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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342565/mini-review-new-pathogen-profiles-elizabethkingia-anophelis
#1
REVIEW
J Michael Janda, Denise L Lopez
Within a little more than 5 years since its taxonomic description in 2011, from the midgut of mosquitoes, Elizabethkingia anophelis has emerged as an important causes of sepsis in adults and children and in cases of neonatal meningitis. At least 3 moderate- to large-scale outbreaks of disease have been caused by this bacterium, the largest 2 occurring in the Midwest United States in 2015-2016. Several studies suggest that E. anophelis, and not E. meningoseptica, is the predominant human pathogen of this genus; identification to species is difficult...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341099/invitro-apramycin-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Anthony D Kang, Kenneth P Smith, George M Eliopoulos, Anders H Berg, Christopher McCoy, James E Kirby
The in vitro activity of apramycin was compared to that of amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Apramycin demonstrated an MIC50/MIC90 of 8/32μg/ml for A. baumannii and 16/32μg/ml for P. aeruginosa. Only 2% of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa had an MIC greater than an epidemiological cutoff value of 64μg/ml. In contrast, the MIC50/MIC90 for amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin were ≥64/>256μg/ml for A...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341097/first-report-of-oxa-232-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-in-tunisia
#3
Hella Lahlaoui, Rémy A Bonnin, Mohamed Ben Moussa, Anis Ben Haj Khelifa, Thierry Naas
Eleven carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were recovered from the military hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Three of these isolates carried the carbapenemase blaOXA-232 gene recently identified in France. These isolates were clonally related and co-expressed the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase, CTX-M-15. This work identified the occurrence of OXA-232 producers in North-African countries.
March 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318608/multi-center-evaluation-of-one-commercial-and-12-in-house-real-time-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae
#4
Roger Dumke, Alvaro J Benitez, Victoria Chalker, Karolina Gullsby, Birgit Henrich, Carlos Hidalgo-Grass, Theo Hoogenboezem, Darja Kese, Katherine Loens, Jolanda Maaskant, Ayelet Michael-Gayego, Allon E Moses, Ran Nir-Paz, Suzan D Pas, Sabine Pereyre, Randi F Petersen, Meike Rosenblatt, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Søren A Uldum, Wendy W J Unger, Dominique Ursi, Jonas M Winchell, Cecile Bebear
Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR is not yet standardized across laboratories. We have implemented a standardization protocol to compare the performance of thirteen commercial and in-house approaches. Despite differences on threshold values of samples, all assays were able to detect at least 20M. pneumoniae genomes per reaction.
March 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330738/graft-infection-after-a-bentall-procedure-a-case-series-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
I Machelart, C Greib, G Wirth, F Camou, N Issa, J F Viallard, J L Pellegrin, E Lazaro
INTRODUCTION: The Bentall procedure is a cardiac surgery involving graft replacement of the aortic valve, aortic root and ascending aorta. Graft infection after Bentall's procedure (BGI) is infrequent but severe, and often difficult to diagnose and treat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Bordeaux endocarditis database of adult patients admitted to the Bordeaux University Medical Hospital for BGI between 2008 and 2014. Published case reports were identified in the literature...
March 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341098/antimicrobial-activity-of-tigecycline-and-cefoperazone-sulbactam-tested-against-18-386-gram-negative-organisms-from-europe-and-the-asia-pacific-region-2013-2014
#6
M A Pfaller, R K Flamm, L R Duncan, R E Mendes, R N Jones, H S Sader
A total of 18,386 organisms, including 13,224 Enterobacteriaceae, 3536 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1254 Acinetobacter spp., and 372Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were collected from Western Europe (WEU; n=10,021), Eastern Europe (EEU; n=4957), and the Asia-Pacific region (APAC; n=3408 [1052 from China]) in 2013-2014 as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program and tested by a reference broth microdilution method for susceptibility against tigecycline, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and comparator agents. Overall, 95...
March 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291631/distribution-and-clinical-significance-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-species-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens
#7
Su-Young Kim, Sun Hye Shin, Seong Mi Moon, Bumhee Yang, Hojoong Kim, O Jung Kwon, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Won-Jung Koh
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was originally composed of 2 species, M. avium and M. intracellulare. However, several new species closely related to M. intracellulare have recently been identified. In addition, M. avium has been further subdivided into 4 subspecies. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of different MAC species recovered from respiratory specimens and to elucidate the clinical relevance of these species. Clinical isolates, from 219 patients, that had been initially identified as M...
