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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Aaron Campigotto, Andrew E Simor, Allison McGeer, Alexander Kiss, Samira Mubareka
Nasopharyngeal swabs from 148 adult patients with influenza were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Staphylococcus aureus and or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We found that patients colonized with S. pneumoniae were younger, had lower oxygen saturations, and were more likely to require admission to critical care.
June 5, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Dee Shortridge, Michael A Pfaller, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparators against 2647 Enterobacteriaceae and 355 Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonduplicate isolates collected from hospitalized patients with bloodstream infections in US hospitals from 2013 to 2015.Ceftolozane-tazobactam (95.5% susceptible), amikacin (99.2% susceptible), and meropenem (98.4% susceptible) were the most active against Enterobacteriaceae. For Enterobacteriaceae, 1.4% (n = 37) were carbapenem-resistant (CRE), and 10.2% (n = 271) exhibited an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) non-CRE phenotype...
May 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Qun Yan, Melissa J Karau, Robin Patel
We tested the in vitro activity of oritavancin against 185 staphylococci associated with prosthetic joint infection, including 37 methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 67 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 59 methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), and 22 methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis (MSSE) isolates. The oritavancin MIC50 for S. aureus and MSSE was 0.03 μg/mL, and for MRSE, it was 0.06 μg/mL; MIC90 for S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 0.12 μg/mL for both the methicillin-resistant and -susceptible subgroups...
May 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
L Bénéjat, E Sifré, C Domingues Martins, A Ducournau, A Buissonnière, E Bessède, F Mégraud, P Lehours
The aim of the present study was to propose epidemiologic cutoffs that could be used in routine practice to separate wild-type from non-wild-type Campylobacter fetus to ciprofloxacin. A total of 123 C. fetus isolates obtained from human samples were used for this purpose. Based on the determination of inhibition zone diameter, minimum inhibitory concentration, and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining region in the gyraseA gene, for all tested isolates, the following cutoffs were proposed: ciprofloxacin-wild type if the inhibition zone diameter was ≥22 mm or the minimum inhibitory concentration was ≤0...
May 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Catherine André, Véronique Dubois, Patrice Nordmann
The commercial SuperPolymyxin medium (ELITechGroup, Puteaux, France), currently licensed in Europe, is aimed to screen for either intrinsic or acquired colistin resistance in Gram negatives. It was tested for screening colistin-resistant Gram-negative rods from bacterial cultures of 145 colistin-resistant and 86 colistin-susceptible Gram-negative rods isolates. It exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% (138/145) and 95.3% (82/86), respectively. The sensitivity for the detection of the 25 isolates carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, and mcr-4) from bacterial cultures was of 100%...
May 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Aurélie Jayol, Nicolas Kieffer, Laurent Poirel, François Guérin, Deniz Güneser, Vincent Cattoir, Patrice Nordmann
The commercial Rapid Polymyxin NP test was evaluated to detect colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 223 enterobacterial isolates corresponding to 136 resistant (including 38 MCR-like producers), 19 heteroresistant, and 78 colistin-susceptible isolates were tested. The test was performed according to the manufacturer's instruction, and the color of the wells was read after 2 and 3 hours of incubation. The results were compared with those of the homemade Rapid Polymyxin NP test, and manual broth microdilution according to EUCAST guidelines was used as the reference method to determine the performance of the test...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sakda Yainoy, Monchanok Hiranphan, Thanawat Phuadraksa, Warawan Eiamphungporn, Surapee Tiengrim, Visanu Thamlikitkul
Development and evaluations of the Rapid Polymyxin NP test for detection of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae have been recently reported. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the test using a larger number of Enterobacteriaceae, and a larger proportion of isolates with a colistin MIC close to the breakpoint. Out of 339 isolates, the Rapid Polymyxin NP test detected colistin resistance in 13 isolates of Escherichia coli, 213 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9 isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, and 10 isolates of the other Enterobacteriaceae species...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Shuping Nie, Xuedong Lu, Zhengjiang Jin, Juyi Gao, Dongli Ma, Jikui Deng, Xianglin Wu, Yan-Wei Hu, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive neonatal infections and has increasingly been associated with invasive diseases in non-pregnant adults. We collected 113 GBS isolates recovered from sterile and non-sterile specimens from seven tertiary hospitals in China between October 2014 and September 2016. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and the sequence types, serotypes, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were characterized and correlated. Significantly higher C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels and absolute neutrophil counts were observed in patients with invasive infections than in those with non-invasive infections (P < 0...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Camila M Wilhelm, Luciana de S Nunes, Andreza F Martins, Afonso L Barth
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of imipenem plus amikacin or polymyxin B against six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa by time-kill assay. Synergism was observed in two isolates for combinations with amikacin. For combinations with polymyxin B, synergism and antagonism also occurred in two isolates.
