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Cancer Investigation

George A Alexiou, Paraskevi Gerogianni, Evrysthenis Vartholomatos, Athanasios P Kyritsis
Glioblastoma is the most malignant primary brain tumor with a median survival of 15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for these patients. Iron chelators have been shown to have anti-tumor activity; however, deferiprone (DFP), an orally administered iron chelator, has not been previously evaluated in gliomas. In the present study, we found that combination treatment in glioma cells with TMZ and DFP significantly reduced cell viability, produced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and enhanced apoptosis...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Yun Liang, Xin He, Xian Li, Xuzhao Zhang, Xiaohong Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xi Qiu, Xiaoying Zhao, Rongzhen Xu
Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the development and the use of new agents. In our studies, we found that 4-chlorbenzoyl berbamine (BBMD9), a novel synthetic derivative of berbamine, inhibited the proliferation of MM cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis revealed that MM cells were arrested in the G1 phase and that apoptotic cells increased in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the BBMD9 treatment downregulated IKKα and IKKβ, inhibited p-IκBα, and blocked p65 nuclear localization...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Qing Yang, Yingqiu Xie, Lixia Miao
Cancers induced by gene mutation, deletion, and genome instability might be related to aging. With similar pathways of aging but distinct functions, senescence at the cellular level is an irreversible arrest of cell cycle. Senescence has long been believed as a barrier to restrict tumor expansion. However, more and more evidence has been shown that senescence inducers regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem cell self-renewal, inflammatory response, crosstalk with the oncogenic bypass signaling, and conversion of oncogene to tumor suppressor...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Damiano Caputo, Marco Caricato, Alessandro Coppola, Vincenzo La Vaccara, Michele Fiore, Roberto Coppola
In order to evaluate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (d-NLR) in predicting response and complications in rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery after neo-adjuvant radio-chemotherapy, 87 patients were evaluated. Cutoffs before and after radio-chemotherapy were respectively 2.8 and 3.8 for NLR, and 1.4 and 2.3 for d-NLR. They were analyzed in relation to clinical and pathological outcomes. Patients with preoperative NLR and d-NLR higher than cutoffs had significantly higher rates of tumor regression grade response (TRG ≥ 4) and postoperative complications...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Yu Ma, Yan Lu, Bingjian Lu
Reliable biomarkers for the detection of early ovarian carcinoma are currently unavailable. MicroRNA and long non-coding RNA may be important in cancer initiation and progression by regulating gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. MicroRNAs, such as miR-26a and miR-132, have been investigated as novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of therapeutic response, and therapeutic targets in ovarian carcinomas. Some long non-coding RNAs, such as H19 and UCA1, may be involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Shu-Xiang Cui, Xin-Feng Yu, Xian-Jun Qu
Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), an abnormal prothrombin produced in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), plays crucial roles in the progression of HCC. DCP binding to cellular mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is an initial event and consequently stimulates HCC through the increase of c-Met-Janus kinase 1- signal transducers and activators of transcription pathways. DCP stimulates HCC invasion through activation of matrix metalloproteinase via upregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Bagher Eftekhari-Sis, Sajede Karaminejad, Farrokh Karimi
A method was developed for the detection of 185delAG mutation in BRCA1 gene, which is responsible for 85% and 63% lifetime risks of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in women, respectively. The protocol is based on the quenching and recovering fluorescence emission of fluorescein-based dye (FAM)-labeled DNA in the presence of graphene oxide (GO), followed by addition of cDNA or mDNA. In addition, ligase reaction between a DNA probe attached to GO and a DNA possessing FAM on 5' terminal in the presence of cDNA or mDNA was applied...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Wei Li, Shuanlin Miao, Manyuan Miao, Renshuan Li, Xiaopeng Cao, Kun Zhang, Genzuan Huang, Bin Fu
Previous studies have established that hedgehog (Hh) signaling mediates tumor-stroma interaction and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Here, we demonstrated that activation of Hh signaling in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX-2 by Huh-7-derived sonic Hh led to increased secretion of angiogenic factors and promoted angiogenesis in vitro. The activated LX-2 also enhanced vascular mimicry of hepatoma cells. Furthermore, co-injection of Huh-7 and LX-2 significantly accelerated tumor growth with enhanced angiogenesis compared with Huh-7 alone, which could be partly abrogated by Hh signaling inhibitor...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Gaetano Leto, Lorena Incorvaia, Carla Flandina, Chiara Ancona, Fabio Fulfaro, Marilena Crescimanno, Maria Vittoria Sepporta, Giuseppe Badalamenti
This study was directed to assess the clinical impact of the circulating cathepsin L, cystatin C, activin A, and follistatin in breast cancer patients. The serum concentrations of these molecules were determined by immunoenzymatic assays, and their association with some clinico-pathological parameters of breast cancer progression was evaluated. Our results identified cystatin C and activin A as predictive markers for the presence of breast cancer and bone metastasis, respectively. Therefore, these proteins may have a clinical role as circulating biomarkers in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of breast cancer patients...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Nadine G D Schirmbeck, Ulrich J M Mey, Attilio Olivieri, Yon-Dschun Ko, Ulrich Kaiser, Dimitri Flieger, Mathias Witzens-Harig, Ingo G H Schmidt-Wolf
