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Cancer Investigation

Jablan Stanković, Mladen Stanković
The objective of the study was to address some important questions related to prostate cancer treatments and survivorship. One of possibility to improve the survival probability of prostate cancer patients is to improve predictive strategies. Therefore in this article was created short-term multistep ahead predictive model for survival probability prediction of prostate cancer patients. Neuro-fuzzy model was used to select the most important inputs for the predictive model. As the inputs, current and time lagged variables were used...
October 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Xu Yang, Lan Yang, Yiming Ma, Xinhua Zhao, Hongying Wang
Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) promotes cell migration in cancers, but the exact mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here we report that activation of PAR2 reduced miR-205 expression, whereas inhibition of miR-205 promoted cell migration in cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-205 blocked PAR2-mediated stimulation of cell migration. BMPR1B was identified as a downstream target gene of miR-205. In colorectal carcinoma specimens from patients, the level of PAR2 was negatively correlated with that of miR-205, but it was positively associated with BMPR1B expression...
October 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Ciro Franzese, Egesta Lopci, Lucia Di Brina, Giuseppe Roberto D'Agostino, Pierina Navarria, Pietro Mancosu, Stefano Tomatis, Arturo Chiti, Marta Scorsetti
INTRODUCTION: aim is outcome of 11C-Choline-PET guided SBRT on lymph node metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: patients with 1 - 4 lymph node metastases detected by 11C-choline-PET were treated with SBRT. Toxicity, treated metastases control and Progression Free Survival were computed. RESULTS: twenty-six patients, 38 lymph node metastases were irradiated. No grade ≥ 2 toxicity. Median PSA-nadir after RT was 1.02 ng/mL. Post-treatment 11C-Choline-PET showed metabolic complete response in 17 metastases (44,7%), partial response in 9 metastases (38%)...
October 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Vladimir N Uversky, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Marwa M Abu-Serie, Hussein A Almehdar, Elrashdy M Redwan
Alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA), a small milk calcium-binding globular protein, is known to possess noticeable anticancer activity, which is determined by the ability of this protein to form complexes with oleic acid (OA). To date, in addition to human and bovine α-LA, the ability to form such anti-tumor complexes with OA was described for goat and camel α-LA. Although the mechanisms of the anticancer activity of human and bovine α-LA are already well-studied, little is currently known about the anticancer action of this camel protein...
October 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
James R Hocker, Subrato J Deb, Min Li, Megan R Lerner, Stan A Lightfoot, Aurelien A Quillet, R Jane Hanas, Matthew Reinersman, Jess L Thompson, Nicole T Vu, Thomas C Kupiec, Daniel J Brackett, Marvin D Peyton, Stephen M Dubinett, Harold M Burkhart, Russell G Postier, Jay S Hanas
A stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) serum profiling platform is presented which is highly efficient and accurate. Test sensitivity (0.95) for stage I NSCLC is the highest reported so far. Test metrics are reported for discriminating stage I adenocarcinoma vs squamous cell carcinoma subtypes. Blinded analysis identified 23 out of 24 stage I NSCLC and control serum samples. Group-discriminating mass peaks were targeted for tandem mass spectrometry peptide/protein identification, and yielded a lung cancer phenotype...
