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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Zhuang Wang, Joris T K Quik, Lan Song, Marja Wouterse, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Comprehensive experimental quantification and mapping of the aggregation and dispersion state of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the presence of humic substances (HS) is a great challenge. Dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation was adopted to investigate the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms of NPs in the presence of a HS analogue. Twelve different types of NPs including two metal-based NPs, seven metal oxide-based NPs, and three carbon-based NPs in pure water (pH 3.0) and algae medium (pH 8.0) in the presence of a HS analogy were selected for experimental verification of the DPD simulation results...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Estefanía Zuriaga, Beatriz Giner, María Pilar Ribate, Cristina B García, Laura Lomba
During the last decades there has been a growing interest in the development of new solvents from biomass. Some of these new solvents have been classified as green due to their renewable and sustainable source. However, characterization from the ecotoxicological and physicochemical point of view is needed in order to categorize them as green solvents. We have selected several key physicochemical properties that can reflect environmental features (density, boiling point, critical aggregation concentration and Log P) and explored their usefulness for preliminary assessing the green character of the studied solvents...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sarah E Crawford, Stephen Lofts, Karsten Liber
Assessment of uranium (U)-contaminated sediment is often hindered by the inability to accurately account for the physicochemical properties of sediment that modify U bioavailability. The goal of this research was to determine whether sediment-associated U bioavailability could be predicted over a wide range of conditions and sediment properties using simple regressions and a geochemical speciation model, the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM7). Data from U-contaminated field sediment bioaccumulation tests, along with previously published bioaccumulation studies with U-spiked field and formulated sediments were used to examine the models...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Vanessa Bezerra De Menezes Oliveira, Miriam De Oliveira Bianchi, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espíndola
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural fields to control plant diseases, weeds and pests, however, the unforeseeable consequences of releasing these compounds into the soil and their effects on terrestrial invertebrates are a matter of grave concern. The aim of this study was to determine the direct impact of two pesticides, KRAFT® 36 EC (an insecticide; a.i abamectin) and SCORE® (a fungicide; a.i. difenoconazole), on non-target terrestrial invertebrates. Ecotoxicological tests were performed to evaluate the chronic and acute toxicity of these compounds to a potworm (Enchytraeus crypticus), a collembolan (Folsomia candida) and a mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer)...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Marta Sobanska, Stefan Scholz, Anna-Maija Nyman, Romanas Cesnaitis, Simon Gutierrez Alonso, Nils KlüVer, Ralph KüHne, Henrik Tyle, Joop De Knecht, Zhichao Dang, Ivar Lundbergh, Claudio Carlon, Wim De Coen
In 2013 the OECD Test Guideline (TG 236) for Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals on embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity (AFT) - however, the potential of FET test to predict AFT, which is required by the REACH Regulation (EC 1907/2006) and CLP (EC 1272/2008), has not yet been fully clarified. In 2015 the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) requested a consultant to perform a scientific analysis on the applicability of FET to predict AFT...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tyler Frankel, Lance Yonkos, Franklin Ampy, Jack Frankel
Progestins are utilized as a component of human contraceptives, and enter the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluent. Certain progestins activate fish androgen receptors and cause decreases in fecundity and masculinization of females. In this study, a nest acquisition assay and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to examine the effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) on male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproductive fitness. Males were exposed to 0, 10, or 100ng/L LNG for 14d. Combinations of a control male and a male from one of the treatments were placed into a competitive nesting assay, and time each male spent holding the nest and time spent exhibiting aggressive behaviors were analyzed at 48hrs post-exposure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sharilyn J Hoobin, Jonathan D Byer, Mehran Alaee, R Stephen Brown, Peter V Hodson
