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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031525/impact-of-clsi-and-eucast-cefepime-breakpoint-changes-on-the-susceptibility-reporting-for-enterobacteriaceae
#1
Jacqueline T Bork, Emily L Heil, Surbhi Leekha, Randal C Fowler, Nancy D Hanson, Anjali Majumdar, J Kristie Johnson
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effects of different cefepime MIC breakpoints on Enterobacteriaceae cefepime susceptibility and the presence of AmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes within the cefepime MIC interpretative categories. METHODS: Using Enterobacteriaceae susceptibility data from 2013 comparisons of MIC breakpoints were performed using Pearson's chi-squared test. Molecular testing on a subset of isolates was done. RESULTS: Among 3784 non-duplicate clinical isolates, cefepime susceptibility decreased from 97...
October 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918067/corrigendum-to-malaria-surveillance-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-comparison-of-microscopy-pcr-and-rapid-diagnostic-test-diagn-microbiol-infect-dis-2016-may-85-1-16-8-doi-10-1016-j-diagmicrobio-2016-01-004-epub-2016-jan-9
#2
Stephanie M Doctor, Yunhao Liu, Amy Whitesell, Kyaw L Thwai, Steve M Taylor, Mark Janko, Michael Emch, Melchior Kashamuka, Jérémie Muwonga, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951056/antimicrobial-activity-among-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-the-asia-pacific-region-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-comparison-of-2015-results-with-previous-years
#3
Qiwen Yang, Ying-Chun Xu, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Michael J Dowzicky
We report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Asia-Pacific during 2004-2010 and 2015. MICs were determined by broth microdilution using CLSI guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed using CLSI breakpoints, except for tigecycline FDA breakpoints. For Acinetobacter baumannii, multidrug-resistant (MDR) rates were 81.8% in 2015 and 48.5% during 2004-2010. Among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae respectively, rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producers in 2015 were 24...
August 31, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021087/evaluation-of-onestep-dengue-ns1-rapidip%C3%A2-instatest-and-onestep-dengue-fever-igg-igm-rapicard%C3%A2-instatest-during-the-course-of-a-dengue-type-1-epidemic
#4
Ivan Vickers, Kevin Harvey, Kereann Nelson, Michelle Brown, Marion Bullock-DuCasse, John Lindo
We determined the diagnostic performance of the OneStep NS1 and the OneStep IgG/IgM RDT kits against a panel of samples which comprised of 174 dengue positive and 165 dengue negative sera characterized by three reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The diagnostic sensitivities of the OneStep kits for the detection of individual biomarkers of NS1, IgM and IgG were 90% (95% CI: 82.1-94.7), 32.4% (95% CI: 24.8-40.8) and 44.4% (95% CI: 38.2-50.7), respectively. The combination of the OneStep IgG/IgM kit with the OneStep NS1 kit demonstrated significantly higher sensitivities for the combined NS1/IgM (96...
August 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974395/scedosporium-boydii-cata1-and-sodc-recombinant-proteins-new-tools-for-serodiagnosis-of-scedosporium-infection-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Sara Mina, Cindy Staerck, Agnès Marot, Charlotte Godon, Alphonse Calenda, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Scedosporium species rank the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), after Aspergillus fumigatus. In CF, these fungi may cause various respiratory infections similar to those caused by A. fumigatus, including bronchitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary mycoses. Diagnosis of these infections relies on the detection of serum antibodies using crude antigenic extracts. However, many components of these extracts are common to Scedosporium and Aspergillus species, leading to cross-reactions...
August 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969935/avidity-as-a-criterion-for-diagnosis-of-human-strongyloidiasis-increases-specificity-of-igg-elisa
#6
Larissa Rodrigues Bosqui, Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga, Maria do Rosário de Fátima Gonçalves-Pires, Fabiana Martins de Paula, Ricardo Sergio Almeida, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz, Idessania Nazareth da Costa
This study evaluates the inclusion of the IgG avidity index in ELISA to detect anti-Strongyloides stercoralis IgG. The ELISA index revealed 70% of specificity. With the inclusion of screening AI, specificity increased to 80%. IgG avidity complemented traditional IgG ELISA by eliminating some of the suspected or false positive cases.
