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Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303295/sugarcane-biorefinery
#1
Sílvio Vaz
Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303294/sustainability-evaluation
#2
Heinz Stichnothe
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289770/pyrolysis-oil-biorefinery
#3
Dietrich Meier
In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289769/gene-therapy
#4
Barb Thorne, Ryan Takeya, Francesca Vitelli, Xin Swanson
Gene therapy refers to a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat or prevent diseases. Although a variety of methods can be used to deliver the genetic materials into the target cells and tissues, modified viral vectors represent one of the more common delivery routes because of its transduction efficiency for therapeutic genes. Since the introduction of gene therapy concept in the 1970s, the field has advanced considerably with notable clinical successes being demonstrated in many clinical indications in which no standard treatment options are currently available...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289768/machine-vision-based-measurement-systems-for-fruit-and-vegetable-quality-control-in-postharvest
#5
José Blasco, Sandra Munera, Nuria Aleixos, Sergio Cubero, Enrique Molto
Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280848/organosolv-processes
#6
Nicolas Brosse, Mohd Hazwan Hussin, Afidah Abdul Rahim
Biofuels and chemicals can be produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks using biotechnological processes. The effective utilization of carbohydrates from biomass for the production of biofuels necessitates the development of pretreatment technologies to enhance their enzymatic digestibility. Among all the various pretreatment methods currently studied and developed, the organosolv processes, in which organic solvents or aqueous organic solvent mixtures are used as the pretreatment medium, appear to be specially promising in the context of the biorefinery because (1) they produce cellulosic pulp with a good enzymatic digestibility for monomeric glucose production and (2) they allow a clean fractionation of the major biomass components (cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses) into three process streams...
March 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271151/wood-processing-residues
#7
Ulrike Saal, Holger Weimar, Udo Mantau
Rising demand for and scarcity of wood - together with cost savings and resource efficiency requirements - have led to a constant increase in the use of wood processing residues, where appropriate, in the production of wood-based products. This chapter presents/reviews the available information and existing knowledge of residues at various regional levels. It describes the segment of wood processing residues as an important wood resource and the availability of data on a national and on a global level for the quantification and the projection of the resource...
March 8, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265704/products-components-alcohols
#8
Henning Kuhz, Anja Kuenz, Ulf Prüße, Thomas Willke, Klaus-Dieter Vorlop
Alcohols (CnHn+2OH) are classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, which can be branched or unbranched. They can also feature more than one OH-group (two OH-groups = diol; three OH-groups = triol). Presently, except for ethanol and sugar alcohols, they are mainly produced from fossil-based resources, such as petroleum, gas, and coal. Methanol and ethanol have the highest annual production volume accounting for 53 and 91 million tons/year, respectively. Most alcohols are used as fuels (e...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265703/biotechnological-production-of-organic-acids-from-renewable-resources
#9
Daniel Pleissner, Donna Dietz, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri van Duuren, Christoph Wittmann, Xiaofeng Yang, Carol Sze Ki Lin, Joachim Venus
Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265702/from-current-algae-products-to-future-biorefinery-practices-a-review
#10
Michel H M Eppink, Giuseppe Olivieri, Hans Reith, Corjan van den Berg, Maria J Barbosa, Rene H Wijffels
Microalgae are considered to be one of the most promising next generation bio-based/food feedstocks with a unique lipid composition, high protein content, and an almost unlimited amount of other bio-active molecules. High-value components such as the soluble proteins, (poly) unsaturated fatty acids, pigments, and carbohydrates can be used as an important ingredient for several markets, such as the food/feed/chemical/cosmetics and health industries. Although cultivation costs have decreased significantly in the last few decades, large microalgae production processes become economically viable if all complex compounds are optimally valorized in their functional state...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265701/vegetable-oil-biorefinery
#11
Frank Pudel, Sebastian Wiesen
Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265700/starch-biorefinery-enzymes
#12
Albrecht Läufer
Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265699/continuous-manufacturing-of-recombinant-therapeutic-proteins-upstream-and-downstream-technologies
#13
Rohan Patil, Jason Walther
Continuous biomanufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins offers several potential advantages over conventional batch processing, including reduced cost of goods, more flexible and responsive manufacturing facilities, and improved and consistent product quality. Although continuous approaches to various upstream and downstream unit operations have been considered and studied for decades, in recent years interest and application have accelerated. Researchers have achieved increasingly higher levels of process intensification, and have also begun to integrate different continuous unit operations into larger, holistically continuous processes...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154885/endocrine-disruption-and-in-vitro-ecotoxicology-recent-advances-and-approaches
#14
Martin Wagner, Cornelia Kienle, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Jörg Oehlmann
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling. Omnipresent in the environment, they can cause adverse effects in a wide range of wildlife. Accordingly, Endocrine Disruption is one focal area of ecotoxicology. Because EDCs induce complex response patterns in vivo via a wide range of mechanisms of action, in vitro techniques have been developed to reduce and understand endocrine toxicity. In this review we revisit the evidence for endocrine disruption in diverse species and the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 3, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070596/chip-seq-data-analysis-to-define-transcriptional-regulatory-networks
#15
Giulio Pavesi
The first step in the definition of transcriptional regulatory networks is to establish correct relationships between transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes, together with the effect of their regulatory activity (activator or repressor). Fundamental advances in this direction have been made possible by the introduction of experimental techniques such as Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, which, coupled with next-generation sequencing technologies (ChIP-Seq), permit the genome-wide identification of TF binding sites...
