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Carbohydrate Polymers

A Herreros-López, M Carini, T Da Ros, T Carofiglio, C Marega, V La Parola, V Rapozzi, L E Xodo, Ali A Alshatwi, C Hadad, M Prato
The covalent grafting of two amino-fullerene C60 derivatives (C60-LC-NH2 and C60-SC-NH2, LC=long chain and SC=short chain) onto the surface of TEMPO oxidized nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC-COOH) has been reported for the first time. These hybrids (NCC-LC-C60 and NCC-SC-C60) form stable colloidal suspensions at concentrations up to 0.5mg/mL and act as effective photosensitizers for singlet oxygen production as demonstrated by the oxidation of L-methionine-methyl ester to the corresponding sulphoxide. Using the same approach, in a one-pot reaction both a fluorescent target molecule (FITC-LC-NH2) and the C60-LC-NH2 derivative have been successfully attached covalently onto the NCC-COOH surface...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Anny Manrich, Francys K V Moreira, Caio G Otoni, Marcos V Lorevice, Maria A Martins, Luiz H C Mattoso
Cutin is the biopolyester that protects the extracellular layer of terrestrial plants against dehydration and environmental stresses. In this work, cutin was extracted from tomato processing waste and cast into edible films having pectin as a binding agent. The influences of cutin/pectin ratio (50/50 and 25/75), film-forming suspension pH, and casting method on phase dispersion, water resistance and affinity, and thermal and mechanical properties of films were investigated. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy revealed that cutin phase aggregation was reduced by simply increasing pH...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates EF1 and EF2 were isolated from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix. Separation of the polysaccharides was performed using anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel by elution of 0.75M and 1.0M NaCl solutions. The structures of biopolymers were determined by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The backbone of EF1 was found to be composed of chondroitin sulfate A and E units in a ratio of about 1:1. The core of EF2 along with chondroitin sulfate A and E fragments contained unusual disaccharide repeating units →4)-β-d-GlcpA2S3S-(1→3)-β-d-GalpNAc6S-(1→...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yi-Dong Li, Qian-Qian Fu, Ming Wang, Jian-Bing Zeng
Nanocomposites consisting of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were fabricated by solution coagulation method. Morphology analysis indicated that CNC dispersed well in PBS matrix and rheological analysis suggested that PBS and CNC showed strong interactions. Thermal analysis indicated that the nanocomposites showed slightly increased glass transition temperature, significantly enhanced crystallization temperature and different melting behavior, compared to neat PBS. Study on crystallization indicated that small loading of CNC could significantly increase overall crystallization rate of PBS, meanwhile the crystallization mechanism and crystal structure remained unchanged...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jelena D Rusmirović, Jasna Z Ivanović, Vladimir B Pavlović, Vesna M Rakić, Milica P Rančić, Veljko Djokić, Aleksandar D Marinković
The influence of modification and vacuum/supercritical CO2 (scCO2) drying methods on the surface properties, morphology and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals (NC) was presented in this study. Introduction of reactive vinyl groups on NC surface was performed by either direct esterification with oleic acid, linseed or sunflower oil fatty acids; or by amidation of maleic acid/ethylene diamine with methyl ester of fatty acid. Obtained modified NC (m-NC) were characterized using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy; and by determination of acid, iodine and ester values...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Salma N Tammam, Mahmoud A F Khalil, Eman Abdul Gawad, Asma Althani, Hosam Zaghloul, Hassan M E Azzazy
A platform for nucleic acid detection employing chitosan and chitosan coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was used as a model target. MTB DNA was extracted from sputum using simple total nucleic acid extraction. Following amplification of MTB DNA, chitosan and AuNPs were added to samples. Free chitosan conjugated non-target DNA in negative samples, avoiding AuNP-DNA interaction and hence negative samples remained red. In positive samples, amplified DNA was capable of saturating free chitosan leading to AuNP aggregation where positive samples turned blue...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Claudia Payerl, Matej Bračič, Armin Zankel, Wolfgang J Fischer, Manuel Kaschowitz, Eleonore Fröhlich, Rupert Kargl, Franz Stelzer, Stefan Spirk
