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Carbohydrate Polymers

Anny Leudjo Taka, Kriveshini Pillay, Xavier Yangkou Mbianda
Water is a worldwide vital resource for sustaining life and due to the pollution of water by different classes of pollutants (inorganic, organic and pathogens), many ongoing studies in water purification remain a critical issue to governments, scientists and industries. The challenge is to develop a water purification technology which will be effective at removing these contaminants simultaneously and reducing their concentrations to ultra low levels from waste water. This review article serves to give an overview on cyclodextrin nanosponge adsorbents which have already been used for water treatment...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yongjun Ahn, Younghan Song, Hyungsup Kim, Seung-Yeop Kwak
This study focused on the influence of anion type on the depolymerization and its effect on the molecular state, dynamics and dispersity of cellulose. GPC and the van Gurp-Palmen plot showed that molar mass was more significantly decreased by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4C1Im][Cl]) comparing to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4C1Im][OAc]). Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose in IL was proved using base titration which was monitored by conductivity and pH value. On the contrary to the depolymerization case, [C4C1Im][OAc] solution needed more base to be neutralized than [C4C1Im][Cl] solution...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Monika Gibis, Valerie Schuh, Karin Allard, Jochen Weiss
Four carboxymethyl celluloses (CMCs) differing in molecular weight (MW) and degree of substitution (°DS) were initially characterized in NaCl solution (0.1 M) and on properties of emulsion-type sausage models. The impact of the different CMCs (0-2 wt%) on the rheological behavior and firmness of an emulsion-type sausage models containing 1.8wt% NaCl was studied. Rheology (unheated/heated) and firmness (heated) showed an increasing effect with increasing CMC concentrations. Addition of>1wt% CMC led to a decrease in storage modulus of the unheated/heated batter and to a decrease in firmness of heated independent of the CMC-type used...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh Tekie, Melika Kiani, Amir Zakerian, Faezeh Pilevarian, Akram Assali, Masoud Soleimani, Rassoul Dinarvand, Ehsan Arefian, Amir Atashi, Mohsen Amini, Fatemeh Atyabi
Chitosan (Ch) nanoparticles have emerged as a promising vector for gene delivery, nonetheless slow dissociation rate of the nanoparticles in cytoplasm is a drawback of using Ch. Herein, the Ch-mediated gene delivery was improved using PECs of Ch and carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) to transfer the micro RNA-145 (miR-145). The optimized nano PEC preparation method and effects of Ch molecular weight (Mw) and a CMD to Ch molar ratio (CMD:Ch) on physical characteristics and in vitro efficacy of the nano PECs was determined...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jun Yang, Natale Vittori, Weiwei Wang, Yong-Cheng Shi, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, Michael J Miller, Yang Pan
There is interest in novel fibers as potential prebiotics for new and reformulated food products. Two konjac glucomannan (KGM) hydrolysates were developed by enzymatic hydrolysis with (KGMH I) or without (KGMH II) mechanical shear pre-treatment. These were characterized and evaluated as fermentation substrates using five lactobacilli and three bifidobacteria. Enzymatic treatment of native KGM reduced the average molecular weights of supernatant and pellet by ∼3-fold. Additional mechanical shear pre-treatment further reduced supernatant and pellet molecular weights by 5% and 35%, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Suheyla Kocaman, Mustafa Karaman, Mehmet Gursoy, Gulnare Ahmetli
In this study, surface-modified grinded coconut waste (CW) particles were used as bio-fillers to prepare polymeric composite materials with enhanced properties. Epoxy resin modified with acrylated and epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as the polymer matrix. Two different strategies, namely chemical treatment and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were utilized to modify the surface of CW particles for using them as compatible bio-fillers in composite preparation. Chemical modification involved the treatment of CW particles in a highly alkali NaOH solution, while PECVD modification involved coating of a thin film of hydrophobic poly(hexafluorobutyl acrylate) (PHFBA) around individual CW particle surfaces...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Bong-Seok Kang, Jin-Seok Choi, Sang-Eun Lee, Joon-Kyung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Kim, Woo Suk Jang, Amolnat Tunsirikongkon, Jin-Ki Kim, Jeong-Sook Park