May 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
James D Finklea, Rita Hollaway, Karen Lowe, Francesca Lee, Jade Le, Raksha Jain
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a combination intravenous antibiotic with potentially important activity against drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Ceftolozane/tazobactam's in vitro activity was evaluated in 30 samples collected from 23 adult cystic fibrosis patients with extended and pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2015. Testing results demonstrated that 30% of the isolates were susceptible,13% were intermediate, and 57% were resistant. This suggests that ceftolozane/tazobactam may be a useful antibiotic in carefully selected, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas isolates...
May 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Ana Paula Streling, Paula P Barbosa, Marcelo F Marcondes, Adriana G Nicoletti, Renata C Picão, Elisa C Pinto, Elizabeth A Marques, Vitor Oliveira, Ana C Gales
We evaluated the genetic environment of blaGES-16 found in 2 carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolates recovered from patients hospitalized at a tertiary hospital located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also compared the kinetics constants for GES-16 and GES-5 against several β-lactams. Both S. marcescens isolates showed identical PFGE pattern and carried the carbapenemase-encoding gene blaGES-16 and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding gene blaOXA-10 . The blaGES-16 was inserted at the first position of a defective class 1 integron, composed by a fragmented integrase gene that lacked its attI1 recombination site, followed by dfr22, aac(6')-IIc, and aadA1 genes...
May 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sadegh Fattahi, Novin Nikbakhsh, Hassan Taheri, Elham Ghadami, Mohadeseh Kosari-Monfared, Galia Amirbozorgi, Mohsen Asouri, Maryam Pilehchian-Langroudi, Mohammad Ranaee, Ali Akbar Samadani, Mahdi Paryan, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki
Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus are well established infections for gastric cancer development. However, the role of cytomegalovirus alone or in combination with other infections is unclear. In this case-control study, the prevalence of different infections was evaluated, and their frequency was compared with clinicopathologic features among gastric cancer patients and normal volunteers from 2012 to 2017. Approximately two-thirds (61.9%) of the gastric cancer patients had at least 1 viral infection, while viral infection prevalence in normal volunteers was only 4...
May 11, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Cristina Paula do Nascimento, David Jamil Hadad, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt Castellani, Pedro Sousa de Almeida Júnior, Reynaldo Dietze, Moises Palaci
Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that an early morning sputum may be sufficient for calculation of early bactericidal activity (EBA). Patients underwent sputum collection randomly (spot, 5 h and 12 h) in consecutive days. The median CFU count in the spot samples group was 5.67 log10 CFU/mL compared to 6.17 log10 CFU/mL in 5 h and 6.23 log10 CFU/mL in 12 h samples. Inter-patient comparison showed low coefficient of variation for both 12 h (11%) and 5 h samples (10%). Intrapatient samples analysis demonstrated that the median bacillary load variation (0...