Nonspecific protein deposition on Lyocell fibers via a cationization step was explored by adsorption of two different N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chlorides (TMCs). Both, the cationization and the subsequent protein deposition steps were performed and monitored in situ by evaluating the zeta potential using the streaming potential method. Both employed TMCs (degree of substitution with N(+)Me3Cl groups: 0.27 and 0.64) irreversibly adsorb on the fibers as proven by charge reversal (-12 to +7mV for both derivatives) after the final rinsing step...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tatsunori Hirotsu, Taishi Higashi, Keiichi Motoyama, Hidetoshi Arima
Sustained and controllable release of insulin is strongly required to achieve the ideal treatment of diabetes. We previously developed "self-assembly PEGylation retaining activity (SPRA) technology" via a host-guest interaction between PEGylated β-cyclodextrin and adamantane-appended insulin, and resulting PEGylated insulin was termed SPRA-insulin. So far, we also demonstrated that covalently PEGylated insulin forms polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs) with cyclodextrins (PPRX technology). In the present study, we designed and evaluated the combination system of SPRA technology and PPRX technology to achieve a sustained and controllable release system of insulin...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Guantian Li, Fan Zhu
Structure-function relationships of starch components remain a subject of research interest. Quinoa starch has very small granules (∼2μm) with unique properties. In this study, nine quinoa starches varied greatly in composition, structure, and physicochemical properties were selected for the analysis of structure-function relationships. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the properties related to gelatinization such as swelling power, water solubility index, crystallinity, pasting, and thermal properties are much affected by the amylopectin chain profile and amylose content...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Guanying Han, Qixin Chen, Fei Liu, Zan Cui, Huarong Shao, Fuyan Liu, Aibin Ma, Joshua Liao, Bin Guo, Yuewei Guo, Fengshan Wang, Peixue Ling, Xifan Mei
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases and characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. We have previously reported xanthan gum (XG) injection preparation with high molecular weights (Mw) in ranging from 3×10(6)Da to 5×10(6)Da (HM-XG) could enhance the viscosity of synovial fluid, protect joint cartilage in rabbit, and the therapeutical effect has no significance difference with an existing clinical medication (sodium hyaluronate, SH) at the same injection frequency (once weekly for 5 weeks)...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ana K Chattah, Laura Y Pfund, Ariana Zoppi, Marcela R Longhi, Claudia Garnero
Novel complexes of two different solid forms of Albendazol and β-cyclodextrin were investigated in an attempt to obtain promising candidates for the preparation of alternative matrices used in pharmaceutical oral formulations. The interaction between each form of Albendazol and β-cyclodextrin was studied in solution and solid state, in order to investigate their effect on the solubility and dissolution rate of Albendazol solid forms. The solid supramolecular systems were characterized using a variety of techniques including natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yuxiang Pan, Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Weiwei Li, Guoqi Yuan, Haixia Chen
This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide obtained from corn silk (PCS2). PCS2 was isolated and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The hypoglycemic effects were determined using the high-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) insulin resistance mice. The results showed that PCS2 was a heteropolysaccharide with the average molecular weight of 45.5kDa. PCS2 was composed of d-galactose, d-mannose, d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-xylose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jintao He, Sitong Liu, Ling Li, Guangzhe Piao
In this work, the lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) behavior of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) has been studied for cotton cellulose prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals (TOCNs). It is found that suspensions of TOCNs at a critical concentration of 4.1wt% form anisotropic phase with clear optical birefringence. Furthermore, fingerprint texture is clearly observed when the concentration is 9.0wt% under a polarizing optical microscope. Fingerprint texture is characteristic of chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*-LC) phase...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yapei Zhang, Qing Zhao, Huashan Wang, Xingyu Jiang, Ruitao Cha