August 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037465/influence-of-exposure-time-on-the-release-of-bacteria-from-a-biofilm-on-ti6al4v-discs-using-sonication-an-in-vitro-model
#7
Laura Prieto-Borja, Ana Conde, María A Arenas, Juan J de Damborenea, Jaime Esteban
Implant sonication is considered a useful method for the diagnosis of implant-related infections. We designed an in vitro study using Ti6Al4V discs and 5 different bacteria to determine the optimal sonication time for recovery of most bacteria tested to enable use of sonication in clinical practice for microbiological diagnosis of implant-related infections. We carried out a specific protocol for the adherence and subsequent biofilm formation on the materials used. The discs were then sonicated and the retrieved bacteria were quantified...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021088/the-impact-of-strain-specific-immunity-on-lyme-disease-incidence-is-spatially-heterogeneous
#8
Camilo E Khatchikian, Robert B Nadelman, John Nowakowski, Ira Schwartz, Gary P Wormser, Dustin Brisson
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne infection in the US. Recent studies have demonstrated that the incidence of human Lyme disease would have been even greater were it not for the presence of strain-specific immunity, which protects previously infected patients against subsequent infections by the same B. burgdorferi strain. Here, spatial heterogeneity is incorporated into epidemiological models to accurately estimate the impact of strain-specific immunity on human Lyme disease incidence...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021086/genomic-characterization-of-an-extensively-drug-resistant-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st855-cc258-only-susceptible-to-ceftazidime-avibactam-isolated-in-brazil
#9
Caio Augusto Martins Aires, Michael J Rybak, Juwon Yim, Polyana Silva Pereira, Cláudio M Rocha-de-Souza, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Valdelucia Oliveira Cavalcanti, Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Marisa Zenaide Ribeiro Gomes, Marise Dutra Asensi
In this study, we describe the genetic features of an XDR KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate by using whole-genome sequencing, its clinical-epidemiological context and susceptibility against antimicrobial combinations. The isolate belongs to clonal complex 258 and harbors several acquired genes and mutations associated with antimicrobial resistance.
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988698/dissemination-of-successful-international-clone-st15-and-clonal-complex-17-among-bulgarian-ctx-m-15-producing-k-pneumoniae-isolates
#10
Rumyana Markovska, Temenuga Stoeva, Lyudmila Boyanova, Petya Stankova, Daniela Pencheva, Emma Keuleyan, Marianna Murjeva, Marya Sredkova, Dobrinka Ivanova, Grozdanka Lazarova, Gergana Nedelcheva, Radka Kaneva, Ivan Mitov
A total of 82 extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4 Klebsiella oxytoca isolates were collected in 2014 from four geographical areas in Bulgaria and their multilocus sequence type (MLST) and transferability of the ESBL encoding genes were investigated. The predominant type was CTX-M-15 (87%), followed by CTX-M-3 (9%), SHV-12 or SHV-2 (2%) and CTX-M-14 (1%). The CTX-M-15 producers belonged to ST15 (34.1%) and to a lesser extent to CC17 (ST16, ST17, ST336). The CTX-M-15 transconjugants showed a presence of R, A/C2 and F replicons...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985972/quantitative-methylation-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-16l1-gene-reveals-potential-biomarker-for-cervical-cancer-progression
#11
Arkom Chaiwongkot, Somchai Niruthisard, Nakarin Kitkumthorn, Parvapan Bhattarakosol
Human papillomavirus 16 is the most prevalent type found in cervical cancer worldwide, accounting for >50% of all cases. Quantitative methylation analysis of human papillomavirus 16L1 gene within 5' (CpGs 5600, 5606, 5609, 5615) and 3' (7136 and 7145) regions to determine potential biomarker for cervical cancer progression was performed in exfoliated cervical cells collected from 101 Thai women of precancerous and cancerous lesions. Intermediate to high methylation levels (>20%) were detected in HPV16 5'L1 regions especially CpG 5600 of all cancerous (100%) and 50% of CIN3 samples, whereas normal/CIN1 samples (80%) showed methylation levels <20%...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974394/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-anyplex%C3%A2-ii-mtb-mdr-and-mtb-xdr-tests-based-on-multiplex-real-time-pcr-and-melting-temperature-analysis-to-identify-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance
#12
Yuriko Igarashi, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Akio Aono, Lina Yi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
We evaluated the performance of two multiplex, real-time PCR tests (Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR; Seegene, Seoul, Korea), designed to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and drug-resistance mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectable drugs. We analyzed 122 clinical isolates with the Anyplex II MTB/MDR test, 68 of which were also tested with the Anyplex II MTB/XDR test. The Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR tests showed the following respective sensitivities and specificities: 68...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974396/two-tier-approach-combining-molecular-and-culture-based-techniques-for-optimized-detection-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#13
Anna Both, Gefion C Franke, Nadine Mirwald, Marc Lütgehetmann, Martin Christner, Eva-Maria Klupp, Cristina Belmar Campos, Henning Büttner, Martin Aepfelbacher, Holger Rohde
Given constantly high or even rising incidences of both colonization and infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), timely and accurate identification of carriers in high-risk patient populations is of evident clinical importance. In this study, a two-tier approach consisting of PCR-based screening and cultural confirmation of positive results is compared to the conventional approach solely based on culture on selective media. The 2-tier strategy was highly consistent with the conventional approach, and was found to possess high sensitivity and specificity (93...
