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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215714/microbiological-effect-of-mupirocin-and-chlorhexidine-for-staphylococcus-aureus-decolonization-in-community-and-nursing-home-based-adults
#1
Mary-Claire Roghmann, Alison D Lydecker, Patricia Langenberg, Emmanuel F Mongodin, J Kristie Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic Gram-negative rods (GNR) in the anterior nares, posterior pharynx and three skin sites in community-based adults and nursing home-based adults before and after treatment with nasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine. METHODS: S. aureus-colonized adults were recruited from the community (n=26) and from nursing homes (n=8). Eligible participants were cultured for S. aureus and GNR during two study visits and then received intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine for 5days, with a 2-month follow-up period...
February 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215715/multidrug-resistant-achromobacter-animicus-causing-wound-infection-in-a-street-child-in-mwanza-tanzania
#2
Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus, Marko Hingi, Ulrich Vogel, Stephen E Mshana
Achromobacter animicus (A. animicus) is an aerobic, motile, gram-negative, non-fermenting small bacillus that can also grow anaerobically with potassium nitrate. It has been isolated from sputum of humans suffering from respiratory infections. Literature regarding the role of A. animicus in wound infections is limited. We report a first case of a chronic post-traumatic wound infection caused by a multidrug-resistant A. animicus in a street child from Africa and accompanied diagnostic challenges.
February 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214224/escherichia-coli-sequence-type-73-as-a-cause-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection-in-men-and-women-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#3
Ana Paula de Souza da-Silva, Viviane Santos de Sousa, Natacha Martins, Rubens Clayton da Silva Dias, Raquel Regina Bonelli, Lee W Riley, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Escherichia coli clones ST131, ST69, ST95, and ST73 are frequent causes of urinary tract infections (UTI) and bloodstream infections. Specific clones and virulence profiles of E. coli causing UTI in men has been rarely described. The aim of this study was to characterize patient and clonal characteristics of community-acquired UTI caused by E. coli in men (n=12) and women (n=127) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, complementing a previous work. We characterized isolates in phylogenetic groups, ERIC2-PCR and PFGE types, MLST, genome similarity and virulence gene-profiles...
February 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214222/necessity-to-critically-review-the-automatic-results-of-the-xpert-flu-assay
#4
Ilka Engelmann, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Mouna Lazrek, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober
While using the Xpert Flu assay we became aware of false-negative results. The study aimed to analyze the causes of these false-negative results. One hundred fifty-nine respiratory specimens were tested in the Xpert Flu assay and in multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) for respiratory viruses. Discordant specimens were tested in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. One hundred fifty-two (96%) and 151 (95%) specimens yielded concordant results for influenza A and B, respectively. Fifteen specimens tested negative in the Xpert Flu assay and positive in a multiplex RT-PCR...
February 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190609/evaluation-of-a-new-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-direct-detection-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-stool-specimens
#5
U Eigner, A Hiergeist, A Veldenzer, M Rohlfs, R Schwarz, M Holfelder
Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) are one of the most common causes for diarrhea worldwide, especially in children. We evaluated the rapid RIDA ® GENE (RG) real-time multiplex PCR assays (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany) for the detection of the most important diarrheagenic E. coli. Three hundred fifteen liquid or non-formed stool specimens were examined. The results of the RG multiplex assays were compared to specific PCR methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the RG PCRs were as follows, 100%/100% for the detection of EHEC, 96...
February 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189283/isolation-of-leptospira-from-blood-culture-bottles
#6
Dominique Girault, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Sophie Geroult, Julien Colot, Cyrille Goarant
With the increasing use of real-time PCR techniques, Leptospira isolation has mostly been abandoned for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis. However, there is a great value of collecting Leptospira isolates to better understand the epidemiology of this complex zoonosis and to provide the researchers with different isolates. In this study, we have successfully isolated different Leptospira strains from BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture bottles and suggest that this privileged biological material offers an opportunity to isolate leptospires...
January 31, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189284/improvement-of-infection-control-management-by-routine-molecular-evaluation-of-pathogen-clusters
#7
Nico T Mutters, Klaus Heeg, Isabel Späth, Nicole Henny, Frank Günther
BACKGROUND: Undetected pathogen clusters can often be a source of spreading in-hospital infections. Unfortunately, detection of clusters can be problematic because epidemiological connection is not always easily established. Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, however, are most effective when applied at the earliest possible stage. AIM: The goal of our study was to evaluate the benefits of routine use of molecular typing techniques for IPC management in a large University teaching hospital...
