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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Eduardo A González, Dennis R Carty, Franklin D Tran, Austin M Cole, Pamela J Lein
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are ubiquitous in household and medical products because of their antimicrobial activity. A consequence of the high volume of Ag-NP production and usage is increased amounts of Ag-NPs released into the environment. Their small size (between 1-100 nanometers) results in unique physiochemical properties that may increase toxicity relative to their bulk counterpart. Therefore, the goal of this study is to assess the potential toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag-NPs in zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
September 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
John M Besser, Jeff Steevens, James L Kunz, William G Brumbaugh, Christopher G Ingersoll, Stephen Cox, Christopher Mebane, Laurie Balistrieri, Jesse Sinclair, Don MacDonald
Sediments from the Upper Columbia River (UCR), Washington USA, are contaminated with metals from smelting operations. We conducted short-term and long-term tests with the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and short-term tests with the freshwater mussel, Lampsilis siliquoidea, with 54 sediments from the UCR to characterize thresholds for toxicity of metals to benthic invertebrates. Test sediments were screened for toxicity by comparisons with low-metal reference sediments. Toxic effects on amphipods occurred primarily in sediments from the upstream (riverine) reach and toxic effects on midges occurred in sediments from both the upstream reach and the downstream (reservoir) reach...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Miaomiao Wang, Weihong Guo, Steve Gardner, Myrto Petreas, June-Soo Park
The indoor environment and dietary intake are considered to be major human exposure pathways to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Cats have similar exposures to humans by sharing their residential environments, although they have different diet, body sizes, and indoor activities. In the present study, we report PFAS levels in the serum of 2 groups of Northern California cats (>10 yr old) collected during 2 time periods: 2008 to 2010 (n = 21) and 2012 to 2013 (n = 22). Levels of ∑PFAS (geometric mean) were lower in the second period (geometric mean = 8...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christian Berg, Marcus Hill, Chelsea Bonetti, Gary C Mitchell, Bibek Sharma
A semi-field study to assess the effects of iprodione on honeybees at label use rates was conducted on bloom mustard crop. The study followed a OECD 75 guideline tunnel test and consisted of three groups: The Iprodione-treated group T, the untreated control group C, and the toxic reference item group R. In addition to the tunnels used for biological assessments, an additional tunnel was set up in the groups T and C to determine the level of residues in flowers, nectar, and pollen. The major endpoints to assess the effects of the application of Iprodione were: mortality, flight intensity, behavior, condition of the colonies and development of the brood...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
F Mauduit, A P Farrell, P Domenici, C Lacroix, S Le Floch, P Lemaire, A Nicolas-Kopec, M Whittington, N Le Bayon, J-L Zambonino-Infante, G Claireaux
Consequences of exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), toxic components of crude oil, on fish has been widely documented due to their ecological and economical importance. However, although forming a valuable and consistent body of knowledge, use of these data in spill response is limited. Objective of the present study was thus to facilitate the translation of published data into information of operational value. For this, we investigated the dose-response relationship between dispersant-treated oil exposure and ecologically-relevant consequences by combining laboratory and field experiments...
September 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Anakela Popp, W Gregory Cope, Monte A McGregor, Thomas J Kwak, Tom Augspurger, F Jay Levine, Leroy Koch
Unionid mussels are ecologically important and globally imperiled. Toxicants contribute to mussel declines, and toxicity tests using juvenile mussels-a sensitive life stage-are valuable in determining thresholds used to set water quality criteria. In vitro culture methods provide an efficient way to propagate juveniles for toxicity testing, however, their relative chemical sensitivity compared to in vivo propagated juveniles is unknown. Current testing guidelines caution against using in vitro cultured juveniles until this sensitivity is described...
September 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sara J McClelland, Randall J Bendis, Rick A Relyea, Sarah K Woodley
Widespread use of pesticides often contaminates natural habitats, exposing nontarget organisms to pesticides that were designed to control pest populations. Even low levels of pesticides can affect aquatic communities both directly and indirectly. Previous work has shown that trace amounts of the pesticide chlorpyrifos altered tadpole morphology and neurodevelopment in artificial ponds (mesocosms). To determine whether effects resulted from direct chlorpyrifos exposure or from disruption of the food web due to a pesticide-induced decline in zooplankton, we examined the impacts of chlorpyrifos on amphibian development in the presence of chlorpyrifos-resistant zooplankton, a key component of the aquatic trophic community...
