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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647066/large-scale-evaluation-of-a-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-human-cystic-echinococcosis
#1
Alice Baraquin, Houria Zait, Florence-Elisabeth Grenouillet, Elise Moreau, Boussad Hamrioui, Frédéric Grenouillet
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease, diagnosed through clinical findings, imaging techniques, and serology, for which many serological tests are available. Here we report a rapid unit assay, the immunochromatographic VIRapid® HYDATIDOSIS test (Vircell, Granada, Spain), potentially suitable for laboratories in low-prevalence or poorly equipped areas. This test was evaluated with a large retrospective cohort (224 sera), including patients suffering from CE or from other parasitic or liver diseases...
June 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633900/analytical-and-clinical-performance-of-a-chikungunya-qrt-pcr-for-central-and-south-america
#2
Thomas Edwards, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo Signor, Christopher Williams, Clément Larcher, Mauricio Espinel, Jane Theaker, Evelin Donis, Luis E Cuevas, Emily R Adams
Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in 2015 causing a pandemic across the continent. Testing during the acute phase of infection relies on qRT-PCR, but available assays have a number of limitations. A qRT-PCR assay specific to the chikungunya E1 gene was designed using sequence data from contemporary strains. A probit analysis established the 95% limit of detection as 19.6 copies per reaction. We compared the assay with a US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) chikungunya qRT-PCR as the reference standard...
June 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610774/false-positive-hiv-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing-during-car-t-cell-therapy
#3
Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Bruno P Granwehr, George M Viola, Micah Bhatti, James M Kelley, James Kochenderfer, Chitra Hosing
Advancements in immunotherapy have opened a new era in oncology, to include genetic modification of human T-cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that enables targeted tumor recognition (Kochenderfer et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2015; Maus and Levine 2016; Rosenberg et al., 2008). Herein, we report a false-positive HIV testing in a patient who had undergone CAR T-cell therapy created with a lentiviral vector.
June 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629878/campylobacter-bacteremia-in-london-a-44-year-single-center-study
#4
Geraldine A O'Hara, Joseph R A Fitchett, John L Klein
PURPOSE: Campylobacter species are a well-recognized but rare cause of bloodstream infection. METHODS: Here we reviewed 41 cases of Campylobacter bloodstream infection occurring at a single center in London over 44years, comprising 0.2% of all recorded episodes during this time period. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 46years and, contrasting with previous reports, nearly 50% of our patients did not have significant comorbidities. Ciprofloxacin resistance increased over the study period with 35% of isolates overall being resistant compared with only 3% exhibiting macrolide resistance...
June 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629877/the-effect-of-a-genetic-variant-on-quantitative-real-time-pcr-in-a-case-of-disseminated-adenovirus-infection
#5
Thomas J Gniadek, Michael T Forman, Isabella Martin, Ravit Arav-Boger, Alexandra Valsamakis
A patient developed disseminated adenovirus infection following bone marrow transplant. TaqMan real-time PCR showed reduced maximum fluorescence in the amplification curve from all plasma samples. Sequencing revealed three single nucleotide mismatches between the TaqMan probe and probe binding region. Real-time PCR with probe matching the isolate sequence showed normal amplification and a higher copy number result.
June 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633901/patient-ethnicity-and-causative-species-determine-the-manifestations-of-anti-interferon-gamma-autoantibody-associated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Isano Hase, Kozo Morimoto, Takuro Sakagami, Yoshiki Ishii, Jakko van Ingen
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections involving anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-neutralizing autoantibodies have been described in previously immunocompetent adults. To investigate the factors underlying various disease manifestations, we reviewed 35 articles published between January 2004 and November 2016 and identified 111 NTM patients with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) accounted for 53% of the isolated species. RGM were predominant among the NTM species isolated from Thai (73%), Chinese (58%) and Filipino (56%) patients, whereas M...
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622949/changed-epidemiology-during-intra-and-interhospital-spread-of-high-risk-clones-of-vana-containing-enterococcus-in-brazilian-hospitals
#7
Andrey G Sacramento, Rosemeire C Zanella, Fernanda Esposito, Emanuela A S Costa, Lara M de Almeida, Carlos Pires, Artemir C de Brito, Elsa M Mamizuka, Louise T Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
We report changes in the molecular epidemiology of vanA-containing Enterococcus during the intra and interhospital spread of high-risk clones, in Southeastern Brazil. While VRE faecalis predominated during 1998 to 2006, a reversal has been observed in the last years, where VRE faecium belonging to ST114, ST203, ST412, ST478 and ST858 have become endemic.