August 24, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969934/enhanced-activity-of-cefepime-tazobactam-wck-4282-against-kpc-producing-enterobacteriaceae-when-tested-in-media-supplemented-with-human-serum-or-sodium-chloride
#14
Mariana Castanheira, Leonard R Duncan, Paul R Rhomberg, Helio S Sader
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cefepime-tazobactam cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CA-MHB) supplemented with 0.85% sodium chloride (NaCl) or 50% human serum in comparison to standard CA-MHB when testing KPC-producing isolates. A total of 209 contemporary Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates carrying blaKPC were tested, and cefepime-tazobactam (tazobactam at fixed 8mg/L) activity was enhanced 2-fold when tested in CA-MHB supplemented with 0.85% NaCl or 50% human serum (MIC50/90, 8/32mg/L for both media) compared to standard CA-MHB (MIC50/90, 16/64mg/L)...
August 24, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918068/a-simple-and-rapid-dna-extraction-method-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-detection-from-urogenital-swabs
#15
Matthew A Butzler, Jennifer L Reed, Sally M McFall
A highly sensitive and specific Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnostic test was developed by combining filtration isolation of nucleic acid (FINA) extraction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction including an internal control to identify test inhibition. A pilot study of 40 clinical specimens yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity.
August 17, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931467/clinical-features-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-identified-by-fecal-gastrointestinal-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-in-patients-with-cancer-and-diarrhea
#16
Andrew W Chao, Micah Bhatti, Herbert L DuPont, James P Nataro, Lily G Carlin, Pablo C Okhuysen
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes with differing epidemiology and clinical features, are known causes of disease with worldwide occurrence. At a major cancer center in the U.S., we studied patients with cancer and diarrhea for whom a GI Biofire FilmArray multiplex GI panel (BFM) was performed. An enteropathogen was identified in 382 of 2017 (19%) samples distributed across 311 patients. Of these, 60/311(19%) were positive for DEC. Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) 29/60 (48%) or with a hematologic malignancy 17/60 (28%) accounted for the majority of DEC cases...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888673/relationship-between-bacteriology-report-time-in-the-morning-and-length-of-stay-in-hospital-after-the-report
#17
Kenneth H Rand, Stacy G Beal, Gloria P Lipori
We studied the relationship between the time of day bacteriology reports were available in the electronic medical record (Epic, Verona, WI) and subsequent length of stay (LOS) following the last report before discharge. All patients ≥18years admitted to the UF Health Shands Hospital between 1/1/2014-2/29/2016 were included. We calculated the mean LOS following the report for each half-hour time period between 6AM and 1PM (N=14, 95.6% of all results) and tested the relationship to subsequent LOS. For patients whose total LOS was ≤168hours (N=13,830) there was a highly significant positive linear relationship between the report time and LOS following the last report (r=0...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911798/development-and-evaluation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-diagnosis-of-hsv-1-vzv-cmv-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-patients-with-infectious-uveitis
#18
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Reema Bansal, Amod Gupta, Jagat Ram, Radha Kanta Ratho
Infectious uveitis is a vision threatening inflammatory ocular disease wherein early diagnosis may prevent the loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus-1, Varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with suspected infectious uveitis. A total of 126 intraocular samples (aqueous and vitreous humor) were collected and subjected to multiplex real-time PCR. Overall 26.2% (33/126) patients were found to be positive for one or more of the pathogens tested...
August 9, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851493/evaluation-of-quantitative-ftd-pneumocystis-jirovecii-kit-for-pneumocystis-infection-diagnosis
#19
Gautier Hoarau, Solène Le Gal, Patricia Zunic, Patrice Poubeau, Emmanuel Antok, Julien Jaubert, Gilles Nevez, Sandrine Picot
We evaluated the Fast track Diagnostics (FTD) Pneumocystis PCR kit, targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (mtLSU rRNA) of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii). A hundred and thirty-three patients were prospectively enrolled. Respiratory specimens were examined using both microscopy and the PCR assay. Twenty-six patients led to P. jirovecii detection. Fourteen patients presented with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) whereas 12 patients were considered to be colonized. The median copy numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly different in the PCP and colonization groups (1...
August 9, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865742/review-molecular-detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-clinical-setting
#20
REVIEW
Ineke Gh Rood, Qingge Li
Enterobacteriaceae are a common source of both community- and hospital-acquired infections. The resistance of Enterobacteriaceae to β-lactam antibiotics is a major public health problem and rapid detection is essential for the proper management of infections. Not only for the initiation of the proper antimicrobial regimen but also to stop the spread of multi-resistant bacteria. In this review, molecular methods that detect extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-harboring and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were discussed...
August 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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