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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826987/in-vitro-potency-and-fungicidal-activity-of-cd101-a-novel-echinocandin-against-recent-clinical-isolates-of-candida-spp
#1
Danielle Hall, Robert Bonifas, Lauretta Stapert, Mary Thwaites, Dean L Shinabarger, Chris M Pillar
Candida infections vary in severity and manifestation. Common infections include invasive bloodstream infections among hospitalized/immunocompromised patients and vulvovaginal candidiasis among women. Echinocandins and azoles are commonly utilized to treat Candida infections, although echinocandin use has been restricted to indications amenable to once-daily IV administration. CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long plasma half-life and enhanced stability, is in development for once-weekly IV administration for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis...
July 21, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821364/serologic-responses-of-42-mers-coronavirus-infected-patients-according-to-the-disease-severity
#2
Jae-Hoon Ko, Marcel A Müller, Hyeri Seok, Ga Eun Park, Ji Yeon Lee, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim, Ik Joon Jo, Chi Ryang Chung, Myong-Joon Hahn, Christian Drosten, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Eun-Suk Kang, Kyong Ran Peck
We evaluated serologic response of 42 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-infected patients according to 4 severity groups: asymptomatic infection (Group 0), symptomatic infection without pneumonia (Group 1), pneumonia without respiratory failure (Group 2), and pneumonia progressing to respiratory failure (Group 3). None of the Group 0 patients showed seroconversion, while the seroconversion rate gradually increased with increasing disease severity (0.0%, 60.0%, 93.8%, and 100% in Group 0, 1, 2, 3, respectively; P = 0...
July 14, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818396/identification-and-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-spp-directly-from-yeast-positive-blood-cultures-with-vitek-2
#3
María Fernanda González-Lara, Pedro Torres-González, Andrea Rangel-Cordero, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, Areli Martínez-Gamboa
Culture-based identification and antifungal susceptibility take 48-72hours after positivity. We analyzed the performance of Vitek2 directly from 40 yeast-positive blood-cultures; agreement of 100% was observed for the tested antifungals; identification showed the same species in 31/40. The method reduces time (13 to 18h) for preliminary results.
July 14, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811115/recurrence-of-cutaneous-coccidioidomycosis-6-years-after-valley-fever-a-case-presentation-and-literature-review
#4
Rana Shahab, Nasir K Amra, Rola Rabah, Justin Saunar, Joan Soriano, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Coccidioidomycosis is usually acquired by inhalation of spores of Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. The disease ranges from a self-limited acute pneumonia (Valley Fever) to a disseminated disease. We present a 44-year-old healthy male who had patchy hair loss of several months duration resembling discoid lupus. He developed a firm non-scaly red plaque on the right forehead. Initial biopsy showed spongiotic dermatitis, and he was treated with systemic steroids. He then developed forehead and periorbital cellulitis and was treated with systemic antibiotics...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802758/impact-of-rapid-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infection-without-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-antibiotic-optimization-and-clinical-outcomes
#5
R Brigg Turner, Karineh Lalikian, Madeline Fry, Jacqueline Schwartz, Dominic Chan, Regina Won
Few studies have evaluated the clinical impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in resource-limited settings that lack direct antimicrobial stewardship intervention. This retrospective cohort study compared patients with standard microbiological identification (n=343) to those with additional identification by (PCR) (n=130). Time to initiation of optimal therapy was similar between groups but substantially shorter in the PCR group for those infected with methicillin susceptible S...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793964/in-vitro-activities-of-tedizolid-and-comparator-antimicrobial-agents-against-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus-collected-in-12-countries-from-2014-to-2016
#6
James A Karlowsky, Meredith A Hackel, Samuel K Bouchillon, Jeff Alder, Daniel F Sahm
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n=3929) collected by 54 medical center laboratories in 12 countries in 2014-2016 were tested for in vitro susceptibility to tedizolid, linezolid, and 11 comparators using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) interpreted by CLSI M100-S26 (2016) criteria. All isolates of S. aureus tested were susceptible to both tedizolid (MIC, ≤0.5μg/mL) and linezolid (MIC, ≤4μg/mL). The concentration of tedizolid that inhibited 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780245/prevalence-and-virulence-gene-profiling-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-in-malnourished-and-nourished-brazilian-children
#7
Alexandre Havt, Ila Fn Lima, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Marco Af Clementino, Ana Ks Santos, Marília Smg Amaral, Herlice N Veras, Mara Mg Prata, Noélia L Lima, Alessandra Di Moura, Álvaro M Leite, Alberto M Soares, José Q Filho, Eric R Houpt, James P Nataro, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo Am Lima
The impact of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) infection on childhood malnutrition and inflammation has been suggested, regardless of diarrhea. We investigated whether EAEC and its virulence-related genes (VRGs) are associated with malnutrition in a case-control study. Children aged 6-24 months from Brazil were enrolled as malnourished if weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) ≤ -2 and nourished if WAZ > -1. Stools were cultured and examined for E. coli. DNA was extracted from fecal isolates and tested for EAEC by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 4, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784461/cryptococcal-antigen-negative-meningoencephalitis-in-hiv-aids
#8
Daniel B Chastain, Jeannette Guarner, Carlos Franco-Paredes
Diagnosis of central nervous system cryptococcosis relies on a spectrum of methods but has improved with lateral flow diagnostic assays that detect capsular polysaccharide antigens of Cryptococcus. Here, we present the case of an HIV-infected African-American man with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis caused by a strain producing little or no capsule.
