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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894674/emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-and-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-in-extensively-drug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-a-patient-in-thailand
#1
Wantana Paveenkittiporn, Anusak Kerdsin, Sukanya Chokngam, Charatdao Bunthi, Somchai Sangkitporn, Christopher J Gregory
We reported a case of Escherichia coli with colistin resistance and an extensively drug-resistant phenotype. Molecular analysis revealed that the isolate carried mcr-1 and multiple β-lactamase genes includingblaNDM1, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM1, and blaCMY-2. This is the first report of a clinical mcr-1 isolate in Thailand highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive antimicrobial resistance containment strategy to prevent further spread.
November 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890418/comparative-in-vitro-activity-of-oritavancin-and-other-agents-against-methicillin-susceptible-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Debora Sweeney, Dean L Shinabarger, Francis F Arhin, Adam Belley, Greg Moeck, Chris M Pillar
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections constitute a threat to the public health due to their prevalence and associated mortality and morbidity. Several agents have been recently approved to treat MRSA skin infections including lipoglycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin), ceftaroline, and tedizolid. This study compared the MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and time-kill of these agents alongside daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin against MRSA (n=15); meropenem, cefazolin, and nafcillin were also included against methicillin-susceptible S...
November 12, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889252/peripartum-maternal-transmission-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-organism-to-newborn-infants
#3
Avi Peretz, Alina Skuratovsky, Efrat Khabra, Amos Adler, Pastukh Nina, Shay Barak, Yuri Perlitz, Moshe Ben-Ami, Amir Kushnir
The aim of this study was to determine whether the route of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) transmission to hospitalized newborns was from their mothers during delivery. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalized newborns were sampled for ESBL presence by stool cultures on the first and fourth days of life. Mothers of ESBL-positive newborns were sampled for possible correlation detection. Bacteria isolates were molecularly identified and susceptibility tests for antibiotic agents were performed...
November 12, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889254/the-utility-of-direct-specimen-detection-by-sanger-sequencing-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#4
Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Jennifer Dien Bard
Direct microbial DNA detection from clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing has been developed to address the innate limitations of traditional culture-based work-up. We report our institution's experience with direct specimen sequencing, its clinical utility, and barriers to effective clinical implementation.
November 2, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889251/modified-protocol-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mgit-cultures-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-the-mgit-960
#5
Aline Gois Adami, Juliana Failde Gallo, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Maria Conceição Martins, Carmen Maria Saraiva Giampaglia, Rosangela Siqueira de Oliveira
A rapid detection of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for management and control of tuberculosis. This study evaluated a more rapid and cost-effective drug susceptibility testing (DST) protocol using primary isolates of M. tuberculosis in mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT). Ninety-four M. tuberculosis isolates in MGIT were subjected to DST by the manufacturer's method, i.e., primary isolates were subcultured and DST was performed from positive cultures for a maximum of 5days; and by our modified method, i...
October 30, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842764/first-case-of-roussoella-percutanea-bursitis
#6
M Almagro-Molto, A Haas, C Melcher, Y C Nam-Apostolopoulos, S Schubert
Roussoella percutanea is a novel opportunistic pathogen firstly identified in 2014. It is known to cause subcutaneous infection in immunosuppressed patients. We report on the first case of R. percutanea bursitis in a renal transplant patient. We provide new data about its identification, drug susceptibility, and treatment outcome. Here we demonstrate that R. percutanea is a potential human pathogen.
October 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890419/in-vitro-activity-of-tigecycline-alone-and-antimicrobial-combinations-against-clinical-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates
#7
Hyukmin Lee, Hyunsoo Kim, Young Hee Seo, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee, Younsop Chong
In this study, we determined the in vitro activity of various combinations of antimicrobial agents against 54 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates. The combined activity of ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), CRO and doxycycline (DOX), CRO and spectinomycin (SPT), cefixime (CFX) and AZM, CFX and DOX, and CFX and SPT was determined using a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values for all combinations were either additive or indifferent, and no synergistic or antagonistic effects were found...
