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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Linda S Kleinhenz, Melanie A Trenfield, Thomas J Mooney, Christopher L Humphrey, Rick A van Dam, Dayanthi Nugegoda, Andrew J Harford
Ammonia is recognised as a major pollutant worldwide, originating from natural and anthropogenic sources. Studies have reported that freshwater mussels are amongst the most sensitive taxa to ammonia, but there is a lack of data available on ammonia toxicity for the early life stages of freshwater mussels from tropical regions. This paper reports the modification of a 24-h acute toxicity test protocol for tropical freshwater mussels and application of the test using ammonia. Velesunio spp. from three different sites were used to assess the toxicity of ammonia at a targeted pH of 6...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Sophie Campiche, Conrad Dietschweiler, Inge Werner, Michael Burkhardt
To protect house façades from fouling by microorganisms, biocides can be added to a render or paint before it is applied. During driving rain events, these biocides gradually leach out and have the potential to pollute soil or aquatic ecosystems. We studied the leaching behaviour of biocides and toxicity of leachates from renders with either free or encapsulated biocides. Both render types contained equal amounts of terbutryn, 2-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolinone (OIT) and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolino-3-one (DCOIT)...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Devin K Jones, Erika K Yates, Brian M Mattes, William D Hintz, Matthew S Schuler, Rick A Relyea
While the paradigm for increased tolerance to pesticides has been by selection on constitutive (naïve) traits, recent research has shown it can also occur through phenotypic plasticity. However, the time period in which induction can occur, the duration of induced tolerance, and the influence of multiple induction events remain unknown. We hypothesized that the induction of increased pesticide tolerance is limited to early sensitive periods, the magnitude of induced tolerance depends on the number of exposures, and the retention of induced tolerance depends on the time elapsed after an exposure and the number of exposures...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Solmaz Marzooghi, Bryson E Finch, William A Stubblefield, Dominic M Di Toro
The toxicity of petroleum can increase considerably when exposed to solar radiation. It occurs when certain components in the mixture, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), absorb light in ultraviolet and visible portions of the solar radiation spectrum. A phototoxic target lipid model (PTLM), previously developed to predict phototoxicity of single PAHs, is validated for four species: Americamysis bahia, Rhepoxynius abronius, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas exposed to 12 compounds that are components of petroleum, including alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophene...
May 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Amelie Schmolke, Colleen Roy, Richard Brain, Valery Forbes
Population models can facilitate assessment of potential impacts of pesticides on populations or species rather than individuals and have been identified as important tools for pesticide risk assessment of non-target species including those listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Few examples of population models developed for this specific purpose are available, however, population models are commonly used in conservation science as a tool to project the viability of populations and the long-term outcomes of management actions...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Andreas Fettweis, Karel De Schamphelaere, Erik Smolders
Ecological interactions and abiotic stress factors may significantly affect species sensitivities to toxicants and these are not incorporated in standard single species tests. This study tests the hypothesis if a model, calibrated solely on single species data, can explain abiotic stress factors in a two-species microcosm, a test applied to the effects of nutritional stress (phosphorus (P)-limitation) on zinc (Zn) toxicity to Daphnia magna. A population model was developed based on P- and Zn-dependent algal and daphnid growth...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tim J Arciszewski, Rod R Hazewinkel, Kelly R Munkittrick, Bruce W Kilgour
Control charting is a simple technique to identify change and is well-suited for use in water quality programs. Control charts accounting for co-variation associated with discharge and time were used to explore example and representative variables routinely measured in the Athabasca River near the oil sands area for indications of change, including 5 major ions (chloride, sodium, sulphate, calcium, magnesium), 5 total metals (aluminum, iron, thallium, molybdenum, vanadium) and total suspended solids (TSS). Regression equations developed from reference data (1988-2009) were used to predict observations and calculate residuals from later test observations (2010-2016)...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Abigail S Joyce, Robert M Burgess