September 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Darya Kupryianchyk, Reiner Giesler, Terry Bidleman, Per Liljelind, Danny Chun Pong Lau, Ryan A Sponseller, Patrik L Andersson
Here, we report concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, novel flame retardants, and naturally-occurring bromoanisoles in water and filter-feeding black fly (Simuliidae) larvae in three tundra streams in northern Sweden. Our results demonstrate that black fly larvae accumulate a wide range of organic contaminants and can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in arctic streams. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Seyed-Mohammadreza Samaee, Nafiseh Manteghi, Robert A Yokel, Mohammad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani
Although the effects of nanosized titania (nTiO2 ) on hatching events (change in hatching time and total hatching) in zebrafish have been reported, additional consequences of nTiO2 exposure, i.e. the effects of nTiO2 -induced changes in hatching events and morphometric parameters on embryo-larvae development and survivability have not been reported. To address this knowledge gap, embryos 4 h post-fertilization were exposed to nTiO2 (0, 0.01, 10, and 1000 µg/mL) for 220 h. Hatching rate (HR; 58, 82, and 106 hours postexposure [hpe]), survival rate (SR; 8 times from 34 to 202 hpe), and 21 morphometric characteristics (MCs; 8 times from 34 to 202 hpe) were recorded...
September 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
V Menezes-Oliveira, S Loureiro, M J B Amorim, F Wrona, A M V M Soares
Veterinary pharmaceuticals are widely used as food additives in the poultry industry and the unknown consequences of releasing these compounds into the environment are of concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the direct impact of two veterinary pharmaceuticals (nicarbazin and monensin), commonly used in the poultry industry, on non-target invertebrates and plant species. Ecotoxicological tests were used to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity in earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and two plant species (Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum)...
September 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Iris R Pit, Emily M van Egmond, Stefan C Dekker, Jasper Griffioen, Martin J Wassen, Annemarie P van Wezel
Artifical sand replenishments are globally used as innovative coastal protection measures. In these replenishments elevated pore water concentrations of trace elements are found. This study investigated possible ecotoxicological risks at two intertidal depositional sites, the Sand Engine (SE) as a recent innovative Dutch coastal management project, and a semi-artificial tidal flat (TF). Using the Sediment Quality Triad approach, we considered three major lines of evidence (LoE): geochemical characterization, toxicity characterization using bioassays with the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator and ecological field survey...
September 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Peter Fantke, Nicolo Aurisano, Jane Bare, Thomas Backhaus, Cécile Bulle, Peter M Chapman, Dick De Zwart, Robert Dwyer, Alexi Ernstoff, Laura Golsteijn, Hanna Holmquist, Olivier Jolliet, Thomas E McKone, Mikołaj Owsianiak, Willie Peijnenburg, Leo Posthuma, Sandra Roos, Erwan Saouter, Diederik Schowanek, Nico M van Straalen, Martina G Vijver, Michael Hauschild
Ecosystem quality is an important area of protection in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical pollution has adverse impacts on ecosystems at the global scale. To improve methods for assessing ecosystem impacts, the Life Cycle Initiative hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme established a task force to evaluate the state-of-the-science in modelling chemical exposure of organisms and resulting ecotoxicological effects for use in LCIA. Outcome of the task force work will be global guidance and harmonization by recommending changes to the existing practice in exposure and effect modelling in ecotoxicity characterization...
September 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Gopal Bera, Thomas Parkerton, Aaron Redman, Nicholas R Turner, D Abigail Renegar, Jose L Sericano, Anthony H Knap
The CROSERF water accommodated fraction procedure was compared to two alternative techniques in which crude oil was passively dosed from silicone tubing or O-rings. Fresh Macondo oil (MC252) was dosed at 30 mg/L using each approach to investigate oil dissolution kinetics, which was monitored by fluorometry as estimated oil equivalents (EOE). Subsequent experiments with each dosing method were then conducted at multiple oil loadings. Following equilibration, test media were analytically characterized for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using GC/MS and dissolved oil using biomimetic solid phase microextraction (BE)...
