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British Journal of Developmental Psychology

Jeanne L Shinskey
Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark...
November 21, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Justin T A Busch, Rachel E Watson-Jones, Cristine H Legare
People across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to explain questions of fundamental concern such as death, illness, and human origins. The present study examines the development of explanatory coexistence within and across domains of existential concern in individuals in Tanna, Vanuatu. We examined three age groups: 7- to 12-year-old children, 13- to 18-year-old adolescents, and 19- to 70-year-old adults (N = 72). Within the domain of death, biological and spontaneous explanations were most common across all ages...
October 27, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Rebekah A Richert, Anondah R Saide, Kirsten A Lesage, Nicholas J Shaman
The current study examined the cultural factors (i.e., religious background, religious participation, parents' views of prayer, and parents' concepts of God) that contribute to children's differentiation between the capabilities of human minds and God's mind. Protestant Christian, Roman Catholic, Muslim, and Religiously Non-Affiliated parents and their preschool-aged children were interviewed (N = 272). Children of Muslim parents differentiated the most between God's mind and human minds (i.e., human minds are fallible but God's is not), and children who had greater differentiation between God's and humans' minds had parents who had the least anthropomorphic conceptions of God...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Tamara Thomsen, Cathleen Kappes, Laura Schwerdt, Johanna Sander, Charlotte Poller
In two experiments, we investigated observational learning in social relationships as one possible pathway to the development of goal adjustment processes. In the first experiment, 56 children (M = 9.29 years) observed their parent as a model; in the second, 50 adults (M = 32.27 years) observed their romantic partner. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: goal engagement (GE), goal disengagement (GD), or control group (CO) and were asked to solve (unsolvable) puzzles. Before trying to solve the puzzles by themselves, subjects observed the instructed model, who was told to continue with the same puzzle (GE) or to switch to the next puzzle (GD)...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Karissa Leduc, Shanna Williams, Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Victoria Talwar
In this study, preschool-aged children's lie-telling behaviour was examined in relation to mental state understanding and executive functioning. Sixty-seven children aged between 25 and 43 months (Mage in months  = 34.80, SD = 4.39) participated in a temptation resistance paradigm (TRP). Children completed emerging ToM tasks measuring the following mental states: (1) diverse beliefs, (2) diverse desires, and (3) knowledge access. Children also completed measures of inhibitory control and working memory...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Wang I Wong
Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Susanne Hardecker, Michael Tomasello
Young children enforce social norms from early on, but little research has examined how this enforcement behaviour emerges. This study investigated whether observing an adult's norm enforcement influences children's own enforcement of that norm compared with observing an action demonstration without enforcement. Additionally, children experienced enforcement either following their own (second-party) or a third-party's transgression (N = 120). Results revealed that observing enforcement increased two- and three-year-old children's protest against the sanctioned action regardless of second- or third-party context...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sevgi Bayram Özdemir, Charissa S L Cheah, Robert J Coplan
This study examined the underlying processes and conditions that contribute to the school adjustment of shy children in Turkey, where children's interpersonal relationships in social settings and academic achievement are highly emphasized. First, we examined the unique mediating roles of children's feelings of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and loneliness in the associations between shyness and indices of school outcomes (academic achievement and school liking/avoidance). Second, we explored the moderating role of children's peer acceptance in these associations...