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622948/high-level-of-%C3%AE-1-3-d-glucan-antigenaemia-in-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-absence-of-invasive-fungal-disease
#8
Vilma Rautemaa, Heather D Green, Andrew M Jones, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson
β-(1,3)-d-glucan (BDG) is used to rule out invasive fungal disease (IFD) but its usefulness in cystic fibrosis (CF) has not been evaluated. We measured serum BDG in CF patients with no clinical suspicion of IFD. Samples from 46 adult CF patients during a stable period and during pulmonary exacerbation were tested. The association of BDG with clinical variables was analyzed. Three hundred and three non-CF patients with suspected IFD were used as comparators. Both samples were negative in 52% of CF patients, whereas 67% of comparators had only negative results (P=0...
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602518/synergistic-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-and-aztreonam-against-serine-and-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-pathogens
#9
Eric Wenzler, Matthew F Deraedt, Amanda T Harrington, Larry H Danizger
This study assessed the in vitro synergy between ceftazidime, aztreonam, and ceftazidime-avibactam against serine and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing pathogens via the Etest MIC:MIC ratio and Agar-Etest synergy methods. The combination of aztreonam and ceftazidime-avibactam was synergistic against all Enterobacteriaceae. None of the tested combinations were consistently synergistic against IMP-producing P. aeruginosa.
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602517/is-frozen-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-effective-as-fresh-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Guihua Tang, Wen Yin, Wenen Liu
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a remarkably efficacious therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but not standardized. This work is to determine whether frozen FMT is as effective as fresh FMT. Meta-analysis showed that frozen FMT was as effective as fresh FMT, both pooled first effective rate (65.0% (95% CI 57.0-73.0%) vs. 65.0% (95% CI 57.0-73.0%), P=0.962) and pooled second effective rate (95.0% (95% CI 91.0-99.0%) vs. 95.0% (95% CI 92.0-99.0%), P=0.880). In conclusion, among patients with recurrent or refractory CDI, frozen FMT is as effective as fresh FMT...
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533001/evaluation-of-the-rapidec%C3%A2-carba-np-and-%C3%AE-carba%C3%A2-tests-for-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Stefano Mancini, Nicolas Kieffer, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
The analytical performances of the RAPIDEC CARBA NP® (bioMérieux) and the β-CARBA® (Bio-Rad) tests were evaluated for the rapid detection of any known type of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae. An international collection of 149 enterobacterial isolates comprising 111 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 38 non-carbapenemase producers was used. CPE included 32 carbapenemase producers of class A (18 KPC-2, 1 FRI-1, 5 SME and 8 IMI), 33 of class B (13 NDM, 11 VIM and 9 IMP) and 46 of class D (15 OXA-48, 14 OXA-181, 10 OXA-204, 3 OXA-232 and 4 OXA-162)...
May 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529089/kinetics-of-biofilm-formation-by-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-strains-in-bone-and-joint-infections
#12
Xavier Argemi, Gilles Prévost, Philippe Riegel, Christian Provot, Stéphanie Badel-Berchoux, François Jehl, Elodie Olivares, Yves Hansmann
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and 1-year follow-up of patients with bone and joint infections (BJIs) caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and evaluate its biofilm-forming capacities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 28 patients with BJIs from VISLISI clinical trials were included. We evaluated 1-year clinical follow-up and analyzed biofilm production kinetics of the 28 strains using the BioFilm Ring Test®. RESULTS: Of all patients, 12 had osteoarticular infections without material and 16 had prosthetic joint infections, of which 9 underwent a 1-stage revision procedure...
May 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535946/activity-of-minocycline-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-enterobacteriaceae-clinical-isolates-with-comparison-to-doxycycline-and-tigecycline
#13
Alice Chen, Kenneth P Smith, Betsy A Whitfield, Paola C Zucchi, Todd M Lasco, Tiffany E Bias, James E Kirby, Elizabeth B Hirsch
We examined the in vitro activity of minocycline against 103 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and found approximately half had susceptible (26%) or intermediate (26%) MICs. For a subset of 35 isolates, susceptibility was highest to tigecycline (71% FDA vs. 20% EUCAST) followed by minocycline (14%) and then doxycycline (6%).