January 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143789/comparison-of-a-commercial-real-time-pcr-assay-realcycler%C3%A2-pjir-kit-progenie-molecular-to-an-in-house-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infections
#8
Thibaud Guillaud-Saumur, Gilles Nevez, Amélie Bazire, Michèle Virmaux, Nicolas Papon, Solène Le Gal
We compared the RealCycler® PJIR kit (Progenie Molecular), available in Europe, to an in-house real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii infections. Excellent agreement was found (concordance rate, 97.4%; Cohen's kappa, 0.918>0.8) showing that this commercial assay represents an alternative method for the diagnosis of P. jirovecii infections.
January 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139278/capnophilic-enterobacteriaceae
#9
J M Sahuquillo-Arce, R Chouman-Arcas, J M Molina-Moreno, A Hernández-Cabezas, J Frasquet-Artés, J L López-Hontangas
Bacteria use bicarbonate as substrate for crucial metabolic reactions. We report the first case of bacteremia by capnophilic E. coli without the YadF gene (also known as CynT2 or Can2) that needs high concentrations of CO2 to non-enzymatically produce bicarbonate. This lack may also apply to previously reported capnophilic Enterobacteriaceae.
January 21, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159446/in-vitro-activity-of-oritavancin-against-gram-positive-pathogens-isolated-in-canadian-hospital-laboratories-from-2011-to-2015
#10
James A Karlowsky, Andrew J Walkty, Melanie R Baxter, Francis F Arhin, Gregory Moeck, Heather J Adam, George G Zhanel
Gram-positive bacterial pathogens isolated from patient specimens submitted to 15 Canadian hospital laboratories from 2011 to 2015 were tested in the coordinating laboratory for susceptibility to oritavancin and comparative antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M07-A10 (2015) broth microdilution method. Oritavancin's in vitro activity was equivalent to, or more potent than, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (n=2680; oritavancin MIC90, 0...
January 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159445/serratia-marcescens-harboring-sme-4-in-brazil-a-silent-threat
#11
Rodrigo Cayô, Rodrigo Cuiabano Paes Leme, Ana Paula Streling, Adriana Pereira Matos, Carolina Silva Nodari, Jessica Reis Esteves Chaves, Jorge Luiz Ferreira Brandão, Maíra Fernandes de Almeida, Valério Carrareto, Marco Aurélio de Castro Pereira, Jean Pierre Aquino de Almeida, Demian Candido Ferreira, Ana Cristina Gales
The intrinsic polymyxin resistance displayed by Serratia marcescens makes the acquisition of carbapenemase encoding genes a worrisome event. This study report a SME-4-producing S. marcescens isolate causing septic shock in Brazil. The insertion of novel resistance determinants and their consequent spread in our territory is noteworthy.
January 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159444/detection-and-differentiation-of-norovirus-genogroups-i-and-ii-from-clinical-stool-specimens-using-real-time-pcr
#12
Poornima Ramanan, M J Espy, Reeti Khare, M J Binnicker
A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed to detect and differentiate norovirus genogroups I (GI) and II (GII), with primers and probes targeting the nonstructural polyprotein gene. Stool samples (n = 100) submitted for routine testing by the BioFire FilmArray® GI panel were also tested by the norovirus GI/GII real-time PCR assays. When compared to the FilmArray GI panel, the norovirus real-time PCR assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 77.5% (62/80) and specificity of 95% (19/20). Specimens yielding discordant results (n = 19) were tested at two outside laboratories for adjudication...
January 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139277/clonal-distribution-and-associated-characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-clinical-and-surveillance-isolates-from-a-military-medical-center
#13
Amee R Manges, Katrin Mende, Clinton K Murray, Brian D Johnston, Evgeni V Sokurenko, Veronika Tchesnokova, James R Johnson
Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli are a concern for military health services. We studied 100 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-producing E. coli clinical and surveillance isolates from military personnel and civilians at Brooke Army Medical Center (2007-2011). Major E. coli lineages, most prominently ST10 (24%), ST131 (16%), and ST648 (8%), were distributed much as reported for other North American populations. ST131, represented mainly by its resistance-associated ST131-H30 clonal subset, was uniquely associated with a clinical origin, regardless of ESBL status...
