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British Journal of Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198592/modelling-the-executive-components-involved-in-processing-false-belief-and-mechanical-intentional-sequences
#1
Hiromi Tsuji, Peter Mitchell
To understand the executive demands of the false-belief (FB) task relative to an alternative theory-of-mind (or mechanical causality) task, picture sequencing, the present study used path analyses. One hundred and sixty-six children between 3 and 6 years old completed the FB and picture-sequencing tasks, three executive function tasks (updating, inhibition, and shifting), and the receptive language test. The model with the best fit indicated that FB performance had a direct contribution from shifting of attention and inhibitory control, which was independent of the significant contribution made by picture sequencing...
September 10, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125373/exploring-individual-differences-in-self-reference-effects-for-agency-and-ownership-in-5-to-7-year-olds
#2
Ruth M Ford, Sheila N Lobao
Evidence that self-relevant information enjoys a privileged status in memory is termed the self-reference effect (SRE). Testing 5-to 7-year-olds (n = 39), we aimed to shed light on the SRE by examining the memorial advantage for self-relevant information as a function of general ability, theory of mind, empathy, and recollection. Playing in pairs, children were presented with an array of pictures and took turns to select pictures (agency) and turn them over to reveal to whom they belonged (ownership). Later, they viewed the studied pictures intermixed with new ones and provided recognition- and source memory judgements...
August 19, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125367/the-role-of-intelligence-in-decision-making-in-early-adolescence
#3
Eirini Flouri, Vanessa Moulton, George B Ploubidis
This study investigated the role of intelligence and its development across childhood in decision-making in adolescence (age 11 years). The sample was 12,514 children from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, followed at ages 3, 5, 7, and 11 years. Decision-making (risk-taking, quality of decision-making, risk adjustment, deliberation time, and delay aversion) was measured with the Cambridge Gambling Task. Even after adjustment for confounding, intelligence was positively associated with risk adjustment and quality of decision-making in both boys and girls...
August 19, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094857/older-but-not-younger-preschoolers-reject-incorrect-knowledge-claims
#4
Emmily Fedra, Marco F H Schmidt
As epistemic and normative learners, children are dependent on their developing skills for evaluating others' claims. This competence seems particularly important in the current digital age in which children need to discern valid from invalid assertions about the world in both real-life and virtual interactions to ultimately gather and accumulate robust knowledge. We investigated whether younger and older preschoolers (N = 48) understand that a speaker's knowledge claim ('I know where X is') may be correct or incorrect given objectively accessible information (about whether the speaker had perceptual access to a critical event)...
August 9, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069904/native-born-german-and-immigrant-children-s-development-of-emotion-knowledge-a-latent-growth-curve-analysis
#5
Katharina Voltmer, Maria von Salisch
Young children in immigrant families tend to face more challenges and can often call upon fewer resources than their native-born peers. This situation adversely affects their social-emotional development. In this study, the development of emotion knowledge of 576 immigrant and native-born German children, aged 3-6 years, was compared at three time points over a 12-month period by means of a latent growth curve analysis. Language abilities and behavioural self-regulation were examined as mediators of the relation between immigration background and emotion knowledge...
August 1, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069900/parental-use-of-spatial-language-and-gestures-in-early-childhood
#6
Yağmur Deniz Kısa, Aslı Aktan-Erciyes, Eylül Turan, Tilbe Göksun
Parents' use of spatial language and gestures is closely linked to children's spatial language development. Little is known about the quantity and quality of early spatial input and how infants' individual characteristics may be related to the spatial input they receive. Here, we examine (1) the amount and type of spatial input 16- to 21-month-old Turkish-learning children (n = 34) received in the context of a spatial activity (puzzle play) and (2) whether parental spatial input in the form of speech and gesture varies based on children's age, sex, and early spatial vocabulary comprehension assessed in an earlier session...
