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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089138/bloodstream-infections-in-children-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-versus-carbapenem-susceptible-gram-negative-microorganisms-risk-factors-and-outcome
#1
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Banu Sancak, Sevilay Karahan, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
Carbapenems are often considered the last resort agents reserved for treatment of infections due to highly antimicrobial resistant organisms such as A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. However, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CRGN) pathogens have become much more prevalent in the last decade. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for and outcome of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative microorganisms in a pediatric tertiary-care hospital. Among 97 patients with hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia, 66 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (CSGN) were compared with the remaining 31 with CRGN isolates...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087171/a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-of-the-impact-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-mortality-in-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-treated-with-cefepime-or-ceftazidime
#2
Angharad R Ratliff, Chris A Gentry, Riley J Williams
The United States Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recently elected not to revise ceftazidime and cefepime Pseudomonas aeruginosa minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility breakpoints but rather recommended specific dosage regimens to correspond to breakpoints. This study's objective was to examine mortality of low and high MIC P. aeruginosa isolates in bacteremic patients treated with cefepime or ceftazidime. Data were gathered through a Veterans Health Administration national administrative database for veterans with P...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087170/clostridium-difficile-rates-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-hospitalized-patients-using-nucleic-acid-testing
#3
Cynthia Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Rajiv Gaur, Victoria Emma Anikst, Ikuko Komo, Colleen Watters, Erin McCalley, Carole Kulik, David Pickham, Nancy J Lee, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: The Clostridium difficile rate in symptomatic patients represents both those with C. difficile infection (CDI) and those with colonization. To predict the extent of CDI overdiagnosis, we compared the asymptomatic colonization rate to the symptomatic positivity rate in hospitalized patients using nucleic acid testing. METHODS: Between July 2014 and April 2015, formed stool samples were collected from asymptomatic patients after admission to 3 hospital wards at the Stanford Hospital...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094151/comparison-of-the-bd-max-mrsa-xt-to-the-cepheid%C3%A2-xpert%C3%A2-mrsa-assay-for-the-molecular-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-nasal-swabs
#4
Sanjay R Mehta, Jasmine Estrada, Juan Ybarra, Joshua Fierer
INTRODUCTION: Variation in MRSA genotypes may affect the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect this organism. METHODS: We compared 2 commonly used screening assays, the Cepheid™ Xpert® MRSA and the BD MAX™ MRSA XT on consecutively obtained nasal swabs from 479 subjects. Specimens giving discordant results were subjected to additional microbiologic and molecular testing. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-two (97.6%) of the 658 test results were concordant...
December 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024866/saccharomyces-boulardii-probiotic-associated-fungemia-questioning-the-safety-of-this-preventive-probiotic-s-use
#5
Isabella W Martin, Rita Tonner, Julie Trivedi, Heather Miller, Richard Lee, Xinglun Liang, Leo Rotello, Elena Isenbergh, Jennifer Anderson, Trish Perl, Sean X Zhang
We report a case of fungemia in an immunocompetent patient after administration of probiotic containing Saccharomyces boulardii. We demonstrated the strain relatedness of the yeast from the probiotic capsule and the yeast causing fungal infection using genomic and proteomic typing methods. Our study questions the safety of this preventative biotherapy.
December 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993423/corrigendum-to-carbapenem-susceptibility-among-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-enterobacter-cloacae-isolates-obtained-from-patients-in-intensive-care-units-in-taiwan-in-2005-2007-and-2009-diagn-microbiol-infect-dis-2015-81-4-290-295
#6
Shio-Shin Jean, Wen-Sen Lee, Kuan-Jen Bai, Kwok-Woon Yu, Chin-Wang Hsu, Chun-Hsing Liao, Feng-Yi Chang, Wen-Chien Ko, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Jien-Wei Liu, Min-Chi Lu, Cheng-Yi Liu, Ray-Jade Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024867/enterococcus-spp-in-a-single-blood-culture-bacteremia-or-contamination
#7
R Khatib, V Labalo, M Sharma, L B Johnson, K Riederer
We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.
