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Cancer Investigation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548891/immunological-characteristics-of-colitis-associated-with-anti-ctla-4-antibody-therapy
#1
Giorgos Bamias, Ioanna Delladetsima, Marina Perdiki, Spyros I Siakavellas, Dimitrios Goukos, George V Papatheodoridis, George L Daikos, Helen Gogas
Anti-CTL4-A therapy is associated with development of colitis. We characterized ipilimumab-associated colitis in nine melanoma patients (6 male, mean age: 55.3-yrs). Median value for diarrhea grade was 2, number of ipilimumab doses 2, and interval since last administration 3-wks. Endoscopic characteristics resembled inflammatory bowel disease and histology revealed predominance of plasmacytes or CD4+ T-cells. We observed significant upregulation of Th1 and Th17 effector pathways (>10-fold increase for IFN-γmRNA, >5-fold for IL-17A, p < 0...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537455/efficacy-of-dipeptide-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-lung-cancer-models-under-pulsed-electromagnetic-field
#2
Ganga Baskar, Mathangi Ravi, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Anjali Khatri, Bhawna Dev, Roy Santosham, Sekar Sathiya, Chidambaram Saravana Babu, Virander Singh Chauhan, Suresh K Rayala, Ganesh Venkatraman
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 17%. Hyperthermia is an alternative approach for the treatment of lung cancer and is associated with fewer side effects. We employed ironoxide nanoparticles in inducing localized hyperthermia in lung cancer cells using a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). We synthesized, characterized and determined the uptake of dipeptide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Further, their ability in inducing localized hyperthermia in PEMF on lung cancer cells was assessed...
May 24, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524770/detection-of-promoter-dna-methylation-of-apc-dapk-and-gstp1-genes-in-tissue-biopsy-and-matched-serum-of-advanced-stage-lung-cancer-patients
#3
Ashraf Ali, Sachin Kumar, Vinod Kumar Kakaria, Anant Mohan, Kalpana Luthra, Ashish Dutt Upadhyay, Randeep Guleria
Promoter DNA hypermethylation of APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 genes was evaluated in biopsy and matched serum of 160 lung cancer patients and 70 controls. In biopsy, 83.1, 83.1, and 78.1% of lung cancer patients and 72.9, 70, and 70% of controls, while in serum, 52.5, 30.6, and 65.6% of lung cancer patients and 14.3, 18.6, and 30% of controls were positive for APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 hypermethylation respectively. We couldn't find any significant role of DNA hypermethylation in lung cancer. However, long follow-up of methylation positive controls will be required to confirm its role for the prediction of lung cancer...
May 19, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514182/aberrant-level-of-skp2-and-p27kip1-in-intraductal-proliferative-lesions-is-associated-with-tumorigenesis
#4
Yan Lv, Yun Niu, Chong Li, Xu Zheng, Qiang Geng, Yanyan Han
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Here we aimed to examine the expression status of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and p27(KIP1), and assess the significance of Skp2 plus p27(KIP1) expression in patients with intraductal proliferative lesions, including ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). Skp2 and p27(KIP1) mRNA levels in DCIS, ADH, flat epithelial atypia, and usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 60 fresh tissues and 120 paraffin-embedded tissues from patients with the four subtypes above...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463564/simvastatin-and-mbcd-inhibit-breast-cancer-induced-osteoclast-activity-by-targeting-osteoclastogenic-factors
#5
Kaushik Chowdhury, Ankit Sharma, Tanu Sharma, Suresh Kumar, Chandi C Mandal
Previous reports have documented that cholesterol-lowering simvastatin prevented osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer in animal model in which cancer cells were placed into blood circulation. Thus, simvastatin treatment might have a preventive effect in inhibiting osteoclast activity of metastatic bone microenvironment. This study documented that both simvastatin and MBCD (cholesterol depleting drug) blocked the breast cancer-induced TRAP and MMP activity, and expressions of various osteoclastogenic genes (TRAP, Cathepsin K, and NFATc1) in pre-osteoclast RAW264...
