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Carbohydrate Polymers

Haiying Li, Yuhan Xue, Bei Jia, Yun Bai, Yueyue Zuo, Shugeng Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Wenzhi Yang, Hongbo Tang
A series of hyaluronic acid grafted pullulan (HA-g-Pu) polymers with different hyaluronic acid (HA) moieties degrees of substitution (DS) were synthesized and characterized by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry measurement (DSC). Compared to pure HA, HA-g-Pu polymers obtained better anti-enzymatic degradation ability in vitro, and the degradation rate of HA-g-Pu polymers depended on their different DS of HA moieties. The HA-g-Pu films were made of leaf-shape cascading arrangement with many small porous ranging from 0 to 100 μm in diameter when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
K Obi Reddy, C Uma Maheswari, M S Dhlamini, B M Mothudi, V P Kommula, Jinming Zhang, Jun Zhang, A Varada Rajulu
With increasing awareness of protecting the environment, the demand for renewable and environmental materials is increasing. In this work, the cellulose single fibers (CSFs) were extracted from the African native Napier grass fibers (NGFs) by chemical process. NGFs and CSFs were characterized for their chemical composition, structure, morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties using, chemical analysis, FTIR, 13C CP/MAS NMR, SEM, XRD and TGA techniques. The resulted CSFs had higher α-cellulose content, crystallinity and thermal stability than the pristine NGFs...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hong Peng, Lin Yuan, Jinsheng Zhang, Xiaodan Wu, Yang Liu, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan
An insight into the adsorption behavior between hemicellulose biomass and metal ions is important to utilize hemicelluloses as adsorbent. In this study, bamboo hemicelluloses were used as adsorbent for AgNO3 in aqueous medium. The adsorption amount of AgNO3 onto hemicelluloses was determined through an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The morphology and the elemental composition of the recovered hemicelluloses were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
William T Hay, George F Fanta, Steven C Peterson, A J Thomas, Kelly D Utt, Kathleen A Walsh, Veera M Boddu, Gordon W Selling
Polymer film blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes (Na-Palm) were produced with no plasticizer, and were observed to have improved physical and gas barrier properties as compared with pure HPMC. The crystalline amylose helices incorporating the hydrophobic sodium palmitate ligand decreased the water vapor permeability of a 50/50% blended film of HPMC/Na-Palm by 40% and decreased oxygen permeability by 96%. The incorporation of 25% Na-Palm into HPMC films resulted in improved elongation, Young's modulus and toughness...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chia-Long Lin, Jheng-Hua Lin, Han-Mei Zeng, Yuan-Hsi Wu, Yung-Ho Chang
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using acetic acid (0-2.5%) as the catalyst in the production of pyrodextrins from corn starch at 140-180 °C, and to elucidate the effects of catalyst concentration and pyrolytic temperature on the characteristics of indigestible pyrodextrins. In the absence of acetic acid, noticeable changes to the loss of birefringence, increased solubility, plateau of molecular weight reduction, decreased reducing sugar content and digestibility were observed at 180 °C...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Marcin Andrzej Kurek, Sabina Karp, Adrian Stelmasiak, Ewelina Pieczykolan, Karolina Juszczyk, Anne Rieder
In this study, β-glucan was extracted from wholegrain oat and barley flours by a novel extraction and purification method employing natural flocculants (chitosan, guar gum and gelatin). The use of flocculants decreased the total amount of extracted gum, which was highest in control samples (9.07 and 7.9% for oat and barley, respectively). The β-glucan specific yield, however, increased with the use of chitosan and guar gum, which were able to remove protein and ash impurities resulting in gums with a higher purity...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yiming Guo, Shuang Cong, Jun Zhao, Yingying Dong, Tingting Li, Beiwei Zhu, Shuang Song, Chengrong Wen