September 21, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Corinne Syrnyk, Kerstin Meints
From the little research that exists on the onset of word learning in infants under the age of 1 year, the evidence suggests an idiosyncratic comprehensive vocabulary is developing. To further this field, we tested 49 nine-month-old infants by pre-assessing their vocabularies using a UK version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventory. Intermodal preferential looking (IPL) was then used to examine word comprehension including: (a) words parents reported as understood, (b) words infants are expected to understand according to age-related frequency data, and (c) words parents had reported infants not to understand...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Amandine Van Rinsveld, Christine Schiltz
We compared French- and English-speaking fifth-grade (10-year-old) children's performance in number transcoding. Whereas English two-digit number names follow the decimal structure (base 10), the structure of French two-digit number words over 60 follow a vigesimal structure (base 20). Children undertook two number transcoding tasks. While children were generally successful at the tasks, English-speaking children significantly outperformed French-speaking children for numbers following a vigesimal structure in French compared to a decimal structure in English (i...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Jan M Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
Providing evaluative information to others about absent third parties helps them to identify cooperators and avoid cheaters. Here, we show that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, reliably engage in such prosocial gossip. In an experimental setting, 5-year-old children spontaneously offered relevant reputational information to guide a peer towards a cooperative partner. Three-year-old children offered such evaluative information only rarely, although they still showed a willingness to inform in a non-evaluative manner...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Johannes J Noordstar, Janjaap van der Net, Suzanne Jak, Paul J M Helders, Marian J Jongmans
Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor task values in elementary school children would provide vital information about their participation in motor activities. We therefore examined the change in, and associations between, self-perceptions and task values of fine motor competence, ball competence, and athletic competence in 292 children from kindergarten to grade 4...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Jie He, Shuyi Zhai, Liyue Lou, Qing Zhang, Zhuyun Li, Mowei Shen
Behavioural inhibition influences the development of behavioural regulation in early childhood. Previous studies have mainly focused on the relationship between inhibition and regulation in the Don't context (e.g., inhibitory control), while few have investigated this relationship in the Do context (e.g., task persistence). This longitudinal study examined the effect of temperamental inhibition on behavioural regulation during both the Do and Don't contexts in 112 Chinese preschoolers. At 3.5 years of age, children's behavioural inhibition was assessed by behavioural observation and parental report, and then at 4...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Matti Wilks, Rohan Kapitány, Mark Nielsen
Previous research has demonstrated an efficiency bias in social learning whereby young children preferentially imitate the functional actions of a successful individual over an unsuccessful group member. Our aim in the current research was to examine whether this bias remains when actions are presented as conventional rather than instrumental. Preschool children watched videos of an individual and a group member. The individual always demonstrated a successful instrumental action and the group member an unsuccessful action that was either causally transparent or opaque...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sarah J Owens, Susan A Graham
Speech disfluencies, such as filled pauses (ummm, uhhh), are increasingly recognized as an informative element of the speech stream. Here, we examined whether 2- and 3-year-olds expected that the presence of filled pause would signal reference to objects that are new to a discourse. Children viewed pairs of familiar objects on a screen and heard a speaker refer to one of the objects twice in succession. Next, children heard a critical utterance and were asked to look and point at either the discourse-given (i...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Tommie Forslund, Karin C Brocki, Gunilla Bohlin, Pehr Granqvist, Lilianne Eninger
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Dione M Healey, Khushmand Rajendran, Sarah O'Neill, Chaya B Gopin, Jeffrey M Halperin
Cognition and emotion have been shown to interact and influence psychological functioning. However, to date these interactions have only been examined cross-sectionally among inattentive and/or hyperactive/impulsive children. This study investigated the moderating effects of neuropsychological functioning at age 3-4 years on the relation between negative emotionality at age 3-4 years and global functioning 1 year later, at age 4-5 years. Hyperactive/inattentive (H/I; n = 114) preschoolers entered the study (BL: baseline) and were seen again 1 year later (F1)...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Carolien Rieffe, Marina Camodeca
In this study, we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the individual differences contributing to feelings of empathy in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the extent to which emotion awareness (e.g., recognizing and appreciating one's own and the emotions of others) and a tendency for certain social roles (e.g., helping or teasing peers when being bullied) are related to adolescents' levels of empathy. The sample was comprised of 182 adolescents aged between 11 and 16. Empathy and emotion awareness were assessed using self-report measures...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Julian S Caza, Cristina M Atance, Daniel M Bernstein
We examined 3- to 5-year-olds' understanding of general knowledge (e.g., knowing that clocks tell time) by investigating whether (1) they recognize that their own general knowledge has changed over time (i.e., they knew less as babies than they know now), and (2) such intraindividual knowledge differences are easier/harder to understand than interindividual differences (i.e., Do preschoolers understand that a baby knows less than they do?). Forty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds answered questions about their current general knowledge ('self-now'), the general knowledge of a 6-month-old ('baby-now'), and their own general knowledge at 6 months ('self-past')...
September 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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