January 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214223/evaluation-of-a-field-test-for-antibodies-against-chlamydia-trachomatis-during-trachoma-surveillance-in-nepal
#14
Michelle J Sun, Andrea I Zambrano, Laura Dize, Beatriz Munoz, Sarah Gwyn, Sailesh Mishra, Diana L Martin, Shekhar Sharma, Sheila K West
PURPOSE: Testing for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis has potential as a surveillance tool. Our evaluation compares lateral flow assays (LFAs) during surveillance surveys in Nepal with Multiplex bead array (MBA). Fifty children were randomly sampled from each of 15 random clusters in two districts of Nepal. Finger prick blood samples were collected from 1509 children and tested onsite for anti-Pgp3 antibodies by LFA. The LFA was read at 30min as negative, positive, or invalid. Tests results were also rated as difficult to read ("equivocal")...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139276/a-one-step-multiplex-pcr-to-identify-klebsiella-pneumoniae-klebsiella-variicola-and-klebsiella-quasipneumoniae-in-the-clinical-routine
#15
Erica Lourenço Fonseca, Nilceia da Veiga Ramos, Bruno G Nascimento Andrade, Lena L C S Morais, Michel F Abanto Marin, Ana Carolina P Vicente
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae are difficult to differentiate phenotypically, leading to misinterpretation of their infection prevalence. We propose a multiplex PCR for blaSHV, blaLEN and blaOKP and their flanking gene (deoR). Since this scheme focuses only on chromosomal genes, it will be feasible for Klebsiella identification in the clinical routine.
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104327/clinical-validation-of-3-commercial-real-time-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-detection-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-from-upper-respiratory-tract-specimens
#16
Deqa H Mohamed, AbdulKarim F AlHetheel, Hanat S Mohamud, Kamel Aldosari, Fahad A Alzamil, Ali M Somily
Since discovery of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel betacoronavirus first isolated and characterized in 2012, MERS-CoV real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays represent one of the most rapidly expanding commercial tests. However, in the absence of extensive evaluations of these assays on positive clinical material of different sources, evaluating their diagnostic effectiveness remains challenging. We describe the diagnostic performance evaluation of 3 common commercial MERS-CoV rRT-PCR assays on a large panel (n = 234) of upper respiratory tract specimens collected during an outbreak episode in Saudi Arabia...
January 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129948/improved-method-for-the-detection-of-catheter-colonization-and-catheter-related-bacteremia-in-newborns
#17
P Martín-Rabadán, F Pérez-García, E Zamora Flores, E S Nisa, M Guembe, E Bouza
Accurate diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is mandatory for hospital infection control. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are widely used in intensive care units, but studies about procedures for detection of colonization are scarce in neonates. We sequentially processed 372 PICCs by 2 methods, first by the standard roll-plate (RP) technique and then by rubbing catheters on a blood agar plate after being longitudinally split (LS). With both techniques, we detected 133 colonized PICCs...
January 5, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126361/antigen-specific-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-cxcl10-in-whole-blood-assay-detects-mycobacterium-leprae-infection-but-does-not-discriminate-asymptomatic-infection-from-symptomatic-leprosy
#18
Emerith Mayra Hungria, Aline Araújo Freitas, Maria Araci Andrade Pontes, Heitor Sá Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo Sousa, Maurício Barcelos Costa, Mirian Lane Oliveira Rodrigues Castilho, Malcolm S Duthie, Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
To advance toward a whole blood assay (WBA)-based test capable of facilitating the diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, we evaluated a prototype in-tube WBA using combinations of Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Blood was collected from newly diagnosed untreated PB (n=38), multibacillary (MB) (n=30), healthy household contacts (HHC) of MB (n=27), and endemic controls (n=61) residing in Goiânia and Fortaleza, Brazil. Blood was incubated with M. leprae cell sonicate, recombinant proteins (46f+LID-1; ML0276+LID-1), or controls (phosphate-buffered saline, phytohemagglutinin, M...
January 5, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162827/infectious-diseases-specialist-management-improves-outcomes-for-outpatients-diagnosed-with-cellulitis-in-the-emergency-department-a-double-cohort-study
#19
Shilpa R Jain, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam, Philip Dwek, Kaveri Gupta, Sameer Elsayed, Guy W Thompson, Robert Dagnone, Kelly Hutt, Michael Silverman
Three hospital emergency rooms (ERs) routinely referred all cases of cellulitis requiring outpatient intravenous antibiotics, to a central ER-staffed cellulitis clinic. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients seen by the ER clinic in the last 4months preceding a policy change (ER management cohort [ERMC]) (n=149) and all those seen in the first 3months of a new policy of automatic referral to an infectious disease (ID) specialist-supervised cellulitis clinic (ID management cohort [IDMC]) (n=136)...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089138/bloodstream-infections-in-children-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-versus-carbapenem-susceptible-gram-negative-microorganisms-risk-factors-and-outcome
#20
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Banu Sancak, Sevilay Karahan, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
Carbapenems are often considered the last resort agents reserved for treatment of infections due to highly antimicrobial resistant organisms such as A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. However, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CRGN) pathogens have become much more prevalent in the last decade. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for and outcome of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative microorganisms in a pediatric tertiary-care hospital. Among 97 patients with hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia, 66 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (CSGN) were compared with the remaining 31 with CRGN isolates...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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