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Carbohydrate Polymers

M Aguilar-Zárate, B A Macias-Rodriguez, J F Toro-Vazquez, A G Marangoni
Addition of 1% (w/w) soy lecithin increased the shear moduli 10-fold and gel hardness 20-fold for 10% ethylcellulose (EC) oleogels. Higher lecithin addition levels or addition to gels with a higher EC concentration caused smaller increases. Similar trends were observed in the penetration force of the gels. Gels displayed thermal reversibility and a high temperature plateau at T≈120-130 °C. Large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology demonstrated similar solid-to-fluid transitions indicating that the polymer drives elastic softening and failure of the network...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qi Dang, Chun-Gong Li, Xin-Xin Jin, Ya-Jin Zhao, Xiang Wang
Heparin, a highly sulfated linear polysaccharide, with anticoagulation function and blood compatibility is widely used as a biomaterials in medical application, but the most importance of heparin is its structure function as the macromolecular space arm. In this study, heparin as a spacer was covalently immobilized on the chloromethylated polystyrene microspheres (Ps) and then connected with l-phenylalanine forming the Ps-Hep-Phe structure, which was developed for endotoxin adsorption in hemoperfusion. The grafting density of heparin reach the maximum when the initial concentration of heparin solution was 5 mg/mL...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ran Liu, Jian Du, Zepeng Zhang, Haiming Li, Jie Lu, Yi Cheng, Yanna Lv, Haisong Wang
Developing high-performance oxygen barrier films using biomass-based materials is crucial for the development of green and sustainable society. Herein, we develop a strategy to synthesize polyacrylic acid-grafted-acryloyl/hemicellulose composites (PAA-g-AH) as film materials with excellent oxygen barrier property. The as-synthesized films were extensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR), mechanical test, light transmittance and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) measurement...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jia Wang, David R Salem, Rajesh K Sani
Numerous microorganisms inhabiting harsh niches produce exopolysaccharides as a significant strategy to survive in extreme conditions. The exopolysaccharides synthesized by extremophiles possess distinctive characteristics due to the varied harsh environments which stimulate the microorganisms to produce these biopolymers. Despite many bioprocesses have been designed to yield exopolysaccharides, the production of exopolysaccharides by extremophiles is inefficient compared with mesophilic and neutrophilic exopolysaccharide producers...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Zhong Wang, Shujun Zhao, Anmin Huang, Shifeng Zhang, Jianzhang Li
The exploitation of an efficient strategy for preparing flexible green conductive composites with an interconnected filler network is of great scientific and technical interest. Herein, a high-performance interconnected cellulose nanofiber (CNF) template functionalized tannic acid (TA)/polypyrrole (PPy) nanohybrid network (TPy@CNF) is fabricated by a green mussel-inspired co-modification approach. The network offers high electrical conductivity to prepare flexible, plant-derived soy protein isolate (SPI) composites...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yan Lu, Lei Xu, Yunzhe Cong, Ge Song, Jun Han, Guodong Wang, Pengying Zhang, Kaoshan Chen
A novel water-soluble polysaccharide designated as TPS was isolated from the fermentation mycelia of Trichoderma kanganensis. TPS had a weight-average molecular mass of 3.074 × 105 Da, and the monosaccharide composition was consisted of Man (45.5%), GlcA (5.5%), Glc (10%), and Gal (39%). The major backbone of TPS was →6-α-d-Galp-1→5-β-d-Manf-1→5,6-β-d-Manf-1→5,6-β-d-Manf-1→, and the side chains are α-d-Glcp-1→4-α-d-Glcp-1→, β-d-Galf-1→, and α-d-Glcp-1→. In addition, we demonstrated that TPS was non-toxic in normal cells (LO2 cells) and inhibited the proliferation of mouse colon cells (CT26 cells)...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ali Mohsin, Jingyun Sun, Imran Mahmood Khan, Haifeng Hang, Muhammad Tariq, Xiwei Tian, Waqas Ahmed, Sobia Niazi, Yingping Zhuang, Ju Chu, Muhammad Zubair Mohsin, Salim-Ur-Rehman, Meijin Guo