March 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291629/ceftriaxone-etest-non-susceptible-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-time-kill-responses
#8
Derek N Bremmer, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Debra A Goff, Karri A Bauer
We determined the correlation between Etest and BMD MICs with bactericidal activity in MSSA blood isolates. Ceftriaxone was bactericidal in 36% and 9% of isolates exposed to the Etest and BMD MIC, respectively. With the sub-optimal activity of ceftriaxone, the Etest MIC may be a conservative method in identifying clinical utility.
March 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291628/invitro-activity-of-imipenem-relebactam-against-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-united-states-in-2015-results-from-the-smart-global-surveillance-program
#9
Sibylle H Lob, Meredith A Hackel, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Daryl J Hoban, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
The β-lactamase inhibitor relebactam inactivates class A β-lactamases, including KPC-type carbapenemases, and class C β-lactamases. Relebactam combined with imipenem is in clinical development for several indications, including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Employing CLSI-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the activities of imipenem-relebactam (using imipenem MIC breakpoints) and comparators against non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae (n=853) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=598) isolated from lower respiratory tract infection samples in 20 hospital laboratories in the United States participating in the 2015 SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program...
March 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291633/blastomycosis-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Baker, Ami Patel, Pierre Halteh, Sima S Toussi, Patricia DeLaMora, Shari Lipner, Audrey N Schuetz, Barry Hartman
The diagnosis of blastomycosis during pregnancy is rare, but can carry significant clinical questions for both the infected mother and developing fetus. Furthermore, given its rarity, providers have little available data to help manage and counsel patients in this uncommon, yet serious, scenario. We present a case of blastomycosis in a woman at 38weeks' gestation and review all published cases of blastomycosis during pregnancy. It is our hope to provide a multidisciplinary understanding of the current knowledge surrounding the presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of this unusual infection...
February 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291632/necessity-of-carbapenem-use-when-prescribed-per-infectious-diseases-specialists
#11
Kellie J Goodlet, Michael D Nailor
Preauthorization strategies, including restricting broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as carbapenems to infectious diseases physicians (ID) are commonly employed by stewardship programs. The appropriateness, or "necessity" of empiric carbapenem therapy by ID, defined as an isolated organism sensitive to the carbapenem and resistant to cefepime, was evaluated over a 6month span and included 84 patients. Additionally, 30 patients followed by ID who were not prescribed a carbapenem until final susceptibilities were included as a definitive therapy group...
February 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291630/ceftriaxone-pharmacokinetics-by-new-simple-and-sensitive-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method
#12
Michel Leandro Campos, Juliana de Moura Alonso, Evelin Dos Santos Martins, Jonata Augusto Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Hussni, Rosângela Gonçalves Peccinini
Ceftriaxone is a cephalosporin antibiotic with a potent antimicrobial activity and excellent penetration in most body fluids such as pleural, peritoneal, spinal and brain. These facts contribute to the application of ceftriaxone in the treatment of bacterial peritonitis, an abdominal disorder in veterinary medicine, with potential risk of death. The determination of ceftriaxone levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid may be used to assess the pharmacokinetic profile at various instances of administration and allows observing if the concentrations needed are being achieved...
February 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274502/comparison-of-the-artus-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-pcr-kit-and-the-abbott-realtime-ebv-assay-for-measuring-plasma-ebv-dna-loads-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
Víctor Vinuesa, Carlos Solano, Estela Giménez, David Navarro
The ability of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV PCR assay to detect and quantify plasma EBV DNAemia was compared. The agreement between these assays was 95.8%. The EBV DNA loads measured by the two assays significantly correlated (P=< 0.0001).
February 24, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274501/microbiological-and-ammp-8-findings-depending-on-peri-implant-disease-in-patients-undergoing-supportive-implant-therapy
#14
Dirk Ziebolz, Gerhard Schmalz, Daniel Gollasch, Peter Eickholz, Sven Rinke
The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological findings and aMMP-8 level of peri-implant mucositis (M) and peri-implantitis (P) in patients undergoing supportive implant therapy (SIT). Eighty-nine patients with 171 implants were included. The case definitions were as follows: M: PPD ≥4mm, BOP; P: PPD≥4mm, BOP, radiographic bone loss ≥3.5mm. Samples of peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) were taken from all peri-implant pockets at each implant to detect periodontal pathogens using PCR and aMMP-8 level with ELISA...
