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Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology

Kyoko Fujita
This chapter focuses on recent advances in the use of ionic liquids as additives and solvents in protein applications. The solvent properties of ionic liquids can be tuned by the appropriate selection of cation and anion. The effects of different kinds of ionic liquids on protein stability and refolding behavior have been investigated and reported. The ionic liquid properties affect the intermolecular interactions of proteins, inducing different formations and folding behavior. These effects also vary with the concentration of ionic liquids...
July 13, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Nils Tippkötter, Sophie Möhring, Jasmine Roth, Helene Wulfhorst
In comparison to crude oil, biorefinery raw materials are challenging in concerns of transport and storage. The plant raw materials are more voluminous, so that shredding and compacting usually are necessary before transport. These mechanical processes can have a negative influence on the subsequent biotechnological processing and shelf life of the raw materials. Various approaches and their effects on renewable raw materials are shown. In addition, aspects of decentralized pretreatment steps are discussed...
June 23, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Laura A Palomares, Indresh K Srivastava, Octavio T Ramírez, Manon M J Cox
The insect cell-baculovirus expression system technology (BEST) has a prominent role in producing recombinant proteins to be used as research and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. The glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST is composed predominantly of terminal mannose glycans, and, in Trichoplusia ni cell lines, core α3 fucosylation, a profile different to that in mammals. Insects contain all the enzymatic activities needed for complex N- and O-glycosylation and sialylation, although few reports of complex glycosylation and sialylation by the BEST exist...
June 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Zhen Yang
Following the appearance of ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs), natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) have emerged as a new type of truly green solvents with many excellent advantages such as cheapness, sustainability, biocompatibility, environmental friendliness, and, in particular, remarkable solubilizing power and outstanding designability. Although only at an early stage, research on NADESs has started to blossom with exponential growth, showing attractive and promising potentials for applications in various areas...
May 24, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Michael Pohlscheidt, Robert Kiss, Uwe Gottschalk
The production of the first therapeutic proteins in the early 1980s heralded the launch of the biopharmaceuticals industry. The number of approved products has grown year on year over the past three decades to now represent a significant share of the entire pharmaceuticals market. More than 200 therapeutic proteins have been approved, approximately a quarter of which are represented by monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives. In 2016, the list of the top 15 best-selling drugs included more than eight biologics and in 2020 the trend will continue, with more than 50% of the top 20 best-selling drugs predicted to be biologics...
May 11, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Diana C V Belchior, Iola F Duarte, Mara G Freire
Bioseparation processes are a relevant part of modern biotechnology, particularly regarding the development of efficient and biocompatible methods for the separation and purification of added-value biologically active compounds. In this field, ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed, either in liquid-liquid extractions, in which non-water miscible ILs or aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by ILs can be used, or in solid-liquid extractions, in which they are covalently attached to create supported IL phases (SILPs)...
May 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Julia L Shamshina, Oleksandra Zavgorodnya, Robin D Rogers
Chitin isolated through microwave-assisted dissolution using ionic liquids is a high molecular weight (MW) polymer that can be manufactured into materials of different architectures (e.g., fibers, films, microspheres, nanostructured materials) to be used as wound care dressings, drug delivery devices, scaffolds, etc. However, because of differences from traditional isolation methods and, thus, differences in polymer length and degree of deacetylation, it could exhibit bio-related properties that differ from those of traditionally 'pulped' chitin...
May 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Masahiro Goto
Ionic liquids (ILs), a potentially attractive "green," recyclable alternative to environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly exploited as solvents and/or cosolvents and/or reagents in a wide range of applications, including pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for further processing. The enzymatic delignification of biomass to degrade lignin, a complex aromatic polymer, has received much attention as an environmentally friendly process for clean separation of biopolymers including cellulose and lignin...
May 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Toshiyuki Itoh
The use of ionic liquids to replace organic or aqueous solvents in biocatalysis processes has recently received great attention, and much progress has been made in this area; the lipase-catalyzed reactions are the most successful. Recent developments in the application of ionic liquids as solvents in lipase-catalyzed reactions for organic synthesis are reviewed, focusing on the ionic liquid mediated activation method of lipase-catalyzed reactions.