July 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780246/detection-and-genetic-features-of-mcr-1-producing-plasmid-in-human-escherichia-coli-infection-in-south-korea
#9
Eun Sil Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Su-Jin Park, Mi-Na Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Jun Hee Woo, Jin-Yong Jeong, Yang Soo Kim
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was identified for the first time from a hospitalized patient in South Korea. The mcr-1 gene was successfully transferred to E. coli J53 recipient and conferred resistance to colistin in the recipient. The mcr-1-harboring plasmid possessed a typical IncI2 group and did not have the mcr-1-associated ISApl1 element.
July 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811116/identification-of-nocardia-streptomyces-and-tsukamurella-using-maldi-tof-ms-with-the-bruker-biotyper
#10
Melanie L Yarbrough, William Lainhart, Carey-Ann D Burnham
Nocardia species are the most commonly isolated aerobic actinomycetes from human clinical specimens. Our objective was to assess the identification of clinically relevant actinomycetes using the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF system, including comparison of extraction methods, Biotyper library versions, score cutoffs, and media. Banked Streptomyces (n=10), Tsukamurella (n=2), and Nocardia isolates (n=60) were cultured and extracted using three methods: mycobacterial extraction, ethanol formic acid extraction, or direct on-target extraction...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807400/incx3-plasmid-harboring-a-non-tn4401-genetic-element-ntekpc-in-a-hospital-associated-clone-of-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st340-cg258
#11
Louise T Cerdeira, Marcos P V Cunha, Gabriela R Francisco, Maria Fernanda C Bueno, Bruna F Araujo, Rosineide M Ribas, Paulo P Gontijo-Filho, Terezinha Knöbl, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Nilton Lincopan
IncX-type plasmids have achieved clinical significance for their contribution in the dissemination of genes confering resistance to carbapenems (most blaKPC- and blaNDM-type genes) and polymyxins (mcr-type genes), both antibiotics considered last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. In this study, we report the identification and complete sequence analysis of an IncX3 plasmid (designated pKP1194a) carrying a non-Tn4401 genetic element (NTEKPC) of tnpR-tnpA (partial)-blaKPC-2-ΔISKpn6/traN, originating from a hospital-associated lineage of K...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800896/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-icu-colonized-patients-revealed-alert-to-st-37-rt-017-isolates
#12
Jingyu Yang, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiaohua Liu, Lin Cai, Ping Feng, Xiaohui Wang, Zhiyong Zong
Seventy Clostridium difficile isolates from ICU colonized patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened for resistance determinants. We found that multilocus sequence type 37 (ribotype 017) toxin A-negative/B-positive isolates were more likely resistant to moxifloxacin than toxin A-positive/B-positive isolates (41.7% versus 9.3%) with major variations in both GyrA (Thr82Ile) and GyrB (Ser366Ala), suggesting that the use of quinolone should be more strictly regulated.
