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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

James Knox, Claire Gregory, Louise Prendergast, Chandrika Perera, Jennifer Robson, Lynette Waring
Stool specimens spiked with a panel of 46 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 59 non-carbapenemase producers were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 4 testing algorithms for the detection of intestinal carriage of CPE: (1) culture on Brilliance ESBL agar followed by the Carba NP test; (2) Brilliance ESBL followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 agar with no Carba NP test; (3) chromID CARBA agar followed by the Carba NP test; (4) chromID CARBA followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 with no Carba NP test...
September 30, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yu Ri Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Cheol-In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
We investigated the prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) blood isolates collected from Korean hospitals. The hVISA prevalence in Korean hospitals has decreased during the past decade and the most significant decrease of hVISA prevalence was observed among the ST5 MRSA.
September 24, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Seong Mi Moon, Su-Young Kim, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Hye Yun Park, Kyeongman Jeon, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Won-Jung Koh
Mycobacterium chimaera is a recently described species distinct from M. intracellulare. M. chimaera is regarded as less virulent than M. intracellulare. Using multi-locus sequence-based identification, M. chimaera lung disease was diagnosed in 11 patients. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of M. chimaera lung disease were comparable to M. intracellulare lung disease.
September 24, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Giovanni Gherardi, Claudio Palmieri, Emanuela Marini, Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Roberta Creti, Bruna Facinelli
This study aimed to retrospectively identify 22Streptococcus bovis clinical strains based on the new taxonomy, as well as to investigate their antibiotic-resistance and clonality. Strains were identified by Phoenix100 system, 16S rRNA sequencing, and two MALDI-TOF MS platforms (Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS). Antibiotic resistance was determined both phenotypically and genotypically, and clonality was assessed by PFGE. Most of strains (63.6%) were isolated from urine, and diabetes was the most common underlying disease (31...
September 24, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kavitha Kumar, Prashant Giribhattanavar, Nagarathna Chandrashekar, Shripad Patil
Drug resistance has increased the difficulties in control of tuberculosis infection. The present study evaluated the clinical and laboratory features among tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients and the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolated from CSF. Out of 698 CSF samples, 176 (25.21%) were M.tb culture positive. Among the clinical signs and symptoms, fever, headache and altered sensorium were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). ELISA was a better predictor of disease and found to be statistically significant (P<0...
September 24, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Daniel Pérez-Prieto, María E Portillo, Lluís Puig-Verdié, Albert Alier, Carlo Gamba, Pau Guirro, Santos Martínez-Díaz, Juan P Horcajada, Andrej Trampuz, Joan C Monllau
BACKGROUND: Culture negative prosthetic joint infections (PJI) still remain an issue even with the advantages of the new diagnostic tools for PJI. This is why some orthopedic surgeons have reservations relative to the use of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis when a PJI is suspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis on intraoperative cultures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An enhanced diagnostic protocol for PJI (Zimmerli criteria) was used for the inclusion criteria in order to collect all PJI that were seen in a university hospital...
September 23, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Richard S P Huang, Coreen L Johnson, Lauryn Pritchard, Richard Hepler, Trang T Ton, James J Dunn
BACKGROUND: Multiplex syndromic panels have the capability of identifying causes of diarrheal illness. This study evaluated the performance characteristics of three multiplex molecular assays for the detection of common stool pathogens. METHODS: A total of 152 stool specimens were tested using three platforms: Verigene Enteric Pathogens Test (Verigene), Biofire FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel (Biofire) and Luminex xTAG® Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (Luminex)...
September 22, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Zi-Li Zhou, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Yun-Liang Yang, Hsiu-Jung Lo
The species distribution and drug susceptibilities of 1106 Candida isolates collected in Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) in 2014 were determined. Candida albicans is still the dominant species, accounting for 35.9%, followed by 28.3% C. glabrata, 26.6% C. tropicalis, 5.2% C. parapsilosis, 1.0% C. krusei, and 3.0% of 13 other species. Interestingly, the prevalence of candidemia caused by C. glabrata in the present study is significantly higher than that in previous three surveys (39/220 vs...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Auttawit Sirichoat, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Ratree Tavichakorntrakool, Aroonwadee Chanawong, Sujintana Wongthong, Visith Thongboonkerd
Reduced vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem. Unfortunately, its genetic marker and molecular mechanisms remained unknown. This study investigated differential phenotypic characteristic and protein expression profiles among three groups of MRSA isolates, including vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA), heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) (n = 7 isolates/group). Phenotypic characteristic revealed significant greater number of isolates with non-spreading colony in VISA as compared to both VSSA and hVISA groups...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Oscar Cirioni, Oriana Simonetti, Elisa Pierpaoli, Alessandra Barucca, Roberto Ghiselli, Fiorenza Orlando, Maria Pelloni, Maria Michela Cappelletti Trombettoni, Mario Guerrieri, Annamaria Offidani, Andrea Giacometti, Mauro Provinciali
We investigated the efficacy of colistin combined with teicoplanin or daptomycin in an experimental mouse model of multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Animal received intraperitoneally 1ml saline containing 2×10(10)CFU of A. baumannii. Colistin, daptomycin, teicoplanin, and colistin plus daptomycin or teicoplanin were given by intraperitoneal administration 2h after bacterial challenge. A control group received sodium chloride solution. In the in vitro study A. baumannii showed to be susceptible only to colistin with MIC of 2mg/l...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kristina Trell, Bo Nilson, Magnus Rasmussen
beta-Haemolytic streptococci of groups C (GCS) and G (GGS) from human infections typically belong to Streptococcus dysgalactiae and are important human pathogens. Among GGS (183 isolates), several emm-types were identified without significant differences between different sites of isolation. For GCS (79 isolates), the type-distribution was markedly different and more restricted.