August 1, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039618/stability-of-child-temperament-multiple-moderation-by-child-and-mother-characteristics
#7
Marc H Bornstein, Chun-Shin Hahn, Diane L Putnick, Rebecca Pearson
This 3-wave longitudinal study focuses on stability of child temperament from 3 to 6 years and considers child age, gender, birth order, and term status as well as mother age, education, anxiety, and depression as moderators of stability. Mothers of approximately 10,000 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children rated child temperament. Stability coefficients for child temperament scales were medium to large, and stability was generally robust across moderators except child gender and birth order and mother age and education, which had small moderating effects on reports of stability of child temperament...
July 23, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009423/individual-differences-in-the-effectiveness-of-self-distancing-for-young-children-s-emotion-regulation
#8
Amanda Grenell, Emily O Prager, Catherine Schaefer, Ethan Kross, Angela L Duckworth, Stephanie M Carlson
Self-distancing has been shown to improve children's self-regulation in a variety of tasks. However, it is unknown whether this strategy is more effective for some children than others. This study investigated self-distancing in relation to individual differences in executive function (EF) and effortful control (EC). Typically developing 4- (n = 72) and 6-year-olds (n = 67) were randomly assigned to think about the self from one of four perspectives: self-immersed, control, third-person, or competent media character...
July 15, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981173/how-self-generated-labelling-shapes-transfer-of-learning-during-early-childhood-the-role-of-individual-differences
#9
Alecia Moser, Sarah Olsen, Sylvia N Rusnak, Rachel Barr, Peter Gerhardstein
Multiple factors influence imitation during toddlerhood, including task complexity, social contingency, and individual differences. We conducted a secondary data analysis of individual differences in self-generated labelling using data collected from a complex puzzle imitation task with 355 2- to 3-year-olds. This analysis indicated that toddlers' ability to label the completed puzzle (fish or boat) was associated with better imitation performance. Labelling occurs during social interactions; therefore, our second analysis tested how labelling differed as a function of the level of social scaffolding in each condition...
July 7, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978916/the-moral-self-and-moral-identity-developmental-questions-and-conceptual-challenges
#10
Jess M Kingsford, David J Hawes, Marc de Rosnay
Research into moral identity has provided much support for its role in mature moral functioning, yet the developmental course of this construct remains poorly understood. In this review, we examine the dominant developmental model of moral identity, which emphasizes its key relation with the moral self of early childhood. In reviewing evidence for the model, the assumption of correspondence between the moral self of early childhood and moral identity in adolescence is challenged, in terms of both the moral component and the sense-of-self entailed in both constructs...
July 6, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888498/the-cost-of-helping-an-exploration-of-compassionate-responding-in-children
#11
Mitchell Green, James N Kirby, Mark Nielsen
Children engage in prosocial behaviour from an early age. Whether children will reliably provide compassionate help to a suffering individual is unclear. To investigate this, 73 4-years-olds were presented with three novel tasks in which they and a puppet had opportunity to win stickers by completing respective versions of the same tasks. In all cases, the puppets were unable to complete their tasks. The puppets 'reacted' by being either upset or not upset. While children provided help when it did not cost them, their inclination to do so was significantly diminished when it incurred a personal cost...
