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Cancer Investigation

Kazushi Inoue, Elizabeth A Fry
Recent studies have indicated that EGR1 is a direct regulator of tumor suppressors including TGFβ1, PTEN, and p53. The Myb-like transcription factor Dmp1 is a physiological regulator of the Arf-p53 pathway through transactivation of the Arf promoter and physical interaction of p53. The Dmp1 promoter has binding sites for Egr proteins, and Egr1 is a target for Dmp1. Crosstalks between p53 and PTEN have been reported. The Egr1-Dmp1-Arf-p53-Pten pathway displays multiple modes of interaction with each other, suggesting the existence of a functional network of tumor suppressors that maintain normal cell growth and prevent the emergence of incipient cancer cells...
November 5, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Vivek R Sharma, Shelia D Thomas, Donald M Miller, Francine Rezzoug
AS1411 is an antiproliferative DNA aptamer, which binds the ubiquitous protein, nucleolin. In this study, we show that constitutive overexpression of nucleolin confers increased sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of AS1411. HeLa cells overexpressing nucleolin have an increased growth rate and invasiveness relative to control cells. Nucleolin overexpressing cells demonstrate increased growth inhibition in response to the AS1411 treatment, which correlates with increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, when compared to non-transfected cells...
November 5, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Omar Abdel-Rahman
The role of local treatment in patients with oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a subject of ongoing debate. This study assessed the survival impact of combined surgery to the primary tumor and metastatic disease in the management of metastatic NSCLC. Stage IV NSCLC patients at presentation, diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 were identified from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. Propensity-matched analysis was performed considering baseline characteristics (age, gender, race, histology, TN stage, and site of metastases)...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Lingeng Lu, Gongjian Zhu, Hongmei Zeng, Qian Xu, Klaus Holzmann
NSUN2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and plays an important role in cell development via modifying RNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the expression of NSUN2 and its prognostic value in HNSCC. Random-effects model of meta-analysis shows 1.99-folds (95% CI: 1.89-2.09) upregulation of NSUN2 expression in HNSCC versus normal tissues. Patients with high NSUN2 levels had approximately 22 months shorter overall survival, and had a higher mortality risk than those with low one (p-trend = 0.020). In conclusion, NSUN2 is a potential independent prognostic marker and may be a potential therapeutic target in HNSCC...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Tatiana Anatolievna Bogush, Boris Borisovich Polezhaev, Ivan Andreevich Mamichev, Elena Alexandrovna Bogush, Boris Evseevich Polotsky, Sergei Alexeevich Tjulandin, Andrey Borisovich Ryabov
Tamoxifen is a first targeted drug that continues to be the gold standard in treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer for almost 50 years. The current review is an update of the paper published in 2012. We provide the new data on the tamoxifen targets that are the key points of signaling cascades activating cellular proliferation, which determines aggressiveness of disease and chemotherapy resistance or sensitivity. Some inspiring clinical cases dealing with tamoxifen efficiency in treatment of different tumors are discussed...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Alessandro Allegra, Vanessa Innao, Demetrio Gerace, Doriana Vaddinelli, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Caterina Musolino
Reducing the dimension of antigen-binding proteins to an only immunoglobulin domain has been one of the objectives of antibody manufacturing. Heavy chain antibodies were encountered while attempting to separate the blood serum proteins of dromedaries. Later the term "nanobodies" (Nbs) was introduced. The advantageous features of Nbs comprise little immunogenicity, stability at low/high pH, capacity to target antigens that are less antigenic, and, lastly, easy capability to be used for therapy against tumor cells...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Alexander M Scherbakov, Alexander M Borunov, Galina I Buravchenko, Olga E Andreeva, Igor A Kudryavtsev, Lyubov G Dezhenkova, Andrey E Shchekotikhin