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kelsey E McHugh, Daniel D Rhoads, Deborah A Wilson, Kristin B Highland, Sandra S Richter, Gary W Procop
Inquilinus limosus is a slow growing, gram-negative, oxidase-positive, non-fermentative bacillus that is rarely isolated from clinical samples. When clinically identified, I. limosus is almost exclusively isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report the first case of I. limosus isolation from a pulmonary specimen in an individual without a diagnosis of CF. A review of the English-language literature has been made and shows 33 cases (excluding the present report) in which I...
September 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Caio Augusto Martins Aires, Cláudio M Rocha-de-Souza, Loeci Natalina Timm, Polyana Silva Pereira, Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Marise Dutra Asensi
We aimed to describe an early detection of OXA-370-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Brazil. The isolate CCBH10079 belonged to ST17 and the blaOXA-370 was located in a plasmid of ≅57kb.
September 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sergio García-Fernández, María-Isabel Morosini, Marta Cobo, José Ramón Foruny, Antonio López-Sanromán, Javier Cobo, José Romero, Rafael Cantón, Rosa Del Campo
We report the fecal carriage eradication of a VIM-1-producing ST9 Klebsiella oxytoca strain in a pluripathological 84-year-old woman after fecal microbiota transplantation to control relapsing R027 hypervirulent Clostridium difficile infections. The donor was her son, in which the absence of fecal carbapenemase-producing bacteria was corroborated.
September 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Anna Both, Jiabin Huang, Martin Kaase, Julia Hezel, Daniel Wertheimer, Ines Fenner, Thomas Günther, Adam Grundhoff, Henning Büttner, Martin Aepfelbacher, Holger Rohde, Moritz Hentschke
Recently Gram-negative bacteria co-producing multiple carbapenemases have emerged in different parts of the world. We report the first isolation of an Escherichia coli strain co-producing the carbapenemases NDM-1 and OXA-232.
September 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kenneth P Smith, James E Kirby
We evaluated activity of apramycin, a non-ototoxic/non-nephrotoxic aminocyclitol against 141 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 51% of which were non-susceptible to carbapenems (CRE). Among CRE, 70.8% were apramycin susceptible, which compared favorably to aminoglycosides in current clinical use. Our data suggest that apramycin deserves further investigation as a repurposed, anti-CRE therapeutic.
September 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Marion Haas, Frederic Grenouillet, Sophie Loubersac, Beatriz Ariza, Line Pepin-Puget, Carlos Arturo Alvarez-Moreno, Sandra Liliana Valderrama-Beltrán, Rose-Anne Lavergne, Patrice Le Pape, Florent Morio
Data about the performance of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry against cryptic Candida species are limited. According to our findings within the C. parapsilosis species complex, microbiologists should be aware that the choice of the instrument is critical for accurate species identification due to the risk of misidentification in the clinical setting.
September 4, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Eric Q Konnick, Siu-Kei Chow, Nicholas P Reder, Dhruba J Sengupta, Daniel R Hoogestraat, Paul S Pottinger, April N Abbott, Peter W Monsaas, Kyoko Kurosawa, Karen Stephens, Stephen J Salipante, Cecilia C S Yeung
Strongyloides stercoralis is an important human parasite, especially in rural areas and developing countries. Infected immunosuppressed patients are at risk for hyperinfection, with severe clinical consequences. Here we describe the incidental detection and diagnosis of an unexpected S. stercoralis infection by methods designed to detect fungal 28S ribosomal DNA.
September 4, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kevin E Eboigbodin, Mirko Brummer, Tuomas Ojalehto, Mark Hoser
Zika virus has only recently gained attention due to recent large outbreaks worldwide. An easy to use nucleic acid amplification test could play an important role in the early detection of the infection and patient management. Here, we report a rapid and robust isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay for the detection of Zika virus. The method is cost-effective and compatible with portable instrumentation, enabling near patient testing and field use.
September 2, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Didi Bang, Siri Rytcher Andersen, Edita Vasiliauskienė, Erik Michael Rasmussen
The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) hampers infection control. To assess the performance of an extended rapid novel molecular analysis for the detection of resistance conferring mutations to fluoroquinolones (gyrA, gyrB genes) and aminoglycosides/cyclic peptides (16S rRNA rrs gene, eis promotor region) compared to phenotypic susceptibility and sequencing, 43 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 10 susceptible clinical isolates were analyzed. Results were compared to a previous version...
August 31, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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