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British Journal of Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901558/-things-aren-t-so-bad-preschoolers-overpredict-the-emotional-intensity-of-negative-outcomes
#1
Leia Kopp, Cristina M Atance, Sean Pearce
Adults often overpredict the emotional intensity of future events, but little is known about whether this 'intensity bias' is present in early childhood. We asked 48 3- to 5-year-olds to (1) predict and (2) report their emotions concerning two desirable (receiving four stickers, scoring up to two points in a ball toss) and two undesirable (receiving one sticker, scoring no points) outcomes. Children showed the intensity bias by overpredicting how negatively they would feel if they received one sticker, but not for scoring no points...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895170/serial-order-working-memory-and-numerical-ordinal-processing-share-common-processes-and-predict-arithmetic-abilities
#2
Lucie Attout, Steve Majerus
Recent studies have demonstrated that both ordinal number processing and serial order working memory (WM) abilities predict calculation achievement. This raises the question of shared ordinal processes operating in both numerical and WM domains. We explored this question by assessing the interrelations between numerical ordinal, serial order WM, and arithmetic abilities in 102 7- to 9-year-old children. We replicated previous studies showing that ordinal numerical judgement and serial order WM predict arithmetic abilities...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892236/visualization-instructions-enhance-preschoolers-spatial-problem-solving
#3
Carolyn M Palmquist, Rachel Keen, Vikram K Jaswal
This study explores whether verbal instructions to visualize an event can improve children's ability to make predictions about a difficult spatial problem. Three-year-olds (N = 48) were introduced to two intertwined tubes, and prior to predicting how a ball would travel through a given tube, one group of children was told to imagine the ball rolling down the tube, one group was told an explicit rule about where the ball would land, and a third group was given no instructions. Children were prevented from interacting with the apparatus to investigate the effect of the different verbal instructions alone on their problem-solving...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857223/perceptual-support-promotes-strategy-generation-evidence-from-equation%C3%A2-solving
#4
Martha W Alibali, Noelle M Crooks, Nicole M McNeil
Over time, children shift from using less optimal strategies for solving mathematics problems to using better ones. But why do children generate new strategies? We argue that they do so when they begin to encode problems more accurately; therefore, we hypothesized that perceptual support for correct encoding would foster strategy generation. Fourth-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __) in a pre-test. They were then randomly assigned to one of three perceptual support conditions or to a Control condition...
August 30, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851061/the-approximate-number-system-and-domain-general-abilities-as-predictors-of-math-ability-in-children-with-normal-hearing-and-hearing-loss
#5
Rebecca Bull, Marc Marshark, Emily Nordmann, Patricia Sapere, Wendy A Skene
Many children with hearing loss (CHL) show a delay in mathematical achievement compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). This study examined whether there are differences in acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) between CHL and CNH, and whether ANS acuity is related to math achievement. Working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and inhibition were considered as mediators of any relationship between ANS acuity and math achievement. Seventy-five CHL were compared with 75 age- and gender-matched CNH...
August 29, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833308/the-underlying-structure-of-visuospatial-working-memory-in-children-with-mathematical-learning-disability
#6
Irene C Mammarella, Sara Caviola, David Giofrè, Dénes Szűcs
This study examined visual, spatial-sequential, and spatial-simultaneous working memory (WM) performance in children with mathematical learning disability (MLD) and low mathematics achievement (LMA) compared with typically developing (TD) children. Groups were matched on reading decoding performance and verbal intelligence. Besides statistical significance testing, we used bootstrap confidence interval estimation and computed effect sizes. Children were individually tested with six computerized tasks, two for each visuospatial WM subcomponent...
August 18, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833301/level-2-perspectives-computed-quickly-and-spontaneously-evidence-from-eight-to-9-5-year-old-children
#7
Fruzsina Elekes, Máté Varga, Ildikó Király
It has been widely assumed that computing how a scene looks from another perspective (level-2 perspective taking, PT) is an effortful process, as opposed to the automatic capacity of tracking visual access to objects (level-1 PT). Recently, adults have been found to compute both forms of visual perspectives in a quick but context-sensitive way, indicating that the two functions share more features than previously assumed. However, the developmental literature still shows the dissociation between automatic level-1 and effortful level-2 PT...
August 18, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801949/the-relationship-between-learning-mathematics-and-general-cognitive-ability-in-primary-school
#8
Richard Cowan, Jane Hurry, Emily Midouhas
Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability...