February 21, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262370/species-identification-of-streptococcus-bovis-group-isolates-causing-bacteremia-a-comparison-of-two-maldi-tof-ms-systems
#15
Charlotte N Agergaard, Elisa Knudsen, Rimtas Dargis, Xiaohui C Nielsen, Jens J Christensen, Ulrik S Justesen
This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS was reliable. Additional optimization of the available system databases is needed.
February 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256292/evaluation-of-the-automated-advia-centaur%C3%A2-xp-syphilis-assay-for-serological-testing
#16
Sharon Saw, Huiqin Zhao, Phyllis Tan, Betty Saw, Sunil Sethi
We evaluated the performance of the ADVIA Centaur XP Syphilis assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA) using samples previously tested on the ARCHITECT i4000SR system (Abbott Diagnostics, Lake Forest, IL, USA) and confirmed by the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) (SERODIA-TPPA, Fujirebio Diagnostics Inc., Malvern, PA, USA). Clinical patient information was included to aid resolution of discordant samples where available. Precision, interference, and cross-reactivity were also assessed...
February 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238386/taxonomic-update-on-proposed-nomenclature-and-classification-changes-for-bacteria-of-medical-importance-2016
#17
REVIEW
J Michael Janda
A key aspect of medical, public health, and diagnostic microbiology laboratories is the accurate identification and rapid reporting and communication to medical staff regarding patients with infectious agents of clinical importance. Microbial taxonomy in the age of molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics creates changes in taxonomy at a logarithmic rate further complicating this process. This update focuses on the description of new species and classification changes proposed in 2016.
February 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215714/microbiological-effect-of-mupirocin-and-chlorhexidine-for-staphylococcus-aureus-decolonization-in-community-and-nursing-home-based-adults
#18
Mary-Claire Roghmann, Alison D Lydecker, Patricia Langenberg, Emmanuel F Mongodin, J Kristie Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic Gram-negative rods (GNR) in the anterior nares, posterior pharynx and three skin sites in community-based adults and nursing home-based adults before and after treatment with nasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine. METHODS: S. aureus-colonized adults were recruited from the community (n=26) and from nursing homes (n=8). Eligible participants were cultured for S. aureus and GNR during two study visits and then received intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine for 5days, with a 2-month follow-up period...
February 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238388/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-revised-rida%C3%A2-quick-test-n1402-for-rapid-detection-of-norovirus-in-a-diagnostic-laboratory-setting
#19
Stijn Jonckheere, Nadine Botteldoorn, Patricia Vandecandelaere, Johan Frans, Wim Laffut, Guy Coppens, Anne Vankeerberghen, Hans De Beenhouwer
The updated RIDA® QUICK (N1402) immunochromatographic assay (R-Biopharm) for detection of norovirus was evaluated during a prospective, multicenter study using 771 stool samples from patients with gastroenteritis. Compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-rtPCR) as gold standard, the RIDA® QUICK had an overall sensitivity of 72.8% (91/125) and a specificity of 99.5% (640/643). Genotype analysis of the polymerase (ORF1) and capsid (ORF2) region of the genome indicated that the RIDA® QUICK assay could detect a broad range of genotypes including new variants (15 of 125 positive samples) which were detected by an in-house SYBR®Green RT-rtPCR, but not by the RIDA® GENE PCR PG1415 (R-Biopharm) and mostly not by the RIDA® GENE PCR PG1405 and the Xpert® Norovirus assay (Cepheid)...
February 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254249/comparative-evaluation-of-a-new-commercial-media-the-chromagar%C3%A2-msupercarba%C3%A2-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#20
Ma'ayan Amar, Ohad Shalom, Amos Adler
A new chromogenic-based medium (mSuperCARBA™) was tested for screening carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). mSuperCARBA™ was more sensitive (83%) in detecting CPE isolates (n=69, including KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, and IMI) compared with CHROMAgar™-KPC (65%) and MacConkey agar with Imipenem (69%) with comparable specificity for non carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (n=29).
February 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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