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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

David Deruytter, Michiel B Vandegehuchte, Jan Garrevoet, Ronny Blust, Laszlo Vincze, Karel A C De Schamphelaere, Colin R Janssen
To improve the ecological relevance of environmental risk assessment (ERA) we need to improve our understanding of: (1) the influence of environmental conditions on the toxicity of pollutants, and (2) the effect of these factors in combination with possible inter-population variability. In this study the influence of salinity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the accumulation and effect of Cu to settled mussels was investigated with mussels from a North Sea and a Baltic Sea population. We found that both populations were equally Cu sensitive even though the Baltic Sea population lives in suboptimal conditions...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ivo Havranek, Claire Coutris, Hans Ragnar Norli, Pierre-Adrien Rivier, Erik J Joner
Sewage sludge is an important amendment that enriches soils with organic matter and provides plants with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, knowledge on fate and effects of organic pollutants present in the sludge on soil organisms is limited. In the present study, the uptake of triclosan, galaxolide, and tonalide in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta was measured one week after amendment of agricultural soil with sewage sludge, while elimination kinetics were assessed over a 21-day period after transferring worms to a clean soil...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Collin J Arens, Jennifer C Arens, Natacha S Hogan, Richard J Kavanagh, Fabrice Berrue, Glen J Van Der Kraak, Michael R van den Heuvel
Biological and chemical endpoints were measured in White Sucker collected downstream of Athabasca oil sands developments and compared with those at Calling Lake, a reference location upstream of the Athabasca oil sands deposit. Naphthenic acid concentrations were also measured at 14 sites in the Athabasca River watershed. Concentrations of naphthenic acids were elevated in tributaries adjacent to oil sands mining developments. Tributary naphthenic acid profiles were more similar to aged oil sands process water than samples from the Athabasca River, suggesting an influence of tailings in the tributaries...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Matthew M Chumchal, Ray W Drenner, Frank M Greenhill, James H Kennedy, Ashlyn E Courville, Charlie A A Gober, Luke O Lossau
Small ponds exist across a permanence gradient and pond permanence is hypothesized to be a primary determinant of insect community structure and insect-mediated methylmercury (MeHg) flux from ponds to the surrounding terrestrial landscape. Here we present the first experiment examining the recovery of insect-mediated MeHg flux following a drying disturbance that converted permanent ponds with insectivorous fish to semi-permanent ponds without fish. We used floating emergence traps to collect emergent insects for 10 weeks in the spring and summer from five ponds with fish (permanent) and five ponds that were drained to remove fish, dried and refilled with water (semi-permanent)...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Bryson E Finch, Solmaz Marzooghi, Dominic M Di Toro, William A Stubblefield
Crude oils are composed of an assortment of hydrocarbons, some of which are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of particular interest due to their narcotic and potential phototoxic effects. Several studies have examined the phototoxicity of individual PAHs and fresh and weathered crude oils and several models have been developed to predict PAH toxicity. Fingerprint analyses of oils have shown that PAHs in crude oils are predominately alkylated. However, current models for estimating PAH phototoxicity assume toxic equivalence between unsubstituted (i...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alan J Kennedy, Aimee R Poda, Nicolas L Melby, Lee C Moores, Shinita M Jordan, Kurt A Gust, Anthony J Bednar
Insensitive munitions (IMs) are desirable alternatives to historically used formulations, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), due to their "insensitivity" to unintended detonation. The insensitive munition IMX-101 is a mixture of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), and nitroguanidine (NQ). Environmental releases of munitions may be from production wastewaters or training; these munitions may be exposed to Ultraviolet light. Therefore, it is useful to understand the relative toxicity of IMX-101 and its constituents both before and after photo-degradation...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sara Villa, Sonia Migliorati, Gianna Serafina Monti, Ivan Holoubek, Marco Vighi
The exposure of the Arctic ecosystem to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was assessed through a review of literature data. Concentrations of 19 chemicals or congeneric groups were estimated for the highest levels of the Arctic food chain (Arctic cod, ringed seals, and polar bears). The ecotoxicological risk for seals, bears, and bear cubs was estimated by applying the concentration addition (CA) concept. The risk of POP mixtures was very low in seals. By contrast, the risk was 2 orders of magnitude higher than the risk threshold for adult polar bears and even more (3 orders of magnitude above the threshold) for bear cubs fed with contaminated milk...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Ailton Gonçalves Rodrigues-Junior, Tulio Gabriel Soares Oliveira, Cintia de Almeida Gonçalves, Marcia Bacelar Fonseca, Queila Souza Garcia
The integrative effects of Zn (0, 75, 150 and 200 mg l(-1) ) and temperature (25, 30 and 35 °C) on seed germination of the threatened Brazilian species Dimorphandra wilsonii were evaluated. Zn effects on seed germination were only observed at 30 and 35 °C. By stimulating respiration rates, rising temperatures accentuate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) formation in germinating seeds in the presence of Zn. Seed Zn-tolerance was related to the activation of enzymatic antioxidants, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity had a central role in H2 O2 -scavenging under the highest temperatures tested...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Lixiao Ni, Lili Su, Shiyin Li, Peifang Wang, Dandan Li, Xiang Ye, Yi Li, Yong Li, Yiping Li, Chao Wang
This study examines the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different origins. The DOM used in this study were extracted from soil, sediment taken from Meiliang Bay at Taihu Lake and from M. aeruginosa cultured in the laboratory. The three different DOM were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the interactions of DOM with Cd(2+) ...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christopher Thome, Charlotte Mitz, Shayenthiran Sreetharan, Charles Mitz, Christopher M Somers, Richard G Manzon, Douglas R Boreham, Joanna Y Wilson