A series of 3-aryl/hetarylquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile-1,4-dioxides was synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines in normoxia and hypoxia. Selected compounds in this series demonstrated better cytotoxicity and comparable hypoxia selectivity than tirapazamine. In contrast to Dox, quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides showed potent cytotoxicity against different MDR cells. Compound 2g inhibits of cancer cell growth through p53-independent mechanisms. Our results showed that compound 2g sensitized MCF-7 cells to metformin in hypoxia...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Miao Yu, Danqing Guo, Zhenglin Cao, Longyi Xiao, Gang Wang
We showed that miR-107 expression was decreased in osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and cell lines. miR-107 mimic significantly decreased OS cell proliferation and inhibited invasion and migration of OS cells. Inhibition of miR-107 expression notably promoted proliferation, invasion and migration of OS cells. In addition, miR-107 mimic inhibited EMT biomarkers and significantly increased apoptosis. miR-107 mimic significantly decreased the protein expression of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, and c-Myc, whereas increased GSK-3β protein expression...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Natalia R Gómez-Hidalgo, Ling Chen, June Y Hou, Ana I Tergas, Caryn M St Clair, Cande V Ananth, Dawn L Hershman, Jason D Wright
We analyzed 54,039 women with uterine cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2013 to 2014 including 38,453 (71.2%) who underwent lymphadenectomy, 1929 (3.6%) who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, and 13,657 (25.3%) who did not undergo nodal assessment. SLN mapping increased from 2.8% in 2013 to 4.3% in 2014 (P < 0.001). Patients treated in 2014 and those at community centers were more likely to undergo SLN biopsy, while women with advanced-stage disease, sarcomas, and grade 3 tumors were less likely to undergo SLN mapping (P < 0...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi, Enas Samir Nabih, Hala Fawzy M Kamel, Mohamed Ali El Sayed, Ibrahim Aly Mohamed Dwedar
Altered metabolism is one of the characteristics of cancer cells. We evaluated the expression of wild-type Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and the cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker CD44 by real-time PCR and levels of reduced form of glutathione in lung biopsies of 32 adenocarcinoma patients and 18 control subjects. We found that IDH1 and CD44 expression and the levels of reduced form of glutathione were significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma patients. IDH1 was positively correlated with CD44 and reduced form of glutathione...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Mourad Assidi, Jaudah Al-Maghrabi, Ashraf Dallol, Abdulrahman Sibiany, Mahmoud Al-Ahwal, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor recptor-2 (HER2) was identified as a driver gene in several types of cancers with both prognostic and predictive value. However, the molecular association of HER2 gene mutation with HER2 gene amplification and/or protein expression in cancer tissues has not been clearly defined. Moreover, there is little information available on HER2 status role in tumor progression and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) compared to other solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both HER2 amplification and protein expression profiles using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and bright-field dual in situ hybridization (BDISH) techniques, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Larysse Maira Campos-Verdes, Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, João Paulo da Silva-Sampaio, Maria da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Carla Solange Escórcio-Dourado, Luana Mota Martins, Fabiane Araújo Sampaio, Camila Revoredo, Francisco Adelton Alves-Ribeiro, Benedito Borges da Silva
Polymorphism of the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CaSR or CaR) has been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. This receptor plays an important role in calcium homeostasis, and has also been detected in several tissues that are unrelated to calcium metabolism, such as the skin, brain, and breast. The calcium-sensing receptor on cellular level, it regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell death, and gene expression. In breast cancer cells, CaSR seems to stimulate secretion of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which stimulates cellular proliferation...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Ho Anh Son, LiFeng Zhang, Bui Khac Cuong, Hoang Van Tong, Le Duy Cuong, Ngo Thu Hang, Hoang Thi My Nhung, Naoki Yamamoto, Nguyen Linh Toan
Oncolytic measles and mumps viruses (MeV, MuV) have a potential for anti-cancer treatment. We examined the anti-tumor activity of MeV, MuV, and MeV-MuV combination (MM) against human solid malignancies (HSM). MeV, MuV, and MM targeted and significantly killed various cancer cell lines of HSM but not normal cells. MM demonstrated a greater anti-tumor effect and prolonged survival in a human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model compared to MeV and MuV. MeV, MuV, and MM significantly induced the expression of immunogenic cell death markers and enhanced spleen-infiltrating immune cells...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Xiao-Ping Qi, Jian-Qiang Zhao, Zhi-Lie Cao, Er Fu, Feng Li, Yi-Hua Zhao, Guang-Ping Wang, Peng-Fei Li, Wo-Long Ma, Jian Guo, Hong Jia
