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Carbohydrate Polymers

Jatin Sethi, Kristiina Oksman, Mirja Illikainen, Juho Antti Sirviö
This paper addresses the issue of high water retention by cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) that lead to exorbitant time consumption in the dewatering of CNF suspensions. This has been a bottleneck, which is restricting the commercialization of CNF derived products such as nanopapers and CNF reinforced paper sheets. As a remedy, we suggest an eco-friendly water-based approach that involves the use of sonication energy and lactic acid (LA) to modify the surface of CNFs. The suggested modification resulted in rapid water drainage, and dewatering was completed in 10 min; with unmodified CNFs, it took around 45 min...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Fancheng Meng, Qiu Li, Yaning Qi, Chengwei He, Chunming Wang, Qingwen Zhang
The polysaccharides obtained from the root of Ilex asprella, namely IAPS-1 and IAPS-2, with immunoregulatory activity were studied. Two polysaccharides were isolated and purified by Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex columns. The structure of IAPS-1 was elucidated as 1,6-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl main chain with branch chain substituted at C-2 and/or C-4 position. For IAPS-2, the backbone is composed of 1, 4-linked α-d-glucose, galactose and rhamnose, and branched chains consists of arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid, as confirmed by partial acid hydrolysis and NMR study...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shaoshuai Xie, Yudong Guan, Peipei Zhu, Fei Li, Mengqi Yu, Robert J Linhardt, Lianli Chi, Lan Jin
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are important anticoagulant drugs. Nitrous acid degradation is a major approach to produce LMWHs, such as dalteparin. Due to the foreseeable shortage of porcine intestinal mucosa heparin and other potential risks, expansion of other animal tissues for heparin preparation is necessary. Heparins from different tissues differ in structure and bioactivity potency, and these variations may be carried over to the LMWH products. Sophisticated analytical techniques have been applied to compare various versions of dalteparins produced from porcine intestinal, bovine lung and ovine intestinal heparins to elucidate the effects of different animal tissues starting materials and processing conditions on the properties of final dalteparin products...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Maiping Yang, Weiqu Liu, Chi Jiang, Sha He, Yankun Xie, Zhengfang Wang
The purpose of this paper is to propose a facile, green and low-cost approach of the preparation of superhydrophobic cotton textiles, which can be fabricated with fluorinated TiO2 sols via a sol-gel method. The coating was prepared with TiO2 sols catalyzed with acetic acid, then modified by poly(Hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) (PHFBMA) which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The wettability, surface morphology and chemical composition of pristine and modified cotton fabrics were investigated. The modified fabric presents a high contact angle reached up to 152...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
S R Derkach, N G Voron'ko, Yu A Kuchina, D S Kolotova, A M Gordeeva, D A Faizullin, Yu A Gusev, Yu F Zuev, O N Makshakova
Rheological studies, FTIR spectroscopy and a molecular docking approach were used to explore the structural basis of the peculiar physicochemical properties of gelatin gels modified with a κ-carrageenan admixture. Mixed gel properties are affected by the polysaccharide-to-gelatin ratio, Z, and can be divided into two categories. At low ratios, the strength of mixed gels varies insignificantly compared to gelatin due to the similar structures of the gels. Above the threshold content of κ-carrageenan (Z > 0...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jasim Ahmed, Linu Thomas, Yasir Ali Arfat, Antony Joseph
The impact of high-pressure treatment on the gelatinization of quinoa starch (QS) dispersions was investigated as a function of pressure (300, 450 and 600 MPa for 15 min) and starch to water (S/W) ratio (1:3 and 1:4 w/w). The structural changes of QS were characterized by rheological, DSC, SEM, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy. The water holding capacity and granules particle size increased significantly with the intensity of pressure. The G' of the QS gradually improved as a function of pressure and S/W ratio...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Daniel Bermejo-Velasco, Weiqiang Dou, Arend Heerschap, Dmitri Ossipov, Jöns Hilborn