October 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
S E Semina, A M Scherbakov, S V Kovalev, V E Shevchenko, M A Krasil'nikov
Using estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7/T subline we have shown that their co-cultivation lead to increase in tamoxifen resistance in the parent MCF-7 cells. The proteome analysis of MCF-7/T cells and new-generated resistant cells revealed 21 common proteins differently expressed in both the resistant cell lines, among them - 6 proteins were associated with the drug or hormonal resistance. Both resistant lines were characterized with suppression of estrogen receptor and activation of SNAIL1-signaling - mesenchymal pathway playing an important role in the down-regulation of estrogen receptor and maintaining of the estrogen-independent phenotype...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
D W Siemann, D J Chaplin, M R Horsman
Vascular targeted therapies (VTTs) are agents that target tumor vasculature and can be classified into two categories: those that inhibit angiogenesis and those that directly interfere with established tumor vasculature. Although both the anti-angiogenic agents (AAs) and the vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) target tumor vasculature, they differ in their mechanism of action and therapeutic application. Combining these two agents may realize the full potential of VTT and produce an effective therapeutic regimen...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Jovana Cvetković
One of the most common cancer in females is breasts cancer. This cancer can has high impact on the women including health and social dimensions. One of the most common social dimension is depression caused by breast cancer. Depression can impairs life quality. Depression is one of the symptom among the breast cancer patients. One of the solution is to eliminate the depression in breast cancer patients is by treatments but these treatments can has different unpredictable impacts on the patients. Therefore it is suitable to develop algorithm in order to predict the depression range...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Sherise C Rogers, Christine A Garcia, Shenhong Wu
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to examine the risk of everolimus discontinuation due to related and unrelated adverse events (AE) in cancer patients. Fifteen RCTs were analyzed that compared everolimus to placebo and reported discontinuation due to AE with everolimus (related and unrelated to everolimus) and placebo (unrelated to everolimus). Incidence of discontinuation with everolimus due to AE and placebo was 12.3% and 4.7% respectively. Relative risk of everolimus discontinuation due to related AE was 2...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Faruk Tas, Kayhan Erturk
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) invade and disrupt melanoma cells and their clinical roles remain controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of the TILs status in cutaneous melanoma patients (CMPs). Of 750 CMPs enrolled into this study 486 (64.8%) had lesions with TILs. The patients with TILs more likely had nodular histology, presence of histological regression, and absence of regional lymph node involvement. However, its presence was not associated with outcome. In conclusion, presence of TILs may be only an independent predictor for absence of nodal involvement but it is not associated with recurrence and survival in CMPs...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Konstantin Horas, Gerrit Maier, Franz Jakob, Uwe Maus, Andreas Kurth, Axel Jakuscheit, Maximilian Rudert, Boris Michael Holzapfel
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with different types of bone tumors and to elucidate whether or not there are differences in prediagnostic vitamin D levels in patients with malignant compared to benign bone tumors. Prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D levels of 105 consecutive patients that presented with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions to two Orthopedic Level I University Centers in Germany between 2011 and 2016 were measured on admission. We found an alarming and widespread rate of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bone tumors...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Johanna C Bendell, Dana Thompson, Brian M Hemphill, David Wenk, Chris Earwood, Cassie M Lane, Andrew Kennedy
BACKGROUND: This phase II study combined aflibercept with preoperative chemoradiation for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer, followed by mFOLFOX6/aflibercept. METHODS: Patients received preoperative 5-FU (days 1-43), radiation (weeks 1-6), and aflibercept (days 1-15) each 28 day cycle for 6 weeks. Six weeks following the last aflibercept dose, patients underwent surgical resection. Four cycles of mFOLFOX6 plus aflibercept began 8 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Common treatment-related toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Mohit S Agarwal, Daniel A Jones, Charles M Mendenhall, Christopher G Morris, Andrew Johns, William J McAfee, William M Mendenhall
We reviewed outcomes of 41 patients treated with curative-intent radiotherapy for anal canal carcinoma at a community hospital between 1985 and 2015. Twenty-six (63%) presented with stage I or II disease while 15 (37%) had stage III. Thirty-seven received definitive chemoradiation and 4 radiotherapy alone. Thirteen (31.7%) received ≤59.4Gy. Thirty-two (78%) were treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy while 9 (22%) received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. At 5 years, local control, regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 80%, 98%, 88%, 77%, and 51%...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