December 15, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038840/assessment-of-telavancin-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-by-revised-broth-microdilution-method-in-phase-3-complicated-skin-and-skin-structure-infection-clinical-trial-isolates
#8
Jennifer I Smart, G Ralph Corey, Martin E Stryjewski, Whedy Wang, Steven L Barriere
The broth microdilution (BMD) MIC testing method for telavancin was recently revised BMD (rBMD) to improve accuracy and reproducibility. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from telavancin phase 3 complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI) studies were tested using the rBMD method. Retesting of 1132 isolates produced MICs ranging from ≤0.015 to 0.12μg/mL that were 8-fold lower than the original method. All isolates tested remained susceptible to telavancin at the revised susceptibility breakpoint of 0...
December 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012637/determination-of-clinical-significance-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-blood-cultures
#9
Asiye Karakullukçu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Sevgi Ergin, Gökhan Aygün, Kenan Midilli, Ömer Küçükbasmaci
The aim of this study was to investigate the criteria used to distinguish coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia from contamination. We evaluated 162 adult patients with CoNS-positive blood cultures (BCs). Of the 162 patients, 35 (21.6%) had at least 2 positive BCs and 127 (78.4%) had a single positive BC. According to the Laboratory-Confirmed Bloodstream Infection (LCBI) criteria, 24 (14.8%) patients with the same species of CoNS had true bacteremia, and 138 (85.2%) patients had contaminants. Despite the detection of the same CoNS species, 9 of the 24 patients had different CoNS genotypes...
December 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993422/emergence-of-sequence-type-11-klebsiella-pneumoniae-coproducing-ndm-1-and-vim-1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-a-greek-hospital
#10
C C Papagiannitsis, E Malli, Z Florou, S Sarrou, J Hrabak, K Mantzarlis, E Zakynthinos, E Petinaki
Sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae, coproducing NDM-1 and VIM-1 metallo-β-lactamases, were isolated in a Greek hospital. blaNDM-1 was part of a Tn125 derivative, located on an ~90-kb plasmid similar to the NDM-1-encoding plasmid pB-3002cz. blaVIM-1 was located in an In-e541-like integron, carried on a multireplicon (IncA/C and IncR) plasmid of ~180kb.
December 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012638/analytical-and-clinical-comparison-of-elecsys-syphilis-roche%C3%A2-architect-syphilis-tp-and-reformulated-architect-syphilis-tp-abbott%C3%A2-assay
#11
Steven De Keukeleire, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou, Julie Oosterlynck, Manon Verhulst, Jessica Van Besien, Veroniek Saegeman, Marijke Reynders
The performance of Elecsys Syphilis was compared to Architect Syphilis TP and Reformulated Architect Syphilis TP. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 98.4% and 99.5%, 97.7% and 97.1%, and 99.2% and 99.7% respectively. The assays are comparable and considered adequate for syphilis screening.
December 9, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988171/evaluation-of-a-rapid-immunochromatographic-test-for-the-detection-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase
#12
Elisa Rubio, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Cristina Pitart, Irene Campo, Izaskun Alejo-Cancho, Assumpta Fasanella, Andrea Vergara, Francesc Marco, Jordi Vila
We evaluated the OXA-48K-Set, a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of Oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) carbapenemases, among 37 strains expressing OXA-48 and OXA-48-like carbapenemases and 20 additional strains harboring other β-lactamases. The test showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and the results were obtained in 15minutes.
December 6, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007314/interspecies-discrimination-of-a-fumigatus-and-siblings-a-lentulus-and-a-felis-of-the-aspergillus-section-fumigati-using-the-aspergenius-%C3%A2-assay
#13
G M Chong, A G Vonk, J F Meis, G J H Dingemans, J Houbraken, F Hagen, G R Gaajetaan, D W E van Tegelen, G F M Simons, B J A Rijnders
The AsperGenius(®) assay detects several Aspergillus species and the A. fumigatus Cyp51A mutations TR34/L98H/T289A/Y121F that are associated with azole resistance. We evaluated its contribution in identifying A. lentulus and A. felis, 2 rare but intrinsically azole-resistant sibling species within the Aspergillus section Fumigati. Identification of these species with conventional culture techniques is difficult and time-consuming. The assay was tested on (i) 2 A. lentulus and A. felis strains obtained from biopsy proven invasive aspergillosis and (ii) control A...
