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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314653/modified-combined-disc-test-mcdt-a-novel-labor-saving-and-4-times-cheaper-method-to-differentiate-class-a-b-and-d-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-species
#1
Nitin Kumar, Varsha A Singh, Vikas Beniwal
Carbapenemase-producing organisms have been an immense public health problem in recent years. Combined disc test (CDT) is a simple and widely used phenotypic method for carbapenemase detection, especially in developing countries. This study evaluates the performance of modified combined disc test (mCDT), a novel and 4 times cheaper method than CDT. In total, 572 (15.5%) Klebsiella spp. including 81 (14.2%) carbapenemase producers were isolated from 3993 clinical samples. Both mCDT and CDT showed similar sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the differentiation of Class A, B, and D carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella spp...
September 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297092/meropenem-heteroresistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-oxa-48-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#2
Elena López-Camacho, José Ramón Paño-Pardo, Alma Sotillo, Cristina Elías-López, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Rosa Gómez-Gil, Jesús Mingorance
OXA-48-producing Klebsiellapneumoniae isolates often show growth of colonies within inhibition zones in carbapenem diffusion assays. The nature of these colonies was investigated in a series of clinical isolates of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae obtained in the context of a hospital outbreak, and they were found to be persistent colonies that reproduced again the same phenotype when they were collected and tested in diffusion assays again. The frequency of mutations conferring resistance to meropenem (8 μg/mL) was determined for the same isolates...
September 20, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293678/relevance-or-performance-potential-savings-associated-with-verification-of-prior-results-before-performing-microbiology-analysis
#3
Georges Ambaraghassi, Claire Béliveau, Annie-Claude Labbé, Christian Lavallée
OBJECTIVE: In an era of rising healthcare expenditures, it is critical to find ways to decrease cost. The objective of this study is to evaluate the number of repeated tests and the associated cost savings in a university-affiliated hospital. METHODS: The following 7 microbiology analysis were assessed for nonrepeat testing: HCV antibody, HBV core antibody, CMV IgG, rubella IgG, Treponema pallidum antibodies, Clostridioides difficile toxin detection, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci PCR...
September 20, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291043/are-there-safe-vitek2-mic-cutoffs-to-avoid-errors-in-colistin-susceptibility-testing
#4
LETTER
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Charalampos Lydakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293677/activity-of-fixed-direct-electrical-current-in-experimental-staphylococcus-aureus-foreign-body-osteomyelitis
#5
Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Cassandra L Brinkman, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Melissa J Karau, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Fixed DC was compared to ceftriaxone, ceftriaxone with 200 μA fixed DC, or no treatment in a rat model of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus foreign-body osteomyelitis. After 3 weeks, fewer bacteria were present in bones of the ceftriaxone group (5.71 log10 cfu/g [P = 0.0004]) and the ceftriaxone/DC group (3.53 log10 cfu/g [P = 0.0002]) than untreated controls (6.70 log10 cfu/g). Fewer bacteria were present in the ceftriaxone/DC group than in the ceftriaxone-alone and DC-alone groups (P = 0...
September 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291042/bactericidal-activity-of-ceftobiprole-combined-with-different-antibiotics-against-selected-gram-positive-isolates
#6
F Campanile, D Bongiorno, G Mongelli, G Zanghì, S Stefani
This study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of ceftobiprole and its potential synergistic activity in combination with other antimicrobials against 46 selected Gram-positive pathogens displaying resistance or decrease susceptibility to several drugs. The gradient-cross method was used to assess synergism between ceftobiprole and daptomycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, rifampicin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Time-kill curves were performed for seven representative isolates. Ceftobiprole MICs ranged from 0...
September 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279024/daptomycin-for-the-treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-complicated-by-septic-pulmonary-emboli
#7
REVIEW
Ryan L Crass, Kelsey L Powell, Angela M Huang
The management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is limited by high rates of methicillin resistance and the paucity of antibiotic agents with proven efficacy in complicated infectious syndromes, such as endocarditis. Vancomycin is the mainstay of therapy; however, salvage therapy is frequently required due to persistence of infection or drug toxicity. Daptomycin is FDA-approved for S. aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis, but controversy exists regarding the role of this agent in the setting of septic pulmonary emboli...