June 10, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878517/cognition-emotion-and-arithmetic-in-primary-school-a-cross-cultural-investigation
#12
Maja Rodic, Jiaxin Cui, Sergey Malykh, Xinlin Zhou, Elena I Gynku, Elena L Bogdanova, Dina Y Zueva, Olga Y Bogdanova, Yulia Kovas
The study investigated cross-cultural differences in variability and average performance in arithmetic, mathematical reasoning, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing, intelligence, spatial ability, and mathematical anxiety in 890 6- to 9-year-old children from the United Kingdom, Russia, and China. Cross-cultural differences explained 28% of the variance in arithmetic and 17.3% of the variance in mathematical reasoning, with Chinese children outperforming the other two groups. No cross-cultural differences were observed for spatial ability and mathematical anxiety...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878516/editorial
#13
EDITORIAL
Victoria Simms
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393519/investigating-the-relationship-between-two-home-numeracy-measures-a-questionnaire-and-observations-during-lego-building-and-book-reading
#14
Belde Mutaf Yildiz, Delphine Sasanguie, Bert De Smedt, Bert Reynvoet
Home numeracy has been defined as the parent-child interactions that include experiences with numerical content in daily-life settings. Previous studies have commonly operationalized home numeracy either via questionnaires or via observational methods. These studies have shown that both types of measures are positively related to variability in children's mathematical skills. This study investigated whether these distinctive data collection methods index the same aspect of home numeracy. The frequencies of home numeracy activities and parents' opinions about their children's mathematics education were assessed via a questionnaire...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357112/icon-arrays-help-younger-children-s-proportional-reasoning
#15
Azzurra Ruggeri, Laurianne Vagharchakian, Fei Xu
We investigated the effects of two context variables, presentation format (icon arrays or numerical frequencies) and time limitation (limited or unlimited time), on the proportional reasoning abilities of children aged 7 and 10 years, as well as adults. Participants had to select, between two sets of tokens, the one that offered the highest likelihood of drawing a gold token, that is, the set of elements with the greater proportion of gold tokens. Results show that participants performed better in the unlimited time condition...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171059/family-and-individual-variables-associated-with-young-filipino-children-s-numeracy-interest-and-competence
#16
Sum Kwing Cheung, Xiujie Yang, Katrina May Dulay, Catherine McBride
Children's early numeracy outcomes set the foundation for mathematics learning in their future school years. This study examined how different family and individual variables were associated with the numeracy interest and competence of disadvantaged young children in the Philippines. The numeracy and literacy skills of 673 children living in low-middle income communities were tested. Their parents were also asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, their home numeracy practices, attitudes about numeracy learning, and children's numeracy interest...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168564/grade-related-differences-in-strategy-use-in-multidigit-division-in-two-instructional-settings
#17
Marian Hickendorff, Joke Torbeyns, Lieven Verschaffel
We aimed to investigate upper elementary children's strategy use in the domain of multidigit division in two instructional settings: the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). A cross-sectional sample of 119 Dutch and 122 Flemish fourth to sixth graders solved a varied set of multidigit division problems. With latent class analysis, three distinct strategy profiles were identified: children consistently using number-based strategies, children combining the use of column-based and number-based strategies, and children combining the use of digit-based and number-based strategies...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134669/unique-contribution-of-ecuadorian-kindergartners-spontaneous-focusing-on-numerosity-to-their-early-numerical-abilities
#18
Joke Torbeyns, Gina Bojorque, Jo Van Hoof, Daniël Van Nijlen, Lieven Verschaffel
Recent evidence indicates that young children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) uniquely contributes to their early numerical abilities. This study complements previous findings by validating the relation between young children's SFON and their early numerical abilities in a developing country, namely Ecuador. We analysed 355 Ecuadorian 5- to 6-year-olds' SFON in relation to their early numerical abilities at the start of kindergarten, controlling for children's socio-demographic (socio-economic status, age) and general cognitive (working memory, intelligence) characteristics...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134666/children-s-understanding-of-multiplication-and-division-insights-from-a-pooled-analysis-of-seven-studies-conducted-across-7-years
#19
Adam K Dubé, Katherine M Robinson
Research suggests that children's conceptual understanding of multiplication and division is weak and that it remains poor well into the later elementary school years. Further, children's understanding of fundamental concepts such as inversion and associativity does not improve as they progress from grades 6 to 8. Instead, some children simply possess strong understanding while others do not. Other studies have identified an increase across these grades. The present investigation analyses data from seven studies of Grade 6 (n = 226), Grade 7 (n = 221), and Grade 8 (n = 216) children's three-term problem-solving (e...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980340/longitudinal-development-of-subtraction-performance-in-elementary-school
#20
Christina Artemenko, Silvia Pixner, Korbinian Moeller, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
A major goal of education in elementary mathematics is the mastery of arithmetic operations. However, research on subtraction is rather scarce, probably because subtraction is often implicitly assumed to be cognitively similar to addition, its mathematical inverse. To evaluate this assumption, we examined the relation between the borrow effect in subtraction and the carry effect in addition, and the developmental trajectory of the borrow effect in children using a choice reaction paradigm in a longitudinal study...
June 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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