May 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Brian Kelley, Robert Kiss, Michael Laird
As biopharmaceutical companies have optimized cell line and production culture process development, titers of recombinant antibodies have risen steadily to 3-8 g/L for fed-batch mammalian cultures at production scales of 10 kL or larger. Most new antibody products are produced from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, and there are relatively few alternative production hosts under active evaluation. Many companies have adopted a strategy of using the same production cell line for early clinical phases as well as commercial production, which reduces the risk of product comparability issues during the development lifecycle...
May 3, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
M Butler, Ing U Reichl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Thomas Krieg, Joana Madjarov, Luis F M Rosa, Franziska Enzmann, Falk Harnisch, Dirk Holtmann, Korneel Rabaey
From the first electromicrobial experiment to a sophisticated microbial electrochemical process - it all takes place in a reactor. Whereas the reactor design and materials used strongly influence the obtained results, there are no common platforms for MES reactors. This is a critical convention gap, as cross-comparison and benchmarking among MES as well as MES vs. conventional biotechnological processes is needed. Only knowledge driven engineering of MES reactors will pave the way to application and commercialization...
April 13, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Kurt Wagemann, Nils Tippkötter
The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.
April 13, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Roman Mathaes, Hanns-Christian Mahler
Therapeutic proteins show a rapid market growth. The relatively young biotech industry already represents 20 % of the total global pharma market. The biotech industry environment has traditionally been fast-pasted and intellectually stimulated. Nowadays the top ten best selling drugs are dominated by monoclonal antibodies (mABs).Despite mABs being the biggest medical breakthrough in the last 25 years, technical innovation does not stand still.The goal remains to preserve the benefits of a conventional mAB (serum half-life and specificity) whilst further improving efficacy and safety and to open new and better avenues for treating patients, e...
April 11, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Rashmi Kshirsagar, Thomas Ryll
Cell culture-based production processes enable the development and commercial supply of recombinant protein products. Such processes consist of the following elements: thaw and initiation of culture, seed expansion, and production culture. A robust cell source storage system in the form of a cell bank is developed and cells are thawed to initiate the cell culture process. Seed culture expansion generates sufficient cell mass to initiate the production culture. The production culture provides an environment where the cells can synthesize the product and is optimized to deliver the highest possible product concentration with acceptable product quality...
April 11, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Sven Kerzenmacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Kelley M Heffner, Qiong Wang, Deniz Baycin Hizal, Özge Can, Michael J Betenbaugh
Mammalian expression systems such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), mouse myeloma (NS0), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells serve a critical role in the biotechnology industry as the production host of choice for recombinant protein therapeutics. Most of the recombinant biologics are glycoproteins that contain complex oligosaccharide or glycan attachments representing a principal component of product quality. Both N-glycans and O-glycans are present in these mammalian cells, but the engineering of N-linked glycosylation is of critical interest in industry and many efforts have been directed to improve this pathway...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Bradley J Till, Sneha Datta, Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak
Gene space: the final frontier in plant functional genomics. These are the voyages of TILLING, the reverse-genetics strategy that sought to boldly go where no-one had gone before by combining high-density chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput mutation discovery. Its 18-year mission has been to explore new technologies such as next generation sequencing and to seek out new strategies like in silico databases of catalogued EMS-induced mutations from entire mutant plant populations. This chapter is a clip show highlighting key milestones in the development of TILLING...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Pradeep R Marri, Liang Ye, Yi Jia, Ke Jiang, Steven D Rounsley
DNA sequencing technologies have changed the face of biological research over the last 20 years. From reference genomes to population level resequencing studies, these technologies have made significant contributions to our understanding of plant biology and evolution. As the technologies have increased in power, the breadth and complexity of the questions that can be asked has increased. Along with this, the challenges of managing unprecedented quantities of sequence data are mounting. This chapter describes a few aspects of the journey so far and looks forward to what may lie ahead...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
M Saba Rahim, Himanshu Sharma, Afsana Parveen, Joy K Roy
Previously, association mapping (AM) methodology was used to unravel genetic complications in animal science by measuring the complex traits for candidate and non-candidate genes. Nowadays, this statistical approach is widely used to clarify the complexity in plant breeding program-based genome-wide breeding strategies, marker development, and diversity analysis. This chapter is particularly focused on methodologies with limitations and provides an overview of AM models and software used up to now. Association or linkage disequilibrium mapping has become a very popular method for discovering candidate and non-candidate genes and confirmation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) on various parts of the genome and in marker-assisted selection for breeding...
March 7, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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