October 25, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884549/time-before-anti-toxoplasma-igg-seroconversion-detection-by-7-commercial-assays-in-french-pregnant-women
#8
Catherine Armengol, Sophie Cassaing, Christine Roques-Malecaze, Pamela Chauvin, Xavier Iriart, Antoine Berry, Judith Fillaux
We assessed the ability to early detect a toxoplasmic seroconversion between 1 immunoblot (LDBIO II®) and 6 automated assays (TGS TA®, Architect®, Vidas II®, Liaison II®, Platelia®, and Elecsys®), comparing the time before anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG detection during infection in pregnant women. From 2007 to 2015, 620 sera of 269 women were included. The median durations before positive IgG detection with Vidas II®, Liaison II®, Platelia®, and Elecsys® were significantly longer than Architect® with differential times from 11 to 28days (P<0...
October 22, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863949/imipenem-avibactam-a-novel-combination-for-the-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-activity-in-enterobacteriaceae-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#9
Marina Oviaño, Germán Bou
In the present study, we propose a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii. For this, we analyzed a series of 131 isolates. Among them, a total of 115 Enterobacteriaceae: 79 of them carrying a carbapenemase enzyme (15blaKPC, 7blaNDM, 11blaIMP, 12blaVIM, and 34blaOXA-48) and 16 A. baumannii isolates: 15 of them carrying carbapenemases (10blaOXA-23, 2blaOXA-58, 2blaOXA-24, and 1blaOXA-237)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836225/impact-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-for-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-on-appropriate-antimicrobial-utilization-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Kaitlyn R Rivard, Lisa E Dumkow, Heather M Draper, Kasey L Brandt, David W Whalen, Nnaemeka E Egwuatu
Prolonged turnaround time of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test results may delay time to notification and treatment of test-positive patients and result in unnecessary antimicrobial use in test-negative patients. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the impact of NG/CT rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) in an urban emergency department (ED) on treatment appropriateness, time to notification, and cost. Patients tested in December 2013-January 2014 (traditional group, n=200) were compared with those in December 2014-January 2015 (RDT group, n=200)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829495/clinical-and-microbiological-features-of-bacteremia-with-streptococcus-equi
#11
Kristina Trell, Bo Nilson, Ann-Cathrine Petersson, Magnus Rasmussen
Streptococcus equi (SE) rarely causes human infections. We identified 18 SE isolates from blood cultures. The focus of infection was unknown (n = 5), arthritis (n = 3), catheter-related (n = 2), pneumonia (n = 2), or other (n = 6). There were no fatalities. Several patients had animal contacts but there were no indications of clonal outbreaks.
October 18, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806892/necrotizing-otitis-externa-diagnosis-treatment-and-outcome-in-a-case-series
#12
Eran Glikson, Doron Sagiv, Michael Wolf, Yisgav Shapira
We reviewed 25 cases of patients diagnosed with necrotizing otitis externa in our tertiary university-affiliated medical center between 2009 and 2015. Mean overall hospitalization duration was 14.52days, 95% of the patients showed specific seasonal incidence. Mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 6weeks and the duration correlated with outcome. Only 8% of the patients presented with cranial neuropathies; however, this presentation correlated with adverse outcome. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the main causative organism (50%), with a 30% multidrug-resistance rate...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889253/blood-and-tissue-distribution-of-posaconazole-in-a-rat-model-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#13
E Cendejas-Bueno, A Forastiero, I Ruiz, E Mellado, J Gavaldà, A Gomez-Lopez
Posaconazole is the recommended prophylactic agent in patients at high risk of invasive fungal infection, since adequate drug levels seem to be reached in target sites despite the relatively low levels detected in blood. The objective of this study is to obtain pharmacokinetic (PK) information associated to blood and tissue distribution of posaconazole in an animal model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The PK parameters in lung samples were systematically higher than in serum. After multiple-dose administration of posaconazole, a significant accumulation of the drug was evident in lung tissue...