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533000/clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical data cannot clearly predict poor CDI outcome. Data on the value of microbiological predictors is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify early predictors of poor outcome of CDI. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with CDI aged >2years. Clinical, immunological (Toxin B IgG/Ig A and Toxin A IgG/Ig A), microbiological factors (bacterial load, toxin quantification, sporulation, germination, and metronidazole susceptibility) were evaluated to identify early independent predictors of poor outcome...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529091/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-risk-factors-treatment-and-outcome
#15
Polydoros Tofas, Michael Samarkos, Evangelia-Theophano Piperaki, Christos Kosmidis, Ioanna-Dionysia Triantafyllopoulou, Maria Kotsopoulou, Aggeliki Pantazatou, Stavroula Perlorentzou, Anastasia Poulli, Maria Vagia, George L Daikos
Our aims were to identify factors associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematological malignancies and evaluate the outcome of the affected patients. Consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who developed PA BSI were identified. Subsequently, two case-control studies were performed to evaluate the risk factors (i) for PA BSI and (ii) for carbapenem resistant (CR) PA BSI. Patients' outcome was evaluated at 28 days after the onset of bacteraemia. A total of 64 patients with PA BSI (45 caused by CS and 19 by CR organisms) and 128 without PA BSI were enrolled...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506722/primary-helicobacter-pylori-resistance-in-elderly-patients-over-20-years-a-bulgarian-study
#16
Lyudmila Boyanova, Galina Gergova, Rumyana Markovska, Nayden Kandilarov, Lyubomir Davidkov, Zoya Spassova, Ivan Mitov
We evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of 233 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in the period 2011-2016, involving 62 strains from elderly patients aged 66-93years and 171 strains from younger adults. To assess resistance evolution, primary resistance rates in 92 strains from as many patients aged ≥60years in 1996-2003 were compared with those in 85 strains from infected patients in the same age group in 2011-2016. In the patients aged >65years evaluated during the last 6 years, amoxicillin resistance according to EUCAST and prior breakpoints was 1...
May 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529090/continued-expansion-of-usa300-like-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-among-hospitalized-patients-in-the-united-states
#17
Isabella A Tickler, Richard V Goering, Jose R Mediavilla, Barry N Kreiswirth, Fred C Tenover
We characterized spa types, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 516 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, collected between 2011 and 2014 from nares and blood cultures of United States patients. Among nares isolates, 45 spa types were observed; 29.9% were t002/SCCmec II and 30.9% were t008/SCCmec IV. Among blood isolates, 40 spa types were identified; 24.4% were t002/SCCmec II and 39.9% were type t008/SCCmec IV. Compared to data from our 2009-2010 survey, the percentage of t008/SCCmec IV isolates from nares increased significantly (20...
May 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602519/diversity-of-plasmids-harboring-blacmy-2-in-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-poultry-in-brazil
#18
Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Angelo Berchieri Junior, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
Multidrug-resistance (MDR) has been increasingly reported in Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal microbiota, environment and food-producing animals. Resistance plasmids able to harbor different transposable elements are capable to mobilize antimicrobial resistance genes and transfer to other bacterial hosts. Plasmids carrying blaCMY are frequently associated with MDR. The present study assessed the presence of plasmid-encoded ampC genes (blacmy, blamox, blafox, blalat, blaact, blamir, bladha, blamor) in commensal E...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583381/synergistic-activities-of-meropenem-double-and-triple-combinations-against-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#19
Marlene Fredborg, Teis E Sondergaard, Mikala Wang
The increasing emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae poses a considerable threat to global health as only limited treatment options are available and has therefore led to efforts to discover antibiotic combination regimens effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro synergistic activity of 10 meropenem double and triple combinations against the 5 most frequently encountered carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Broth microdilution assays showed that the meropenem and ertapenem combination was the most efficient regimen of the double combinations tested (>5-log2 fold decrease)...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506721/first-report-of-ndm-1-producing-clinical-isolate-of-leclercia-adecarboxylata-in-spain
#20
Cristina Riazzo, Lorena López-Cerero, María Dolores Rojo-Martín, Yannick Hoyos-Mallecot, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, Jose Luis Martín-Ruíz, Álvaro Pascual-Hernández, Thierry Naas, Jose María Navarro-Marí
We describe the case of NDM-1-producing Leclercia adecarboxylata recovered from the clinical sample of a patient hospitalized for a trauma-related injury to his foot. The isolate was resistant to all beta-lactams, quinolones, trimetroprim-sulfametoxazol, gentamicin and tobramicyn. The blaNDM-1 gene was located in a conjugative plasmid that also contained the blaSHV-12 gene and was preceded by a disrupted insertion sequence of ISAba125. The plasmid belongs to the incompatibility group X3, which is known to be an important vector for NDM-1 dissemination in China...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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