The ambiguous source and uncontrolled solubility of gelatin make it crucial to develop gelatin capsule substitutes. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) of excellent mechanical performance, good biocompatibility and green origin has drawn many attentions as a new class of biomaterials. In this work, NCC capsule was prepared by dipping method with PEG and glycerol as plasticizer. The effect of PEG and glycerol on the rheological property of NCC gel and the surface morphology of NCC capsule was evaluated. The disintegration time of NCC capsule meet the criteria in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP32-701)...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xingfei Li, Yufei Hua, Yeming Chen, Xiangzhen Kong, Caimeng Zhang, Xiaobin Yu
Two successive and selective coacervations induced by chitosan (Ch) and carrageenan (CG) were applied to remove antinutritional protease inhibitors and purify Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) from soybean whey. At the first coacervation induced by Ch (66.7, 200, and 510kDa), only Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and BBI complexed with Ch were extracted, while β-amylase and soybean agglutinin remained in supernatant. The binding constants for the interaction increased on the order Ch-66.7<Ch-200<Ch-510...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vishwajeet Sampatrao Ghorpade, Adhikrao Vyankatrao Yadav, Remeth Jacky Dias
Citric acid crosslinked β-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose (βCD-CMC) hydrogel films were prepared by esterification-crosslinking method for the controlled release of ketoconazole (model drug). The hydrogel films were evaluated for active βCD content, carboxyl content, swelling ratio, drug loading and release, and hemolytic activity. The structural characterization was carried out using solid state (13)C NMR, ATR-FTIR, TGA and DSC analysis. The βCD-CMC hydrogel films showed increase in active βCD content swelling ratio and drug loading with increase in the concentration of βCD in the feed...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Eisa Jahed, Mohammad Alizadeh Khaledabad, Hadi Almasi, Reza Hasanzadeh
The aim of this research was to prepare of bionanocomposite films based on chitosan (CH) incorporated with Carum copticum essential oil and reinforced with cellulose nanofibers (CNF) or lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF). The FTIR analysis showed new interactions in bionanocomposites. AFM and SEM analyses showed an increased roughness for bionanocomposites but suggested good dispersion of CNF and LCNF in CH matrix. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the degree of crystallinity was increased by addition of CNF/LCNF...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Paulo H F Pereira, Keith W Waldron, David R Wilson, Arcelina P Cunha, Edy S de Brito, Tigressa H S Rodrigues, Morsyleide F Rosa, Henriette M C Azeredo
Wheat straw has been used as a source of hemicelluloses (WSH) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) for the elaboration of biodegradable films. Different films have been formed by using WSH as a matrix and different contents of CNC and citric acid. The predominant hemicelluloses were arabinoxylans. CNC reinforced the films, improving tensile strength and modulus, water resistance and water vapor barrier. Citric acid, on the other hand, presented concomitant plasticizing and crosslinking effects (the latter also evidenced by FTIR), probably due to a crosslinking extension by glycerol...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tânia M Shiga, Nicholas C Carpita, Franco Maria Lajolo, Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi-Lysenko
Banana (Musa acuminata and M. acuminata x M. balbisiana) fruit cell walls are rich in mannans, homogalacturonans and xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, and arabinogalactans, certain forms of which is considered to have immunomodulatory activity. The cultivars Nanicão and Thap Maeo represent two widely variants with respect to compositional differences in the forms of these polysaccharides. Nanicão has low amounts of mannan in the water-insoluble and water-soluble fraction. Both cultivars have high amounts of water-soluble arabinogalactan...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jeongwook Lee, Ki Chun Yoo, Jaehyoung Ko, Bowon Yoo, Joohuei Shin, Su-Jae Lee, Daewon Sohn
The marine mussel-inspired properties of catechol, adhesiveness and cohesiveness, have been applied with pH control to fabricate hollow particles using a silica core and catechol-modified hyaluronic acid (HA-CA) shell for an anticancer drug carrier. The competition between adhesive and cohesive properties of catechol with different pH values leads to various structures, a rough catechol modified HA (HA-CA) shell at pH 5.5, monodisperse spherical silica@HA-CA particles at pH 7.4, and an amorphous HA-CA layer at pH 8...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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