Monitoring hydrogel degradation in real time using noninvasive imaging techniques is of great interest for designing a scaffold in tissue engineering. We report the preparation of gadolinium (Gd)-labeled and injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels that can be visualized using T1 - and T2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An HA derivative functionalized with thiol and hydrazide was labeled using a diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complex modified with "clickable" dithiopyridyl functionalities (degree of modification was 3...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mariana M de Carvalho, Rilton A de Freitas, Diogo R B Ducatti, Luciana G Ferreira, Alan G Gonçalves, Franciely G Colodi, Ester Mazepa, Estela M Aranha, Miguel D Noseda, Maria Eugênia R Duarte
Native (F2) and carboxyl-reduced (R) ulvans from Ulva fasciata were sequentially oxidized with periodate-chlorite affording the polycarboxyl ulvans C1, C2 and C3 (1.20, 1.41 and 1.81 mmol g-1 of COOH, respectively; 19.7, 21.3 and 21.0% of NaSO3 , respectively) and R-C3 (1.86 mmol g-1 of COOH; NaSO3  = 22.7%), respectively. APTT assay (polysaccharide fractions at 150 μg mL-1 ) showed clotting time of 45.6 s for F2 fraction. For polycarboxyl ulvans C1, C2, C3 and R-C3 the clotting times were 101...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Alejandro Garrido-Maestu, Zhengxin Ma, Sae-Yeol-Rim Paik, Nusheng Chen, Sanghoon Ko, Zhaohui Tong, KwangCheol Casey Jeong
Chitosan is an abundant and natural polymer derived from chitin, which presents a wide variety of properties, including antimicrobial activity. The raising of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased the interest in finding alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Many studies have assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan itself, but a few have performed comparisons among different chitosan nanoparticle synthesis, which will be of particular interest for further applications. In this study, the effects of two types of cross-linking agents, sodium sulfate vs...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Maryam Sabbaghan, Dimitris S Argyropoulos
Cubic, truncated cubic and spherical nano and micro particles of Cu2 O, can be selectively deposited onto nano fibrilated cellulose gels by the modulated alkaline reduction of Cu2+ ions aided by the cellulose's reducing end groups. The role of the cellulose's reducing end groups and that of externally added carbohydrate reducing agents, towards inducing various Cu2 O morphologies, is discussed with respect to the detailed nucleation effects leading to micro and nano Cu2 O particle deposition on NFC. When the reducing end groups are provided only by the cellulose's chain ends, supersaturation effects seem to be affecting the Cu2 O nucleation mechanism...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Feng Gong, Junqing Qian, Yan Chen, Shen Yao, Jun Tong, Hui Guo
Nisin is a small cationic peptide composed of 34 amino acid residues, it exhibits a wide spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but nisin has the disadvantages of poor stability and short duration of antibacterial activity. In order to improve the stability of nisin during food processing and storage period, the gum arabic (GA) is used to get GA-nisin microparticles. The analysis of zeta potential, SEM and FT-IR were used to characterize the combination of GA and nisin, test the antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, the bactericidal effect of GA-nisin microparticles decreased within 24 h compare to free nisin, however, GA-nisin microparticles after 121 °C treatment for 10 min, the activity loss rate is less than free nisin and has better sustained antibacterial effect at 25 °C...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Marta K Lemieszek, Fernando M Nunes, Claudia Cardoso, Guilhermina Marques, Wojciech Rzeski
The percentage of people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases is constantly increasing, because of that searching for substances able to prevent or inhibit neuronal death sseems to be reasonable. Because of the high popularity the search of new neuroprotective agents we started from Cantharellus cibarius. Neuroprotective properties of C. cibarius polysaccharides fractions was investigated in different models of neurodegeneration including trophic stress, excitotoxicity and andoxidative stress. Fractions influence on neurons viability was examined using Neurite Outgrowth Staining, MTT and LDH tests, while antioxidant capacity was determined by commercial antioxidant assays...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Bhairavi Doshi, Ali Ayati, Bahareh Tanhaei, Eveliina Repo, Mika Sillanpää
Industrial wastes and their effluents containing dyes and heavy metals are a tremendous threat to the environment, and to treat these toxic waste streams, effective and environmentally benign methods are needed. In this study, NaCS-GL was used as an effective adsorbent, for the removal of dyes and metal ions from their aqueous solution. The presence of carboxylate groups on the NaCS-GL surface has altered the protonation of amino groups. The adsorption kinetics of dyes on NaCS-GL was initially controlled by the film diffusion or chemical reaction after which the intra-particle or pore diffusion started to govern the rate...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ian Soulairol, Noelia M Sanchez-Ballester, Adrien Aubert, Nicolas Tarlier, Bernard Bataille, Françoise Quignard, Tahmer Sharkawi
