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Cancer Investigation

Molly E Hubbard, Susan Arnold, Abdullah Bin Zahid, Matthew McPheeters, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Alexandru-Flaviu Tabaran, Matthew A Hunt, G Elizabeth Pluhar
BACKGROUND: Current animal models of glioma are limited to small animal models, which are less predictive of treatment of human disease. Canines often develop gliomas de novo, but the natural history of the disease is not well described. OBJECTIVE: We provide data for naturally occurring canine gliomas; evaluating medical and surgical therapies. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of pet dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of glioma from MRI imaging that underwent surgery as part of the Canine Brain Tumor Clinical Trials Program...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Kosuke Kashiwabara, Hiroshi Semba, Shinji Fujii, Shinsuke Tsumura
It is not clear whether sequential chemotherapy can be performed immediately in patients with p-stage I non-small cell lung cancer recurring during a 2-year period of daily oral administration with tegafur-uracil (UFT) as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients receiving chemotherapy within 1 month after the discontinuation of UFT (n = 10) (five cases with aggressive recurrent tumors) had the increased risk of grade 4 neutropenia, but the overall survival was not inferior to that in patients who received chemotherapy beginning more than 1 month (n = 11)...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Yosuke Morizawa, Makito Miyake, Keiji Shimada, Shunta Hori, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Yasushi Nakai, Sayuri Onishi, Nobumichi Tanaka, Noboru Konishi, Kiyohide Fujimoto
We investigated the relationship between Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the quantities of neutrophil elastase, CD3, Foxp3, and CD204 in tumor-infiltrating cells and circulating cytokines (IL-2, -6, -8, 17a, and TGF-β) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. IL-6 and IL-8 levels showed a significant correlation with NLR in blood and Foxp3+ cells around the tumor. After co-culture of peripheral blood cells with bladder cancer cell lines, the induction of regulatory T cell (Treg) was higher in T24 whose IL-6 and IL-8 levels were higher...
September 10, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Simeng Zhu, William M Mendenhall
PURPOSE: Outcomes after adjuvant radiotherapy for cutaneous melanoma with perineural invasion (PNI). METHODS: Seven patients (5 cutaneous, 2 recurrent nerve lesions) received radiotherapy. RESULTS: At a median 4.5 years: Two patients did not recur; no local failures occurred. Three patients who omitted nodal irradiation developed regional failures (2 out-of-field, 1 in-field). Three patients developed distant metastases. Four died with disease (median, 3...
September 6, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Emil Ter Veer, Hetty Prinsen, Mirjam A G Sprangers, Koos A H Zwinderman, Gijs Bleijenberg, Tineke C T M van der Pouw Kraan, I Jolanda M de Vries, Eddy A Wierenga, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven
We examined if serum concentrations Interferon gamma-induced protein (IP-10) is a potential clinical biomarker for cancer-related-fatigue (CRF). Fatigue scores and IP-10 concentrations were measured from curatively treated fatigued cancer patients randomized to either cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, n = 26) or waiting-list (WL, n = 13). No correlation was found between baseline IP-10 level and fatigue severity and no significant differences in IP-10 serum levels were observed between fatigued and matched non-fatigued patients (n = 22)...
September 6, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Sabine Danzinger, Yen Yen Tan, Margaretha Rudas, Marie-Theres Kastner, Sigrid Weingartshofer, Daniela Muhr, Christian F Singer
BRCA-1 mutation-associated triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been hypothesized to exhibit a phenotype that is distinct from non-mutation carriers. We have analyzed immunohistochemically detected cytokeratins 5 and 14, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), claudin (CLDN) 3, 4, and 7, and E-cadherin in 57 TNBC (32 BRCA1 and 8 BRCA2 tumors, 17 WT tumors). Positive staining of CLDN3 and negative EGFR expression in TNBC are associated with a BRCA1 mutation. EGFR and CLDN3 expression was able to predict the presence of BRCA1 mutation (area under curve 0...
