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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Steven M Bartell, Shyam K Nair, Shanique Grant, Richard A Brain
Potential toxic effects of thiamethoxam (TMX) on non-target organisms and community structure of a generic Midwestern farm pond and emergent wetland were assessed using two versions of the Comprehensive Aquatic System Model, the CASMGFP - a generic farm pond model, and the CASMGWL - a generic wetland model. The CASMGFP and CASMGWL are integrated bioenergetics-based and habitat quality models that describe the daily biomass values of selected producer and consumer populations representative of generalized Midwestern farm ponds and emergent wetlands...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Philip I Richards, Court D Sandau
The formation of toluene by microbiological processes can confound environmental investigations relating to petroleum releases. This is because toluene is a constituent of petroleum and can move readily within wetland environments, and analysis for toluene in relation to a petroleum release can lead to incorrect assignment of detected biogenic toluene as related to the release. No legally defensible method of distinguishing biogenic and petrogenic origins of detectible concentrations of toluene have been demonstrated to date...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jessica R Holan, Catherine K King, Andrew R Davis
The development of environmental guidelines in the Antarctic and subantarctic is essential, as expansion of research, tourism and fishing places these regions at increasing risk of contamination. Due to unique conditions in these areas, region specific guidelines are required, however there are currently insufficient data to do this. To develop the most appropriate environmental guidelines, data from the most sensitive life stages of a species should be included to ensure effective protection throughout its life cycle...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tyler D Hoskins, Michelle D Boone
We exposed Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) to ecologically relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L) of a commercial formulation of atrazine throughout the larval period to determine effects on survival, somatic growth and development (time to metamorphosis and mass at metamorphosis), and gonadal development (sex ratio at metamorphosis and the prevalence of testicular ova in phenotypic males). We tested the following hypotheses: 1) atrazine feminizes the sex ratio, 2) atrazine increases the proportion of phenotypic males with testicular ova, and 3) atrazine differentially affects somatic growth (mass at metamorphosis) and development (time to metamorphosis) for males and females...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Karina Scurupa Machado, Sandro Froehner, Juliane Rizzi, Mayara Torres
The monitoring of fecal contamination (human and animal) is an incessant challenge. In this approach, microbiology methods play an important role, however with substantial limitations. Organic compounds, such as sterols, are often used to trace this type of fecal contamination. Although the fecal sterols profile from some animals are already known, Capybara, a typical mammal from South America is a significant contributor to aquatic fecal contamination due to their water dependence, and still there is no one way, scientifically addressed, to trace their fecal contribution...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Li Zhang, Yaru Jin, Zhihua Han, Hongling Liu, Laihao Shi, Xiaoxue Hua, Jon A Doering, Song Tang, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
BDE-99 is one of the most abundant PBDEs, which due to its potential persistence and bioaccumulation occurs in aquatic wildlife. Previous studies in mammals have shown that BDE-99 affected development and disrupted certain endocrine functions through signaling pathways mediated by nuclear receptors (NRs). However, fewer studies have investigated the potential of BDE-99 to interact with NRs in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish. In the present study, interactions between BDE-99 and NRs were investigated by use of in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jesse A Fallon, Eric P Smith, Nina Schoch, James D Paruk, Evan A Adams, David C Evers, Patrick G R Jodice, Christopher Perkins, Shiloh Schulte, William A Hopkins
Avian mortality events are common following large-scale oil spills. However, the sublethal effects of oil on birds exposed to light external oiling are not clearly understood. We found that American oystercatchers (area of potential impact n = 42, reference n = 21), black skimmers (area of potential impact n = 121, reference n = 88), brown pelicans (area of potential impact n = 91, reference n = 48), and great egrets (area of potential impact n = 57, reference n = 47) captured between 20 June 2010 and 23 February 2011 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill experienced oxidative injury to erythrocytes, had decreased volume of circulating erythrocytes, and showed evidence of a regenerative hematological response in the form of increased reticulocytes compared with reference populations...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Zayneb ChaÂBene, Imen Rekik Hakim, Agnieszka Rorat, Amine Elleuch, Hafedh Mejdoub, Franck Vandenbulcke
Date palm seeds were exposed to different copper solutions to examine plant stress responses. Low Cu concentrations (0.02 and 0.2 mM) caused an increase of seed germination, whereas, higher Cu amount (2 mM) significantly inhibited seeds germination, delayed hypocotyl elongation, increased seedling mortality and reduced germination index by more than 90 %. Metal-related toxicity symptoms appeared after 15 days of 2 mM Cu exposure. Biochemical activities, like amylase activity and redox balance elements were examined in order to study the relationship between external Cu amount and internal plant response...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jonathan D Mosley, Drew R Ekman, Jenna E Cavallin, Daniel L Villeneuve, Gerald T Ankley, Timothy W Collette
High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to control water or treated wastewater effluent at 5%, 20%, and 100% levels for 21 d, using an onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. Both sex-specific and non-sex-specific responses were observed in the mucus metabolome, the latter suggesting the induction of general compensatory pathways for xenobiotic exposures...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Arthur J Stewart