Performance reference compounds (PRCs) are often added to passive samplers prior to field deployments to provide information about mass transfer kinetics between the sampled environment and the passive sampler. Their popularity has resulted in different methods of varying complexity to estimate mass transfer and better estimate freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree ) of targeted compounds. Three methods for describing a mass transfer model are commonly used: a first order (FO) kinetic method, a non-linear least squares (NLS) fitting of sampling rate, and a diffusion (DIF) method...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
West M Bishop, Ben E Willis, Robert J Richardson, W Gregory Cope
Copper-based algaecides are routinely applied to target noxious algal blooms in freshwaters. Standard toxicity testing data with copper suggest typical concentrations used to control algae can cause deleterious acute impacts to non-target organisms. These "clean" water experiments lack algae, which are specifically targeted in field applications of algaecides and contain competing ligands. This research measured the influence of algae on algaecide exposure and subsequent response of the non-target species Daphnia magna to copper sulfate and an ethanolamine-chelated copper algaecide (Captain®)...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Amy Gainer, Mark Cousins, Natacha Hogan, Steven D Siciliano
Although petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released to the environment typically occur as mixtures, PHC remediation guidelines often reflect individual substance toxicity. It is well documented that groups of aliphatic PHCs act via the same mechanism of action, nonpolar narcosis and, theoretically, concentration addition mixture toxicity principles apply. To assess this theory, ten standardized acute and chronic soil invertebrate toxicity tests on a range of organisms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Oppia nitens and Hypoaspis aculeifer) were conducted with a refined PHC binary mixture...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Megan M McConville, John P Roberts, Myrina Boulais, Benjamin Woodall, Joshua D Butler, Aaron D Redman, Thomas F Parkerton, W Ray Arnold, Julian Guyomarch, Stéphane LeFloch, Jenny Bytingsvik, Lionel Camus, Aswani Volety, Susanne M Brander
A predominant concern following oil spills is toxicity to aquatic organisms. However, few data are available on effects in deep-sea cold water fishes. This study had three major objectives. First, investigate the relative sensitivity of the deep-sea species Anoplopoma fimbria (sablefish) to acute effects of three aromatic compounds (toluene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene), dispersant alone and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) of Alaskan North Slope crude oil. Second, determine the critical target lipid body burden (CTLBB) for sablefish by fitting aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity data to the target lipid model (TLM), which then enabled expressing CEWAF exposures in terms of dissolved oil toxic units (TUs)...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christopher R Loeffler, Alison Robertson, Harold A Flores Quintana, Miguel C Silander, Tyler B Smith, David Olsen
Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood-toxin illness resulting from consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. Managing ciguatera fish poisoning is complex. It is made easier, however, by local fishers from endemic areas reporting regional predictability for local fish species' ciguatera fish poisoning risk, which the present study then tested. We investigated the prevalence of ciguatoxins in 4 commonly marketed and consumed species (Balistes vetula, Haemulon plumierii, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Epinephelus guttatus) across an oceanic gradient (north, south, east, and west) from the US Virgin Islands...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Gerald T Ankley, Katherine K Coady, Melanie Gross, Henrik Holbech, Steven L Levine, Gerd Maack, Mike Williams
Trenbolone acetate is widely-used in some parts of the world for its desirable anabolic effects on livestock. Several metabolites of the acetate, including 17β-trenbolone (βTRB), have been detected in at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters associated with animal feedlots. The βTRB isomer can affect androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways in various vertebrate species at comparatively low concentrations/doses. This paper provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of the existing literature concerning exposure to and biological effects of βTRB, with an emphasis on potential risks to aquatic animals...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christopher J Salice, Todd A Anderson, Richard H Anderson, Adric D Olson