This study explores the influence of different synthesis methods and drying conditions in the preparation of sodium alginate-derivate xerogels presenting interesting disintegrant functionalities. Xerogels containing alginic acid (AA) or calcium alginate (CaA) and a mixture of both, AA/CaA, were isolated using two different drying methods oven and rotary evaporation. AA showed the best wettability behavior, in contrast to the rigid crosslinked CaA structure which showed a limited rate of water penetration. Interestingly, xerogel containing AA dried in the oven showed an enhanced maximum water uptake...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yenan Yue, Shreebodh Kumar Yadav, Caijuan Wang, Yu Zhao, Xinge Zhang, Zhongming Wu
Overweight and obesity, which contribute to various chronic diseases, are increasingly common conditions around the world. For the purpose of weight loss in patients with overweight and obesity, we developed a series of β-cyclodextrin functionalized cationic branched polyethylenimine as oral pharmaceutical agents to inhibit digestion and absorption of dietary lipids in vivo. Tuning the structural configuration, molecular weight, and side-chain length of the cationic polymers provided the polymer with effective inhibition of lipid absorption...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Seyed Rahman Djafari Petroudy, Jalal Ranjbar, Esmaeil Rasooly Garmaroody
Superabsorbent Polymers (SAPs) have found widespread uses into the disposable personal hygiene, the medical-care and agricultural sections. The purpose of the current study is to produce green SAPs based on different cellulose derivatives and to explore the wheat straw cellulose nanofiber strengthening capabilities as an emerging bionanomaterial. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with varying amount of hydroxyethyl cellulose and TEMPO-mediated Cellulose Nanofibers (TCNFs) were used for the SAPs preparation. The results showed that increasing the citric acid as a crosslinking agent yielded decreasing the swelling capacity of the SAPs...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Dolores Rodrigo, Cristina M Rosell
Industrial processing factors, such as temperature, compromise the viability of probiotic cells. Objective was to develop a system to thermally stabilize probiotic bacteria based on porous starches and using biopolymers as coating materials (gelatinized starch, guar gum and xanthan gum). Porous starches from corn and rice starches, having controlled number and size of porous were used as supporting material. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the adsorption of the microorganism, leading microcapsules with corn starch but aggregates with rice starch...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Maria P Sokolova, Michael A Smirnov, Artemiy A Samarov, Natalya V Bobrova, Vitaly K Vorobiov, Elena N Popova, Elizaveta Filippova, Pavel Geydt, Erkki Lahderanta, Alexander M Toikka
Chitosan (CS) films containing deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on malonic acid (MA) and choline chloride (ChCl) were successfully prepared by solution casting method by using DES content ranging from 0 to 82 wt%. A strong interaction of CS with the components of DES was demonstrated by analyses of water sorption isotherms, atomic force microscopy and FTIR results. The plasticizing effect of the MA and ChCl mixture on the CS matrix was shown by static bulk mechanical measurements, thermal analysis and quantitative nanomechanical mapping (QNM)...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qiang Luo, Liang Yan, Pan Xu, Chuan Xiong, Zhirong Yang, Peng Hu, Huidong Hu, Ren Hong
The present study examined the role of a polysaccharide (LSP, 25 and 100 μg/ml) from the fruiting bodies of Lepista sordid on the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in HepG2 cells, and the possible mechanism of action. IDO expression and kynurenine production from LSP-treated HepG2 cells following IFN-γ stimulation were dramatically inhibited by LSP treatment. In line with this, the medium of HepG2 cells pretreated with LSP improved the survival rate of primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as compared with IFN-γ-treated control cells...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mario M Martinez, Cheng Li, Monika Okoniewska, Indraneil Mukherjee, Dominic Vellucci, Bruce Hamaker
The objective of this study was to obtain structure-digestion relationships of fully gelatinized starch. Twelve starch samples with marked fine structural differences (HPLC-SEC) were studied for their retrogradation behavior (thermal and rheological properties of starch gels) and in vitro digestibility. A reduction in the digestion rate during storage for 7 days was observed in all samples and, interestingly, this reduction was particularly evident in sago (64.7%), potato (57.3%), pea (55.1%) and acid-converted maize (ACM, 51...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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