This study presents an engineered approach for sustainable biosynthesis of curdlan by Alcaligenes faecalis using orange peels. To confirm the substrate suitability a four step study was organized. Firstly, drying of substrate was carried within temperature range of 60-120 °C, along with the application of moisture diffusion control model. Secondly, fermentation medium was obtained via saccharification and detoxification, releasing highest sugar at 72.34 g/L with phenolics removal of 95-98%. Thirdly, curdlan fermentation was conducted in detoxified orange peel hydrolysate followed by optimization of batch culture fermentation via kinetic modeling using Logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Armen Tchobanian, Hans Van Oosterwyck, Pedro Fardim
Biological studies on the importance of carbohydrate moieties in tissue engineering have incited a growing interest in the application of polysaccharides as scaffolds over the past two decades. This review provides a perspective of the recent approaches in developing polysaccharide scaffolds, with a focus on their chemical modification, structural versatility, and biological applicability. The current major limitations are assessed, including structural reproducibility, the narrow scope of polysaccharide modifications being applied, and the effective replication of the extracellular environment...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jie Chen, Meizhen Huang, Lili Kong, Mengshi Lin
This study aimed to develop a jellylike flexible substrate based on nanocellulose decorated with Ag nanoparticles (Ag/NC substrate) and explore its applications for rapid in-situ pesticide detections in fruits and vegetables by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The performances of Ag/NC substrate were characterized by rhodamine 6G (R6G). The limit of detection recorded by a portable Raman spectrometer is 10-8 M. The substrate still exhibited satisfactory sensitivity after 60-day preservation. Jellylike and slightly sticky Ag/NC substrate demonstrated good adaptabilities in attaching to sample surfaces and is suitable for in-situ SERS detection...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Soraya Ghayempour, Majid Montazer
In this paper, a novel controlled release system based on Tragacanth nanofibers loaded with Peppermint oil is introduced by using a sonochemical/microemulsion method. The synthesized Tragacanth nanofibers showed a one-dimensional shape with 58 nm thickness and relatively smooth surface. Also, the loading of Peppermint oil into the synthesized nanofibers confirmed with FT-IR spectra. Further, a relatively good controlled release property (92.38%) reported for the loaded Peppermint oil nanofibers after 18 h...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Seong-Won Choi, Jung-A Lee, Sang-Ho Yoo
A unique thermostable amylosucrase from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was produced as a recombinant protein with the half-life of 577 h at 50 °C. By adding 1.0 M fructose, turanose yield was improved from 22.7% to 43.3% with 1.0 M sucrose, and from 23.7% to 39.4% with 1.5 M sucrose. Sucrose consumption rate was greatest at 55 °C, but the lowest amount of turanose was produced. Thus, turanose yield from sucrose biomass was inversely proportional to reaction temperature and was highly dependent on [fructose]...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Zhimei Song, Yi Wen, Peizong Deng, Fangfang Teng, Feilong Zhou, Hongmei Xu, Sijia Feng, Li Zhu, Runliang Feng
Introduction of linolenic acid (LNA) and methoxy poly (ethylene glycol) (MPEG) to the backbone of oligochitosan (CS) afforded LNA-modified MPEG-CS conjugate (MPEG-CS-LNA). Amphotericin B-loaded MPEG-CS-LNA micelles (AmB-M) were prepared via dialysis method with 82.27 ± 1.96% of drug encapsulation efficiency and 10.52 ± 0.22% of drug loading capacity. The AmB-M enhanced AmB's water-solubility to 1.64 mg/mL, being 1640-folds higher than native AmB. The AmB-M obviously reduced hemolytic effect and renal toxicity of AmB when compared to marketed AmB injection (AmB-I)...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Johnny Birch, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Serge Pérez, Birte Svensson
The EPS Database (EPS-DB) is a web-based, platform-independent database of bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) providing access to detailed structural, taxonomic, growth conditions, functional properties, genetic, and bibliographic information for EPSs. It is freely available on the Internet as a website at Several structural data representation schemes are used following the most commonly accepted formats. This guarantees full interoperability with other structural, experimental, and functional databases in the area of glycoscience...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Santosh Kumar, Balu Krishnakumar, Abilio J F N Sobral, Joonseok Koh