October 11, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789057/a-case-control-study-of-community-acquired-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia-and-melioidosis-pneumonia-in-northeast-thailand-an-emerging-fatal-disease-with-unique-clinical-features
#14
Samadhi Patamatamkul, Voravan Klungboonkrong, Pakawas Praisarnti, Kittitouch Jirakiat
Acinetobacter baumannii is the emerging cause of severe and often fatal gram-negative, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP-AB) in Thailand. Due to its rarity, its specific clinical features are ill defined. In this retrospective study, we compared the demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, radiographic pattern, and microbiological data between CAP-AB and Burkholderia pseudomallei CAP (CAP-BP) to identify the clinical features and risk factors of CAP-AB. CAP-AB was associated with a more productive cough and a shorter duration of symptoms, while CAP-BP was associated with more musculoskeletal symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866673/surveillance-of-tedizolid-activity-and-resistance-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-gram-positive-pathogens-collected-over-5-years-from-the-united-states-and-europe
#15
Mekki Bensaci, Daniel Sahm
In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776788/diversity-of-polymyxin-resistance-mechanisms-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates
#16
Raquel Girardello, Marina Visconde, Rodrigo Cayô, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, Marcelo Alves da Silva Mori, Nilton Lincopan, Ana Cristina Gales
Polymyxins have become drugs of last resort for treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance to this compound have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance to this antimicrobial in two A. baumannii clinical isolates, respectively, susceptible (A027) and resistant (A009) to polymyxin B before and after polymyxin B exposure (A027(ind) and A009(ind)). The pmrAB and lpxACD were sequenced and their transcriptional levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863948/tree-structured-survival-analysis-of-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-a-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#17
Young Kyung Yoon, Hyun Ah Kim, Seong Yeol Ryu, Eun Jung Lee, Mi Suk Lee, Jieun Kim, Seong Yeon Park, Kyung Sook Yang, Shin Woo Kim
This study aimed to construct a prediction algorithm, which is readily applicable in the clinical setting, to determine the mortality rate for patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia. A multicenter observational cohort study was performed retrospectively in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Korea from March 2012 to February 2015. In total, 264 adult patients with monomicrobial P. aeruginosa bacteremia were included in the analyses. Among the predictors independently associated with 30-day mortality in the Cox regression model, Pitt bacteremia score >2 and high-risk source of bacteremia were identified as critical nodes in the tree-structured survival analysis...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789058/evaluation-of-a-new-commercial-real-time-pcr-assay-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-and-identification-of-dihydropteroate-synthase-dhps-mutations
#18
Isabel Montesinos, Marie-Luce Delforge, Farida Ajjaham, Françoise Brancart, Maya Hites, Frederique Jacobs, Olivier Denis
The PneumoGenius® real-time PCR assay is a new commercial multiplex real-time PCR method, which detects the Pneumocystis mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU) and two dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) point mutations. To evaluate the clinical performance of this new real-time PCR assay we tested 120 extracted DNA samples from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. These set of extracted DNA samples had already tested positive for Pneumocystis and patients had been classified in probable and unlikely PCP in a previous study...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776787/molecular-characterization-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-hospital-and-community-acquired-infections-in-nw-mexico
#19
Ana Laura Miranda-Romero, Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Humberto Barrios, Alejandro Sánchez-Pérez, Fernando Reyna-Flores
We investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-PEc) isolates from two hospitals and community settings in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Between 2011 and 2014, thirty-seven ESBL-PEc isolates were collected. The major encoded ESBL was the blaCTX-M-15 gene (97%); followed by 13.5% of the blaSHV-12 gene, and 5.5% encoded the blaTLA-1 gene. The PMQR gene aac(6´)-Ib-cr was detected in 97% of the isolates and the qnrB gene, in one isolate. The ESBL-PEc isolates corresponded to phylogenetic group B2, ST131...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773544/molecular-characteristics-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-intra-abdominal-infections-from-9-tertiary-hospitals-in-china
#20
Kang Liao, Yili Chen, Menghe Wang, Penghao Guo, Qiwen Yang, Yuxing Ni, Yunsong Yu, Bijie Hu, Ziyong Sun, Wenxiang Huang, Yong Wang, Anhua Wu, Xianju Feng, Yanping Luo, Zhidong Hu, Yunzhuo Chu, Shulan Chen, Bin Cao, Jianrong Su, Bingdong Gui, Qiong Duan, Shufang Zhang, Haifeng Shao, Haishen Kong, Yingchun Xu
BACKGROUND: Recently, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised considerable concern regarding the appropriate treatment of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). In this study, we investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing IAIs and their pattern of antimicrobial resistance, which can provide useful information about the epidemiology and risk factors associated with these infections...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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