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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224666/refinement-and-cross-validation-of-nickel-bioavailability-in-pnec-pro-a-regulatory-tool-for-site-specific-risk-assessment-of-metals-in-surface-water
#1
Anja J Verschoor, Martina G Vijver, Jos P M Vink
The European Water Framework Directive prescribes that the environmental quality standards for nickel in surface waters should be based on bioavailable concentrations. Biotic ligand models (BLMs) are powerful tools to account for site-specific bioavailability within risk assessments. Several BLMs and simplified tools are available. For nickel, most of them are based on the same toxicity dataset and chemical speciation methodology as laid down in the 2008 European Union Environmental-Risk Assessment Report (RAR)...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224659/assessment-of-the-toxicity-of-pesticides-on-honey-bee-drone-fertility-using-laboratory-and-semi-field-approaches-a-case-study-of-fipronil
#2
Guillaume Kairo, Yannick Poquet, Haïthem Haji, Sylvie Tchamitchian, Marianne Cousin, Marc Bonnet, Michel Pelissier, André Kretzschmar, Luc P Belzunces, Jean-Luc Brunet
Concern about the reproductive toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) in honey bee reproducers is increasing. Because the reproductive capacity of honey bees is not currently considered during the risk assessment procedures performed during PPP registration, it is important to provide methods to assess such potential impairments. To achieve this aim, we used two different approaches that involved semi-field (SF) and laboratory (Lab) conditions to study the impact of Fipronil on drone fertility. For each approach, the drones were reared for 20 days, from emergence to sexual maturity, and exposed to Fipronil via a contaminated sugar solution...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224658/predictive-meta-regressions-relating-mercury-tissue-concentrations-of-freshwater-piscivorous-mammals
#3
Kristin M Eccles, Philippe J Thomas, Hing Man Chan
Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern. Sentinel species, such as river otter (Lontra canadensis) and mink (Neovison vison), are often used to monitor environmental concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Tissue total Hg (THg) concentrations are frequently used as biomarkers of exposure. However, there is no comprehensive model relating Hg tissue concentrations in different tissues, making inter-study comparisons challenging. Our objective was to establish conversion factors relating fur, brain, liver, kidney, and muscle THg concentrations using mean concentrations and standard errors reported in the literature...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224655/rna-seq-analysis-of-transcriptional-change-in-the-freshwater-mussel-elliptio-complanata-after-environmentally-relevant-sodium-chloride-exposure
#4
Laura S Robertson, Heather S Galbraith, Deborah Iwanowicz, Carrie J Blakeslee, R Scott Cornman
To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled NaCl exposures. RNA-Seq of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for seven days, of which 290 had non-overlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198566/fish-short-term-reproduction-assay-fstra-with-atrazine-and-the-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#5
Alan J Hosmer, Suzanne Z Schneider, Julie C Anderson, Loren D Knopper, Richard A Brain
Breeding groups of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to atrazine at measured concentrations of 0.6, 5.5, and 53 µg/L for 35 d. Evaluated endpoints included survival, fecundity, fertility, growth (weight and length), behavior, secondary sex characteristics (anal fin papillae), gonad histopathology, and hepatic vitellogenin. No statistically significant effects of atrazine exposure on survival and growth of medaka were noted during the test, and mean survival was ≥97.5% in all treatment groups on Day 35...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198558/predictive-framework-for-estimating-exposure-of-birds-to-pharmaceuticals
#6
Thomas G Bean, Kathryn E Arnold, Julie M Lane, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates, Barnett A Rattner, Alistair B A Boxall
Here we present and evaluate a framework for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals over time in wildlife feeding at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The framework is composed of a series of predictive steps involving the estimation of pharmaceutical concentration in wastewater, accumulation into wildlife food items, uptake by wildlife with subsequent distribution into, and elimination from, tissues. As many pharmacokinetic parameters for wildlife are unavailable for the majority of drugs in use, a read-across approach was employed using either rodent or human data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198554/practical-approaches-to-adverse-outcome-pathway-aop-development-and-weight-of-evidence-evaluation-as-illustrated-by-ecotoxicological-case-studies
#7
REVIEW
Kellie A Fay, Daniel L Villeneuve, Carlie A LaLone, You Song, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Gerald T Ankley
Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) describe toxicant effects as a sequential chain of causally linked events beginning with a molecular perturbation and culminating in an adverse outcome at an individual or population level. Strategies for developing AOPs are still evolving and depend largely on the intended use or motivation for development and data availability. Four ecotoxicological AOP case studies, developed for different purposes, are described herein. In each situation, creation of the AOP began in a manner determined by the initial motivation for its creation, and expanded either to include additional components of the pathway, or to address the domains of applicability in terms of chemical initiators, susceptible species, life stages, etc...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198039/combined-environmental-risk-assessment-for-the-antiviral-pharmaceuticals-ganciclovir-and-valganciclovir-in-europe
#8
Jürg Oliver Straub
Potential environmental risks of the old antiviral pharmaceuticals ganciclovir (GCV) and valganciclovir (VGCV) were re-assessed based on new environmental fate and chronic ecotoxicity tests and on actual use data for Europe. VGCV is hydrolyzed to GCV by intestinal and hepatic esterases, hence the new environmental tests only refer to GCV. A sorption study showed that GCV will not sorb significantly, excluding the soil as a relevant environmental compartment. Despite earlier data suggesting non-degradability, a new water/sediment fate test showed GCV to be primarily and ultimately degraded and to be non-persistent...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195353/screening-of-cadmium-and-copper-phytoremediation-ability-of-tagetes-erecta-using-biochemical-parameters-and-sem-edx-analysis
#9
Sunayana Goswami, Suchismita Das
Tagetes erecta could thrive well in phytotoxic levels of Cd (50-300 mg kg(-1) ) and Cu (150-400 mg kg(-1) ) for 21 days. It accumulated high metal contents in its above ground tissues (3675 mg Cd kg(-1) DW and 3948 mg Cu kg(-1) DW), showed greater root to shoot translocation and high extraction coefficient; all of which pointed towards its potential as a hyperaccumulator. Both Cd and Cu stress reduced the plant biomass, foliar area, and number. Besides, there were significant declines in pigment contents as well as boosts in lipid peroxidation levels...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186362/effects-of-the-herbicide-triclopyr-on-metamorphic-northern-red-legged-frogs
#10
Amy E Yahnke, Christian E Grue, Marc P Hayes, Schuyler Pearman-Gillman
Aquatic herbicides are used to manage invasive emergent plants in and around wetlands. Metamorphic frogs that emerge during the aquatic weed management season may be at risk of herbicide exposure. Metamorphic northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) were exposed to a triclopyr tank mix labelled for control of broadleaf emergent aquatic weeds such as invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). The tank mix consisted of Renovate® 3 (triclopyr triethylamine salt [TEA] 44.4%), the modified vegetable oil surfactant Competitor®, and marker dye Hi-Light®...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181697/chronic-toxicity-of-azoxystrobin-to-freshwater-amphipods-midges-cladocerans-and-mussels-in-water-only-exposures
#11
James L Kunz, Chris G Ingersoll, Kelly L Smalling, Adria A Elskus, Kathryn M Kuivila
Understanding the effects of fungicides on non-target organisms at realistic concentrations and exposure durations is vital for determining potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin have been reported up to 4.6µg/L in the United States and 30 µg/L in Europe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin in water-only exposures with an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 42-d exposure), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 50-d exposure), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d exposure), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposure) at environmentally relevant concentrations...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169468/modeling-individual-movement-decisions-of-brown-hare-lepus-europaeus-as-a-key-concept-for-realistic-spatial-behavior-and-exposure-a-population-model-for-landscape-level-risk-assessment
#12
Joachim U Kleinmann, Magnus Wang
Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments a new method, "probabilistic walk", was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking food resources, vegetation cover and presence of conspecifics, into account...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169454/toxicity-of-sulfide-to-early-life-stages-of-wild-rice-zizania-palustris
#13
Douglas J Fort, Kevin Todhunter, Troy D Fort, Michael B Mathis, Rachel Walker, Mike Hansel, Scott Hall, Robin Richards, Kurt Anderson
Wild rice (Zizania palustris) sensitivity to sulfide is not well understood. Since sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-day daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by Fe...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169452/in-vivo-toxicity-of-nitroaromatics-a-comprehensive-qsar-study
#14
Aminah Gooch, Natalia Sizochenko, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, Leonid Gorb, Jerzy Leszczynski
The toxicity data of 90 nitroaromatic compounds related to their 50% lethal dose concentration for rats (LD50 ) were analyzed to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Quantum-chemically calculated descriptors together with molecular descriptors generated by DRAGON, PaDEL and HiT-QSAR software were utilized to build QSAR models. Quality and validity of the models were determined by internal and external validation techniques. The results of the study show that the toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds depends on various factors, such as the number of nitro-groups, the topological state, and the presence of certain structural fragments...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160498/long-term-effects-of-fungicides-on-leaf-associated-microorganisms-and-shredder-populations-an-artificial-stream-study