September 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266399/surveillance-of-iclaprim-activity-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-gram-positive-skin-infection-pathogens-collected-from-2015-to-2016-from-north-america-and-europe
#8
David B Huang, Sophie Magnet, Stefania De Angelis, Thomas L Holland, Thomas M File, Matthew Dryden, G Ralph Corey, Antoni Torres, Mark H Wilcox
Iclaprim is a diaminopyrimidine, which inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, and surveillance data prior to 2006 suggested that iclaprim was active against Gram-positive pathogens including emerging drug-resistant pathogens. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, we undertook testing iclaprim and comparators against 931 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States and Europe collected between 2015 and 2016. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
September 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266401/emergence-and-dissemination-of-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-expressing-oxa-48-plus-ctx-m-15-in-patients-not-previously-treated-with-colistin-in-a-spanish-university-hospital
#9
Hugo Barragán-Prada, Paula Ruiz-Hueso, Ana P Tedim, Fernando González-Candelas, Juan Carlos Galán, Rafael Cantón, María-Isabel Morosini
Dissemination of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in the hospital environment represents a primary target of resistance containment and stewardship programs. At present, polymyxins, mostly in combination, exemplify a last-resort alternative. Colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates harboring OXA-48 plus CTX-M-15 (n = 21) with the simultaneous colistin-susceptible counterparts (n = 9) were recovered from 14 hospitalized patients (January 2014-January 2015) admitted in different wards. In most cases, patients had not previously received colistin...
September 8, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266400/a-highly-sensitive-1-tube-nested-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-using-lna-modified-primers-for-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#10
Li Zhao, Ji Wang, Gui-Xia Li, Fang-Zhou Qiu, Chen Chen, Meng-Chuan Zhao, Le Wang, Su-Xia Duan, Zhi-Shan Feng, Xue-Jun Ma
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory tract infection worldwide. The relatively low RSV load makes it difficult to detect in frail, elderly, and severely immune-compromised patients. In the present study, we developed a locked nucleic acid--based 1-tube nested real-time RT-PCR (OTNRT-PCR) assay with the advantages of extremely high sensitivity, facile operability, and less likelihood of cross-contamination. The sensitivity, specificity, and clinical performance of the OTNRT-PCR assay were compared in parallel with a conventional TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and a traditional 2-step nested RT-PCR assay...
September 8, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266398/staphylococcus-aureus-versus-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection-outcome-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-versus-methicillin-susceptible-strains
#11
G T Hischebeth, T M Randau, M M Ploeger, M J Friedrich, E Kaup, C Jacobs, E Molitor, A Hoerauf, S Gravius, M D Wimmer
Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are a major complication in total joint arthroplasty. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci are known to cause the majority of all PJIs. This study aimed to analyze the eradication rates of S. aureus and S. epidermidis with methicillin susceptibility and methicillin resistance in a 2-stage therapy algorithm. Seventy-four patients with PJI caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRSE), methicillin-susceptible S...
September 1, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249513/prevalence-of-haemophilus-influenzae-with-alteration-of-pbp-3-sequence-over-a-1-year-period-in-a-french-hospital-focus-on-a-clinical-failure-after-ceftriaxone-treatment
#12
E Thomas, A Guillouzouic, M-E Juvin, A-L Chene, J Caillon, P Bémer, S Corvec
Among 547 Haemophilus influenzae isolates recovered in our center, 45 displayed a phenotype of loss of PBP 3 affinity (8.2%). Two isolates with 6 substitutions in PBP 3 showed decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins. Clinical data revealed clinical failure after ceftriaxone treatment in a context of bronchitis in a patient with pulmonary sarcoidosis.
September 1, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224228/what-s-new-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#13
Yoonsun Mo, Michael Lorenzo, Sara Farghaly, Kamaljit Kaur, Seth T Housman
Eradicating multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms has been a major challenge in healthcare settings worldwide. Newly approved drugs and those currently in the pipeline may have a promising solution to this issue. The purposes of this review are to describe the various resistance mechanisms of Gram-negative bacteria and to provide a summary of the current literature available on the newer agents, such as ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, and other emerging agents used for the treatment of MDR Gram-negative infections...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241971/influence-of-genexpert-mrsa-sa-test-implementation-on-clinical-outcomes-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-before-after-retrospective-study
#14
Haim Ben-Zvi, Genady Drozdinsky, Shiri Kushnir, Tomer Avni, Oded Scheuerman, Jihad Bisahra, Dafna Yahav
Use of GeneXpert MRSA/SA in diagnostic algorithms of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia may influence both patients' clinical outcomes and antibiotic stewardship. We evaluated these outcomes in a retrospective cohort before (1/6/2015-31/5/2016) and after (1/6/2016-31/8/2017) the introduction of the test in adult patients with Gram-positive cocci in clusters in blood cultures. We included 254 patients (125 preintervention, 129 postintervention). No significant difference in 30-day mortality or clinical success was demonstrated between periods...