May 2, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437131/re-irradiation-therapy-for-locally-recurrent-head-and-neck-cancer-a-national-survey-of-practice-patterns
#6
Jean-Claude M Rwigema, Jehee Choi, Nancy Y Lee, Dwight E Heron, Allen M Chen
Using a customized survey consisting of two de-identified clinical scenarios with a total of 86 questions, we showed that substantial variability exists regarding recommendations for therapy of recurrent head and neck cancer. For inoperable gross recurrence arising in a previously irradiated field, recommendations were re-irradiation with curative intent (73%), re-irradiation with palliative intent (4%), chemotherapy alone (5%), and referral to tertiary center (18%). After salvage surgery, only 33% recommended adjuvant re-irradiation, with the remainder preferring observation (46%), chemotherapy alone (10%), and referral to tertiary center (11%)...
April 24, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426268/putative-biomarkers-of-response-to-treatment-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-pilot-assay
#7
María J Rico, Herman A Perroud, Cintia Herrera, Carlos M Alasino, Eduardo A Roggero, Stella M Pezzotto, Ana Lía Nocito, Viviana R Rozados, O Graciela Scharovsky
Identifying tumor biomarkers associated with clinical behavior in breast cancer patients may allow higher accuracy in the selection of treatment. Different types of cells were determined in the primary tumors of stage I, II, and III of breast cancer patients, who were assigned to one of the two groups: (1) disease-free or (2) relapsed/progressed, at 5 years after primary treatment. We studied 32 tumor samples. CD4(+) lymphocytes and CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells (cancer stem cells) showed a significant association with clinical outcome at 5 years of primary treatment, while CD8(+), Foxp3(+), CD34(+), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells did not show any association...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426267/a-phase-2-trial-of-single-agent-axitinib-as-maintenance-therapy-following-first-line-treatment-with-modified-folfox-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#8
Johanna C Bendell, Mathew Joseph, Kirk Barnes, Mark Mainwaring, Dianna Shipley, Chandra Reddy, Laura Blakely, Ronald Blachly, Cassie M Lane, Chris Earwood, Michel Kuzur
This phase-2 trial evaluated the efficacy of axitinib as maintenance therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) following first-line treatment with FOLFOX/bevacizumab. Patients with mCRC received mFOLFOX/bevacizumab followed by axitinib maintenance after four cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Seventy patients were enrolled. Common treatment-related toxicities were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and peripheral neuropathy during FOLFOX/bevacizumab treatment; and fatigue, hypertension, diarrhea, and peripheral neuropathy during axitinib treatment...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406716/targeting-cyclin-dependent-kinases-in-ovarian-cancer
#9
Qi Zhou
Ovarian cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the United States, and prognosis is generally poor because the disease is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity is regulated by CDK inhibitors (CKIs) and cyclins. Generally, cyclins and CKIs promote and inhibit CDK activation, respectively. Since cancer commonly involves dysregulation of cell cycle, cyclins and CDKs have been targeted in a variety of tumors using small molecules, peptides, immunotherapy, and CKIs...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406729/stabilization-of-the-p53-dna-complex-by-the-nuclear-protein-dmp1%C3%AE
#10
Robert D Kendig, Fumitake Kai, Elizabeth A Fry, Kazushi Inoue
We recently reported the existence of a physical interaction between the Myb-like transcription factor Dmp1 (Dmtf1) and p53 in which Dmp1 antagonized polyubiquitination of p53 by Mdm2 and promoted its nuclear localization. Dmp1 significantly stabilized p53-DNA complexes on promoters that contained p53-consensus sequences, which were either supershifted or disrupted with antibodies to Dmp1. Lysates from mice injected with doxorubicin showed that Dmp1 bound to p21(Cip1), Bbc3, and Thbs1 gene regulatory regions in a p53-dependent fashion...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402678/tamoxifen-dependent-induction-of-agr2-is-associated-with-increased-aggressiveness-of-endometrial-cancer-cells
