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Nutrition and Health

John Nichols
The theory that raised blood homocysteine is a major factor in the development of cardiovascular disease was initially rejected by the medical establishment. Trials of a treatment to lower homocysteine in moderately advanced disease have failed to show benefits (except in those not treated with anti-platelet drug), but there is mounting evidence for a role in treatment of very early disease and as a preventive strategy. Recent evidence has shown that lowering of high blood homocysteine significantly slows cognitive decline and the brain shrinkage associated with Alzheimer's disease...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
Fadzai Mushoriwa, Nick Townsend, Sunitha Srinivas
INTRODUCTION: Dietary salt reduction has been identified as a cost effective way of addressing the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly cardiovascular diseases. The World Health Organization has recommended three main strategies for achieving population-wide salt reduction in all member states: food reformulation, policies and consumer awareness campaigns. In 2013, the South African Ministry of Health announced the mandatory salt reduction legislation for the food manufacturing sector...
January 1, 2016: Nutrition and Health
Ying Liu, Anne Maguire, Guan Tianqui, Shi Yanguo, Fatemeh V Zohoori
Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis...
January 1, 2016: Nutrition and Health
Sabika S Allehdan, Reema F Tayyem, Hiba A Bawadi, Narmeen J Al-Awwad, Mariam Al-Mannai, Abdulrahman O Musaiger
BACKGROUND: Fast food restaurants have become widespread in both developed and developing countries due to nutritional and economic transitions. The frequency of fast food intake is relatively high among adolescents; however, fast food consumption is positively associated with total energy intake and obesity in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the perception of Jordanian adolescents towards fast foods relative to gender and obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 400 boys and 395 girls, aged 15-18 years...
January 1, 2016: Nutrition and Health
Michel A Crawford
The rise in brain disorders and mental ill-health is the most serious crisis facing the survival of humanity. Starting from an understanding of the origins of the nervous system and the brain, together with its nutritional requirements, the present direction of the food system since World War II (WWII) can be seen as departing from the biological essence of brain chemistry and its nutritional needs. Such advances in the food system would lead to epigenetic changes. Improper maternal/foetal nutrition is considered in this manner to lead to heart disease, stroke and diabetes in later life...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Jim E Banta, Roxanne N Khoie-Mayer, Chintan K Somaiya, Ogbochi McKinney, Gina Segovia-Siapco
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to determine if poor mental health is associated with the intake of specific foods among California children. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was conducted. Mental health was measured using a shortened version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Dietary measures were self-reported servings of fruit, vegetables, 100% fruit juice, high sugar foods, soda/sweetened drinks, and French fries/fried potatoes consumed the previous day, as well as frequency of fast food consumed during the past week...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Judith C Anglin, Nadia Borchardt, Elizabeth Ramos, Kendra Mhoon
As the incidence of obesity and related disease steadily increases, researchers and medical practitioners are continuously examining new approaches to prevent and manage the epidemic. Intuitive eating (IE) is a new and innovative approach that uses an individual's response to internal cues of hunger, satiety, and appetite, and replaces calorie restriction (CR). CR is the standard approach for weight reduction. This study was a randomized controlled trial with two groups in which we accessed records of the dietary intake of obese adults using CR and IE to achieve weight loss...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Stephen Edem Hiamey, Francis Eric Amuquandoh, Grace Aba Boison
The paper examines street foods consumption in the Market Circle of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The data used for the study were obtained from individuals who were either purchasing or consuming street foods in the Market Circle in August of 2011. The results revealed that the average consumer makes use of street foods six times in a week and there was a penchant for carbohydrate based foods over other types of street foods. Reasons including cost saving, convenience and eating on credit were noted to underlie the consumption of street foods in the area...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Mari K Hopper, Carynn E Koch, Jenny L Koch
Insulin resistance (IR) affects the ability to maintain normal glycemia and places one at greater risk of the development of disease. The aim of this study was to assess IR via the administration of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and then determine the relationship between IR and postprandial blood glucose levels in young adults 19-24 years of age. Following a 10 hour fast, 10 men and 10 women completed an OGTT and in three subsequent weeks consumed high, medium, and low glycemic load (GL) meals in random order...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Ruopeng An, Junyi Liu
BACKGROUND: Healthy diet is an essential component in cancer survivorship care planning. Cancer survivors should be particularly prudent regarding their daily food choices, with an aim of ensuring safe consumption, reducing risk of recurrence or other comorbidity, and improving quality of life. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes among US adult cancer survivors. METHODS: Nationally representative data of 1308 adult cancer survivors came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 waves...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Aditika Agarwal, Komal Chauhan, Kiran Shinglot
OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude of elderly (aged 60-85 years) persons with cognitive impairment and its relation with their dietary and anthropometric status. METHODS: HASH(0x4baadf8) DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. The cognitive status of the subjects was screened using the Mini Mental Score Examination (MMSE). The binary logistic regression coefficients were ascertained for determining the association of predictors like MMSE score, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the age of the subjects...
