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British Journal of Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732569/consider-the-source-children-link-the-accuracy-of-text-based-sources-to-the-accuracy-of-the-author
#1
Kimberly E Vanderbilt, Karlena D Ochoa, Jayd Heilbrun
The present research investigated whether young children link the accuracy of text-based information to the accuracy of its author. Across three experiments, three- and four-year-olds (N = 231) received information about object labels from accurate and inaccurate sources who provided information both in text and verbally. Of primary interest was whether young children would selectively rely on information provided by more accurate sources, regardless of the form in which the information was communicated. Experiment 1 tested children's trust in text-based information (e...
May 6, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717497/negativity-bias-in-infants-expectations-about-agents-dispositions
#2
Joanna Joo Kyung Chae, Hyun-Joo Song
This study investigated 6- and 10-month-old infants' abilities to infer others' preferences based on social interactions using looking time and choice measures. Infants were randomly assigned to either a helping/neutral or hindering/neutral condition. Those in the helping/neutral condition were first familiarized with a helping event, in which an agent helped a circle climb a hill, and a neutral event, in which another agent followed the same path as the helping agent but had no interaction with the circle...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604110/preschoolers-conformity-and-its-motivation-is-linked-to-own-and-parents-personalities
#3
Kahl Hellmer, Gunilla Stenberg, Christine Fawcett
Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In this study, we investigate five-factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N = 59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation, whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation...
March 31, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604106/longitudinal-associations-between-younger-children-s-humour-styles-and-psychosocial-adjustment
#4
Lucy Amelia James, Claire Louise Fox
Whilst a multitude of studies have examined links between different styles of humour and aspects of adjustment, longitudinal research is noticeably lacking. Following a study which identified bidirectional associations between humour styles and psychosocial adjustment in older children, the current research aimed to investigate these associations in younger children. In total, 413 children aged 8-11 years completed the humour styles questionnaire for younger children (HSQ-Y) alongside measures of psychosocial adjustment in both the autumn and the summer over the course of a school year...
March 31, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600820/connection-based-and-object-based-grouping-in-multiple-object-tracking-a-developmental-study
#5
Ruth Van der Hallen, Julie Reusens, Kris Evers, Lee de-Wit, Johan Wagemans
Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age...
March 30, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574907/inventing-a-new-measurement-for-inhibitory-control-in-preschoolers
#6
David Buttelmann, Philipp Berger
One of the most prominent tasks to measure spatial-conflict inhibitory control in preschoolers is the windows task (Russell et al., 1991, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 9, 331). However, this task has been criticized given its high demands on abilities other than inhibition. The aim of the current set of studies was to establish the 'car task' as a novel instrument to assess conflict inhibition in children. In this task, children are asked to point at the current location of an occluded object. To do so, they have to inhibit a misleading colour cue in front of the locations in critical trials...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498073/children-s-emotion-understanding-in-relation-to-attachment-to-mother-and-father
#7
Lamprini Psychogiou, Selina Nath, Angeliki Kallitsoglou, Konstantinos Dimatis, Elizabeth Parry, Abigail Emma Russell, Merve Yilmaz, Willem Kuyken, Nicholas J Moberly
Although attachment plays a key role in children's socio-emotional development, little attention has been paid to the role of children's attachment to their father. This study examined whether insecure attachment to each parent was associated with reduced emotion understanding in children and whether children showed consistent attachments to their mother and father. We measured children's attachment to each parent using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and child emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (children's Mage  = 5...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479725/preschoolers-knowledge-about-language-specific-properties-of-writing
#8
Shoko Otake, Rebecca Treiman, Li Yin
According to the differentiation hypothesis, young children's attempts to write show characteristics common to all writing systems, such as linearity. Characteristics that are specific to the writing system of the child's culture emerge only later. We tested this hypothesis by presenting adults who knew both Chinese and English with written productions of Chinese and United States 2- to 5-year-olds and asking them to judge the nationality of the writer. Adults performed significantly above the level expected by chance even with the productions of 2- and 3-year-olds, suggesting that knowledge of language-specific characteristics emerges earlier than previously thought...
