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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Erik Dixon-Anderson, Rainer Lohmann
Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane-sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluorooctane-sulfonamides (FOSAs), and other poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are common and ubiquitous byproducts of industrial telomerization processes. They can degrade into various perfluorinated carboxylic acids, which are persistent organic contaminants of concern. We assessed the use of polyethylene (PE) passive samplers as a sampling tool for neutral PFAS precursors during field-deployments in air and water...
November 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Maloney E M
Global environmental monitoring has indicated that the structure and function of some aquatic ecosystems have been significantly altered by human activities. There are many potential causes for these changes, however one major concern is the increasing release of anthropogenic contaminants into aquatic environments. Although toxicological responses of individual organisms are typically well characterized, few studies have focussed on characterizing toxicity at the ecosystem-level. In fact, due to their scale and complexity, changes in ecosystem integrity are rarely considered in assessments of risks to ecosystems...
November 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Victoria K Llewelyn, Lee Berger, Beverley D Glass
Owing to the dynamic interaction between frogs' skin and the environment, xenobiotics in frog habitats are of particular concern, and knowledge of percutaneous absorption in frog skin is necessary for risk mitigation purposes. Baseline transdermal kinetics in adult aquatic and arboreal frog species have recently been reported, however, there is little information regarding absorption kinetics in adult terrestrial species. The present study investigated the in vitro absorption kinetics of three model chemicals - caffeine, benzoic acid, and ibuprofen - through different skin regions in the terrestrial toad Rhinella marina...
October 29, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christopher T Gerstle, Ray W Drenner, Matthew M Chumchal
Piscivorous birds are top predators in aquatic ecosystems and are vulnerable to mercury (Hg) exposure and associated adverse health effects. In some areas of North America, the health risk posed to piscivorous birds by Hg contamination has not been characterized because concentrations of Hg in bird tissues have not been extensively monitored. When data on Hg in tissues of piscivorous birds is not available, the concentration of Hg in the blood of piscivorous birds can be estimated from the concentration of Hg in prey fish...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alba Arenas-Sánchez, Isabel López-Heras, Leonor Nozal, Marco Vighi, Andreu Rico
In the present study we performed a microcosm experiment to assess the effects of the insecticide lufenuron on zooplankton communities exposed to increased temperature and drought in (semi-)arid regions. The experiment consisted of three environmental scenarios, assessed in two parts. Firstly, we assessed how water temperature (20°C and 28°C) affects the sensitivity and resilience of the zooplankton community to lufenuron. Secondly, we investigated the influence of drought on the structure of the zooplankton community at a high water temperature (28°C) and evaluated its possible interaction with lufenuron...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Peter V Hodson, Julie Adams, R Stephen Brown
A review of the literature on oil toxicity tests demonstrated a high diversity of reported test methods that may affect the composition, stability and toxicity of oil solutions. Concentrations of oil in test solutions are dynamic, because hydrocarbons evaporate, partition to test containers, bioaccumulate, biodegrade, and photooxidize. As a result, the composition and toxicity of test solutions may vary widely and create significant obstacles to comparing toxicity among studies and to applying existing data to new risk assessments...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Anna G Boegehold, Karim Alame, Nicholas S Johnson, Donna R Kashian
The temporal expansion of harmful algal blooms, primarily associated with cyanobacteria, may impact aquatic organisms at vulnerable life history stages. Broadcast spawning species release gametes into the water column for external fertilization, directly exposing sperm to potential aquatic stressors. To determine if cyanobacteria can disrupt reproduction in freshwater broadcast spawners, we evaluated sub-lethal effects of cyanobacteria exposure on quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) sperm. In laboratory studies, sperm were collected after inducing mussels to spawn using serotonin and exposed to 11 cultures of cyanobacteria including Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Dolichospermum lemmermanii, Gloeotrichia echinulata, five cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa, M...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Stacey S Y Lee-Jenkins, Stacey A Robinson
Neonicotinoids are water-soluble neurotoxic insecticides widely used in agriculture that are being detected in nontarget aquatic environments. Nontarget aquatic wildlife, such as amphibians, may be at risk of exposure. Studies using larval stages suggest neonicotinoids are a minor concern to amphibians; however, behavioral effects manifesting later in life are not often considered. Behavioral endpoints could further our understanding of potential sublethal neurotoxic effects after exposure has ended. Using juvenile wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated the effects of chronic larval exposure to 3 concentrations (1, 10, and 100 μg/L) of formulations containing imidacloprid or thiamethoxam on the putative escape response to a simulated heron attack...
October 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ming Fan, Zhengtao Liu, Scott Dyer, Thomas Federle, Xiaonan Wang
Environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodologies for consumer product chemicals are well-established in most developed regions including the United States, Canada, and the European Union. However, such methodologies are not yet fully developed for emerging economies, such as China. The objective of this research was to develop an environmental risk assessment framework involving an exposure methodology using conditions specific to China (i.e., physical setting, infrastructure, and consumers' habits and practice)...
October 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Eli S J Thoré, Laure Steenaerts, Charlotte Philippe, Arnout F Grégoir, Luc Brendonck, Tom Pinceel
Pharmaceuticals are essential for human wellbeing but their increasing and continuous use pollutes the environment. Although behavioural ecotoxicology is increasingly advocated to assess the effects of pharmaceutical pollution on wildlife and ecosystems, a consensus on the actual environmental risks is lacking for most compounds. The main limitation is the lack of standardised reproducible tests that are based on sensitive behavioural endpoints and that accommodate a high ecological relevance. In the current study, we assessed the impact of a three-week exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine on multiple behavioural traits in the upcoming model organism Nothobranchius furzeri (Turquoise killifish)...