August 24, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Ashten N Omstead, Juliann E Kosovec, Daisuke Matsui, Samantha A Martin, Matthew A Smith, D Aaron Guel, Jenna Kolano, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Fahim Habib, Christopher Lai, Kevi Christopher, Ronan J Kelly, Ali H Zaidi, Blair A Jobe
A rat model of surgically induced reflux recapitulates the development and progression of human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In this study, reflux was induced in rats followed by postoperative endoscopy with biopsy, to diagnose and monitor disease progression. Overall, percentage agreement between visual endoscopy and gold standard histology was 95%, with disease-specific classification accuracies of 100% and 75% for Barrett's with dysplasia and EAC, respectively. Additionally, the percentage agreement for biopsy in tumors >4 mm was 75%...
August 24, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Zofia Hélias-Rodzewicz, Nelson Lourenco, Mariama Bakari, Claude Capron, Jean-François Emile
Aneuploidy is a common feature of cancer cells and may contribute to cellular transformation and cancer development. In this study, we found that significant down-regulation of CDKN2A, CHEK2, CDCA8, TP53BP1, and CCNDBP1 led to chromosome imbalances in two diploid non-immortalized human cell lines; however, only CDKN2A inhibition enhanced cell proliferation and additionally up-regulated three cell cycle control genes: CDCA8, AURKA, and CCND. These results confirm that CDKN2A is a tumor suppressor gene driving human cancer development by inducing cell aneuploidy and cell cycle up-regulation...
August 23, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Meriem Mokhtech, Sommer Nurkic, Christopher G Morris, Nancy P Mendenhall, William M Mendenhall
BACKGROUND: To evaluate outcomes after definitive radiotherapy for orbital pseudotumor. METHODS: We reviewed adult patients treated between 1971 and 2012. RESULTS: 20 patients with 8.0-year median follow-up were analyzed. Symptoms improved in 75% of patients: 40% showed a complete response, 35% partial response, and 20% had stable disease. The disease progressed in 1 and recurred in 8 patients. Local control rates were 63% and 53% at 5 and 10 years, respectively...
August 23, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Dolly C Penn, Melanie Baker, Ann M Geiger, Linda C Harlan
Cancer health services research is a primary tool for analyzing the association between various factors, cancer health care delivery, and the resultant outcomes. To address disparities strategies must be developed to target factors that are related to differences in care; however, to date, most disparities studies have been descriptive. The primary objective was to describe cancer treatment and survival disparities in community oncology practice patterns found in the National Cancer Institute's population-based Patterns of Care (POC) Study (1987-2017)...
August 23, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Jian L Campian, Xiaobu Ye, Guneet Sarai, Joseph Herman, Stuart A Grossman
BACKGROUND: Although treatment-related lymphopenia (TRL) is common in many cancers no data exists in rectal cancer. METHODS: Serial lymphocyte counts were analyzed retrospectively in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer, serial blood counts, and complete records at Johns Hopkins Hospital. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients with normal pretreatment lymphocyte counts were studied. Two months after beginning chemoradiation, 35% of these patients developed grade III-IV lymphopenia [median lymphocyte counts fell from 1590 to 490 cell/mm3 (p < 0...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Giancarlo Iannelli, Rocchina Caivano, Antonio Villonio, Vittorio Semeraro, Nicola Maria Lucarelli, Maria Porzia Ganimede, Vito Gisone, Giuseppina Dinardo, Sante Bruno, Luca Macarini, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Aldo Cammarota
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a virtual CT-guided navigation system (Sirio-MASMEC Biomed) in performing lung biopsies, with greater attention to lesions smaller than 1 cm, compared to the traditional procedure. METHODS: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of our Institute. Two hundred patients were prospectively selected. Of these, 100 were subjected to percutaneous procedure with the use of Sirio and 100 to traditional CT-guided percutaneous procedure...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Omar Abdel-Rahman
The role of local treatment in patients with oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a subject of ongoing debate. This study assessed the survival impact of combined surgery to the primary tumor and metastatic disease in the management of metastatic NSCLC. Stage IV NSCLC patients at presentation, diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 were identified from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. Propensity-matched analysis was performed considering baseline characteristics (age, gender, race, histology, TN stage, and site of metastases)...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Lingeng Lu, Gongjian Zhu, Hongmei Zeng, Qian Xu, Klaus Holzmann