This study systematically reviewed previous literatures and analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationship between the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A)-cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA) and RET/OSMR/IL31RA mutations. RET/OSMR/IL31RA screening was performed on 8 RET-carriers from 3 independent Chinese MEN 2A families. Besides, 51 MEN 2A-CLA patients in 116 RET carriers from literatures were clustered and analyzed. Our results indicated that almost all MEN 2A-CLA patients exhibited CLA which was located in the scapular region and carried RET mutation at codon 634...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Kalyani Thakur, Sai Shyam, Jennifer George, Shobha A G, K V L Narasinga Rao, Vijay Kumar Kalia
Primary malignant glioma cell lines are being used for initial screening of anticancer agents. We utilized a simple mechanical disaggregation method for deriving cell lines from tumor tissues; and a Coverslip Culture-Acridine Orange Staining method to study cellular damage. Cell lines could be grown for up to three passages within three weeks after surgery. Cell proliferation, total cellular damage, and MTT assay were studied as parameters of cytotoxic response. Frequencies of damaged cells varied in different cell lines; and increased after cytotoxic treatments under clinically relevant conditions...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Anders Toft, Thomas Urup, Ib Jarle Christensen, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Babloo Lukram, Kirsten Grunnet, Michael Kosteljanetz, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Ulrik Lassen, Helle Broholm, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen
Predictive biomarkers and prognostic models are required to identify recurrent grade III glioma patients who benefit from existing treatment. In this study of 62 recurrent grade III glioma patients, a range of clinical and paraclinical factors are tested for association with progression-free survival, overall survival, and response to bevacizumab and irinotecan therapy. Significant factors from univariate screening are included in multivariate analysis. Biomarkers previously advanced as predictive or prognostic in the first-line setting did not affect outcome in this patient cohort...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Dimitrios Psimadas, Varvara Valotassiou, Sotiria Alexiou, Ioannis Tsougos, Panagiotis Georgoulias
Molecular imaging and therapy is a rapidly evolving field in research and clinical medicine. The use of the exciting and attractive properties of radioisotopes for imaging and therapy has made Nuclear Medicine very significant when it comes to molecular imaging/therapy. Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) on the other hand are very important targeting biomolecules with high affinity that can "carry" the radioisotope of choice. Herein we make a brief overview of the radiolabeled mAbs that target prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and their use in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PCa)...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Ikko Tomisaki, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Akinori Minato, Naohiro Fujimoto
There are few data on Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy for upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ (UUT CIS). We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of BCG therapy for 41 patients [52 renal units(RUs)] with UUT CIS. Of 52 RUs, complete response was achieved in 47 (90%). The 5-year recurrence-, progression-free survival rates were 60.2% and 74.2%, respectively. Adverse events were observed in 31 (76%) patients, but most of them were mild. The scheduled instillations were completed in 31 (74%) of 42 patients...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Investigation
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January 2, 2018: Cancer Investigation
I Elalamy, A Falanga
The EuroG20 meeting on cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) convened in Bergamo, Italy on 7 April 2016 to discuss a selection of controversial topics in CAT management. This satellite meeting besides ICTHIC in Bergamo has the objective to propose an European Guidance on CAT in various complex situations where evidence-based guidelines are lacking, driven by eminence-based thoughts of 20 experts and key opinion leaders in thrombosis from EU area and 8 experts from the rest of the world.
January 2, 2018: Cancer Investigation
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