December 5, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986353/detection-of-babesia-microti-parasites-by-highly-sensitive-18s-rrna-reverse-transcription-pcr
#14
Amelia E Hanron, Zachary P Billman, Annette M Seilie, Ming Chang, Sean C Murphy
Babesia are increasingly appreciated as a cause of transfusion-transmitted infection. Sensitive methods are needed to screen blood products. We report herein that B. microti 18S rRNA is over 1,000-fold more abundant than its coding genes, making reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) much more sensitive than PCR. Babesia 18S rRNA may be useful for screening the blood supply.
December 5, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069328/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-and-comparator-agents-when-tested-against-bacterial-isolates-causing-infection-in-cancer-patients-2013-2014
#15
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm
We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 623 Gram-negative organisms causing infection in patients with cancer in 52 United States hospitals (2013-2014) as part of the International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program. Isolates were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution method. β-lactamase encoding genes were evaluated for all Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype by microarray-based assay. ESBL-phenotype was observed among 17...
November 29, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939285/performance-of-a-maldi-tof-ms-based-imipenem-hydrolysis-assay-incorporating-zinc-sulfate
#16
James Knox, Enzo Palombo
A MALDI-TOF MS(1)-based imipenem hydrolysis assay was modified by adding ZnSO4. This improved detection of metallo-β-lactamase producing strains without compromising detection of other carbapenemase types. Using 129 genetically characterized Gram-negative bacilli, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.9-99.7%) and 100% (95% CI: 94.3-100%), respectively.
November 29, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939288/epidemiology-and-characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-st131-from-long-term-care-facility-residents-colonized-intestinally-with-fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli
#17
Jennifer H Han, Charles Garrigan, Brian Johnston, Irving Nachamkin, Connie Clabots, Warren B Bilker, Evelyn Santana, Pam Tolomeo, Joel Maslow, Janice Myers, Lesley Carson, Ebbing Lautenbach, James R Johnson
The objective of this study was to evaluate molecular and epidemiologic factors associated with Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) among long-term care facility (LTCF) residents who acquired gastrointestinal tract colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC). Colonizing isolates from 37 residents who newly developed FQREC colonization at three LTCFs from 2006 to 2008 were evaluated. Twenty-nine (78%) of 37 total FQREC colonizing isolates were ST131. Most ST131 isolates had a distinctive combination of gyrA and parC replacement mutations...
November 28, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939287/serotypes-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genotypes-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-associated-with-infections-in-cancer-patients-in-brazil
#18
Nayara Torres Cardoso, Bárbara Araújo Santos, André Victor Barbosa, Silvana Vargas Superti, Lúcia Martins Teixeira, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves
We sought to characterize pneumococcal isolates associated with bacteremia, pneumonia and meningitis in cancer patients and to estimate the coverage of the available pneumococcal vaccines. Fifty isolates recovered from 49 patients attending a cancer reference center over a 1-year period were analyzed. The prevalent serotypes were: 23F (12%), 6A (8%), 3, 4, 20, and 23A (6% each). All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Resistance or reduced susceptibility to penicillin made up 14%, and one isolate was also intermediately resistant to ceftriaxone...
November 28, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939286/leishmania-infantum-mimotopes-and-a-phage-elisa-assay-as-tools-for-a-sensitive-and-specific-serodiagnosis-of-human-visceral-leishmaniasis
#19
Beatriz C S Salles, Lourena E Costa, Patrícia T Alves, Ana C S Dias, Emília R Vaz, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Fernanda F Ramos, Mariana C Duarte, Bruno M Roatt, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Carlos A P Tavares, Denise U Gonçalves, Regina L Rocha, Luiz R Goulart, Eduardo A F Coelho
Serological methods used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are considered minimally invasive, but they present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. In this study, a subtractive selection using the phage display technology against antibodies from healthy subjects living in endemic and non-endemic areas of disease, as well as from Chagas disease patients and those developing active VL, was developed. The aim of this study was to select bacteriophage-fused epitopes to be used in the serodiagnosis of human VL...
November 27, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939284/contribution-of-a-rapid-influenza-diagnostic-test-to-manage-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-influenza
#20
Laurent Busson, Bhavna Mahadeb, Marc De Foor, Olivier Vandenberg, Marie Hallin
AIM: To evaluate the performances of the Alere i influenza A&B test and to appraise its contribution to patient management. METHODS: In total, 267 samples were tested. Influenza A and B PCR was performed as the reference. For each positive result, the supervising physician was contacted to collect data regarding patient management. FINDINGS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i were 91.4% and 97.6% for influenza A and 54...
November 27, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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