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Journal of Hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898507/blood-pressure-control-in-hypertension-pros-and-cons-of-available-treatment-strategies
#1
Giuseppe Mancia, Federico Rea, Cesare Cuspidi, Guido Grassi, Giovanni Corrao
The low rate of blood pressure (BP) control that characterizes the hypertensive population in real life is traditionally associated to factors such as low adherence of patients to the prescribed treatment regimen, physicians' therapeutic inertia, and deficiencies of the healthcare systems. This study will focus on a fourth factor that may also be importantly involved, i.e. reluctance to adopt drug treatment strategies that more effectively reduce an elevated BP. The point will be made that, vis-à-vis strategies based on patients' persistence in monotherapy, drug combinations are accompanied by a much more frequent BP control...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898506/estimation-of-populational-24-h-urinary-sodium-and-potassium-excretion-from-spot-urine-samples-evaluation-of-four-formulas-in-a-large-national-representative-population
#2
Jorge Polonia, Mariana F Lobo, Luis Martins, Fernando Pinto, Jose Nazare
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the estimation of 24-h urinary sodium (UNa) and urinary potassium (UK) excretion obtained through four formulae based on occasional urine samples. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed 2399 individuals (51% females) aged 18 to 96 years representatives of Portuguese population. Tanaka, Kawasaki, INTERSALT and NHANES formulae were used to predict 24-h UNa and UK excretions from spot morning urinary samples (OUrS)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870656/oscillometric-and-auscultatory-blood-pressure-measurement-methods-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Stephanie L Duncombe, Christine Voss, Kevin C Harris
BACKGROUND: The phase-out of mercury from clinical settings calls for valid alternatives to assess blood pressure (BP) in children. Aneroid devices provide a mercury-free alternative to BP measurements by auscultation, whereas oscillometric (automated) devices are increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice due to their ease of use. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of oscillometric and aneroid BP devices compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer for the measurement of BP in children...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846043/aortic-stiffness-and-blood-pressure-variability-in-young-people-a-multimodality-investigation-of-central-and-peripheral-vasculature
#4
Henry Boardman, Adam J Lewandowski, Merzaka Lazdam, Yvonne Kenworthy, Polly Whitworth, Charlotte L Zwager, Jane M Francis, Christina Y L Aye, Wilby Williamson, Stefan Neubauer, Paul Leeson
INTRODUCTION: Increased blood pressure (BP) variability is a cardiovascular risk marker for young individuals and may relate to the ability of their aorta to buffer cardiac output. We used a multimodality approach to determine relations between central and peripheral arterial stiffness and BP variability. METHODS: We studied 152 adults (mean age of 31 years) who had BP variability measures based on SD of awake ambulatory BPs, 24-h weighted SD and average real variability (ARV)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870655/blood-pressure-treatment-levels-and-choice-of-antihypertensive-agent-in-people-with-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#5
Mattias Brunström, Mats Eliasson, Peter M Nilsson, Bo Carlberg
OBJECTIVE: Multiple systematic reviews address the effect of antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes. Here, we summarize current systematic reviews concerning antihypertensive treatment effect at different blood pressure (BP) levels, and relative treatment effect of different antihypertensive agents. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, DARE and CDSR during years 2005-2016. Eligibility criteria, number of trials and participants, outcomes analysed, statistical methods used for data synthesis, and principal results were extracted for each review...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861249/the-antihypertensive-effects-of-aerobic-versus-isometric-handgrip-resistance-exercise
#6
Garrett I Ash, Beth A Taylor, Paul D Thompson, Hayley V MacDonald, Lauren Lamberti, Ming-Hui Chen, Paulo Farinatti, William J Kraemer, Gregory A Panza, Amanda L Zaleski, Ved Deshpande, Kevin D Ballard, Mohammadtokir Mujtaba, C Michael White, Linda S Pescatello
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) on average 5-7 mmHg among those with hypertension; limited evidence suggests similar or even greater BP benefits may result from isometric handgrip (IHG) resistance exercise. METHOD: We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating the antihypertensive effects of an acute bout of aerobic compared with IHG exercise in the same individuals. Middle-aged adults (n = 27) with prehypertension and obesity randomly completed three experiments: aerobic (60% peak oxygen uptake, 30 min); IHG (30% maximum voluntary contraction, 4 × 2 min bilateral); and nonexercise control...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861248/reliability-of-pulse-waveform-separation-analysis-effects-of-posture-and-fasting
#7
Lee Stoner, Daniel Credeur, Simon Fryer, James Faulkner, Danielle Lambrick, Bethany Barone Gibbs