To improve the solubility and anticancer activity of albendazole (ABZ), chitosan (CS)-coated poly-dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were developed. CS was used to coat ABZ-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to enhance both mucoadhesiveness and colloidal stability. CS-coated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in CS solution after solvent diffusion. The CS-coated PLGA nanoparticles were characterized, and ABZ release was studied in vitro from various formulations. The mucoadhesive properties and in vitro anticancer activities of CS-coated PLGA nanoparticles were investigated by measurement of zeta potentials and the MTT assay, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nurettin Sahiner, Selin Sagbas, Mehtap Sahiner, Ramesh S Ayyala
Poly(hyaluronic acid) (p(HA)) particles with sizes from few hundred nm to few tens of micrometer were synthesized by using epoxy groups containing crosslinker glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDE) with high yield, 94±5%. P(HA) particles were oxidized by treatment with sodium periodate and then reacted with cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) at 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 wt ratio of p(HA):PEI to obtain p(HA)-PEI particles. From zeta potential measurements, isoelectronic points of bare p(HA) particles increased to pH 8.7 from 2...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xueping Yu, Guowen Qian, Si Chen, Dong Xu, Xiujuan Zhao, Chang Du
Scaffold of gelatin-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronan-polyvinyl alcohol (GCH-PVA) with orientated microtubule structure and good hydrophilicity was fabricated by unidirectional freeze-drying method mimicking the composition and structure of tracheal cartilage extracellular matrix. PVA was incorporated to improve flexibility and viscoelasticity of GCH scaffold. All wet scaffolds showed similar compressive elastic modulus with native cartilage. GCH-PVA scaffolds showed high relative remaining stress during relaxation indicating good mechanical stability...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Na Li, Xue Liu, Xiaoxi He, Shuyao Wang, Sujian Cao, Zheng Xia, Huali Xian, Ling Qin, Wenjun Mao
An anticoagulant-active polysaccharide PF2 was extracted with boiling water from the green seaweed Monostroma angicava, further purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. PF2 was a rhamnan-type sulfated polysaccharide with molecular weight of about 88.1kDa. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses demonstrated that PF2 consisted of→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→residues, with partially branches at C-2 of→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→residues. Sulfate groups were substituted at C-3 of →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ residues...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qiang-Ming Li, Jing-Fei Wang, Xue-Qiang Zha, Li-Hua Pan, Hai-Lin Zhang, Jian-Ping Luo
A new polysaccharide (JSP-11) with a molecular weight of 1.25×10(6)Da was extracted and purified from jellyfish. Monosaccharide analysis showed that JSP-11 was composed of mannose, galactose and glucuronic acid with a molar ratio of 2.18:1.00:1.94. According to the analysis of fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy, JSP-11 was determined to contain a linear backbone which consisted of (1→3,6)-linked β-d-Manp and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp. The branch of (1→)-linked α-d-GlcpA was attached to the C-3 position of (1→3,6)-linked β-d-Manp in the backbone...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Liping Huang, Yutong Wang, Xiang Ling, Birendra Chaurasiya, Chen Yang, Yunai Du, Jiasheng Tu, Yerong Xiong, Chunmeng Sun
Core-crosslinked pullulan nanoparticles (Pull-LA-CLNPs) were synthesized by the reduction-sensitive strategy for paclitaxel (PTX) delivery. Pull-LA-CLNPs showed high stability against extensive dilution, high salt concentration and organic solvent. In vitro drug release study showed that PTX release from Pull-LA-NPs at pH 7.4 and 5.4 was significantly influenced by addition of DTT. In cytotoxicity assay, PTX loaded Pull-LA-CLNPs showed a low IC50 at 0.51μg/mL. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) competitive inhibition and intracellular distribution studies performed by flow cytometer, fluorescence microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that Pull-LA-NPs could be efficiently taken up by the cells via ASGPR-mediated endocytosis and mainly distributed in cytoplasm...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Isala Dueramae, Masaru Yoneyama, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara, Rio Kita
Self-assembly of acetylated dextran (Ac-DEXs) was investigated with a modified dextran with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine. The effect of acetylation degree on solution properties has been investigated by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Molecular weight (Mw) and the radius of gyration (Rg) of dextran significantly increased with acetylation degree due to the aggregates formation. However, those aggregates noticeably reduced with further increase of acetylation degree. It suggested that the aggregates have shrinkage...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Danaja Štular, Ivan Jerman, Iztok Naglič, Barbara Simončič, Brigita Tomšič
