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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Edgar Pérez, Tham C Hoang
The present study characterized the chronic effect of binary-metal mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) on Daphnia magna. The titration design was chosen to characterize the 21-d chronic effects of the binary-metal mixtures on survival, growth, reproduction, and metal accumulation in D. magna. Using this design, increasing concentrations of Zn (10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200µg/L) were titrated against a constant concentration of 1.5µg/L Cd. The results demonstrated that Cd was highly toxic to D. magna...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ryan S Prosser, Joanne L Parrott, Melissa Galicia, Kallie Shires, Cheryl Sullivan, John Toito, Adrienne J Bartlett, Danielle Milani, Patty L Gillis, Vimal K Balakrishnan
Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are high production volume chemicals that are incorporated into a variety of commercial products (e.g., polymers, dyes, lubricants). There are little data on chronic toxicity of SPAs to fish and no data on the toxicity of SPAs to the early-life stages of fish. The physicochemical properties of SPAs would suggest that if they were to enter an aquatic ecosystem they would partition into sediment. Therefore, the current study focused on investigating the chronic effect of sediment-associated SPAs to the early-life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Wei Liu, Hui Qin, Jingwen Li, Qian Zhang, Huanhuan Zhang, Zaoshi Wang, Xin He
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA; trade name F-53B) is an alternative product for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) used in metal plating; little is known about its levels in the environment and its risks. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first report of Cl-PFESA in the atmosphere. In 2006 to 2014, C8 Cl-PFESA, along with ionic perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), was detected in atmospheric particulate matter in Dalian, China. Concentrations of C8 Cl-PFESA increased from 140 pg/m(3) in 2007 to 722 pg/m(3) in 2014...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Bryson E Finch, Solmaz Marzooghi, Dominic M Di Toro, William A Stubblefield
Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. PAH absorption of UV light can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis)...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Laura Murray, Michael D Rennie, Jon C Svendsen, Eva C Enders
Nanosilver (nAg) has been incorporated into many consumer products for its antimicrobial properties, including clothing and washing machines. Consequently, the potential for its release into aquatic environments is of significant concern. Documented toxic effects on fish include altered gene expression, gill damage, impaired gas exchange, as well as mortality at high nAg concentrations. This study reports the effects of nAg on the metabolism of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations (0...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Aloysio da S Ferrão-Filho, Daniel Abreu S de Silva, Taissa A de Oliveira, Valéria Freitas de Magalhães, Stephan Pflugmacher, Eduardo Mendes da Silva
Cyanobacteria produce different toxic compounds that affect animal life, among them hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. As cyanobacteria are able to produce a variety of toxic compounds at the same time, organisms may be, generally, subjected to their combined action. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of single and combined hepatotoxic (microcystins) and neurotoxic (saxitoxins) producer cyanobacteria on cladocerans. Animals were exposed to two strains of cyanobacteria isolated from the same environment (Funil Reservoir, RJ), either in single or combined exposures...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Flávio H Tincani, Grabrieli L Galvan, Antonio E M L Marques, Gustavo S Santos, Letícia S Pereira, Thiago A da Silva, Helena C Silva de Assis, Ronilson V Barbosa, Marta M Cestari
Pseudoreplication is a widely discussed topic in the scientific community. Its principal critique concerns the lack of independence in flawed experimental designs and the use of inferential statistics to test the hypothesis of such experiments. Thirty years after its appearance, it remains misunderstood by many researchers, including ecotoxicologists. In this work, we will try to clarify some of its concepts by filling in what seems to be a gap in the terminology of manipulative experiments. We propose the term experimental medium to refer strictly to the relevant spatial scale of the experiment, in order to preserve the specificity of the experimental and observational units, and to display pseudoreplication as a kind of misinterpretation and/or misanalysis of inferential statistics...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mariana Aliceda Ferraz, Aline Vecchio Alves, Cynthia de Cássia Muniz, Fabio Hermes Pusceddu, Paloma Kachel Gusso-Choueri, Aldo Ramos Santos, Rodrigo Brasil Choueri
Domestic sewage is a major problem in highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide. In the current study, TIE phases I and II were applied to sediment interstitial water (IW) from two locations along the São Paulo coast in southeastern Brazil: the sewage outfall of the city of Santos, a densely urbanized area and a less urbanized area (the city of Bertioga). An adapted microscale sea urchin embryo-larval development bioassay was employed. TIE-I manipulations were (i) EDTA addition, (ii) aeration at modified pH, (iii) C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), and the (iv) addition of Na2 S2 O3 ...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
María Mercedes Iummato, Haydée Pizarro, Daniel Cataldo, Eugenia Di Fiori, María Dos Santos Afonso, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Ángela Beatriz Juárez
Glyphosate is currently the most widely used herbicide in agricultural production. It generally enters aquatic ecosystems through surface water runoff and aerial drift. We evaluated the effect of glyphosate acid on biochemical parameters of periphyton exposed to concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 mg/L in outdoor mesocosms, in the presence and absence of the mussel Limnoperna fortunei. Periphyton ash-free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll a content, carotene/chlorophyll a ratio, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined at day 0, 1, 7, 14 and 26 of the experimental period...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sean B Buczek, W Gregory Cope, Richard A Mclaughlin, Thomas J Kwak
Polyacrylamide (PAM) has become an effective tool for reducing construction related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of PAM on many freshwater organisms, and prior to this study, no information existed on the toxicity of PAM compounds to native freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
J Patrick W Cusaac, William H Mimbs, Jason B Belden, Loren M Smith, Scott T McMurry