The embryotoxicity of extracts of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) was measured to determine whether maternally-derived contaminants contribute to the declining recruitment of eels to Lake Ontario. Sexually maturing, large yellow and silver eels were sampled in 2007 and 2008 from five locations in eastern Canada, including Lake Ontario; positive controls included eels from the Hudson River, United States, and Canal Dessel-Schoten, Belgium (European eel, Anguilla anguilla). Japanese medaka eggs were injected immediately after fertilization with 1 or 10 nL of eel extract, and after 12 days scored for signs of toxicity...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Emma R Knight, Laura J Carter, Michael J Mclaughlin
Since the detection of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in various environmental media, research has explored the potential uptake and toxicity of these chemicals into species inhabiting these matrices. Specifically, pharmaceuticals, including the antiepileptic API carbamazepine (CBZ), are taken up from soil by a range of plants. Many short term studies have also suggested that certain APIs induce toxicity in plants. However, effects of APIs on fruiting plants remains relatively unexplored. This study investigated the uptake, bioaccumulation and toxicity of CBZ in Cucurbita pepo (Zucchini) from seed to full maturity across a range of CBZ exposure concentrations in soil (0...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Laurent Devoille, Messika Revel, Célia Batana, Nicolas Feltin, Laure Giambérini, Amélie Châtel, Catherine Mouneyrac
Combined influence of oxygenation and salinity on agglomeration and/or aggregation kinetics of silver (Ag) nanomaterials NM-300K was conducted and the relationship between their physico-chemical fate and toxicity towards an estuarine bivalve was established. The results showed that the presence of NaCl under oxygen conditions (8.5 ppm) promoted the formation of AgCl aggregates which could be linked to toxicity effects towards aquatic organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alexis Martin, Christelle Margoum, Antoine Jolivet, Azziz Assoumani, Bachir El Moujahid, Jerome Randon, Marina Coquery
There is a need to determine time-weighted average concentrations of polar contaminants such as pesticides by passive sampling in environmental waters. Calibration data for silicone rubber (SR)-based passive samplers are lacking for this class of compounds. The calibration data, sampling rate (Rs ) and partition coefficient between SR and water (Ksw ) were precisely determined for 23 pesticides and 13 candidate performance reference compounds (PRCs) in a laboratory calibration system over 14 d for two water flow velocities, 5 cm s-1 and 20 cm s-1 ...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christopher M Holmes, Colin D Brown, Mick Hamer, Russell Jones, Lorraine Maltby, Leo Posthuma, Eric Silberhorn, Jerold Scott Teeter, Michael St J Warne, Lennart Weltje
Environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures is challenging due to the multitude of possible combinations that may occur. Aquatic risk from chemical mixtures in an agricultural landscape was evaluated prospectively in two exposure scenario case studies: at field scale for a program of 13 plant protection products applied annually for 20 years, and at a watershed scale for a mixed land use scenario over 30 years with 12 plant protection products and two veterinary pharmaceuticals used for beef cattle. Risk quotients were calculated from regulatory exposure models with typical real-world use patterns and regulatory acceptable concentrations for individual chemicals...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Chandra M Richards, Jasper L Van Puffelen, CéLine Pallud
Bar-built estuaries are unique ecosystems characterized by the presence of a sandbar barrier, which separates the estuary from the ocean for extended periods and that can naturally reopen to the ocean with heavy rainfall and freshwater inflows. The physical effects associated with the transition from closed to open state, specifically water mixing and sediment resuspension, often indirectly worsen water quality conditions and are suspected to drive near-annual fish kills at the Pescadero Estuary in northern California...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Niloofar Shoari, Jean-Sébastien Dubé
Various statistical tests on concentration data serve to support decision-making regarding characterization and monitoring of contaminated media, assessing exposure to a chemical, and quantifying the associated risks. However, the routine statistical protocols cannot be directly applied because of challenges arising from nondetects or left-censored observations that are concentration measurements below detection limit of measuring instruments. Despite the existence of techniques based on survival analysis that can adjust for nondetects, these are seldom taken into account properly...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Krzysztof Gondek, Agnieszka Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka Baran, Tomasz Bajda
