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British Journal of Developmental Psychology

Monique Robinson, Dorota A Doherty, Jeffrey Cannon, Martha Hickey, Susan L Rosenthal, Jennifer L Marino, S Rachel Skinner
Adolescent and parent reports of adolescent mental health problems often correlate poorly, and understanding this discrepancy has clinical importance. Yet contextual factors have only been inconsistently explained. At the 14- and 17-year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 1,596 parent-child dyads completed the parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the adolescent-rated Youth Self-Report (YSR). Maternal, family, adolescent, and parent factors were examined as potential predictors of discrepancies...
November 5, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Rachel Maunder, Claire P Monks
Children's friendships are important for well-being and school adjustment, but few studies have examined multiple indices of friendships together in middle childhood. The current study surveyed 7- to 11-year-olds (n = 314) about their friendships, best friendships, friendship quality and indices of self-worth, identification with peers, and identification with school. Peer relationships were positively related to self-worth, but not identification with peers or school. Best friendship quality moderated the relationship between number of reciprocated friendship nominations and self-worth...
October 31, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Rachel J Nesbit, Dawn Watling
Disclaimers are used prior to expected poor performance to protect the individual from being evaluated negatively by the audience (Lee et al., 1999, Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 701). In this study, 8-, 11-, and 14-year-olds (N = 147) heard stories of a protagonist telling a familiar or unfamiliar peer that they did not think that they would perform well today, followed by either no disclaimer or a disclaimer and the activity outcome. Children judged how the audience would rate the protagonist's typical performance and character, and judged their response motivation...
October 29, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Markus Martini, Caroline Martini, Christina Bernegger, Pierre Sachse
Evidence primarily exists in adults that engaging in task-related mental activity after new learning results in increased forgetting of learned information, compared with quietly resting in the minutes that follow learning, where less forgetting is observed. The current study investigated whether the beneficial effect of post-encoding rest can be observed in children aged 13-14 years. Each child (N = 102) encoded two word lists. After the presentation and immediate recall of one word list, children wakefully rested for 10 min (resting condition), after presentation and immediate recall of the other word list, they solved visuo-spatial problems for 10 min (problem-solving condition)...
September 26, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Hiromi Tsuji, Peter Mitchell
To understand the executive demands of the false-belief (FB) task relative to an alternative theory-of-mind (or mechanical causality) task, picture sequencing, the present study used path analyses. One hundred and sixty-six children between 3 and 6 years old completed the FB and picture-sequencing tasks, three executive function tasks (updating, inhibition, and shifting), and the receptive language test. The model with the best fit indicated that FB performance had a direct contribution from shifting of attention and inhibitory control, which was independent of the significant contribution made by picture sequencing...
September 10, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Jess M Kingsford, David J Hawes, Marc de Rosnay
Research into moral identity has provided much support for its role in mature moral functioning, yet the developmental course of this construct remains poorly understood. In this review, we examine the dominant developmental model of moral identity, which emphasizes its key relation with the moral self of early childhood. In reviewing evidence for the model, the assumption of correspondence between the moral self of early childhood and moral identity in adolescence is challenged, in terms of both the moral component and the sense-of-self entailed in both constructs...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Mitchell Green, James N Kirby, Mark Nielsen
Children engage in prosocial behaviour from an early age. Whether children will reliably provide compassionate help to a suffering individual is unclear. To investigate this, 73 4-years-olds were presented with three novel tasks in which they and a puppet had opportunity to win stickers by completing respective versions of the same tasks. In all cases, the puppets were unable to complete their tasks. The puppets 'reacted' by being either upset or not upset. While children provided help when it did not cost them, their inclination to do so was significantly diminished when it incurred a personal cost...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Kimberly E Vanderbilt, Karlena D Ochoa, Jayd Heilbrun
The present research investigated whether young children link the accuracy of text-based information to the accuracy of its author. Across three experiments, three- and four-year-olds (N = 231) received information about object labels from accurate and inaccurate sources who provided information both in text and verbally. Of primary interest was whether young children would selectively rely on information provided by more accurate sources, regardless of the form in which the information was communicated. Experiment 1 tested children's trust in text-based information (e...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Joanna Joo Kyung Chae, Hyun-Joo Song
This study investigated 6- and 10-month-old infants' abilities to infer others' preferences based on social interactions using looking time and choice measures. Infants were randomly assigned to either a helping/neutral or hindering/neutral condition. Those in the helping/neutral condition were first familiarized with a helping event, in which an agent helped a circle climb a hill, and a neutral event, in which another agent followed the same path as the helping agent but had no interaction with the circle...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Kahl Hellmer, Gunilla Stenberg, Christine Fawcett
Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In this study, we investigate five-factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N = 59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation, whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Lucy Amelia James, Claire Louise Fox