April 2013: Nutrition and Health
Michael A Crawford, Yiqun Wang, Stewart Forsyth, J Thomas Brenna
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded from a limited review of the literature that although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was required for infant formula, arachidonic acid was not 'even in the presence of DHA'. The EFSA report mistakes a nutrient ubiquitous in the diets of infants, and with wide-ranging effects, for an optional drug targeted to a particular outcome that is properly excluded when no benefit is found for that particular outcome. The EFSA's conclusion is not evidence-based. Its conclusions are grounded in trials which tested functionality of DHA, not arachidonic acid...
April 2013: Nutrition and Health
Natasha A G De França, Marilia B R Camargo, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Lígia Araújo Martini
This study aimed to investigate the association between antioxidant intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 150 women, mean age 68.7 (SD 9.1) years. BMD and body composition were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We assessed anthropometric measures and dietary intake and applied an adapted Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score (a-DAQS) to evaluate the antioxidant consumption. 65.3% of women had higher scores on the a-DAQS...
April 2013: Nutrition and Health
Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Ali Zahedmehr, Ali Mohammad-Zadeh, Hamid-Reza Sanati, Farshad Shakerian, Ata Firouzi, Reza Kiani, Javad Nasrollahzadeh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate whether garlic powder tablets in adjunct to conventional medical treatment could have an effect on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plasma lipoproteins and lipids in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on 56 patients with CAD between the ages of 25 and 75 years. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: garlic group (n = 27), receiving garlic powder tablet (1200 µg allicin/tab) twice daily and the placebo group (n = 29), receiving placebo for 3 months...
April 2013: Nutrition and Health
Simon H House
By comparing epigenetics of current species with fossil records across evolutionary transitions, we can gauge the moment of emergence of some novel mechanisms in evolution, and recognize that epigenetic mechanisms have a bearing on mutation. Understanding the complexity and changeability of these mechanisms, as well as the changes they can effect, is both fascinating and of vital practical benefit. Our most serious pandemics of so-called 'non-communicable' diseases - mental and cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes, rooted in the 'metabolic syndrome' - are evidently related to effects on our evolutionary mechanisms of agricultural and food industrialization, modern lifestyle and diet...
April 2013: Nutrition and Health
Huichen Zhu, Ruopeng An
BACKGROUND: Poor diet quality and insufficient nutrient intake is of particular concern among older adults. The Older Americans Act of 1965 authorizes home-delivered meal services to homebound individuals aged 60 years and older. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review scientific evidence on the impact of home-delivered meal services on diet and nutrition among recipients. METHODS: Keyword and reference searches were conducted in Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed and Web of Science...
April 2013: Nutrition and Health
Claire Horton
The Nutrition And Mental Performance In Children project of the European Union (NUTRIMENTHE) has added to the evidence that maternal diet influences mental performance in childhood. The biological mechanisms have been shown to be complex and to involve genetic variation, as indicated by the work linking genetic variation in the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster to the processing of fatty acids. The role played by a child's diet also needs to be considered and this question is being addressed through the inclusion of post-natal intervention studies in the NUTRIMENTHE project's research plan...
January 2013: Nutrition and Health
Simon H House
Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems...
January 2013: Nutrition and Health
Jt Winkler
Deficiencies in DHA/EPA are widespread, but not widely recognised. The scale of the problem is difficult to assess, because targets for consumption vary and intakes are poorly measured, but most people in most countries eat too little. The principal policies to correct the shortfalls have been educational programmes urging people to eat more fish. Two problems limit this approach: many do not like fish; and there are not enough fish available if everyone ate recommended levels. One pragmatic alternative is to start with the popular foods people actually eat, then fortify them with DHA/EPA...
January 2013: Nutrition and Health
Michael A Crawford
The modern Western diet bears little resemblance to the diet which forged the human genome over many million years. The change in basic food structure is operating to distort biology even before conception and into late years, with the epidemic of obesity and diabetes likely to lead to stroke, heart disease, and now dementia, being flagged as a consequence. In addition, mental ill health is overtaking all other burdens of ill health, and almost certainly has its roots in early disturbance of brain development...
January 2013: Nutrition and Health
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