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Carbohydrate Polymers

Mhd Abd Cader Mhd Haniffa, Yern Chee Ching, Cheng Hock Chuah, Kuan Yong Ching, Nik Nazri, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Liou Nai-Shang
Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lucia Padalino, Cristina Costa, Amalia Conte, Maria Grazia Melilli, Carla Sillitti, Rosaria Bognanni, Salvatore Antonino Raccuia, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
The use of inulin in pasta improves the nutritional value decreasing the glycemic index in the blood after pasta ingestion but it compromises the sensory characteristics in terms of elasticity, firmness, bulkiness and adhesiveness. Thus, in this work, the impact of substituting whole-meal durum wheat flour with inulin on cooking quality, sensory and textural properties, digested starch and chemical composition of spaghetti was investigated. Two types of inulin at two different concentrations (2% and 4%) were adopted: inulin extracted from cardoon roots (CRI) (high polymerization degree) and commercial inulin (CHI) (low polymerization degree) produced from chicory...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xavier Monnier, Jean-Eudes Maigret, Denis Lourdin, Allisson Saiter
By means of fast scanning calorimetry, the glass transition of anhydrous amorphous starch has been measured. With a scanning rate of 2000Ks(-1), thermal degradation of starch prior to the glass transition has been inhibited. To certify the glass transition measurement, structural relaxation of the glassy state has been investigated through physical aging as well as the concept of limiting fictive temperature. In both cases, characteristic enthalpy recovery peaks related to the structural relaxation of the glass have been observed...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xue Liu, Jiejie Hao, Xiaoxi He, Shuyao Wang, Sujian Cao, Ling Qin, Wenjun Mao
A homogeneous polysaccharide was obtained from Monostroma angicava Kjellm by water extraction, preparative anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that the polysaccharide was a glucuronic acid-containing rhamnan-type sulfated polysaccharide. The backbone mainly consisted of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ residues, partially sulfated at C-2 of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and C-3/C-4 of →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→. The branching contained unsulfated or monosulfated 3-linked, 2-linked, 4-linked α-l-rhamnose and terminal β-d-glucuronic acid residues...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chih-Hao Chen, Shih-Hsien Chen, Shih-Hsuan Mao, Ming-Jin Tsai, Pang-Yun Chou, Chien-Hung Liao, Jyh-Ping Chen
Peritoneal adhesion is one of the common complications after abdominal surgery. Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel could serve as an ideal barrier to prevent this postoperative tissue adhesion. In this study, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was grafted to chitosan (CS) and the polymer was further conjugated with hyaluronic acid (HA) to form thermosensitive HA-CS-PNIPAm hydrogel. Aqueous solutions of PNIPAm and HA-CS-PNIPAm at 10%(w/v) are both free-flowing and injectable at room temperature and exhibit sol-gel phase transition around 31°C; however, HA-CS-PNIPAm shows less volume shrinkage after gelation and higher complex modulus than PNIPAm...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
B Jothimani, S Sureshkumar, B Venkatachalapathy
Chitin is a naturally occurring fully N-acylated biopolymer which cannot be converted into nanomaterial easily due to its inherent rigidity and chemical inertness. These properties limit the utility of chitin in nanomaterial-based applications. Therefore, our aim in the present work was, to prepare chitin like fully N-acylated derivatives with a hydrophobic moiety and study the impact on nanoparticles synthesis. We report such a fully substituted derivative, N-(Thiophene-2-acetyl)chitosan, its characterization and physicochemical studies of the nanoparticles synthesized...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
K Ponmurugan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, J Prakash Maran, K Karthikeyan, I Ganesh Moothy, N Sivarajasekar, J Jony Blessing Manoj
The main aim of this current work is to extract pectin from waste heads of Helianthus annus by ultrasound and optimize the process variables (ultrasound power (USP), pH, time of sonication (TS) and ratio of solid to liquid (RSL) on maximal recovery of pectin using central composite statistical experimental design. In addition to that, extracted pectin at optimal condition was characterized and compared with commercial pectin. The optimal extraction process condition was USP of 375w, pH of 3.2, TS of 32min and RSL of 1:15g/ml...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiancai Jiang, Nanping Xiang, Jinquan Wang, Yulai Zhao, Linxi Hou
Development of bio-based hydrogels with good mechanical properties is of great importance for their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, chitosan (CS) based double network (DN) hydrogel was prepared by dissolving CS in AlCl3·6H2O aqueous solution instead of acetic acid solution. After dissolving acrylic amide (AM), acrylic acid (AA), N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide and 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydoxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone were added into the CS/Al(3+) solution and the CS/PAMAA-Al(3+) DN hydrogel was prepared by UV polymerization...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pengfei Lv, Yixin Yao, Dawei Li, Huimin Zhou, Muhammad Awais Naeem, Quan Feng, Jieyu Huang, Yibing Cai, Qufu Wei
Nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method using citric acid (CA) and ethanediamine (EDA) as precursors. A green and simple fluorescence biosensor was obtained by biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC)/N-CDs. As-prepared N-CDs with rich functional groups exhibited a blue emission under the excitation wavelength of 350nm. Biosynthesis of BC/N-CDs was analyzed by Digital photos, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that N-CDs were successfully anchored on BC...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yao Li, Ya Yuan, Lin Lei, Fuhua Li, Yueqiao Zhang, Jinlong Chen, Guohua Zhao, Surui Wu, Ran Yin, Jian Ming
The chemically carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CPMEP), which is derived from the purified polysaccharide from Morchella angusticepes Peck (PMEP), was prepared. The degree of substitution of CPMEP was 0.461. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis and (13)C, (1)H, and DEPT135° NMR spectra indicated C6 position was partially substituted by CH2COOH. Moreover, serum total cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic rats treated with the high dose of PMEP and CPMEP was 1.54mmol/L and 1.29mmol/L compared with that of rats fed with a 2% cholesterol diet (1...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Gownolla Malegowd Raghavendra, Jeyoung Jung, Dowan Kim, Jongchul Seo