August 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236529/drug-susceptibility-patterns-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-mycobacterium-massiliense-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens
#15
Eun Hye Cho, Hee Jae Huh, Dong Joon Song, Seung Heon Lee, Chang Ki Kim, So Youn Shin, Chang-Seok Ki, Byung Woo Jhun, Seong Mi Moon, O Jung Kwon, Won-Jung Koh, Nam Yong Lee
In this study, we aimed to retrospectively investigate and compare the drug susceptibility patterns of two major Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) species; M. abscessus and M. massiliense. A total of 546 MABC respiratory isolates (277 M. abscessus and 269 M. massiliense) from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed in this study. We estimated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the broth microdilution method, and we calculated MIC50 and MIC90 values from the MIC distribution. Both M. abscessus and M...
August 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236530/activity-of-fosfomycin-when-tested-against-us-contemporary-bacterial-isolates
#16
Robert K Flamm, Paul R Rhomberg, Amy A Watters, Kim Sweeney, Evelyn J Ellis-Grosse, Dee Shortridge
Fosfomycin and comparators were susceptibility tested against over 2200 contemporary clinical isolates from US medical centers. Fosfomycin was active against Enterobacterales (MIC50/90 , 4/16 μg/mL), including multidrug-resistant isolates. Potent activity was exhibited against gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90 , 4/8 μg/mL). Fosfomycin may provide a promising alternative option for treatment of infections where resistant bacteria may occur.
August 28, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314652/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-against-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-and-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-from-europe-and-the-united-states
#17
David J Farrell, Rodrigo E Mendes, Mekki Bensaci
Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus are unique among CoNS in that the former often causes aggressive disease, while the latter consistently exhibits high rates of multidrug resistance. We evaluated the in vitro susceptibility of contemporary (2012-2013) isolates from both pathogens to tedizolid and comparators, using standard methodology. Results were interpreted using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints. Overall, 106 S. lugdunensis and 103 S. haemolyticus isolates were collected from 51 medical centers in the United States and 30 centers in 18 European countries...
August 23, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279025/the-performance-of-galactomannan-in-combination-with-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-or-aspergillus-lateral-flow-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-evidences-from-13-studies
#18
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Zhusheng Guo, Shujin Xie, Jing Zhou, Guiling Chen, Jianbo Feng, Ya Huang
Galactomannan (GM), 1,3-β-D-glucan (BDG) and aspergillus-lateral flow device (LFD) are recognized as diagnostic tools for invasive aspergillosis (IA). The combined performance of these assays, however, is inconsistent in various studies. We undertook a meta-analysis of 13 studies involving 1513 patients to evaluate the utility of GM in combination with BDG or LFD for diagnosing IA. The pooled SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated and constructed to summarize the overall combined performance...
August 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201280/helicobacter-pylori-growth-stimulation-by-adrenaline-detected-by-two-methods
#19
Lyudmila Boyanova, Rumyana Markovska, Ivan Mitov
Our aim was to assess growth effects of adrenaline on 32 Helicobacter pylori strains on 2.5% blood agar. By agar-well diffusion and disk diffusion methods, concentration-dependent growth stimulation occurred in ≤50.0% and 36.8% of the strains, respectively. Growth inhibition was less frequent. Most strains were adrenaline-responsive and growth stimulation prevailed.
August 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174143/chronic-norovirus-infection-in-primary-immune-deficiency-disorders-an-international-case-series
#20
M C Rolfes, P Sriaroon, B J Dávila Saldaña, C C Dvorak, H Chapdelaine, R M Ferdman, K Chen, S Jolles, N C Patel, Y J Kim, T K Tarrant, T Martelius, M Seppanen, A Y Joshi
OBJECTIVE: Predictive factors associated with clinical outcomes of chronic norovirus infection (CNI) in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are lacking. METHOD: We sought to characterize CNI using a multi-institutional cohort of patients with PIDD and CNI using the Clinical Immunology Society's CIS-PIDD Listserv e-mail group. RESULTS: Thirty-four subjects (21 males and 13 females) were reported from centers across North America, Europe, and Asia...
August 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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