an important decomposer of freshwater ecosystems, very little research has reported its long-term or incipient lethal concentrations for metals. Moreover, the LCxs that can be found in the literature are often based on unmeasured concentrations, which could lead to a severe underestimation of the actual toxicity. In this exploratory study the 1-day, 4-day, 7-day and 14-day LC10, LC20 and LC50 of copper, cadmium and lead for adult Asellus aquaticus were determined...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Uthpala Apekshani Jayawardena, Preethika Angunawela, Deepthi Devika Wickramasinghe, Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya, Preethi Vidya Udagama
Heavy metal contamination may impart adverse effects on wetland biota, particularly on amphibians. Severe immunotoxic effects elicited in Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Indian green frog) due to metal exposure (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the Bellanwila Attidiya sanctuary, a polluted, urban wetland in Sri Lanka, provided the rationale for the current study. This study evaluated the biochemical and histopathological effects of this metal contamination with a reference E. hexadactylus population and a laboratory exposure group i...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ron VAN DER Oost, Giulia Sileno, Theo Janse, Mai Thao Nguyen, Harrie Besselink, Abraham Brouwer
Since it is impossible to chemically analyze all relevant micropollutants, the implementation of bioanalytical tools is essential to estimate ecological risks of chemical mixtures in regular water monitoring programs. The first tier of the Smart Integrated Monitoring (SIMONI) strategy, which was described in part I, is based on the combination of passive sampling and bioanalytical measurements. Bioassay responses are compared to effect-based trigger values (EBT) and an overall SIMONI score on all bioassay data was designed to indicate environmental risks...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ron van der Oost, Giulia Sileno, Maria Suárez-Muñoz, Mai Thao Nguyen, Harrie Besselink, Bram Brouwer
It is virtually impossible to reliably assess water quality with target chemical analyses only. Therefore, a complementary effect-based risk assessment is proposed here by bioanalyses on mixtures of bioavailable micropollutants: the Smart Integrated Monitoring (SIMONI) strategy. The goal of this strategy is to obtain more reliable information on the water quality to select optimum measures for improvement. The SIMONI strategy is two-tiered. Tier 1 is a bioanalytical hazard identification of sites. A tier 2 ecological risk assessment is carried out only at a limited number of sites where increased hazards are detected in tier 1...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tina Van Regenmortel, Olivier Berteloot, Colin R Janssen, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Risk assessment in the European Union implements Zn bioavailability models to derive predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for Zn. These models are validated within certain 'boundaries', i.e. pH≤8 and Ca concentrations ≥ 5mg/L, but a substantial fraction of the European surface waters falls outside these boundaries. Therefore, we evaluated if the chronic Zn Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for Daphnia magna and the chronic bioavailability model for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, can be extrapolated to pH above 8 and Ca concentrations below 5mg/L...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
David Olszyk, Thomas Pfleeger, Tamotsu Shiroyama, Matthew Blakeley-Smith, E Henry Lee, Milton Plocher
Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting individual species and plant communities. To determine potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, small plant community plots were constructed using nine perennial species found in different Willamette Valley Oregon grassland habitats. Studies were conducted at two Oregon State University farms in two separate years, with single and combined treatments of 0.01 to 0.2 x field application rates (f.a.r.) of 1119 g ha(-1) for glyphosate [active ingredient (a...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Andrew Barrick, Amélie Châtel, Mélanie Bruneau, Catherine Mouneyrac
The field of environmental toxicology developed as a result of growing concerns about anthropogenic influences on the environment and how to ameliorate ecological impact. Many governmental bodies are beginning to emphasize prevention rather than mitigation when addressing novel products, leading to more of a focus on identifying potential toxicity prior to release. With the exponential advances in their development and sale, novel metamaterials and biotechnology are set to dramatically outpace the capabilities of current testing strategies...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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