Preparation of hitherto unreported chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/ZnO nanocomposites film (designated as CS/PVA/ZnO) as an efficient bio-based nanocomposites is carried out by a greener approach involving mixing, solution casting and solvent evaporation. Synthesized chitosan-based nanocomposites films are characterized by various analytical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Feng-Yi Zheng, Ruisong Li, Jiadan Hu, Jie Zhang, Xudong Han, Xinrui Wang, Wen-Rong Xu, Yucang Zhang
Ball-milled chitin was liquefied with an optimal yield of 92% under sulfuric acid in diethylene glycol (DEG) at 160 °C for 120 min. The resulting liquid mixture was roughly separated into two portions: the real products of the reaction (liquefied ball-milled chitin, LBMC) and the remaining unreacted DEG. LBMC was further mingled with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to prepare LBMC/PVA blend membranes. To promote the direct utilization of shellfishery waste, raw shrimp shells were used to replace chitin for the liquefaction and membrane preparation operations...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Miaomiao Zhu, Ranhua Xiong, Chaobo Huang
Air pollution is becoming more and more severe especially in developing countries. It is urgent to seek an effective protection for the unacceptable levels of the air pollution. Up to date, the air filtration is a widely used method to protect us from the air pollution. However, most of the air filtration membranes in fabrication process is required to use harmful organic solvents. Here, we report a human friendly, multifunctional and bio-based chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) air filtration membrane via green electrospinning and UV-cured...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ruonan Bo, Zhenguang Liu, Jing Zhang, Pengfei Gu, Ning Ou, Yaqin Sun, Yuanliang Hu, Jiaguo Liu, Deyun Wang
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that play a central role in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. We have previously demonstrated that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides liposomes (LBPL) as immune adjuvant elicits strong antigen-specific Th1 immune responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate underlying mechanism of liposomes promoting effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on activating DCs. LBP were loaded with high entrapment efficiency (86%) into liposomes using reverse phase evaporation...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Zhaojie Wang, Hu Bai, Chunbo Lu, Chunyan Hou, Yuanhao Qiu, Peng Zhang, Jinyou Duan, Haibo Mu
Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections and food contamination. High resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents resulted in an urgent need for novel formulation to eliminate these bacterial communities. Herein we fabricated light controllable chitosan micelles loading with thymol (T-TCP) for elimination of biofilm. Due to the exterior chitosan, T-TCP micelles easily bind to negative biofilm through electrostatic interaction and efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Marc Kostag, Omar A El Seoud
We synthesized a series of quaternary ammonium acetates (QAAcOs) and assessed their solutions in DMSO as cellulose solvents. NBz111 AcO/DMSO did not dissolve cellulose; substitution of its methyl groups resulted in efficient cellulose solvents; NBz31 AcO/DMSO dissolved cellulose with difficulty. We attribute the inefficiency of both QAAcOs to: strong anion-cation interactions, NBz111 AcO; steric effects and cation-cation hydrophobic interactions, NBz31 AcO. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we determined the enthalpies (HE ) of QAAcO (endothermic) dissolution, and QAAcO/cellobiose (exothermic) interactions; both in dimethyl sulfoxide/acetonitrile...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Carlos Sabater, Agustín Olano, Nieves Corzo, Antonia Montilla
Novel artichoke pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) mixtures have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using four commercial enzyme preparations: Glucanex® 200G, Pentopan® Mono-BG, Pectinex® Ultra-Olio and Cellulase from Aspergillus niger. Analysis by HPAEC-PAD showed that Cellulase from A. niger produced the greatest amount of POS (310.6 mg g-1 pectin), while the lowest amount was produced by Pentopan® Mono-BG (45.7 mg g-1 pectin). To determine structural differences depending on the origin of the enzyme, GC-MS spectra of di- and trisaccharides have been studied employing three machine learning algorithms: multilayer perceptron, random forest and boosted logistic regression...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
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