September 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Stephen A Todey, Ann M Fallon, William A Arnold
Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide. Concern has grown over their widespread environmental presence and potential unintended adverse effects. This work examined hydrolysis and photolysis reaction rates of neonicotinoids and assess any residual toxicity of reaction products. Hydrolysis rates were tested between pH 4 and pH 10 and were found to be base-catalyzed. Experiments revealed a non-elementary rate law for hydrolysis, with the hydroxide concentration raised to a power of 0...
August 29, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Florence Pagé-Larivière, Suzanne Chiu, Stephanie P Jones, Amani Farhat, Doug Crump, Jason M O'Brien
As the number of chemicals developed and used by industry increases, the inherent limitations of traditional toxicology approaches become an unavoidable issue. To help meet the demand for toxicity evaluation, new methods, such as high-throughput toxicity screening, are currently being developed to permit rapid determination of toxic, molecular and/or biochemical effects of a wide range of chemicals. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility of an avian in vitro toxicogenomics screening approach to determine the cytotoxic and transcriptomic effects of 10 organic flame retardants (OFRs) currently of international priority for ecological risk evaluation in order to prioritize and inform future toxicological studies...
August 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ning Wang, James L Kunz, Rebecca A Dorman, Christopher G Ingersoll, Jeffery A Steevens, Edward J Hammer, Candice R Bauer
Freshwater mussels are generally under-represented in toxicity databases used to derive water quality criteria, especially for long-term exposures. Multiple tests were conducted to determine the chronic toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium chloride (KCl) to a unionid mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea). Initially, a 4-week NaCl test and a 4-week KCl test were conducted starting with 2-month-old mussels in water exposures with and without a thin layer of sand substrate. A feeding study was conducted later to refine test conditions for longer-term 12-week exposures, and 3 chronic NaCl tests were then conducted following the refined method to assess the influence of test duration (4 to 12 weeks) and age of organisms (starting age ∼1 week to 2 months old) on mussel sensitivity...
August 21, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Merethe Kleiven, Bjørn Olav Rosseland, Hans-Christian Teien, Erik J Joner, Deborah Helen Oughton
The potential impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on aquatic organisms is to a large extent determined by their bioavailability through different routes of exposure. In the present study juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to different sources of radiolabeled Ag (radiolabeled 110m Ag NPs and 110m AgNO3 ). After 48 h of waterborne exposure to 3 μg/L citrate stabilized 110m Ag NPs or 110m AgNO3 , or a dietary exposure to 0.6 mg Ag/kg fish (given as citrate stabilized or uncoated 110m Ag NPs, or 110m AgNO3 ), Ag had been taken up in fish regardless of route of exposure or source of Ag (Ag NPs or AgNO3 )...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kady Lyons, Katherine E Wynne-Edwards
Anthropogenic chemical exposure can result in overall reductions in reproductive success. Using the Round Stingray (Urobatis halleri) as an elasmobranch model with internal gestation, we measured female fecundity and embryo growth from post-ovulation to near parturition to test the hypothesis that environmental PCB contamination would impair reproductive success. Two sites were sampled from southern California: the mainland site was exposed to legacy PCB contamination (with low exposure to other anthropogenic contaminants), and the offshore reference site at Catalina Island was a separate population with low anthropogenic influence...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Timothy David Malinich, Nathan Chou, Maria S Sepúlveda, Tomas O Höök
Microplastics are an abundant pollutant in aquatic systems, but little is known regarding their effects on larval fish. We conducted foraging and growth experiments to observe how increasing densities of microplastics, polyethylene microspheres, impact the foraging and growth of Pimephales promelas larvae. We found minimal impacts on larval consumption of Artemia nauplii in the consumption study, as well as little impact on total length after thirty days within the growth experiment. This article is protected by copyright...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jeffrey M Morris, Stephen F Brinkman, Michael W Carney, Joshua Lipton
The world-class Bristol Bay (Alaska) salmon fishery and vast deposits of copper and other metals in the watershed warrant further investigation into the potential toxicity of copper to salmonids under the low water-hardness conditions that occur in the watershed. Therefore, we investigated the acute toxicity of copper to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in low hardness (∼30 mg/L as CaCO3 ) water formulated in the laboratory and collected from the Bristol Bay watershed...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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