#15
Jochen P Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Jakob Wolfram, Ricki R Rosenfeldt, Alexander Feckler, Rebecca Bundschuh, Frank Seitz, Marco Konschak, Patrick Baudy, Simon Lüderwald, Patrick Fink, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms as well as macroinvertebrate leaf-shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, such chronic exposures have, however, not yet been considered. Using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic, up to 8 wk lasting exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration: 20 µg/L) on leaf-associated microorganisms and the key leaf-shredder Gammarus fossarum were, therefore, assessed...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160493/analysis-of-transcriptional-responses-of-normalizing-genes-on-crassostrea-brasiliana-under-different-experimental-conditions
#16
Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Daína de Lima, Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Rômi Sharon Piazza, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Daniel Schlenk, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Bivalves show remarkable plasticity to environmental changes and have been proposed as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring. Studies related to transcriptional analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in these organisms have notably increased, imposing a need to identify and validate adequate reference genes for an accurate and reliable analysis. In the present study, nine reference genes were selected from transcriptome data of Crassostrea brasiliana in order to identify their suitability as qRT-PCR normalizer genes...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160491/bioaccumulation-stress-and-swimming-impairment-in-daphnia-magna-exposed-to-multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes-graphene-and-graphene-oxide
#17
Amanda M Cano, Jonathan D Maul, Mohammad Saed, Smit A Shah, Micah J Green, Jaclyn E Can As-Carrell
Carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) such as multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene (G), and graphene oxide (GO) are rising in usage across many applications due to their unique and versatile properties. Through many pathways, CNMs may enter the aquatic environment, creating potential for organism exposure. The present study addresses the bioaccumulation and toxicity seen in Daphnia magna (D. magna) exposed to CNMs dispersed in sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). In Study I, D. magna were exposed to varying outer diameters of MWCNTs for 24 h in moderately hard or hard freshwater...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158910/the-toxicity-of-different-lead-salts-to-enchytraeus-crypticus-in-relation-to-bioavailability-in-soil
#18
Lulu Zhang, Cornelis A M Van Gestel
The present study aimed at assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of lead nitrate and lead chloride to Enchytraeus crypticus in a natural standard soil. Worms were exposed to Pb spiked soil for 21 d, and survival and reproduction were related to total, 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations in the soil and internal concentrations in the surviving animals. Pb availability for Pb(NO3 )2 and PbCl2 was similar as confirmed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Pb concentrations in surviving worms increased with increasing Pb concentrations in the soil and did not differ for the two Pb salts...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145604/comparison-of-the-effect-of-ionic-liquids-containing-hexafluorophosphate-and-trifluoroacetate-anions-on-the-inhibition-of-growth-and-oxidative-stress-in-spring-barley-and-common-radish
#19
Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Joanna Feder-Kubis, Arkadiusz Telesiński
Ionic liquids (ILs) are a group of chemical compounds, with chemical properties, which are of great interest to various fields of science and industry. However, commercial use of these substances raises concern as they may threaten the natural ecosystems. This study used two types of (-)-menthol-containing chiral imidazolium ionic liquids (CILs): 1-[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophoshate [Im-Men][PF6 ] and 1-[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [Im-Men][CF3 CO2 ]...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145595/the-effects-of-epoxiconazole-and-%C3%AE-cypermethrin-on-daphnia-magna-growth-reproduction-and-offspring-size
#20
Michele Gottardi, Michala Rosa Birch, Kristoffer Dalhoff, Nina Cedergreen
Two of the main classes of pesticides commonly used in agriculture are azole fungicides and pyrethroid insecticides. Because azoles have been shown to synergize the effect of pyrethroids, the effect of their mixture is of concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sublethal concentrations of epoxiconazole and α-cypermethrin and their mixture on growth, reproduction and in vivo cytochrome P450 activity of the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna over 42 d. Continuous exposure to non-lethal concentrations of α-cypermethrin at 20 ng/L negatively affected adult growth and number and size of neonates within the first 14 d of exposure...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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