Effects of cations (Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ ) on the structure of abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) were studied by means of Congo red test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the local ordered helical conformation was observed in AGSP. The cations could combine with anionic groups in AGSP by ionic bonds, which caused the weakening of electrostatic repulsion and crosslinking of molecular chains. Furthermore, the effects of divalent cations on the conformation were more obvious than that of monovalent cations, and divalent cations led to the aggregation of AGSP due to the more interaction sites...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chaliga Chiarathanakrit, Sa-Ad Riyajan, Kaewta Kaewtatip
In this work modified fish scale waste (FS) was used as a filler in order to improve the properties of starch foam prepared by a baking process. The FS was modified under two calcination conditions: at 500 °C for 5 h and at 700 °C for 3 h. The FS powder calcined at 700 °C for 3 h (FS700-3) had higher Ca content and lower protein content and was the filler chosen for experimental study of the effects of its addition on the properties of the starch foam. The addition of FS700-3 to the starch foam produced a more expanded structure due to FS700-3 efficiently supported the growth of existing cells during nucleation and bubble growth...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vahid Hoseinpour, Azadeh Ghaee, Vahid Vatanpour, Nasser Ghaemi
Sulphated carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) was synthesized and characterized via FT-IR and CHNS analysis. The PES membranes were prepared and modified via surface amination with an aminolysis reaction and amount of amino groups was measured. The carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and SCMC were immobilized on the surface of the aminated PES membranes (PES-NH2 ) via amide bonds to synthesize PES-CMC and PES-SCMC membranes, respectively, and the concentration of immobilized CMC and SCMC was determined. The unmodified PES, PES-CMC, and PES-SCMC membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, overall porosity, mean pore size, zeta potential, tensile strength, contact angle, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Amit Kumar Sarkar, Aniruddha Pal, Soumitra Ghorai, N R Mandre, Sagar Pal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Aline Maire du Poset, Adrien Lerbret, Andrea Zitolo, Fabrice Cousin, Ali Assifaoui
We designed stable and highly reproducible hydrogels by external unidirectional diffusion of Fe2+ ions into aqueous solutions of polygalacturonate (polyGal) chains. The Fe2+ ions act as cross-linkers between the Gal units in such a way that both the molar ratio R ([Fe2+ ]/[Gal units] = 0.25) and the mesh size of the polyGal network at the local scale (ξ = 75 ± 5 Å) have constant values within the whole gel, as respectively determined by titration and Small Angle Neutron Scattering. From macroscopic point of view, there is a progressive decrease of polyGal concentration from the part of the gel formed in the early stages of the gelation process, which is homogeneous, transparent and whose Young modulus has a high value of ∼105  Pa, up to the part of the gel formed in the late stages, which is heterogeneous, highly turbid and has a much lower Young modulus of ∼103  Pa...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yingying Liu, Yulong Sui, Chao Liu, Changqing Liu, Meiyan Wu, Bin Li, Youming Li
In this study, we reported a pH/near-infrared (NIR)-responsive hydrogel for on-demand drug delivery and wound healing. Cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNFs) were produced by 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation method. Polydopamine (PDA) was introduced into TOCNFs network to fabricate a PDA/TOCNFs hydrogel through ion-crosslinking with calcium ion as a crosslinker. Then, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) which loaded on PDA could be released from the prepared hydrogels in an on-demand fashion under NIR exposure or at lower pH conditions...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Regiamara Ribeiro Almeida, Elisa Tatiana Silva Damasceno, Stephanne Yonara Barbosa de Carvalho, Gustavo Senra Gonçalves de Carvalho, Leiriana Aparecida Pinto Gontijo, Luiz Gustavo de Lima Guimarães
In order to enable the applicability of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides Kunth, increasing its stability and dispersion in aqueous base, were prepared nanogels of chitosan modified with ferulic acid to be used in their encapsulation. The results obtained by FTIR and13 C SSNMR revealed the formation of CS-FA link in the different synthesized nanogels, while the studied by DLS showed particles with varied sizes and positive charge. A satisfactory encapsulation capacity of the essential oil was obtained for the nanogels...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xuewen Ni, Kai Wang, Kao Wu, Harold Corke, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Fatang Jiang