This analysis reports on 72 patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with R-DHAP salvage chemotherapy regimen followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. The overall remission rate was 58.3%. Median time of follow-up was 28.7 months. Median progression-free survival was 29 months, estimated median overall survival was 37 months. Within a matched pair analysis these results were compared to a group that received DHAP salvage therapy without rituximab showing similar overall response rates and better estimated five-year overall survival of 59...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Theodora Kerenidi, Aikaterini P Kazakou, Martha Lada, Irini Tsilioni, Zoe Daniil, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in carcinogenesis. Serum levels of OPN, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured by ELISA in 90 lung cancer patients. OPN levels were elevated in patients compared to controls (p <.0001). Smokers, patients with worse performance status, and weight loss exhibited higher OPN levels (p =.0012,.00036, and.0003, respectively). Increased OPN levels were associated with worse survival (p =.0018). Finally, OPN levels were positively correlated with both VEGF (p =...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Lara Yoon, Grace Clarke Hillyer, Ling Chen, Jim C Hu, Alfred I Neugut, Dawn L Hershman, Jason D Wright
Venous thromboembolic disease is a major cause of morbidity in cancer patients. The Perspective database was used to identify patients with solid tumors and a diagnosis of VTE from 2006 to 2012. We examined use of IVC filters, thrombolysis, and thrombectomy. Among 32,545 patients, 23.1% received an IVC filter, 1.9% thrombolytic therapy, and 0.4% underwent thrombectomy. Use of IVC filters decreased between 2006 and 2012 (23.4% to 21.2%, p = 0.012). Older patients, uninsured patients, Hispanics, and those with more comorbidities were more likely to undergo filter placement while patients at rural hospitals were less likely to receive an IVC filter (p < 0...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Shufeng Zhang, Xiaohui Wang, Zhimin Gu, Li Wang
Survivin is an important oncogenic protein expressed highly in osteosarcoma. Here, we have shown that small molecule inhibitor YM155 potently suppressed survivin expression, inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we also showed that knock down of survivin by small interfering RNA strongly inhibited cell viability in two osteosarcoma cell lines, suggesting that suppression of survivin essentially contributes to YM155-mediated anticancer activity in osteosarcoma cells...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Shan Wang, Xin Xu, Fei Xu, Yan Meng, Changsheng Sun, Lei Shi, Eryang Zhao
To identify the prognostic value of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 in oral cancer, we examined the impact of immunohistochemical expression of these markers on tumor progression in 157 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that c-jun or c-fos was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and coexpression of c-jun/c-fos, or c-jun/c-fos/p53 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and clinical stage. The coexpression of c-jun/c-fos/p53 was identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Honggang Xia, Zhongyi Sun, Limin Deng, Deqing Zhu, Dongbin Wang
In this study, we investigated the correlation between lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) and clinical outcomes in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 439 stage I NSCLC patients were enrolled in this study. Multivariate analyses identified LMR as an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival and overall survival (hazard ratio (HR: 0.469, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.325-0.677, and p < 0.001, and HR: 0.478, 95% CI: 0.332-0.688, and p < 0.001; respectively)...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Kosuke Kashiwabara, Hiroshi Semba, Shinji Fujii, Shinsuke Tsumura
We retrospectively evaluated whether preoperative percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) affected the incidence of pleural recurrence in pathological stage I lung cancer patients. Pleural recurrence occurred in pure solid nodule (PSN) cases but not in ground-glass nodule cases, as evaluated using thin-section computed tomographic imaging. When the cases were restricted to sub-pleural PSN, the incidence of recurrence tended to be higher in a PTNB group (63 patients diagnosed by PTNB) than in a non-PTNB group (86 patients diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy or intraoperative diagnosis) (25% vs...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, George Fotopoulos, Ioannis-Georgios Tzanninis, Elias A Kotteas
The present systematic review summarizes current evidence regarding the mechanisms of action, the efficacy, and the adverse effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in ovarian cancer patients. Phase II and III clinical trials were sought in the PubMed database and in the Clinical registry through September 30, 2015. Seventy-five clinical trials regarding TKIs targeting mainly vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and sarcoma tyrosine kinase (Src) were yielded...
August 8, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Wenjian Guo, Aishu Dong, Muqing He, Xiaoji Lin, Rongxing Yao, Baolin Zhu, Xiahui Pan, Jin Jie
The level of pre-transplantation serum ferritin (SF) is one of the factors related to outcome for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library databases from 2000 to 2014. The primary efficacy outcome was overall survival rate and non-relapse mortality. Twenty clinical trials were selected from 189 studies identified. The combined hazard ratio indicated a significantly lower overall survival rate and a higher non-relapse mortality rate in patients with elevated SF before transplantation...
August 8, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Hung-Yen Lee, Kamal A Mohammed, Eugene P Goldberg, Frederic Kaye, Nasreen Najmunnisa
Receptor EphA2 is overexpressed in lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) which promote tumorogenesis. Lipoplatin™, a new liposomal cisplatin formulation, is used against resistant tumors. Use of cisplatin-based drugs leads to unacceptable toxicities. To improve the effectiveness of Lipoplatin, enhancing the cellular sensitivity of lung tumor and MPM cells is critical. Therefore, we targeted receptor EphA2 by silencing interference RNA (siRNA) and treated tumor cells with Lipoplatin. The combined effects of siRNA-EphA2 and Lipoplatin were determined...
August 8, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Graziella Di Grezia, Francesco Somma, Nicola Serra, Alfonso Reginelli, Salvatore Cappabianca, Roberto Grassi, Gianluca Gatta
AIM: To compare efficiency levels between radiologist and radiology resident and any significant or clinically relevant differences in breast ultrasound diagnosis, thus reducing extra costs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 100 patients attending for breast ultrasound were included. Each patient was examined by a radiologist, and subsequently by a resident of the radiology department. Both operators noted their findings and wrote a concluding report. Reports were compared for histological and biological analysis...
August 8, 2016: Cancer Investigation
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