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Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540404/biotechnological-and-biochemical-utilization-of-lignin
#1
Dominik Rais, Susanne Zibek
This chapter provides an overview of the biosynthesis and structure of lignin. Moreover, examples of the commercial use of lignin and its promising future implementation are briefly described. Many applications are still hampered by the properties of technical lignins. Thus, the major challenge is the conversion of lignins into suitable building blocks or aromatics in order to open up new avenues for the usage of this renewable raw material. This chapter focuses on details about natural lignin degradation by fungi and bacteria, which harbor potential tools for lignin degradation and modification, which might help to develop eco-efficient processes for lignin utilization...
May 25, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534167/platforms-for-manufacturing-allogeneic-autologous-and-ipsc-cell-therapy-products-an-industry-perspective
#2
Eytan Abraham, Behnam Baghbaderani Ahmadian, Kathryn Holderness, Yonatan Levinson, Erika McAfee
As cell therapy processes mature from benchtop research protocols to industrial processes capable of manufacturing market-relevant numbers of doses, new cell manufacturing platforms are required. Here we give an overview of the platforms and technologies currently available to manufacture allogeneic cell products, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and technologies for mass production of autologous cell therapies via scale-out. These technologies include bioreactors, microcarriers, cell separation and cryopreservation equipment, molecular biology tools for iPSC generation, and single-use controlled-environment systems for autologous cell production...
May 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474157/bioanalytical-application-of-peroxidase-mimicking-dnazymes-status-and-challenges
#3
J Kosman, B Juskowiak
DNAzymes with peroxidase-mimicking activity are a new class of catalytically active DNA molecules. This system is formed as a complex of hemin and a G-quadruplex structure created by oligonucleotides rich in guanine. Considering catalytic activity, this DNAzyme mimics horseradish peroxidase, the enzyme most commonly used for signal generation in bioassays. Because DNAzymes exhibit many advantages over protein enzymes (thermal stability, easy and cheap synthesis and purification) they can successfully replace HRP in bioanalytical applications...
May 5, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447120/case-studies-in-modelling-control-in-food-processes
#4
J Glassey, A Barone, G A Montague, V Sabou
This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product...
April 27, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432390/biomass-resources-agriculture
#5
Ingeborg N Kluts, Marnix L J Brinkman, Sierk A de Jong, H Martin Junginger
Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others) biorefinery purposes in the European Union. The main application of these feedstocks is currently the production of biofuels for road transport. Biodiesel makes up 80% of the European biofuel production, mainly from rapeseed oil, and the remaining part is bioethanol from wheat and sugar beet...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424827/fluorescence-spectroscopy-for-the-monitoring-of-food-processes
#6
Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad, Amna Sahar, Bernd Hitzmann
Different analytical techniques have been used to examine the complexity of food samples. Among them, fluorescence spectroscopy cannot be ignored in developing rapid and non-invasive analytical methodologies. It is one of the most sensitive spectroscopic approaches employed in identification, classification, authentication, quantification, and optimization of different parameters during food handling, processing, and storage and uses different chemometric tools. Chemometrics helps to retrieve useful information from spectral data utilized in the characterization of food samples...
April 20, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424826/synergizing-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-and-metabolic-engineering-for-biochemical-production
#7
Weihua Guo, Jiayuan Sheng, Xueyang Feng
Metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms to produce chemicals, fuels, and drugs has attracted increasing interest as it provides an environment-friendly and renewable route that does not depend on depleting petroleum sources. However, the microbial metabolism is so complex that metabolic engineering efforts often have difficulty in achieving a satisfactory yield, titer, or productivity of the target chemical. To overcome this challenge, (13)C Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) has been developed to investigate rigorously the cell metabolism and quantify the carbon flux distribution in central metabolic pathways...
April 20, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391363/anaerobic-digestion
#8
Jan Liebetrau, Heike Sträuber, Jörg Kretzschmar, Velina Denysenko, Michael Nelles
The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops...
April 9, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382477/rna-g-quadruplexes-as-key-motifs-of-the-transcriptome
#9
Samuel Rouleau, Rachel Jodoin, Jean-Michel Garant, Jean-Pierre Perreault
G-Quadruplexes are non-canonical secondary structures that can be adopted under physiological conditions by guanine-rich DNA and RNA molecules. They have been reported to occur, and to perform multiple biological functions, in the genomes and transcriptomes of many species, including humans. This chapter focuses specifically on RNA G-quadruplexes and reviews the most recent discoveries in the field, as well as addresses the upcoming challenges researchers studying these structures face.