Production of biochar from sewage sludge may be a promising solution for sewage sludge management and improvement of soil properties, including carbon dioxide sequestration. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of biochars derived from different sewage sludges on soil physicochemical and biological properties, ecotoxicity and plant yield. Three biochars (produced at a temperature of 300 °C) were applied into sandy acid soil in doses of 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/w). Depending on the kind and dose, the application of sewage sludge biochars into the soil caused diverse effects on the parameters of soil biological activity (microbial biomass, soil respiration, and value of metabolic quotient)...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Imad Aharchaou, Jean-Sebastien Py, Sebastien Cambier, Jean-Luc Loizeau, Geert Cornelis, Philippe Rousselle, Eric Battaglia, Davide A L Vignati
Despite the consensus about the importance of chemical speciation in controlling the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of trace elements, detailed speciation studies during laboratory ecotoxicity testing remain scarce, contributing to uncertainty when extrapolating laboratory findings to real field situations in risk assessment. We characterized the speciation and ecotoxicological effects of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the ISO medium for algal ecotoxicity testing. Total and dissolved (<0.22 μm) Cr concentrations showed little variability in media spiked with Cr(VI) , while dissolved Cr concentration decreased by as much as 80% over 72 hours in medium amended with Cr(III) ...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Justin Leigh-Smith, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Andrew L Rose
Currently toxicity data for iron (Fe) in seawater is limited; furthermore these data are of poor quality due to the importance of Fe solubility in test solutions being overlooked. This study characterised the solubility and lability of Fe(III) in seawater and then examined the effects of Fe(III) on the fertilisation success and larval survival of the tropical marine scleractinian corals Acropora spathulata and Platygyra daedalea. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of Fe on the early life stages of scleractinian corals...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Andrew C Johnson, Monika D Jürgens, Chao Su, Meng Zhang, Yueqing Zhang, Yajuan Shi, Andrew Sweetman, Xiaowei Jin, Yonglong Lu
This study assessed the relative risk of 29 chemical contaminants to aquatic wildlife in the Bohai Region, Yangtze and Pearl Rivers of China. River monitoring data from 2010-2015 for metals, pesticides, plasticisers, surfactants, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, flame retardants and ammonia were collected. For each chemical, ecotoxicity data were compiled for Chinese relevant aquatic species. The chemicals were ranked by relative risk either by comparing the ratios of the median river concentration divided by the median ecotoxicity concentration or the percentage of river measurements which exceeded the lower 10(th) percentile ecotoxicity value...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Marianna Basso Jorge, Adalto Bianchini, Chris M Wood, Patricia L Gillis
The early life stages of freshwater mussels are particularly sensitive to Cu contamination. We measured the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and sublethal effects of Cu in glochidia. Additionally, we used radiolabeled Cu ((64) Cu) to examine the time-dependent kinetics of uptake over 24 h. (64) Cu uptake by live and dead glochidia exposed to 0.11 μmol/L exhibited similar hyperbolic patterns over the first 40 min, indicating an adsorptive phase independent of larval metabolism. Thereafter, uptake was linear with time, with a 10-fold lower bioaccumulation rate in live than in dead animals, representing a close to steady state of Cu regulation...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiangying Zeng, Liang Xu, Jing Liu, Yang Wu, Zhiqiang Yu
The Pearl River and its tributaries receive discharges of treated/untreated domestic sewage and industrial wastewater throughout the entire drainage basin. The river provides source water for many local inhabitants, and there is great concern over its pollution status. Fifteen sediment samples were collected from source water areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and analyzed for the occurrence and distribution of two classes of emerging pollutants, namely, organophosphorus flame retardants (OPs) and synthetic musks...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Charlotte Nys, Tina Van Regenmortel, Colin R Janssen, Koen Oorts, Erik Smolders, Karel A C DE Schamphelaere
Although metal mixture toxicity has been studied relatively intensely, there is no general consensus yet on how to incorporate metal mixture toxicity into aquatic risk assessment. Here, we combined existing data on chronic metal mixture toxicity at the species level with species-sensitivity-distribution (SSD)-based in-silico metal mixture risk predictions at the community-level for mixtures of Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb, in order to develop a tiered risk assessment scheme for metal mixtures in freshwater. Generally, independent action (IA) predicts chronic metal mixture toxicity at the species level most accurately, while concentration addition (CA) is the most conservative model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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