February 25, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473180/faces-presenting-sadness-enhance-self-control-abilities-in-gifted-adolescents
#9
Sébastien Urben, Valérie Camos, Stéphanie Habersaat, Philippe Stéphan
Self-regulation skills refer to processes allowing emotional and cognitive adaptation of the individual. Some gifted adolescents are known for their imbalance between high intellectual abilities and low emotional skills. Thus, this study aimed at examining the interplay between emotion and cognition in gifted and non-gifted adolescents. A stop-signal task, a response inhibition task including neutral, happy, or sad faces as signal triggering inhibition, was administered to 19 gifted and 20 typically developing male adolescents (12-18 years old)...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460485/saudi-arabian-children-s-reasoning-about-religion-based-exclusion
#10
Munirah Alsamih, Harriet R Tenenbaum
This study examined how Saudi Arabian children (M = 10.50 years, SD = 1.61, Range = 8-10 years) evaluate peer exclusion based on religion when the perpetrator of exclusion was a peer or a father. Children believed that it was more acceptable for fathers than for peers to enforce exclusion and were more likely to use social conventional reasons to justify exclusion when the perpetrator was a father. The discussion focuses on how social domain theory needs to take children's cultural community into account...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460430/profiling-children-s-emotion-regulation-behaviours
#11
Angela Callear, Shane T Harvey, David Bimler, Nicholas Catto
Callear, Harvey, and Bimler (2016, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41, 456) organized children's emotion regulation behaviours into a coherent structure. However, further investigation is needed to identify core patterns of these emotion regulation behaviours. To identify clusters and prototypal constellations of emotion regulation behaviours, the 85 behavioural items comprising the Children's Emotion Regulation Inventory (ChERI) were ranked by 151 parents in order of applicability, using an ordinal sorting procedure (Method of Successive Sorts)...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226486/associations-between-and-development-of-cool-and-hot-executive-functions-across-early-childhood
#12
Sarah O'Toole, Claire P Monks, Stella Tsermentseli
This study explored the development of cool and hot EF skills across early childhood. Children 4.5- to 5.5-years-old (N = 80) completed performance-based assessments of cool EF (inhibition and working memory), hot EF (affective decision-making and delay of gratification) at three time points across 12 months. Cool EF task performance was consistently correlated with early childhood, but hot EF task performance was not. Performance on cool EF tasks showed significant improvements over early childhood, but performance on hot EF tasks did not...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159812/the-i-in-autism-severity-and-social-functioning-in-autism-are-related-to-self-processing
#13
Karri Gillespie-Smith, Carrie Ballantyne, Holly P Branigan, David J Turk, Sheila J Cunningham
It is well established that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired understanding of others and deficits within social functioning. However, it is still unknown whether self-processing is related to these impairments and to what extent self impacts social functioning and communication. Using an ownership paradigm, we show that children with ASD and chronological- and verbal-age-matched typically developing (TD) children do show the self-referential effect in memory. In addition, the self-bias was dependent on symptom severity and socio-communicative ability...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150840/longitudinal-pathways-between-mental-health-difficulties-and-academic-performance-during-middle-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#14
Jessica Deighton, Neil Humphrey, Jay Belsky, Jan Boehnke, Panos Vostanis, Praveetha Patalay
There is a growing appreciation that child functioning in different domains, levels, or systems are interrelated over time. Here, we investigate links between internalizing symptoms, externalizing problems, and academic attainment during middle childhood and early adolescence, drawing on two large data sets (child: mean age 8.7 at enrolment, n = 5,878; adolescent: mean age 11.7, n = 6,388). Using a 2-year cross-lag design, we test three hypotheses - adjustment erosion, academic incompetence, and shared risk - while also examining the moderating influence of gender...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975639/developmental-cascade-models-linking-peer-victimization-depression-and-academic-achievement-in-chinese-children
#15
Junsheng Liu, Amanda Bullock, Robert J Coplan, Xinyin Chen, Dan Li, Ying Zhou
This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; Mage  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952154/assessment-and-conceptual-remediation-of-basic-calculation-skills-in-elementary-school-students
#16
Elen S Karakonstantaki, Panagiotis G Simos, Vamvukas Michalis, Sifis Micheloyannis
The specific domain model for math disabilities postulates a core number deficit which presents a prime target for remedial interventions. This longitudinal study identified two groups of Grade 3 students based on their basic calculation abilities: students with persistent difficulties through Grade 4 (PD group) and students whose performance improved into the average range (IP group). Baseline data revealed a distinct cognitive profile for students in the PD group featuring predominant deficits in symbolic number processing...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944500/social-cognitive-and-physiological-aspects-of-humour-perception-from-4-to-8-months-two-longitudinal-studies
#17
Gina C Mireault, Susan C Crockenberg, Keri Heilman, John E Sparrow, Kassandra Cousineau, Brady Rainville
Infants laugh by 4 months, but whether they understand humour based on social or cognitive factors is unclear. We conducted two longitudinal studies of 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds (N = 60), and 5-, 6-, and 7-month-olds (N = 53) to pinpoint the onset of independent humour perception and determine when social and cognitive factors are most salient. Infants were shown six events in randomized repeated-measures designs: two ordinary events and two absurd iterations of those events, with parents' affect manipulated (laugh or neutral) during the latter...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940379/children-s-reasoning-with-peers-in-cooperative-and-competitive-contexts
#18
Andreas Domberg, Bahar Köymen, Michael Tomasello
We report two studies that demonstrate how five- and seven-year-olds adapt their production of arguments to either a cooperative or a competitive context. Two games elicited agreements from peer dyads about placing animals on either of two halves of a playing field owned by either child. Children had to produce arguments to justify these decisions. Played in a competitive context that encouraged placing animals on one's own half, children's arguments showed a bias that was the result of withholding known arguments...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892236/visualization-instructions-enhance-preschoolers-spatial-problem-solving
#19
Carolyn M Palmquist, Rachel Keen, Vikram K Jaswal
This study explores whether verbal instructions to visualize an event can improve children's ability to make predictions about a difficult spatial problem. Three-year-olds (N = 48) were introduced to two intertwined tubes, and prior to predicting how a ball would travel through a given tube, one group of children was told to imagine the ball rolling down the tube, one group was told an explicit rule about where the ball would land, and a third group was given no instructions. Children were prevented from interacting with the apparatus to investigate the effect of the different verbal instructions alone on their problem-solving...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792607/two-year-olds-can-socially-learn-to-think-divergently
#20
Elena Hoicka, Stephanie Powell, Jenny Knight, Megan Norwood
This study aimed to discover whether 2-year-olds can socially learn to think divergently. Two-year-olds (N = 22) who saw an experimenter model a high level of divergent thinking on the Unusual Box Test (modelling 25 different actions, once each) went on to demonstrate a higher level of divergent thinking themselves than (N = 22) children who saw a low level of modelling (five different actions, once each), where divergent thinking was measured by the number of different actions children produced that had not been modelled by the experimenter...
March 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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