In the current investigation, CuO with a flower-like morphology has been successfully synthesized in situ in a chitosan medium (0.0015gmL(-1)) from copper nitrate (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) and ammonia solution via a facile microwave-induced method. The as-prepared CuO was characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR and TGA. The antibacterial activity of the flower-CuO against Escherichia coli was examined by analyzing colony forming units, and it was proved that the flower-CuO was able to kill >99% bacteria. Further, the flower-CuO exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Bin Du, Yuedong Yang, Zhaoxiang Bian, Baojun Xu
Intestinal anti-inflammatory activities of exopolysaccharide from S. commune were assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice model. The changes of molecular weight (MW), atomic force microscope morphology, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and viscosity were recorded after sonication treatment. The results indicated that the triple helical structure of exopolysaccharide was dissociated into single helical structure and random coiled structure by ultrasonication via breaking of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sekhar Das
Hybrid composites were prepared with jute fabric and un-shredded newspaper in polyester resin matrix. The experiment was designed 1:2 weights ratio jute and unshredded newspaper to have 42 (w/w)% fibre content hybrid composites and two different sequences jute/paper/jute and paper/jute/paper of waste newspaper and jute fabric arrangement. Reinforcing material is characterized by chemically, X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile testing. The tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength and fracture surface morphology of composites were evaluated and compared...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nan Sun, Ting Wang, Xiufeng Yan
Self-assembly of cellulose-based hydrogel is a new supermolecular architecture with potential for biomedical applications. In this study, a novel cellulose-based, supermolecular self-assembled hydrogel (gel-(β)CDP-HEC) was studied, which was based on the host-guest interaction between hydrophobic lauryl side chains grafting on hydroxyethyl cellulose (HECC12) and the cavities in poly(β-cyclodextrin) (β-CDP). The critical concentrations of HECC12 and β-CDP should be both fixed at 30mgmL(-1) by the results of dynamic viscosity, rheological property and swelling ratio...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ovidio Catanzano, Rachael Docking, Patricia Schofield, Joshua Boateng
This study aimed to develop advanced biomaterial polysaccharide based dressings to manage pain associated with infected chronic leg ulcers in older adults. Composite carrageenan (CARR) and hyaluronic acid (HA) dressings loaded with lidocaine (LID) and AgNPs were formulated as freeze-dried wafers and functionally characterized for porous microstructure (morphology), mechanical strength, moisture handling properties, swelling, adhesion and LID release. Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was evaluated (turbidity assay) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus whilst cell viability studies (MTT) was performed on normal adult human primary epidermal keratinocyte cells...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Carolin Menzel, Gulaim Seisenbaeva, Peter Agback, Mikael Gällstedt, Antal Boldizar, Kristine Koch
Wheat starch carbamates of different degrees of substitution were produced in laboratory experiments and for the first time their film forming performance were investigated. The carbamation reaction between urea and starch was investigated using a factorial design. Long reaction time, 2h, and high urea content, 10 and 25%, resulted in a high degree of substitution, 0.07 and 0.15, respectively. These starch carbamates were assumed to be cross-linked and showed best film forming properties resulting in continuous and firm films...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Reda F M Elshaarawy, Fatma H A Mustafa, Lasse van Geelen, Amaal E A Abou-Taleb, Hermine R Z Tadros, Rainer Kalscheuer, Christoph Janiak
Banning organotins as antifouling biocides in 2003 was the starting point for many researchers to search for novel economic and environmentally-friendly anti-fouling biocides. In our present contribution, we have successfully functionalized a natural biopolymer, chitosan (CS), isolated from marine wastes with polyelectrolyte brushes akin to ionic liquids. These antifouling biopolymers anchoring polyelectrolyte brushes were in vitro assessed for their ability to eradicate or inhibit the Staphylococcal/Escherichia biofilms...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Desirée Bartels, Birgit Classen
Today, understanding of cell wall evolution is incomplete due to limited knowledge of cell wall structure of non-flowering plants. Besides polysaccharides, proteoglycans like arabinogalactan-proteins are important constituents of the cell wall of most if not all seed plants. This article provides the first detailed characterization of AGPs from a lycophyte and different ferns, which are the closest living relatives to seed plants. The amount of protein in fern AGPs (6-12%) was in a range comparable to most seed plant AGPs...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Angélica Espíndola-Cortés, Rosario Moreno-Tovar, Lauro Bucio, Miquel Gimeno, José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil, Keiko Shirai
The extraction of calcareous chitin from shrimp cephalothorax was successfully achieved using a subcritical water treatment to attain a deproteinization up to 96%. The treatments also increased the crystalline domain size in the α-chitin fibers. An experimental design of Taguchi allowed the optimization of experiments. The macroelements identified in all samples were Ca, P, S, K, Cl and Al, whereas Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr were also detected as microelements. The assigned crystalline phases by XRD were α-chitin, calcite, HAP and traces of quartz...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chen Fan, Mingcheng Guo, You Liang, Hongqiang Dong, Guanglong Ding, Wenbing Zhang, Gang Tang, Jiale Yang, Dandan Kong, Yongsong Cao
Kasugamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic originally isolated from Streptomyces kasugaensis, which has been widely used for the management of plant diseases. However, photo-thermal instability and low efficiency limit its application. Therefore, it is an urgent task to prevent unwanted loss of kasugamycin and ensure maximum bioactivity at target site. In this work, a novel formulation of kasugamycin that responds to different biological stimuli produced by pests was prepared using silica microcapsules crosslinked with pectin via special disulfide bonds...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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