May 8, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jing-Wei Cheng, Chang Liu, Timothy Kudinha, Meng Xiao, Shu-Ying Yu, Chun-Xia Yang, Ming Wei, Guo-Wei Liang, Dong-Hua Shao, Fanrong Kong, Zhao-Hui Tong, Ying-Chun Xu
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Previous studies suggest that C. difficile MLST clade 4 strains with higher drug resistance rates constitute the major clone spreading in China. Thus development of a rapid and accurate typing method for these strains is needed to monitor the epidemiology of this clone and to guide clinical treatment. A total of 160 non-duplicate C. difficile isolates recovered from three large teaching hospitals in Beijing were studied. All the 41 clade 4 C...
April 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm
A total of 18,656 Enterobacteriaceae and 4,175 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consecutively collected from 85 US hospitals and tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods in a central monitoring laboratory (JMI Laboratories). The antimicrobial susceptibility and frequency of key resistance phenotypes were assessed and stratified by infection type as follows: bloodstream (BSI; 3,434 isolates; 15.0%), pneumonia (6,439; 28.2%), skin and skin structure (SSSI; 4,134; 18.1%), intra-abdominal (IAI; 951; 4...
April 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Anastasia Bilinskaya, Kellie J Goodlet, Michael D Nailor
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effect of an alert notifying providers ordering Clostridium difficile PCR when their patient received a laxative within 24 hours at four hospitals. METHODS: All patients whose provider received the laxative alert when ordering C. difficile testing were examined. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-six patients had 483 alerts triggered, with 75% overridden. While 74% of patients had ≥2 bowel movements immediately pre-order, 33% of C...
April 21, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sonja Elf, Pauliina Auvinen, Lisa Jahn, Karoliina Liikonen, Solveig Sjöblom, Päivi Saavalainen, Minna Mäki, Kevin E Eboigbodin
Isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods can potentially shorten the amount of time required to diagnose influenza. We developed and evaluated a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, RT-SIBA to rapidly detect and differentiate between influenza A and B viruses in a single reaction tube. The performance of the RT-SIBA Influenza assay was compared with two established RT-PCR methods. The sensitivities of the RT-SIBA, RealStar RT-PCR, and CDC RT-PCR assays for the detection of influenza A and B viruses in the clinical specimens were 98...
April 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lisa I Backus, Troy A Shahoumian, Pamela S Belperio, Mark Winters, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Thomas R O'Brien, Mark Holodniy
In direct acting antiviral (DAA)-treated HCV genotype 1, the sustained virologic response rate with the ∆G/∆G genotype of IFNL4 rs368234815 (86.8%) was significantly lower than with ∆G/TT (95.9%, P = 0.03) or TT/TT (98.6%, P = 0.01). The SVR odds ratio for ∆G/∆G compared to TT/TT was 0.10 (P = 0.03). IFNL4 genotype might predict DAA-response.
April 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jeremiah Seni, Giselle Peirano, Kenneth Okwong Okon, Yusuf Bara Jibrin, Alkali Mohammed, Stephen E Mshana, Rebekah DeVinney, Johann D D Pitout
Limited information is available regarding the population structure of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in Africa. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, sequence types (STs) and fimH types were determined on 60 clinical ExPEC from Nigeria using a 7-single nucleotide polymorphism quantitative PCR and sequencing of certain genes. Different ST131 clades were identified with a multiplex PCR. The isolates were mostly obtained from urines (58.3%). Not-susceptibility rates were as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%), cefotaxime (68%), gentamicin (55%), ciprofloxacin (62%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (2%)...
April 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Alicia Gomez-Lopez, Laura Alcazar-Fuoli, Leticia Bernal-Martínez
We describe the development and validation of a novel liquid chromatography assay (HPLC/PDA) for simultaneous quantification of voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, as well as some of their major metabolites, voriconazole N-oxide and hydroxy-itraconazole, in human serum. Analytes were detected using a PDA system that allows the characterization of the specific UV spectra of each compound. The assay exhibited linearity between 0.25-16 mg/L for all the compounds tested. The accuracy and within- and between-day precision of the assay were in acceptable ranges...
April 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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