Amphibians are susceptible to exposure from contaminants via multiple pathways. Pyraclostrobin fungicides were shown to be toxic to terrestrial amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations; however, these studies did not account for factors that may influence exposure and effects, such as fungicide formulation, age of the individual, exposure route, and physiological state of the individual. We examined Headline® and Headline AMP® fungicide toxicity to adult Anaxyrus cognatus and A. woodhousii by direct overspray, as well as acute toxicity of Headline AMP to juvenile A...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Stephen A Boyd, J Brett Sallach, Yingjie Zhang, Robert Crawford, Hui Li, Cliff T Johnston, Brian J Teppen, Norbert E Kaminski
The effectiveness of activated carbon (AC) in reducing the bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was examined from the context of using in-situ sorbent amendments to remediate soils/sediments contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This technology has gained rapid acceptance based on observations that AC amendments predictably lower PCDD/F concentrations in water and bioaccumulation by simple aquatic organisms and earthworms; it has been assumed that bioavailability to mammals is similarly reduced, although this has been disproven for other sorbent materials...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kasey Bolyard, Susan E Gresens, Allison N Ricko, John D Sivey, Christopher J Salice
The environmental effects of safeners, agrochemicals that protect crops from herbicide toxicity, are largely unknown, perhaps because they are classified as inert ingredients. We assessed the toxicity of 1) the dichloroacetamide safener benoxacor, 2) its degradation product, monochloro-benoxacor, 3) the herbicide with which benoxacor is paired, S-metolachlor and 4) a mixture of S-metolachlor + benoxacor, to larvae of Chironomus riparius. Under iron-reducing conditions, benoxacor can undergo reductive dechlorination producing monochloro-benoxacor...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hung T Vu, Michael J Keough, Sara M Long, Vincent J Pettigrove
Approaches to assess the toxicity of mixtures often use predictive models with acute mortality as an endpoint at relatively high concentrations. However, these approaches do not reflect realistic situations where organisms could be exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods at low concentrations at which no significant mortalities occur. The present study investigated chronic effects of 2 common fungicides, Filan® (active ingredient [a.i]) boscalid) and Systhane™ (a.i. myclobutanil), on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis at environmentally relevant concentrations under laboratory conditions...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Li-Xin Hu, Fei Tian, Francis L Martin, Guang-Guo Ying
Carrier solvents are often used in aquatic toxicity testing for test chemicals with hydrophobic properties. However, the knowledge of solvent effects on test organisms remains limited. This study aimed to understand biochemical effects of the four common solvents ((methanol, ethanol, acetone and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)) on two test species Lemna minor and Raphidocelis subcapitata by applying Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with multivariate analysis in order to select appropriate solvents in the toxicity testing...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Heather P Forth, Carys L Mitchelmore, Jeffrey M Morris, Claire R Lay, Joshua Lipton
In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the Natural Resource Trustees implemented a toxicity testing program that included four different DWH oils that ranged from fresh to weathered, and three different oil-in-water preparation methods (including one that used the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500) to prepare a total of 12 chemically unique water accommodated fractions (WAFs). We determined how the different WAF preparation methods, WAF concentrations, and oil types influenced the chemical composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved and particulate phases over time periods used in standard toxicity tests...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alan J Bergmann, Robert L Tanguay, Kim A Anderson
Using effects-directed analysis, we investigated associations previously observed between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and embryotoxicity in field-deployed low-density polyethylene (LDPE). We conducted effects-directed analysis using a zebrafish embryo assay and iterative fractionation of extracts of LDPE that were deployed in the Portland Harbor superfund megasite, Oregon (USA). Whole extracts induced toxicity including mortality, edema, and notochord distortion at 20% effect concentration (EC20) values of approximately 100, 100, and 10 mg LDPE/mL, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
April Feswick, Meghan Isaacs, Adam Biales, Robert W Flick, David C Bencic, Rong-Lin Wang, Chris Vulpe, Marianna Brown-Augustine, Alex Loguinov, Francesco Falciani, Philipp Antczak, John Herbert, Lorraine Brown, Nancy D Denslow, Kevin J Kroll, Candice Lavelle, Viet Dang, Lynn Escalon, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Fundamental questions remain about the application of omics in environmental risk assessments, such as the consistency of data across laboratories. The objective of the present study was to determine the congruence of transcript data across 6 independent laboratories. Male fathead minnows were exposed to a measured concentration of 15.8 ng/L 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 96 h. Livers were divided equally and sent to the participating laboratories for transcriptomic analysis using the same fathead minnow microarray...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Takashi Nagai
The validity of the application of mixture toxicity models, concentration addition and independent action, to a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) for calculation of a multisubstance potentially affected fraction was examined in laboratory experiments. Toxicity assays of herbicide mixtures using 5 species of periphytic algae were conducted. Two mixture experiments were designed: a mixture of 5 herbicides with similar modes of action and a mixture of 5 herbicides with dissimilar modes of action, corresponding to the assumptions of the concentration addition and independent action models, respectively...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Juho E Rajala, Eeva-Riikka Vehniäinen, Ari Väisänen, Jussi V K Kukkonen
Sediments are believed to be a major sink for the silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the aquatic environment, but there is a lack of knowledge about the environmental effects and behaviour of AgNP in sediments. The release of highly toxic Ag(+) through dissolution of AgNP is one mechanism leading to toxic effects in sediments. We applied an ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction method to evaluate the dissolution of AgNP and to study the partitioning of dissolved Ag in sediments. Ag was spiked into artificial (AS) and 2 natural sediments (HS, KS) as silver nitrate (AgNO3 ), uncoated AgNP (uc-AgNP), or polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNP (PVP-AgNP)...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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