#11
Roman Hrstka, Jan Podhorec, Rudolf Nenutil, Lucia Sommerova, Joanna Obacz, Michal Durech, Jakub Faktor, Pavel Bouchal, Hana Skoupilova, Borivoj Vojtesek
Tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients is associated with increased risk of endometrial malignancies. Significantly, higher AGR2 expression was found in endometrial cancers that developed in women previously treated with tamoxifen compared to those who had not been exposed to tamoxifen. An association of elevated AGR2 level with myometrial invasion occurrence and invasion depth was also found. In vitro analyses identified a stimulatory effect of AGR2 on cellular proliferation. Although adverse tamoxifen effects on endometrial cells remain elusive, our work identifies elevated AGR2 as a candidate tamoxifen-dependent mechanism of action responsible for increased incidence of endometrial cancer...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368708/design-and-rationale-of-the-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-marcc-registry-a-prospective-academic-and-community-based-study-of-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-cancer
#12
Nrupen A Bhavsar, Michael R Harrison, Bradford R Hirsch, Patricia Creel, Steve P Wolf, Greg P Samsa, Amy P Abernethy, Ronit Simantov, Azah Borham, Daniel J George
The Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Registry, a large, nationally representative, prospective registry of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), aims to understand real-world treatment patterns and outcomes of patients with mRCC in routine clinical practice across the United States. This observational study is designed to enroll 500 patients with previously untreated mRCC from approximately 60 academic and community treatment sites; as of December 7, 2016, 500 patients have enrolled at 54 sites...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368679/calycosin-enhances-some-chemotherapeutic-drugs-inhibition-of-akt-signaling-pathway-in-gastric-cells
#13
Lixia Zhou, Yueming Wu, Yang Guo, Yanjun Li, Na Li, Yi Yang, Xueyun Qin
Although diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer have improved, the prognosis of patients remains poor. The majority of patients should be treated with chemotherapy or other follow-up treatment. However, the drug resistance of chemotherapy and heterogeneity of tumor itself lead to differences of sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs for different patients. Therefore, it is mandatory to develop better methods of treatment for treatment of gastric cancer. Calycosin has been used in several types of cancer cells...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368669/costs-trends-and-related-factors-in-treating-lung-cancer-patients-in-67-hospitals-in-guangxi-china
#14
Li-Fang Zhou, Mao-Xin Zhang, Ling-Qian Kong, Gary H Lyman, Ke Wang, Wei Lu, Qi-Ming Feng, Bo Wei, Lue Ping Zhao
Lung cancer is a common disease with high mortality in China. Recent economic advances have led to improved medical capabilities, while costs associated with treating this disease have increased. Such change contributes to a commonly held belief that healthcare costs are out of control. However, few studies have examined this issue. Here, we use 34,678 hospitalization summary reports from 67 Guangxi hospitals (period 2013-2016) to document costs, temporal trends, and associated factors. Findings from this study are surprising in that they debunk the myth of uncontrolled healthcare costs...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350490/single-center-experience-on-anatomy-and-histopathology-based-gastric-cancer-molecular-classification
#15
Karol Polom, Daniele Marrelli, Giandomenico Roviello, Costantino Voglino, Carla Vindigni, Daniele Generali, Franco Roviello
We analyzed the clinical utility of molecular classification based on anatomical and histological background. The study was conducted on 457 patients treated for gastric cancer with additional information about microsatellite instability status. We divided the patients in three groups of molecular classification based on anatomical and histological background: proximal non-diffused, diffused, and distal non-diffused groups. These groups varied in terms of clinical and pathological factors as well as survival rates...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350480/lung-cancer-in-never-smoking-women-a-sub-analysis-of-the-spanish-female-specific-database-world07
#16