Chemicals used in the prevention of corrosion and biofouling may be released into the environment via industrial cooling water discharges. We assessed the impacts of two commonly used chemicals, morpholine and sodium hypochlorite, on development in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Embryos were exposed chronically, beginning at fertilization or at the eyed stage. Acute 96 hour exposures were also examined at four development stages. Chronic morpholine resulted in an LC50 of 219 ± 54 mg/L when exposure began at fertilization and 674 ± 12 mg/L when exposure began at the eyed stage, suggesting that embryos are more sensitive earlier in development...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Heather A Lanza, Rebecca S Cochran, Joseph F Mudge, Adric D Olson, Brett R Blackwell, Jonathan D Maul, Christopher J Salice, Todd A Anderson
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have recently received increased research attention, particularly concerning aquatic organisms and in regions of exposure to Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFFs). Air Force bases historically applied AFFFs in the interest of fire training exercises and have since expressed concern for PFAS contamination in biota from water bodies surrounding former fire training areas. We monitored six PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in aquatic species from eight bayou locations at Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City, Louisiana over the course of one year...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Don MacDonald, Mary Lou Haines, Chris Ingersoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Chris D Ivey, John M Besser, Chris G Ingersoll, Ning Wang, D Christopher Rogers, Sandy Raimondo, Candice R Bauer, Edward J Hammer
Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as 'threatened' or 'endangered' under the United States' Endangered Species Act. Little information about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, make it difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24 hr) lethality/immobilization tests were conducted with three species of fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Chloé de Perre, Tracye M Murphy, Michael J Lydy
Currently, the potential impact of insecticide mixtures to non-target organisms is still largely unknown, and needs additional studies. Therefore, the present study investigated the mixture toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide phostebupirim and pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin using four non-target species including Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and Danio rerio (zebrafish). For each species, the toxicity of equipotent mixtures was compared to the expected toxicity estimated using the independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA) models...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Solmaz Marzooghi, Dominic M Di Toro
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to exhibit photo-induced toxicity. PAHs number hundreds to thousands of the parent and substituted compounds in the environment and developing a predictive model applicable to a wide variety of PAHs and organisms is a necessary precursor to environmental risk assessments. There has been evolutionary progress in phototoxicity modeling since 1977. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the models developed to predict phototoxicity of PAHs is presented. The contributions of each of the models to the state of the art are discussed...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
René S Shahmohamadloo, Linda Lissemore, Ryan S Prosser, Paul K Sibley
A growing body of evidence suggests that amending soil with biosolids can be an integral component of sustainable agriculture. Despite strong evidence supporting its beneficial use in agriculture, there are concerns that chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), could present a risk to terrestrial ecosystems and human health. Triclosan (TCS) is one of the most commonly detected compounds in biosolids. To date, laboratory studies indicate that TCS likely poses a de minimis risk to field crops; however, these studies were either conducted under unrealistic exposure conditions or only assessed one or two formulations of biosolids...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Yung-Shan Lee, Justin C Lo, S Victoria Otton, Margo M Moore, Chris J Kennedy, Frank A P C Gobas
Incorporating biotransformation in bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic chemicals in both aquatic and terrestrial organisms in a simple, rapid and cost-effective manner is urgently needed to improve bioaccumulation assessments of potentially bioaccumulative substances. One approach to estimate whole animal biotransformation rate constants is to combine in-vitro measurements of hepatic biotransformation kinetics with in-vitro-to-in-vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and bioaccumulation modeling. An established IVIVE modeling approach exists for pharmaceuticals (referred to here as IVIVE-Ph) and has recently been adapted for chemical bioaccumulation assessments in fish...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Karl Ljungvall, Ulf Magnusson, Marcus Korvela, Mattias Norrby, Jonas Bergquist, Sara Persson
The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden and it is legally hunted all year around. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the current study female mink (n = 91) from six different areas in Sweden were analysed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 ± 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 ± 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 ± 537 ng/g for mercury and 196 ± 401 ng/g for lead expressed as mean ± SD...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alexander H Macleod, Vicki S Blazer, Mark A Matsche, Lance T Yonkos
Intersex in wild fish populations has received considerable attention in the scientific literature and public media. Conventional detection of testicular oocytes (TO), the presence of immature oocytes within testis of male fish, employs transverse sectioning of excised testis and is lethal. This present study used a non-lethal laparoscopic technique to collect biopsies of testis from black bass, entering the body cavity via the genital pore. Detection of TO was compared between biopsy and conventional methods using 79 smallmouth bass (SMB) Micropterus dolomieu from 8 sites and 68 largemouth bass (LMB) M...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tyler D Hoskins, Michelle D Boone
Intraspecific variability in contaminant sensitivity could undermine risk assessments for non-target organisms like amphibians. To test how amphibian populations vary in tolerance to anticipated lethal and sublethal exposures to a pesticide, we exposed Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) from three populations across a broad portion of their range to the insecticide, malathion. Exposure in mesocosms to a nominal concentration of 1 mg/L (measured concentrations at 1 and 24-h post-addition of 0.160 and 0...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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