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) continue to receive significant attention with particular concern for PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) which was a constituent of Aqueous Film-Forming Foam used widely as a fire suppressant for aircraft since the 1970 s. We were interested in the potential for risk to ecological receptors inhabiting Cooper Bayou which is adjacent to two former fire-training areas (FTAs) at Barksdale Air Force Base, LA. Previous research showed higher PFOS concentrations in surface water and biota from Cooper Bayou compared to reference sites...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jessica Bollyn, Bernd Willaert, Bart Kerré, Claudia Moens, Katrien Arijs, Jelle Mertens, Dean Leverett, Koen Oorts, Erik Smolders
Risk assessment of metallic nanoparticles (NP) is critically affected by the concern that toxicity goes beyond that of the metallic ion. This study addressed this concern for soils with silver (Ag)-NP using the Ag-sensitive nitrification assay. Three agricultural soils (A,B,C) were spiked with equivalent Ag doses of either Ag-NP (d = 13 nm) or AgNO3 . Soil solution was isolated and monitored over 97 days with due attention to accurate Ag fractionation at low (∼10 µg L-1 ) Ag concentrations. Truly dissolved (<1 kDa) Ag in the AgNO3 -amended soils decreased with reaction half-lives of 4 to 22 days depending on the soil, denoting important Ag-ageing reactions...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiaoyan Tang, Murray B McBride
To assess the impact of Ni toxicity in soils after long-term field aging, a coarse-textured soil was spiked with Ni salt at 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 Ni concentrations. These soils were aged in the field along with an unspiked (control) soil under natural conditions for 12 years, after which total soil Ni was measured and tests of Ni extractability by 0.01 M CaCl2 and DTPA were done. Soybean assays and soil respiration tests were performed to determine residual Ni toxicity of the aged contaminated soils...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kees Booij, Sunmao Chen
A key success factor for the performance of passive samplers is the proper calibration of sampling rates. Sampling rates for a wide range of polar organic compounds are available for Chemcatchers and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), but the mechanistic models that are needed to understand the effects of exposure conditions on sampling rates need improvement. Literature data on atrazine sampling rates by these samplers were reviewed with the aim to assess what can be learned from literature reports of this well studied compound and to identify knowledge gaps related to the effects of flow and temperature...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Gunther Rosen, Guilherme R Lotufo, Robert D George, Bill Wild, Lauren K Rabalais, Shane Morrison, Jason B Belden
The present study evaluated Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) for quantification of conventional munitions constituents (MC), including trinitrotoluene (TNT), aminodinitrotoluenes, diaminonitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluene, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a field setting. POCIS were deployed at varying distances from the commonly used explosive formulation Composition B (39.5% TNT, 59.5% RDX, 1% wax) in an embayment of Santa Rosa Sound (Florida, USA). Time-weighted averaged (TWA) water concentrations from a 13-day deployment ranged from 9-103 ng/L for TNT and RDX approximately 0...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Dominic E Ponton, Claude Fortin, Landis Hare
Selenium (Se) concentrations measured in lake planktonic food chains (microplankton < 64 µm, copepods and Chaoborus larvae) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of dissolved organic Se. These correlations were strengthened slightly by adding the concentrations of dissolved selenate to those of organic Se. To better understand the role of Se species and the influence of water chemistry on Se uptake, we exposed the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to selenite, selenate or selenomethionine at various H+ ion and sulfate concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Fanny Chevillot, Mélanie Guyot, Mélanie Desrosiers, Nicole Cadoret, Éloïse Veilleux, Hubert Cabana, Jean-Philippe Bellenger
Municipal biosolids are increasingly used as a low-cost fertilizer in agricultural soil. Biosolids are contaminated by low concentrations (ng g-1 dw range) of a large variety of organic contaminants, such as triclosan (TCS). The effect of exposure to low concentrations of organic contaminants on soil biota remains largely undocumented. We evaluated the sublethal effects of TCS on the earthworm Eisenia andrei using an artificial soil amended with a nominal concentration of TCS of 50 ng g-1 dry weight soil...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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