Whilst a multitude of studies have examined links between different styles of humour and aspects of adjustment, longitudinal research is noticeably lacking. Following a study which identified bidirectional associations between humour styles and psychosocial adjustment in older children, the current research aimed to investigate these associations in younger children. In total, 413 children aged 8-11 years completed the humour styles questionnaire for younger children (HSQ-Y) alongside measures of psychosocial adjustment in both the autumn and the summer over the course of a school year...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Ruth Van der Hallen, Julie Reusens, Kris Evers, Lee de-Wit, Johan Wagemans
Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Lamprini Psychogiou, Selina Nath, Angeliki Kallitsoglou, Konstantinos Dimatis, Elizabeth Parry, Abigail Emma Russell, Merve Yilmaz, Willem Kuyken, Nicholas J Moberly
Although attachment plays a key role in children's socio-emotional development, little attention has been paid to the role of children's attachment to their father. This study examined whether insecure attachment to each parent was associated with reduced emotion understanding in children and whether children showed consistent attachments to their mother and father. We measured children's attachment to each parent using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and child emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (children's Mage  = 5...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Shoko Otake, Rebecca Treiman, Li Yin
According to the differentiation hypothesis, young children's attempts to write show characteristics common to all writing systems, such as linearity. Characteristics that are specific to the writing system of the child's culture emerge only later. We tested this hypothesis by presenting adults who knew both Chinese and English with written productions of Chinese and United States 2- to 5-year-olds and asking them to judge the nationality of the writer. Adults performed significantly above the level expected by chance even with the productions of 2- and 3-year-olds, suggesting that knowledge of language-specific characteristics emerges earlier than previously thought...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Angela Callear, Shane T Harvey, David Bimler, Nicholas Catto
Callear, Harvey, and Bimler (2016, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41, 456) organized children's emotion regulation behaviours into a coherent structure. However, further investigation is needed to identify core patterns of these emotion regulation behaviours. To identify clusters and prototypal constellations of emotion regulation behaviours, the 85 behavioural items comprising the Children's Emotion Regulation Inventory (ChERI) were ranked by 151 parents in order of applicability, using an ordinal sorting procedure (Method of Successive Sorts)...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Monica G Navarro, Emily J Braham, Melissa E Libertus
From birth, humans are able to discriminate quantities using the approximate number system (ANS). However, previous methods have only been suitable to examine ANS functioning in infancy and older children. The goals of this study were twofold: first, to modify an existing method of assessing ANS functioning for toddlerhood; and second, to investigate individual differences in toddlers' ANS performance by examining correlations with their parents' ANS acuity. Using a preferential looking paradigm, we found that 1- to 3-year-olds (N = 46) looked significantly longer to numerically changing images compared to numerically constant ones suggesting that the paradigm is a suitable measure of ANS functioning in toddlerhood...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Ruth M Ford, Sheila N Lobao
Evidence that self-relevant information enjoys a privileged status in memory is termed the self-reference effect (SRE). Testing 5-to 7-year-olds (n = 39), we aimed to shed light on the SRE by examining the memorial advantage for self-relevant information as a function of general ability, theory of mind, empathy, and recollection. Playing in pairs, children were presented with an array of pictures and took turns to select pictures (agency) and turn them over to reveal to whom they belonged (ownership). Later, they viewed the studied pictures intermixed with new ones and provided recognition- and source memory judgements...
August 19, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Eirini Flouri, Vanessa Moulton, George B Ploubidis
This study investigated the role of intelligence and its development across childhood in decision-making in adolescence (age 11 years). The sample was 12,514 children from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, followed at ages 3, 5, 7, and 11 years. Decision-making (risk-taking, quality of decision-making, risk adjustment, deliberation time, and delay aversion) was measured with the Cambridge Gambling Task. Even after adjustment for confounding, intelligence was positively associated with risk adjustment and quality of decision-making in both boys and girls...
August 19, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Emmily Fedra, Marco F H Schmidt
As epistemic and normative learners, children are dependent on their developing skills for evaluating others' claims. This competence seems particularly important in the current digital age in which children need to discern valid from invalid assertions about the world in both real-life and virtual interactions to ultimately gather and accumulate robust knowledge. We investigated whether younger and older preschoolers (N = 48) understand that a speaker's knowledge claim ('I know where X is') may be correct or incorrect given objectively accessible information (about whether the speaker had perceptual access to a critical event)...
August 9, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Katharina Voltmer, Maria von Salisch
Young children in immigrant families tend to face more challenges and can often call upon fewer resources than their native-born peers. This situation adversely affects their social-emotional development. In this study, the development of emotion knowledge of 576 immigrant and native-born German children, aged 3-6 years, was compared at three time points over a 12-month period by means of a latent growth curve analysis. Language abilities and behavioural self-regulation were examined as mediators of the relation between immigration background and emotion knowledge...
August 1, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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