NSUN2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and plays an important role in cell development via modifying RNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the expression of NSUN2 and its prognostic value in HNSCC. Random-effects model of meta-analysis shows 1.99-folds (95% CI: 1.89-2.09) upregulation of NSUN2 expression in HNSCC versus normal tissues. Patients with high NSUN2 levels had approximately 22 months shorter overall survival, and had a higher mortality risk than those with low one (p-trend = 0.020). In conclusion, NSUN2 is a potential independent prognostic marker and may be a potential therapeutic target in HNSCC...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Tatiana Anatolievna Bogush, Boris Borisovich Polezhaev, Ivan Andreevich Mamichev, Elena Alexandrovna Bogush, Boris Evseevich Polotsky, Sergei Alexeevich Tjulandin, Andrey Borisovich Ryabov
Tamoxifen is a first targeted drug that continues to be the gold standard in treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer for almost 50 years. The current review is an update of the paper published in 2012. We provide the new data on the tamoxifen targets that are the key points of signaling cascades activating cellular proliferation, which determines aggressiveness of disease and chemotherapy resistance or sensitivity. Some inspiring clinical cases dealing with tamoxifen efficiency in treatment of different tumors are discussed...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Alessandro Allegra, Vanessa Innao, Demetrio Gerace, Doriana Vaddinelli, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Caterina Musolino
Reducing the dimension of antigen-binding proteins to an only immunoglobulin domain has been one of the objectives of antibody manufacturing. Heavy chain antibodies were encountered while attempting to separate the blood serum proteins of dromedaries. Later the term "nanobodies" (Nbs) was introduced. The advantageous features of Nbs comprise little immunogenicity, stability at low/high pH, capacity to target antigens that are less antigenic, and, lastly, easy capability to be used for therapy against tumor cells...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Alexander M Scherbakov, Alexander M Borunov, Galina I Buravchenko, Olga E Andreeva, Igor A Kudryavtsev, Lyubov G Dezhenkova, Andrey E Shchekotikhin
A series of 3-aryl/hetarylquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile-1,4-dioxides was synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines in normoxia and hypoxia. Selected compounds in this series demonstrated better cytotoxicity and comparable hypoxia selectivity than tirapazamine. In contrast to Dox, quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides showed potent cytotoxicity against different MDR cells. Compound 2g inhibits of cancer cell growth through p53-independent mechanisms. Our results showed that compound 2g sensitized MCF-7 cells to metformin in hypoxia...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Miao Yu, Danqing Guo, Zhenglin Cao, Longyi Xiao, Gang Wang
We showed that miR-107 expression was decreased in osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and cell lines. miR-107 mimic significantly decreased OS cell proliferation and inhibited invasion and migration of OS cells. Inhibition of miR-107 expression notably promoted proliferation, invasion and migration of OS cells. In addition, miR-107 mimic inhibited EMT biomarkers and significantly increased apoptosis. miR-107 mimic significantly decreased the protein expression of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, and c-Myc, whereas increased GSK-3β protein expression...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Natalia R Gómez-Hidalgo, Ling Chen, June Y Hou, Ana I Tergas, Caryn M St Clair, Cande V Ananth, Dawn L Hershman, Jason D Wright
We analyzed 54,039 women with uterine cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2013 to 2014 including 38,453 (71.2%) who underwent lymphadenectomy, 1929 (3.6%) who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, and 13,657 (25.3%) who did not undergo nodal assessment. SLN mapping increased from 2.8% in 2013 to 4.3% in 2014 (P < 0.001). Patients treated in 2014 and those at community centers were more likely to undergo SLN biopsy, while women with advanced-stage disease, sarcomas, and grade 3 tumors were less likely to undergo SLN mapping (P < 0...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi, Enas Samir Nabih, Hala Fawzy M Kamel, Mohamed Ali El Sayed, Ibrahim Aly Mohamed Dwedar
Altered metabolism is one of the characteristics of cancer cells. We evaluated the expression of wild-type Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and the cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker CD44 by real-time PCR and levels of reduced form of glutathione in lung biopsies of 32 adenocarcinoma patients and 18 control subjects. We found that IDH1 and CD44 expression and the levels of reduced form of glutathione were significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma patients. IDH1 was positively correlated with CD44 and reduced form of glutathione...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
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