Silver nanoparticles were embedded into a temperature- and pH-responsive microgel based on poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) and chitosan (PNCS) before or after its application to cotton fabric to create a smart stimuli-responsive textile with simultaneous moisture management and controlled antimicrobial activities. Two different methods of silver embedment into the PNCS microgel using two different forms of silver nanoparticles were studied, i.e., in-situ synthesis of AgCl nanocrystals into PNCS microgel particles that had previously been applied to cotton fabric, as well as the direct incorporation of colloidal silver into the microgel suspension prior to its deposition on cellulose fibres...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yongqin Wei, Jin Zhang, Yan Zhou, Weiya Bei, Yuan Li, Qipeng Yuan, Hao Liang
Various biological activities of glabridin have been reported in literature, however, the bioavailability and clinical application was limited by its low water solubility. In this study, we developed a novel inclusion complex of glabridin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) that features improved solubility and bioactivity. The formation of the inclusion complex was supported by data from FT-IR, PXRD, SEM and NMR. Specifically, the NMR results indicated that the aromatic ring of glabridin was merged into and located at the narrow side the cavity of HP-β-CD...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Firdaus Parveen, Kritika Gupta, Sreedevi Upadhyayula
The hydrolysis of cellulose catalysed by ionic liquid (IL) immobilized on chloromethyl vinyl benzene (CMVB) with different IL/CMVB ratio was carried out in water as a solvent. The influence of process variables like IL/CMVB ratio in catalyst, temperature and time were investigated in a batch reactor. It was found that 40% IL/CMVB catalyst afforded maximum%TRS and glucose yield 58.5 and 47.9% respectively at 160 °C in 6h reaction time. This can be attributed to the synergistic effect of chloro and sulfonic groups, to dissolve the cellulose by breaking the intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonds and cleave the β-1, 4 glycosidic bonds respectively...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Patrícia I Morgado, Sónia P Miguel, Ilídio J Correia, Ana Aguiar-Ricardo
During wound healing, an early inflammation can cause an increase of the wound size and the healing process can be considerably belated if a disproportionate inflammatory response occurs. (S)-ibuprofen (IBP), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been used for muscle healing and to treat venous leg ulcers, but its effect in skin wound healing has not been thoroughly studied thus far. Herein, IBP-β-cyclodextrins carriers were designed to customise the release profile of IBP from poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/CS) dressings in order to promote a faster skin regeneration...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Minwoo Lee, Min Haeng Heo, Hwi-Hui Lee, Young-Wun Kim, Jihoon Shin
A series of elastomeric nanocomposites with superior tensile strength and extensibility, simultaneously exhibiting softening, was prepared using in situ polymerization by homogeneously dispersing TEMPO-oxidized cellulose individualized nanofibers (TOCNs) in a polyurethane urea (PUU) matrix. The structure of these PUU composites covalently cross-linked with the TOCNs was characterized. It was interesting to find that the amount and size of the hard domains in the composites gradually decreased by introducing crosslinkable TOCNs...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Morganna Ochoa, Nina Collazos, Tuan Le, Ramalingam Subramaniam, Melanie Sanders, Raj Pal Singh, Dilip Depan
We report a novel nanohybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) architecture of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and a block copolymer, (polyethylene-b-polyethylene glycol) (PE-b-PEG). Cellulose microfibers were ultrasonically dispersed to generate cellulose nanofibers in the size range of 50±10nm in diameter, while the block copolymer was crystallized using a solution crystallization approach to prepare NHSK. This unique approach allows the flocculated NHSK product to transfer quickly from toluene to ethanol, in order to shorten the preparation time...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Aruna Rani, Rwivoo Baruah, Arun Goyal
Chicken keel bone cartilage was explored for cheaper and sustainable source for isolation of chondroitin sulphate (CS) for its future use in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industry. HPSEC analysis displayed two peaks of 100kDa for CS-keel polysaccharide and 1kDa for protein. DLS analysis of CS-keel displayed polydispersity. CS-keel yield was 15% and 53±5% uronic acid content. The quantified percentages of UA-GalNAc4S and UA-GalNAc6S disaccharide in CS-keel were 58% and 42%, respectively. FT-IR identified CS-keel to be chondroitin 4-sulphate...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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