Decades ago, the word "ecotoxicology" crept into the environmental language: the term developed initially from toxicology (succinctly, the effects of chemicals on cells and organisms), by way of environmental toxicology (succinctly, the effects of chemicals on ecosystems and ecosystem constituents), with a tip of the hat to ecology, busy then ascending as a rigorous field of science. Of course, even as ecotoxicology emerged, it began splitting - rationally or not - into subdomains, aquatic and terrestrial. That's just how science works...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tina Van Regenmortel, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Freshwater biota are usually exposed to mixtures of different metals in the environment, which raises concern, as risk assessment procedures for metals are still mainly based on single metal toxicity. Because microalgae are primary producers and therefore at the base of the food web, it is of utmost importance to understand the effects of metal mixtures on these organisms. Most studies that investigated the combined interactive effects of mixtures on microalgae only performed tests in one specific water. The objective of this study was to test if combined effects of mixtures to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were the same or different, across natural waters showing diverse water-chemistry characteristics...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiangying Zeng, Yang Wu, Zhiyang Liu, Shutao Gao, Zhiqiang Yu
The occurrence and distribution of ten organophosphate ester (OP) flame retardants/plasticizers were studied in indoor dust collected in two districts of Wuhan City. Total concentrations of the 10 OPs (ΣOPs) varied in the range of 86.5-6389 ng/g in 26 dust samples in Caidian District (CD), and 300-10186 ng/g and in 27 samples in Jiang'an District (JA), respectively. In most dust samples Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was dominant over the other OPs, with a concentration of 9.14-2722 ng/g (mean value of 388 ng/g) in CD, and 57...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Antoine Caron, Maikel Rosabal, Ophélie Drevet, Patrice Couture, Peter G C Campbell
Biomolecules involved in handling cytosolic metals in the liver of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were characterized in juvenile fish collected from four lakes constituting metal contamination gradients. Using size-exclusion liquid chromatography coupled to an inductively-coupled mass spectrometer (SEC-ICP-MS), we determined metal distributions among ligands of different molecular weights in the cytosol, before and after a heat denaturation step designed to isolate metallothionein-like peptides and proteins (MTLPs)...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Maria Brüggemann, Oliver Licht, Éva Fetter, Matthias Teigeler, Christoph Schäfers, Elke Eilebrecht
In order to be defined as endocrine disruptor, a substance has to meet several criteria, including the induction of specific adverse effects, specific endocrine mode-of-action and a plausible link between both. Especially the latter criterion might not always be unequivocally determined, particularly as the endocrine system consists of diverse endocrine axes. The axes closely interact with each other, and manipulation of one triggers effects on the other. This review aimed at identifying some of the many interconnections between these axes...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Steven J Bursian, John Kern, Richard E Remington, Jane E Link
To evaluate health effects associated with consumption of PCB-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River, farm-raised mink were fed diets containing fish collected from the river. Endpoints assessed included adult reproductive performance, offspring growth and mortality, and organ mass and pathology of adults and their offspring. Scat samples were collected from adult males at the time of necropsy and from adult females just prior to whelping. Scat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ying Wang, Guangshui Na, Humin Zong, Xindong Ma, Xianhai Yang, Jingli Mu, Lijun Wang, Zhongsheng Lin, Zhifeng Zhang, Juying Wang, Jinsong Zhao
Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a novel concept that effectively considers the toxic modes of action and guides the ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Here, to better use toxicity data including biochemical or molecular responses and mechanistic data, we further developed a species sensitivity-weighted distribution (SSWD) method for bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol. Their aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived using the log-normal statistical extrapolation method. We calculated aquatic PNECs of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol with values of 4...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
William J Doucette, Chubashini Shunthirasingham, Erik M Dettenmaier, Rosemary T Zaleski, Peter Fantke, Jon A Arnot
Quantifying the transfer of organic chemicals from the environment into terrestrial plants is essential for assessing human and ecological risks, using plants as environmental contamination biomonitors, and predicting phytoremediation effectiveness. Experimental data describing chemical uptake by plants are often expressed as ratios of chemical concentrations in the plant compartments of interest (e.g., leaves, shoots, roots, xylem sap) to that in the exposure medium (e.g., soil, soil pore water, hydroponic solution, air)...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Monique T Binet, Merrin S Adams, Francesca Gissi, Lisa A Golding, Chris Schlekat, Emily Garman, Graham Merrington, Jennifer L Stauber
Over two-thirds of the world's nickel lateritic deposits are in tropical regions, and just less than half are within South-East Asia and Melanesia (SEAM). With increasing nickel mining and processing in SEAM, environmental risk assessment tools are required to ensure sustainable development. Currently, there are no tropical-specific water or sediment quality guideline values (GVs) for nickel, and the appropriateness of applying GVs derived for temperate systems (e.g. Europe) to tropical ecosystems is unknown...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jennifer D Jeffrey, Kelly D Hannan, Caleb T Hasler, Cory D Suski
Freshwater mussels may be exposed to elevations in pCO2 due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a 28-d elevation in pCO2 , at 15,000 and 50,000 µatm, on processes associated with biomineralization, ion regulation, and cellular stress in adult Lampsilis siliquoidea (Barnes, 1823). In addition, the capacity for mussels to compensate for acid-base disturbances experienced following exposure to elevated pCO2 was assessed over a 14-d recovery period...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Doug Crump, Suzanne Chiu, Kim L Williams
Concerns surrounding the toxicological effects and environmental prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA) have increased efforts to identify suitable, safer replacement alternatives. Bis-(3-allyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (TGSH) represents a potential BPA alternative; however, exposure and ecotoxicological data are scarce. TGSH was injected into the air cell of unincubated, fertilized chicken embryos at 4 concentrations ranging from 0 to 180 μg/g egg to determine effects on embryonic viability, development, and hepatic mRNA expression at two distinct developmental periods: mid-incubation (day 11) and pipping (day 20-21)...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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