OBJECTIVE: Oscillometric pulse wave analysis devices enable, with relative simplicity and objectivity, the measurement of central hemodynamic parameters. The important parameters are central blood pressures and indices of arterial wave reflection, including wave separation analysis (backward pressure component P b and reflection magnitude). This study sought to determine whether the measurement precision (between-day reliability) of P b and reflection magnitude: exceeds the criterion for acceptable reliability; and is affected by posture (supine, seated) and fasting state...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861247/overactivation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-in-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-promotes-cardiovascular-responses-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Tao Wang, Guo-Qi Li, Hui-Ping Zhang, Yi Zhang, Qian Li
OBJECTIVE: Stimulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in rats. Thus, we hypothesized that abnormal expression of CB1 receptor in the RVLM may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of intra-RVLM infusions of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), selective CB1 receptor agonist, with or without AM251, selective CB1 receptor antagonist, on BP, heart rate (HR), and RSNA in spontaneously hypertensive rats and wild-type rats...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861246/adrenal-venous-sampling-in-primary-aldosteronism-multinomial-regression-modeling-to-detect-aldosterone-secretion-lateralization-when-right-adrenal-sampling-is-missing
#9
Camille Durivage, Rémi Blanchette, Gilles Soulez, Miguel Chagnon, Patrick Gilbert, Marie-France Giroux, Isabelle Bourdeau, Vincent L Oliva, André Lacroix, Eric Therasse
OBJECTIVE: Difficulty to recognize or canulate the right adrenal vein is the most frequent cause of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) failure. We aimed to assess multinomial regression modeling (MRM) of peripheral and left adrenal vein samplings to detect lateralization of aldosterone secretion when the right AVS is missing. METHODS: Simultaneous bilateral AVS samplings were performed before (basal) and after intravenous cosyntropin injection in 188 consecutive patients between December 1989 and September 2015...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861244/effects-of-risk-assessment-and-management-programme-for-hypertension-on-clinical-outcomes-and-cardiovascular-disease-risks-after-12-months-a-population-based-matched-cohort-study
#10
Esther Y T Yu, Eric Y F Wan, Carlos K H Wong, Anca K C Chan, Karina H Y Chan, Sin-Yi Ho, Ruby L P Kwok, Cindy L K Lam
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a structured multidisciplinary risk assessment and management programme for patients with hypertension (RAMP-HT) who were managed in public primary care clinics but had suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control in improving BP, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk after 12 months of intervention. METHODS: A total of 10 262 hypertension patients with suboptimal BP despite treatment, aged less than 80 years and without existing CVD were enrolled in RAMP-HT between October 2011 and March 2012 from public general out-patient clinics in Hong Kong...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846042/the-incidence-of-hypertension-and-its-risk-factors-in-the-german-adult-population-results-from-the-german-national-health-interview-and-examination-survey-1998-and-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-survey-for-adults-2008-2011
#11
Claudia Diederichs, Hannelore Neuhauser
OBJECTIVE: To analyze incident hypertension and its risk factors based on 11.9 years follow-up of a recent National Examination Survey cohort in Germany. METHODS: Out of 7124 participants of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), 640 had died at follow-up 2008-2011 and 3045 were reexamined as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Baseline and follow-up included standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841781/increased-urinary-excretion-of-the-epithelial-na-channel-activator-prostasin-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#12
Francesca Pizzolo, Laura Chiecchi, Francesca Morandini, Annalisa Castagna, Francesco Zorzi, Chiara Zaltron, Patrizia Pattini, Carmela Chiariello, Gianluca Salvagno, Oliviero Olivieri
OBJECTIVES: Prostasin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease that is released in urine and is involved in epithelial Na channel activation. A direct association between urinary prostasin (u-prostasin) concentration and activation of the aldosterone-driven pathway has been suggested; however, in previous studies on primary aldosteronism, a semiquantitative evaluation, rather than a precise quantification, of prostasin was performed. We aim to investigate if u-prostasin concentrations are higher in patients with primary aldosteronism than in patients with essential hypertension and whether u-prostasin measurements could be a useful marker for diagnosing primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841780/hypertension-in-blacks-insights-from-africa
#13
Brian L Rayner, J David Spence
Although the consequences of hypertension are universal, blacks (African-Americans or indigenous Africans) have been the subject of a differential approach to causation, outcome, and treatment. Blacks have a greater propensity to salt sensitivity and suppressed plasma renin suggesting a predisposition to sodium retention. Target organ damage is more frequent and blood pressure is more difficult to control. We explore potential underlying causes, both genetic and environmental, particularly in the South African population, and propose a more physiological approach to the treatment of resistant hypertension in blacks...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841779/carotid-and-aortic-stiffness-in-essential-hypertension-and-their-relation-with-target-organ-damage-the-catod-study
#14