January 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070595/photosynthetic-microbial-fuel-cells
#16
Joseph A Laureanti, Anne K Jones
This chapter presents the current state of research on bioelectrochemical systems that include phototrophic organisms. First, we describe what is known of how phototrophs transfer electrons from internal metabolism to external substrates. This includes efforts to understand both the source of electrons and transfer pathways within cells. Second, we consider technological progress toward producing bio-photovoltaic devices with phototrophs. Efforts to improve these devices by changing the species included, the electrode surfaces, and chemical mediators are described...
January 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070594/network-metamodeling-effect-of-correlation-metric-choice-on-phylogenomic-and-transcriptomic-network-topology
#17
Deborah A Weighill, Daniel Jacobson
We explore the use of a network meta-modeling approach to compare the effects of similarity metrics used to construct biological networks on the topology of the resulting networks. This work reviews various similarity metrics for the construction of networks and various topology measures for the characterization of resulting network topology, demonstrating the use of these metrics in the construction and comparison of phylogenomic and transcriptomic networks.
January 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058453/early-history-of-the-breeding-of-amino-acid-producing-strains
#18
Shigeru Nakamori
Amino acid production started in Japan in 1908 with the extraction of monosodium glutamate (MSG) from acid hydrolysates of proteins. In addition to extraction, other methods of amino acid production include chemical synthesis, fermentation, and enzymatic synthesis both for glutamic acid and other amino acids. In this chapter, we review the historical transition of these production methods; currently, fermentation is the chief production method of amino acids. All wild-type microorganisms possess a negative feedback control system (feedback inhibition and repression) on the enzymes within the amino acid biosynthetic pathways...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928579/protein-protein-interface-and-disease-perspective-from-biomolecular-networks
#19
Guang Hu, Fei Xiao, Yuqian Li, Yuan Li, Wanwipa Vongsangnak
Protein-protein interactions are involved in many important biological processes and molecular mechanisms of disease association. Structural studies of interfacial residues in protein complexes provide information on protein-protein interactions. Characterizing protein-protein interfaces, including binding sites and allosteric changes, thus pose an imminent challenge. With special focus on protein complexes, approaches based on network theory are proposed to meet this challenge. In this review we pay attention to protein-protein interfaces from the perspective of biomolecular networks and their roles in disease...
December 8, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928578/reporter-gene-assays-in-ecotoxicology
#20
Tal Elad, Shimshon Belkin
The need for simple and rapid means for evaluating the potential toxic effects of environmental samples has prompted the development of reporter gene assays, based on tester cells (bioreporters) genetically engineered to report on sample toxicity by producing a readily quantifiable signal. Bacteria are especially suitable to serve as bioreporters owing to their fast responses, low cost, convenient preservation, ease of handling, and amenability to genetic manipulations. Various bacterial bioreporters have been introduced for general toxicity and genotoxicity assessment, and the monitoring of endocrine disrupting and dioxin-like compounds has been mostly covered by similarly engineered eukaryotic cells...
December 8, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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