Nuria Viñolas, Pilar Garrido, Dolores Isla, Mariano Provencio, Margarita Majem, Angel Artal, Enric Carcereny, Rosario Garcia Campelo, Pilar Lianes, Ramon De La Peñas, Enriqueta Felip
The WORLD07 study characterizes lung cancer in Spanish women. This analysis investigated lung cancer features in never-smoking women. Of 2072 women recruited, 2035 were analyzed. Patient characteristics and demographics were similar for current/former smokers and never smokers. Among never smokers, 38.3% were exposed to passive smoking. Non-small-cell lung cancer was the most common type (78.8% of current/former smokers and 96.1% of never smokers) and adenocarcinoma the most common histology (69.1% and 83.4% respectively)...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355088/temozolomide-mediated-apoptotic-death-is-improved-by-thymoquinone-in-u87mg-cell-line
#17
Mozafar Khazaei, Mona Pazhouhi
Apoptosis induction of cancer cells can be an appropriate strategy by which chemotherapeutic agents kill tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of temozolomide and thymoquinone combination on apoptotic pathway of human glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87MG). U87MG cells were cultured, treated with temozolomide and thymoquinone, and cell proliferation was measured. Apoptosis cell death and its possible mechanism were investigated by various methods. Combination of temozolomide and thymoquinone had a synergistic effect on cells viability...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333566/is-change-in-hemoglobin-level-a-predictive-biomarker-of-tyrosine-kinase-efficacy-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-turkish-oncology-group-study
#18
Cemil Bilir, İbrahim Yıldız, Ahmet Bilici, Mahmut Ucar, Veli Berk, Yaşar Yıldız, Ozan Yazıcı, Gökşen İnanç İmamoğlu, Nuri Karadurmuş, Kezban Nur Pilancı, Erkan Arpacı, Özgür Tanrıverdi, Ebru Karcı, Süleyman Temiz, Erdinc Nayır, Esin Oktay, Pınar Dal, İbrahim Petekkaya, Ceyhun Varım, Hakan Cinemre
BACKGROUND: There are insufficient predictive markers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: A total of 308 metastatic RCC patients were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The increased hemoglobin (Hb) group had significantly higher progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) compared with the decreased Hb group at 11.5 versus 6.35 months (p < .001) and 21.0 versus 11.36 months (p < .001) respectively. The 1- and 3-year OS rates were higher in the Hb increased group, i...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333553/cyclooxygenase-2-induction-by-amino-acid-deprivation-requires-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-human-glioma-cells
#19
Zhiwen Li, Chi-Ming Chang, Lanfang Wang, Ping Zhang, Hui-Kuo G Shu
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors that can outstrip nutrient supplies due to rapid growth. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been linked to GBMs and may contribute to their aggressive phenotypes. Amino acid starvation results in COX-2 mRNA and protein induction in multiple human glioma cell lines in a process requiring p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and the Sp1 transcription factor. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression results from starvation-dependent COX-2 induction...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301214/novel-glycopyrrolidine-compounds-inhibit-human-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-induce-apoptotic-mode-of-cell-death
#20
Hemadev Bhoopalan, Shilpa Tentu, Prasana R, Purushothaman S, Akkanapally Venu, Ragavachary Raghunathan, Suresh Babu Pakala, Suresh Kumar Rayala, Ganesh Venkatraman
Spirocyclic compounds, present in a number of bioactive natural alkaloids, are cyclic systems containing one carbon atom common to two rings. A highly regioselective glycopyrrolidine compound library was synthesized using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition method, and its efficacy was tested on cell lines representing most commonly occurring cancers and the molecular mechanism of cell death deciphered. Results showed that among the 16 compounds screened, RPRR210 showed the most potent anticancer activity and induced cell cycle arrest, inhibited migration, caused cell death by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, and were nontoxic to normal cells...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
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