David R Spigel, Tarek M Mekhail, David Waterhouse, Terence Hadley, Charles Webb, Howard A Burris, John D Hainsworth, F Anthony Greco
BACKGROUND: We added panitumumab to standard combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced KRAS WT non-squamous NSCLC. METHODS: Patients received panitumumab 9 mg/kg IV, pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) IV, and carboplatin AUC = 6 IV every 21 days. After 6 cycles, maintenance therapy with panitumumab and pemetrexed was administered every 21 days until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. RESULTS: 29 of 66 patients (44%) had objective responses...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Elizabeth E Hopp, Stephanie M Cossette, Suresh N Kumar, Daniel Eastwood, Ramani Ramchandran, Erin Bishop
Sucrose non-fermenting related kinase (SNRK) is a serine/threonine kinase known to regulate cellular metabolism and adipocyte inflammation. Since alterations in adipocyte metabolism play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis, we investigated the expression of SNRK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue using immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The number of SNRK positive (+) nuclei is increased in malignant tissue compared to benign tissue (21.03% versus 14.90%, p < .0431). The most strongly stained malignant SNRK+ nuclei were stage 1 compared to stage 2-4 disease...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Shelly Jain, Preety Ghanghas, Chandan Rana, S N Sanyal
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are emerging as novel chemopreventive agents because of their ability in blocking cellular proliferation, and thereby tumor development, and also by promoting apoptosis. GSK-3β, a serine threonine kinase and a negative regulator of the oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, plays a critical role in the regulation of oncogenesis. Celecoxib and etoricoxib, the two cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective NSAIDs, and Diclofenac, a preferential COX-2 inhibitory NSAID, had shown uniformly the chemopreventive and anti-neoplastic effects in the early stage of colon cancer by promoting apoptosis as well as an over-expression of GSK-3β while down-regulating the PI3-K/Akt oncogenic pathway...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Shing M Lee, Yuan Zhang, Lori M Minasian, Joseph M Unger, Dawn L Hershman
In advanced stage patients enrolled in dose-finding trials, it is difficult to assess delayed toxicities because frequently patients discontinue after one or two cycles of treatment. Patients enrolled in phase 2 trials are typically followed longer to assess efficacy. Thus, their data may be useful for evaluating long-term tolerability. We illustrate this using as example two phase 2 bortezomib trials (total N = 172) conducted by SWOG. While treatment-related severe toxicity rates based on cycle 1 were acceptable (23% and 31%), they were notably higher over extended administration (37% and 70%)...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Andrea D'Alessio, Marina Marchetti, Carmen Julia Tartari, Laura Russo, Sara Cecchini, Kim W F M Lambregts, Daniela di Mauro, Anna Falanga
We enrolled 62 consecutive patients with advanced stage cancers and venous thromboembolism (VTE), prospectively followed until 1 year. All patients received 6 month low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy. We evaluated thrombin generation (TG) and D-dimer levels at different time points, to determine whether they were sensitive to LMWH and explore a possible association with VTE recurrence, bleeding, and overall survival. During LMWH, levels of TG and D-dimer significantly dropped. No VTE recurrences occurred, one patient had cancer-related intestinal hemorrhage...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Shubham Pant, Manish Patel, Carla Kurkjian, Brian Hemphill, Maria Flores, Dana Thompson, Johanna Bendell
BACKGROUND: This phase I/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of tivantinib in combination with standard dose FOLFOX for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination for patients with previously untreated metastatic adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus, gastroesophageal (GE) junction, or stomach. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors for which FOLFOX would be appropriate chemotherapy received escalating doses of tivantinib BID (days 1-14) in a standard 3 + 3 design in phase I...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
Giorgos Bamias, Ioanna Delladetsima, Marina Perdiki, Spyros I Siakavellas, Dimitrios Goukos, George V Papatheodoridis, George L Daikos, Helen Gogas
Anti-CTL4-A therapy is associated with development of colitis. We characterized ipilimumab-associated colitis in nine melanoma patients (6 male, mean age: 55.3-yrs). Median value for diarrhea grade was 2, number of ipilimumab doses 2, and interval since last administration 3-wks. Endoscopic characteristics resembled inflammatory bowel disease and histology revealed predominance of plasmacytes or CD4+ T-cells. We observed significant upregulation of Th1 and Th17 effector pathways (>10-fold increase for IFN-γmRNA, >5-fold for IL-17A, p < 0...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
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