August 12, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792607/two-year-olds-can-socially-learn-to-think-divergently
#9
Elena Hoicka, Stephanie Powell, Jenny Knight, Megan Norwood
This study aimed to discover whether 2-year-olds can socially learn to think divergently. Two-year-olds (N = 22) who saw an experimenter model a high level of divergent thinking on the Unusual Box Test (modelling 25 different actions, once each) went on to demonstrate a higher level of divergent thinking themselves than (N = 22) children who saw a low level of modelling (five different actions, once each), where divergent thinking was measured by the number of different actions children produced that had not been modelled by the experimenter...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792602/infants-preferentially-approach-and-explore-the-unexpected
#10
Zi L Sim, Fei Xu
Looking time experiments based on the violation-of-expectation (VOE) method have consistently demonstrated that infants look longer when their expectations are violated. However, it remains an open question whether similar effects will be observed in infants' approach behaviours. Specifically, do infants selectively approach and explore sources that violate their expectations? In this study, we address this question by examining how infants' looking times are related to their approach and exploration behaviours...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792070/the-developmental-stability-of-inhibition-from-2-to-5%C3%A2-years
#11
Daniela Kloo, Beate Sodian
Executive functions or cognitive self-regulatory control processes are critical for children's ability to successfully navigate their academic and social environment. In this study, we focused on the development of one critical executive function skill, that of inhibitory control. In a longitudinal study, we tested 96 children at 24, 30, 36, 50, and 60 months of age with age-appropriate measures of inhibition. We found evidence for the developmental stability of inhibitory abilities. Inhibitory control at 30 months of age was strongly related to inhibitory control at 60 months of age even when verbal IQ was partialled out...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792067/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-relation-between-young-children-s-mobile-media-use-and-effortful-control
#12
Amy I Nathanson, Ine Beyens
We explored the relations among young children's mobile media use, sleep, and a form of self-regulation, temperamental effortful control (EC), among a national sample of 402 mothers who completed an online survey. We found that the relation between mobile media use and EC was moderated by children's sleep time. Tablet use was negatively related to EC only among children who slept less at night (40% of our sample). However, hand-held game player use was positively related to EC among children who slept longer at night (60% of our sample)...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727162/-will-i-want-these-stickers-tomorrow-preschoolers-ability-to-predict-current-and-future-needs
#13
Gema Martin-Ordas
Between 3 and 5 years of age, children develop the ability to plan for their own and others' future needs; however, they have great difficulty predicting future needs that conflict with current ones. Importantly, this ability has only been tested in the domain of physiological states (e.g., thirst). Therefore, it is still an open question whether in a different context preschoolers can disengage from their current needs to secure a different future one. In a Resource Allocation task, 4- and 5-year-olds had to distribute three types of rewards between themselves and another child for either 'right now' or 'tomorrow'...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722173/the-development-of-non-essentialist-concepts-of-ethnicity-among-children-in-a-multicultural-london-community
#14
Ruth Woods
Ethnic constancy, the belief that a person cannot change ethnicity, is an important component of ethnic essentialism, the conviction that members of ethnic groups share an immutable underlying essence. Most children in previous research viewed ethnicity as increasingly immutable with age. However, some evidence suggests that children growing up in communities, which define ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features (e.g., lifestyle) rather than fixed features (e.g., ancestry), may not follow this trajectory...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707328/antecedents-of-transition-patterns-of-depressive-symptom-trajectories-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#15
Tae Kyoung Lee, Kandauda A S Wickrama, Josephine A Kwon, Frederick O Lorenz, Assaf Oshri
This study examined (a) transition patterns from adolescent-specific depressive symptom trajectory classes to young adult-specific trajectory classes (N = 537; 15-26 years) and (b) identified risk factors associated with these transition patterns. The latent classes and transition analyses identified three transitional patterns of depressive symptom trajectories, including a deteriorating pattern (8.2%), a recovering pattern (22.5%), and a consistently low pattern (69.3%). Additionally, the results showed that contextual risk factors (i...
July 14, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661044/the-influence-of-familiar-characters-and-other-appealing-images-on-young-children-s-preference-for-low-quality-objects
#16
Judith H Danovitch, Candice M Mills
This study examines the factors underlying young children's preference for products bearing a familiar character's image. Three-year-olds (N = 92) chose between low-quality objects with images on or near the objects and high-quality objects without images. Children showed stronger preferences for damaged objects bearing images of a preferred familiar character than for objects bearing images of a preferred colour star, and they showed weak preferences for damaged objects with the character near, but not on, the object...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643866/strategic-communication-related-to-academic-performance-evidence-from-china
#17
Li Zhao, Lulu Chen, Luwei He, Gail D Heyman
We examined a range of forms of strategic communication relevant to academic performance among 151 seventh- and eleventh-grade adolescents in China. Participants were asked to rate the frequency of their engagement of strategic communication and to evaluate the possible motives for each strategy. The most commonly adopted strategy was to give a vague response about one's own performance, and the predominant motives for strategic communication were the desires to outcompete others, to be prosocial, and to be modest...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470821/the-effects-of-early-institutionalization-on-emotional-face-processing-evidence-for-sparing-via-an-experience-dependent-mechanism
#18
Audrey Young, Rhiannon J Luyster, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson
Early psychosocial deprivation has profound adverse effects on children's brain and behavioural development, including abnormalities in physical growth, intellectual function, social cognition, and emotional development. Nevertheless, the domain of emotional face processing has appeared in previous research to be relatively spared; here, we test for possible sleeper effects emerging in early adolescence. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural correlates of facial emotion processing in 12-year-old children who took part in a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for early institutionalization...
September 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093783/maltreatment-increases-spontaneous-false-memories-but-decreases-suggestion-induced-false-memories-in-children
#19
Henry Otgaar, Mark L Howe, Peter Muris
We examined the creation of spontaneous and suggestion-induced false memories in maltreated and non-maltreated children. Maltreated and non-maltreated children were involved in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm where they studied and remembered negative and neutral word lists. Suggestion-induced false memories were created using a misinformation procedure during which both maltreated and non-maltreated children viewed a negative video (i.e., bank robbery) and later received suggestive misinformation concerning the event...
September 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943398/long-term-effects-of-peer-victimization-on-social-outcomes-through-the-fourth-decade-of-life-in-individuals-born-at-normal-or-extremely-low-birthweight
#20
Kimberly L Day, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Tracy Vaillancourt, Saroj Saigal, Michael H Boyle, Louis A Schmidt
Exposure to early adversity is known to have deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan and across a range of domains. Here, we tested a cumulative risk hypothesis of adult social functioning and health outcomes in the fourth decade of life, using the oldest known longitudinally followed cohort of survivors of extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1,000 g). We investigated the additional impact of peer victimization in youth on social outcomes at age 29-36 years in ELBW survivors and matched normal birthweight (NBW; >2,500 g) participants...
September 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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