April 6, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374047/bioplastics
#10
Hans-Josef Endres
The number of newly developed bioplastics has increased sharply in recent years and innovative polymer materials are increasingly present on the plastics market. Bioplastics are not, however, a completely new kind of material, but rather a rediscovered class of materials within the familiar group of materials known as plastics. Therefore, existing knowledge from the plastics sector can and should be transferred to bioplastics in order to further increase their performance, material diversity and market penetration...
April 4, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374046/integration-of-basic-knowledge-models-for-the-simulation-of-cereal-foods-processing-and-properties
#11
Magdalena Kristiawan, Kamal Kansou, Guy Della Valle
Cereal processing (breadmaking, extrusion, pasting, etc.) covers a range of mechanisms that, despite their diversity, can be often reduced to a succession of two core phenomena: (1) the transition from a divided solid medium (the flour) to a continuous one through hydration, mechanical, biochemical, and thermal actions and (2) the expansion of a continuous matrix toward a porous structure as a result of the growth of bubble nuclei either by yeast fermentation or by water vaporization after a sudden pressure drop...
April 4, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349263/how-to-decide-on-modeling-details-risk-and-benefit-assessment
#12
Mustafa Özilgen
Mathematical models based on thermodynamic, kinetic, heat, and mass transfer analysis are central to this chapter. Microbial growth, death, enzyme inactivation models, and the modeling of material properties, including those pertinent to conduction and convection heating, mass transfer, such as diffusion and convective mass transfer, and thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of formation and specific chemical exergy are also needed in this task. The origins, simplifying assumptions, and uses of model equations are discussed in this chapter, together with their benefits...
March 28, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331960/synthesis-gas-biorefinery
#13
N Dahmen, E Henrich, T Henrich
Synthesis gas or syngas is an intermediate, which can be produced by gasification from a variety of carbonaceous feedstocks including biomass. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen, the main constituents of syngas, can be subjected to a broad range of chemical and microbial synthesis processes, leading to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels as well as to platform and fine chemicals. Gasification of solid biomass differs from coal gasification by chemical composition, heating value, ash behavior, and other technical and biomass related issues...
March 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303295/sugarcane-biorefinery
#14
Sílvio Vaz
Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303294/sustainability-evaluation
#15
Heinz Stichnothe
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289770/pyrolysis-oil-biorefinery
#16
Dietrich Meier
In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289769/gene-therapy
#17
Barb Thorne, Ryan Takeya, Francesca Vitelli, Xin Swanson
Gene therapy refers to a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat or prevent diseases. Although a variety of methods can be used to deliver the genetic materials into the target cells and tissues, modified viral vectors represent one of the more common delivery routes because of its transduction efficiency for therapeutic genes. Since the introduction of gene therapy concept in the 1970s, the field has advanced considerably with notable clinical successes being demonstrated in many clinical indications in which no standard treatment options are currently available...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289768/machine-vision-based-measurement-systems-for-fruit-and-vegetable-quality-control-in-postharvest
#18
José Blasco, Sandra Munera, Nuria Aleixos, Sergio Cubero, Enrique Molto
Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280848/organosolv-processes
#19
Nicolas Brosse, Mohd Hazwan Hussin, Afidah Abdul Rahim
Biofuels and chemicals can be produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks using biotechnological processes. The effective utilization of carbohydrates from biomass for the production of biofuels necessitates the development of pretreatment technologies to enhance their enzymatic digestibility. Among all the various pretreatment methods currently studied and developed, the organosolv processes, in which organic solvents or aqueous organic solvent mixtures are used as the pretreatment medium, appear to be specially promising in the context of the biorefinery because (1) they produce cellulosic pulp with a good enzymatic digestibility for monomeric glucose production and (2) they allow a clean fractionation of the major biomass components (cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses) into three process streams...
March 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271151/wood-processing-residues
#20
Ulrike Saal, Holger Weimar, Udo Mantau
Rising demand for and scarcity of wood - together with cost savings and resource efficiency requirements - have led to a constant increase in the use of wood processing residues, where appropriate, in the production of wood-based products. This chapter presents/reviews the available information and existing knowledge of residues at various regional levels. It describes the segment of wood processing residues as an important wood resource and the availability of data on a national and on a global level for the quantification and the projection of the resource...
March 8, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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