Rosa Maria Bruno, Giulia Cartoni, Francesco Stea, Sabina Armenia, Elisabetta Bianchini, Simona Buralli, Chiara Giannarelli, Stefano Taddei, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate in the hypertensive population the possible differential association between increased aortic and/or carotid stiffness and organ damage in multiple districts, such as the kidney, the vessels, and the heart. METHODS: In 314 essential hypertensive patients, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, by applanation tonometry) and carotid stiffness (from ultrasound images analysis), together with left ventricular hypertrophy, carotid intima-media thickness, urinary albumin-creatinin ratio, and glomerular filtration rate were measured...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820727/the-role-of-brain-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptors-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-renal-sympathoinhibitory-response-to-acute-volume-expansion-in-conscious-rats
#15
Mohammed H Abdulla, Edward J Johns
OBJECTIVE: The study was performed to investigate the role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors and nitric oxide in the renal sympathoinhibitory response to volume expansion (VEP). METHOD: Conscious rats were subjected to volume expansion (VEP) [0.25% body weight/min saline for 10 min intravenously (i.v.)] following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of either saline or angiotensin II (Ang II), or a combination of Ang II with either losartan, PD123319, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782909/hypertensive-nephropathy-moving-from-classic-to-emerging-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#16
Teresa M Seccia, Brasilina Caroccia, Lorenzo A Calò
Hypertensive kidney disease classically entails nephroangiosclerosis and hyalinosis with glomerular damage. However, in recent years, several evidences showed that high blood pressure also injures tubular cells, inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Recently investigated mechanisms are also podocyte effacement and loss, which lead to denudation of the glomerular basement membrane and focal adhesion of the tufts to the Bowman's capsule, with reduced filtration and scars...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755387/executive-summary-of-the-joint-position-paper-on-renal-denervation-of-the-cardiovascular-and-interventional-radiological-society-of-europe-and-the-european-society-of-hypertension
#17
Jonathan G Moss, Anna-Maria Belli, Antonio Coca, Michael Lee, Giuseppe Mancia, Jan H Peregrin, Josep Redon, Jim A Reekers, Costas Tsioufis, Dierk Vorwerk, Roland E Schmieder
Renal denervation (RDN) was reported as a novel exciting treatment for resistant hypertension in 2009. An initial randomized trial supported its efficacy and the technique gained rapid acceptance across the globe. However, a subsequent large blinded, sham arm randomized trial conducted in the USA (to gain Food and Drug Administration approval) failed to achieve its primary efficacy end point in reducing office blood pressure at 6 months. Published in 2014 this trial received both widespread praise and criticism...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755386/dissecting-the-genetic-components-of-a-quantitative-trait-locus-for-blood-pressure-and-renal-pathology-on-rat-chromosome-3
#18
H H Caline Koh-Tan, Mohammed Dashti, Ting Wang, Wendy Beattie, John Mcclure, Barbara Young, Anna F Dominiczak, Martin W Mcbride, Delyth Graham
BACKGROUND: We have previously confirmed the importance of rat chromosome 3 (RNO3) genetic loci on blood pressure elevation, pulse pressure (PP) variability and renal pathology during salt challenge in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat. The aims of this study were to generate a panel of RNO3 congenic sub-strains to genetically dissect the implicated loci and identify positional candidate genes by microarray expression profiling and analysis of next-generation sequencing data...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755384/quality-of-meta-analyses-for-randomized-trials-in-the-field-of-hypertension-a-systematic-review
#19
George C Roush, Brigani Amante, Tanveer Singh, Hiwot Ayele, Morakinyo Araoye, Danwen Yang, William J Kostis, William J Elliott, John B Kostis, Jesse A Berlin
OBJECTIVES: Doubling on average every 6 years, hypertension-related meta-analyses are now published twice weekly and are often considered the highest level of evidence for clinical practice. However, some hypertension specialists and guideline authors view meta-analyses with skepticism. This article evaluates the quality of hypertension-related meta-analyses of clinical trials. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for meta-analyses of clinical trials recently published over 3...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755390/renal-denervation-reduces-office-and-ambulatory-heart-rate-in-patients-with-uncontrolled-hypertension-12-month-outcomes-from-the-global-symplicity-registry
#20
Michael Böhm, Christian Ukena, Sebastian Ewen, Dominik Linz, Ina Zivanovic, Uta Hoppe, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Luis Ruilope, Manuela Negoita, Roland Schmieder, Bryan Williams, Uwe Zeymer, Andreas Zirlik, Guiseppe Mancia, Felix Mahfoud
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) can reduce sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension. The effects on resting and ambulatory heart rate (HR), also regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, are not established. METHODS: Herein, we report 12-month outcomes from the Global SYMPLICITY Registry on office and ambulatory HR and BP in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (n = 846). RESULTS: HR declined in correlation with the HR at baseline and at 12 months, in particular, in patients in the upper tertile of HR (>74 bpm)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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