This study aims to investigate the stability, microstructure and rheological properties of konjac glucomannan (KGM)/zein mixed systems in different mixing ratios. A phase diagram was established by centrifugation and visual observation. KGM/zein could form a stable homogeneous dispersion with appropriate mixing formula, and the particle size in mixed systems increased with increasing zein content. During storage, zein particles increased in size but were homogeneously distributed in the continuous phase of KGM without flocculation as observed by confocal light scanning microscopy...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sauraj, S Uday Kumar, Vinay Kumar, Ruchir Priyadarshi, P Gopinath, Yuvraj Singh Negi
In the present study, novel pH-responsive prodrug nanoparticles based on xylan-curcumin (xyl-cur) conjugate were developed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin in cancer therapy. The synthesis of xyl-cur conjugate (prodrug) was confirmed by FT-IR,1 H NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The xyl-cur prodrug was subsequently self-assembled in to nanoparticles (xyl-cur prodrug NPs) in an aqueous medium with the average particle size 253 nm and the zeta potential of -18.76 mV. The xyl-cur prodrug NPs were highly pH-sensitive in nature and most of the drug was released at lower pH...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lin Lin, Yulin Zhu, Baskar Thangaraj, Mohamed A S Abdel-Samie, Haiying Cui
The objective of this study was to investigate the preparation of the freeze-dried ε-polylysine (ε-PLY)-coated thyme essential oil (TEO) liposome, and its application in vegetable juices to control the Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth. Firstly, the solid liposomes (SLP) were obtained via freeze-drying in the presence of β-cyclodextrins as cryoprotectant under different ratios of β-cyclodextrin: lipid (w/w) (2:1, 4:1, 6:1 and 8:1). The ultraviolet visible and fourier transformed infrared spectrograms results indicated the presence of TEO and ε-PLY in SLPs...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chenzhipeng Nie, Peilei Zhu, Shuping Ma, Mingchun Wang, Youdong Hu
Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Liping Yang, Yuesheng Xia, Yuchen Tao, Huihui Geng, Yanyan Ding, Yibin Zhou
Three kinds of potato starch were treated with 2.2 N HCl at 35 °C for 40 days, and their susceptibility to acid hydrolysis and the resulting structural changes were evaluated. Red potato starch was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and presented highest rate of hydrolysis. Lintnerized starches had relatively low average molecular weights and z-average radius of gyration. HPAEC analyses showed three lintners presented different molecular size distributions. Lintnerized yellow potato starch had few chains of DP ≤ 12 (2...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kai Liu, Xuan Zhang, Kelu Yan
Tetraacetylhydrazine (TH) as bleach activator for H2 O2 cotton bleaching was synthesized and characterized by1 H NMR,13 C NMR and MS spectra. TH has better solubility than that of TAED. The CIE whiteness index (WI), H2 O2 decomposition rate and bursting strength were employed to investigate the performance of H2 O2 /TH bleaching system. By addition of TH, WI and H2 O2 decomposition rate increased significantly at 70 °C. Bleaching temperature, NaHCO3 concentration and bleaching time were also discussed in detail and the loss of bursting strength is not clear...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Joaquín Antonio González, Jonathan Germán Bafico, María Emilia Villanueva, Sergio Alejandro Giorgieri, Guillermo Javier Copello
A novel nanostructured material was successfully developed by combining a chitin matrix with graphene oxide nanosheets (Chi:nGO) and then used for the continuous flow adsorption of ciprofloxacin. The spectroscopic characterization indicated that none covalent interaction between both components would be occurring and the introduction of nGO did not interfere in chitin nanostructure rearrangement during gelling and later drying. SEM images and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry results showed a wide pore size distribution ranging from nano to micrometers...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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