October 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jing Fu, Zhiyuan Gong, Barry C Kelly
Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial and antifungal agent, is ubiquitously detected in the natural environment. There is increasing evidence TCS can produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects in aquatic biota, including algae, crustaceans, and fish. Metabolomics can provide important information regarding molecular-level effects and toxicity of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of TCS in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Silvana Chocobar Ponce, Carolina Prado, Eduardo Pagano, Fernando E Prado, Mariana Rosa
In this study we analyzed the effect of pH on Cr(III) accumulation, biomass production and phenolic profile of Salvinia rotundifolia and S. minima plants grown in presence of increasing concentration of CrCl3 . Biomass accumulation, metal tolerance index (TI) and photosynthetic pigment contents indicate that S. rotundifolia seems to be more suitable than S. minima to tolerate Cr(III) at different pHs. Increased metal accumulation by Salvinia species under increasing pH could be explained from changes of the protonation status of cell wall functional groups because both highest and lowest pH values used in this study were out of the levels at which Cr(III) species start to precipitate...
October 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jeffrey M Morris, Stephen F Brinkman, Ryan Takeshita, Andrew K McFadden, Michael W Carney, Joshua Lipton
We investigated the olfactory toxicity of copper (Cu) to rainbow trout in low hardness (27 mg/L as CaCO3 ) water formulated in the laboratory over a 120-h period using a flow through design. The fish's response to an alarm cue (e.g., reduction in activity) was recorded to determine the exposure concentrations and durations that inhibited olfactory detection of the cue after 3, 24, 48 and 96 hours of Cu exposure and after 24 hours of clean water recovery following the 96-hour exposure period. Exposures were conducted with a range of Cu concentrations from 0...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Isabelle Proulx, Landis Hare, Bruno Dupré
Larvae of the insect Chironomus (Chironomidae, Diptera) have great potential for estimating the bioavailability of sedimentary trace elements since they are common in fine sediments and tolerate high concentrations of these contaminants. Their use as biomonitors is limited by the fact that they are difficult to identify to species, and species can differ in their trace element concentrations. To determine if pooling species would compromise their use as trace element biomonitors, we identified species of Chironomus larvae collected from 22 lakes and measured their concentrations of 9 trace elements...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Holly J Puglis, Robin D Calfee, Edward E Little
Early life stage white sturgeon are sensitive to copper with adverse behavioral responses observed during previous studies. The objectives of the present study were to quantify the effects of copper exposure on white sturgeon swimming and feeding behaviors and determine their time to response. Larval sturgeon (1-2, 28 or 35 days post hatch) were exposed to copper (0.5-8 µg/L) for 4-14 days. Abnormal behavioral changes were observed within the first few days of exposure including loss of equilibrium and immobilization...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Elena Nilsen, Kelly L Smalling, Lutz Ahrens, Meritxell Gros, Karina S B Miglioranza, Yolanda Pico, Heiko L Schoenfuss
Much progress has been made in the past decades to understand the sources, transport, fate and biological effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in aquatic ecosystems. Despite these advancements, significant obstacles remain to comprehensively assess the environmental risks associated with the presence of CECs. Many of these obstacles center around the extrapolation of effects of single chemicals observed in the laboratory or effects observed in individual organisms or species in the field to impacts of multiple stressors on aquatic food webs...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Dean E Fletcher, Angela H Lindell, John C Seaman, Paul T Stankus, Nathaniel D Fletcher, Christopher D Barton, Richard A Biemiller, J Vaun McArthur
Extensive industrial areas in headwater stream watersheds can severely impact the physical condition of streams and introduce contaminants. We compared 3 streams that received stormwater runoff and industrial effluents from industrial complexes to two reference streams. Reference streams provide a benchmark of comparison of geomorphic form and stability in coastal plain, sandy-bottomed streams as well as concentrations of trace elements in sediment and biota in the absence of industrial disturbance. We used crayfish (Cambarus latimanus, Procambarus raneyi, P...
October 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
A Shoji, K H Elliott, S Aris-Brosou, H Mizukawa, S M M Nakayama, Y Ikenaka, M Ishizuka, T Kuwae, K Watanabe, J E Gonzalez, Y Watanuki
Physical systems, such as currents and winds, have traditionally been considered responsible for transporting contaminants. While evidence is mounting that animals play a role in this process through their movements, we still know little about how such contaminant biotransport occurs, and the extent of effects at deposition sites. Here, we address this question by studying how rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata), a seabird that occurs in immense colonies (∼300,000 pairs at our study site, Teuri Island), affect contaminant levels at their colony, and at nearby sites...
October 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Rebecca R Philipps, Xiaoyu Xu, Robert B Bringolf, Gary L Mills
Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) were assessed for their predictive capability of fathead minnow and yellow lampmussel bioaccumulation in copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) mixed metal exposures. Nine treatments with a matrix of three Cu and three Pb concentrations were utilized. Exposures were coupled, with organisms and DGT exposed in tanks for six days. Cu measured in fish, mussel, and DGT was found to not be influenced by Pb treatment, whereas Pb accumulation was impacted by the interaction of Cu and Pb treatment...
October 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
O Simon, B Gagnaire, V Sommard, S Pierrisnard, V Camilleri, L Carasco, R Gilbin, S Frelon
Uranium toxicity patterns for fish have been mainly determined under laboratory-controlled waterborne exposure conditions. Since, under in situ exposure conditions, fish can take up metals from water and diet, a waterborne U exposure experiment (20 µg.L-1 , 20d) was conducted in the laboratory to investigate transfer efficiency and target organ distribution in zebrafish, Danio rerio, as compared to combined waterborne (20 µg.L-1 ) and dietborne exposure (10.7 µg.g-1 ). 233 U was used as a specific uranium isotope tracer for dietborne exposure...
October 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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