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780998/risk-factors-for-carbapenem-nonsusceptible-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-case-control-study
#13
Tina Khadem, Vanessa Stevens, Kathleen Holt, Charles Hoffmann, Ghinwa Dumyati, Jack Brown
The objective of this case case-control study was to identify risk factors for carbapenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa in adult acute care hospitalized patient at 2 large academic medical centers. Risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework to account for clustering of patients within study site. Of 1161 total isolates, 271 (23.3%) were carbapenem-nonsusceptible of which respiratory was the most common source (54.3%). In the multivariable model, intra-abdominal (P < 0...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780247/direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance-in-respiratory-specimen-using-abbott-realtime-mtb-detection-and-rif-inh-resistance-assay
#14
Kingsley King-Gee Tam, Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Sabrina Wai-Chi To, Gilman Kit-Hang Siu, Terrence Chi-Kong Lau, Victor Chi-Man Shek, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Samson Sai-Yin Wong, Pak-Leung Ho, Wing-Cheong Yam
Abbott RealTime MTB (Abbott-RT) in conjunction with Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott-RIF/INH) is a new, high-throughput automated nucleic acid amplification platform (Abbott-MDR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the genotypic markers for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance directly from respiratory specimens. This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this new platform for MTBC and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 610 sputum specimens in a tuberculosis high-burden setting...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733126/in-vitro-stepwise-selection-of-reduced-susceptibility-to-lipoglycopeptides-in-enterococci
#15
Francis F Arhin, David Lalonde Seguin, Adam Belley, Gregory Moeck
The propensity of oritavancin to select for stably elevated oritavancin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was studied by serial passaging of strains in broth containing oritavancin for 20days. Seven clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium were studied; they included vancomycin-susceptible and both VanA and VanB vancomycin-resistant isolates. Stepwise oritavancin selection yielded stably elevated oritavancin MICs in six of the seven strains, with MIC increases ranging from 4-32-fold. By comparison, stepwise selection with comparator agents dalbavancin (4- to >128-fold MIC increases), telavancin (4-8-fold MIC increases) and daptomycin (4-32-fold MIC increases) also yielded selectants with elevated MICs of the respective agents...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780999/nasal-vestibulitis-etiology-risk-factors-and-clinical-characteristics-a-retrospective-study-of-118-cases
#16
Noga Lipschitz, Arkadi Yakirevitch, Doron Sagiv, Lela Migirov, Yoav P Talmi, Michael Wolf, Eran E Alon
BACKGROUND: Nasal vestibulitis (NV) is a common infection; however, scant data is available in the literature as it pertains to NV. We aim to describe the clinical characteristics of NV in respect to its potential complications. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 118 NV cases admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2008 and 2015. RESULTS: Identified risk factors for NV included nasal hair plucking (n=15, 14.41%), nose blowing (n=10, 9...
June 30, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780243/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-infective-%C3%AE-hemolytic-streptococcal-endocarditis
#17
Oddvar Oppegaard, Haima Mylvaganam, Steinar Skrede, Stina Jordal, Marte Glambek, Bård Reiakvam Kittang
Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) cause considerable morbidity and mortality, and show similarities in disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms. Their involvement in infective endocarditis, however, has not been well described. Invasive S. pyogenes and SDSE infections in Health Region Bergen, Norway, in the period 1999-2013 were reviewed, and sixteen cases of endocarditis were identified. The median duration of symptoms was 2.5days, the frequency of embolic events 50%, 38% received valve replacement and the 30-day mortality was 25%...
June 30, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780244/legionella-pneumophila-lps-to-evaluate-urinary-antigen-tests
#18
Anne-Gaëlle Ranc, Margot Carpentier, Laëtitia Beraud, Ghislaine Descours, Christophe Ginevra, Elodie Maisonneuve, Julien Verdon, Jean-Marc Berjeaud, Gérard Lina, Sophie Jarraud
Three urinary antigen tests were compared using purified Legionella pneumophila (Lp) LPS. For Lp serogroup1, Sofia®FIA and Binax®EIA limits of detection (LOD) were similar; that of BinaxNOW® lower. For all tests the LOD was higher with LPS from non-Pontiac compared to Pontiac-strains. The LOD was variable for other Lp serogroups.
June 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709731/evaluation-of-rapid-phenotypic-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-a-pediatric-oncology-center
#19
J N Brazelton de Cárdenas, Y Su, A Rodriguez, C Hewitt, L Tang, C D Garner, R T Hayden
Identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) remain rate limiting steps in producing actionable data for clinical care of bloodstream infections. Rapid, automated phenotypic ID and AST by fluorescent in situ hybridization and automated microscopy were used to characterize blood stream infections in a predominantly pediatric oncology patient population. Results were compared to standard of care (SOC) phenotypic methods. The Accelerate Pheno System (AXDX) had a sensitivity of 91.2% and an accuracy of 100% to the genus level for identification, and an overall categorical agreement 91...
June 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689894/urine-concentrations-of-human-beta-defensins-and-ribonuclease-7-in-urinary-tract-infection-and-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#20
Charlott Kjölvmark, Per Åkesson, Lisa I Påhlman
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide a first line of defense against bacterial infections. Here we report that urine levels of AMPs, locally produced in the urinary tract, are lower in individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) compared to patients with urinary tract infection (UTI).
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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