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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533001/evaluation-of-the-rapidec%C3%A2-carba-np-and-%C3%AE-carba%C3%A2-tests-for-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#1
Stefano Mancini, Nicolas Kieffer, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
The analytical performances of the RAPIDEC CARBA NP® (bioMérieux) and the β-CARBA® (Bio-Rad) tests were evaluated for the rapid detection of any known type of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae. An international collection of 149 enterobacterial isolates comprising 111 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 38 non-carbapenemase producers was used. CPE included 32 carbapenemase producers of class A (18 KPC-2, 1 FRI-1, 5 SME and 8 IMI), 33 of class B (13 NDM, 11 VIM and 9 IMP) and 46 of class D (15 OXA-48, 14 OXA-181, 10 OXA-204, 3 OXA-232 and 4 OXA-162)...
May 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529089/kinetics-of-biofilm-formation-by-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-strains-in-bone-and-joint-infections
#2
Xavier Argemi, Gilles Prévost, Philippe Riegel, Christian Provot, Stéphanie Badel-Berchoux, François Jehl, Elodie Olivares, Yves Hansmann
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and 1-year follow-up of patients with bone and joint infections (BJIs) caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and evaluate its biofilm-forming capacities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 28 patients with BJIs from VISLISI clinical trials were included. We evaluated 1-year clinical follow-up and analyzed biofilm production kinetics of the 28 strains using the BioFilm Ring Test®. RESULTS: Of all patients, 12 had osteoarticular infections without material and 16 had prosthetic joint infections, of which 9 underwent a 1-stage revision procedure...
May 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535946/activity-of-minocycline-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-enterobacteriaceae-clinical-isolates-with-comparison-to-doxycycline-and-tigecycline
#3
Alice Chen, Kenneth P Smith, Betsy A Whitfield, Paola C Zucchi, Todd M Lasco, Tiffany E Bias, James E Kirby, Elizabeth B Hirsch
We examined the in vitro activity of minocycline against 103 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and found approximately half had susceptible (26%) or intermediate (26%) MICs. For a subset of 35 isolates, susceptibility was highest to tigecycline (71% FDA vs. 20% EUCAST) followed by minocycline (14%) and then doxycycline (6%).
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533000/clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical data cannot clearly predict poor CDI outcome. Data on the value of microbiological predictors is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify early predictors of poor outcome of CDI. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with CDI aged >2years. Clinical, immunological (Toxin B IgG/Ig A and Toxin A IgG/Ig A), microbiological factors (bacterial load, toxin quantification, sporulation, germination, and metronidazole susceptibility) were evaluated to identify early independent predictors of poor outcome...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529091/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-risk-factors-treatment-and-outcome
#5
Polydoros Tofas, Michael Samarkos, Evangelia-Theophano Piperaki, Christos Kosmidis, Ioanna-Dionysia Triantafyllopoulou, Maria Kotsopoulou, Aggeliki Pantazatou, Stavroula Perlorentzou, Anastasia Poulli, Maria Vagia, George L Daikos
Our aims were to identify factors associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematological malignancies and evaluate the outcome of the affected patients. Consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who developed PA BSI were identified. Subsequently, two case-control studies were performed to evaluate the risk factors (i) for PA BSI and (ii) for carbapenem resistant (CR) PA BSI. Patients' outcome was evaluated at 28 days after the onset of bacteraemia. A total of 64 patients with PA BSI (45 caused by CS and 19 by CR organisms) and 128 without PA BSI were enrolled...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506722/primary-helicobacter-pylori-resistance-in-elderly-patients-over-20-years-a-bulgarian-study
#6
Lyudmila Boyanova, Galina Gergova, Rumyana Markovska, Nayden Kandilarov, Lyubomir Davidkov, Zoya Spassova, Ivan Mitov
We evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of 233 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in the period 2011-2016, involving 62 strains from elderly patients aged 66-93years and 171 strains from younger adults. To assess resistance evolution, primary resistance rates in 92 strains from as many patients aged ≥60years in 1996-2003 were compared with those in 85 strains from infected patients in the same age group in 2011-2016. In the patients aged >65years evaluated during the last 6 years, amoxicillin resistance according to EUCAST and prior breakpoints was 1...
May 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529090/continued-expansion-of-usa300-like-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-among-hospitalized-patients-in-the-united-states
#7
Isabella A Tickler, Richard V Goering, Jose R Mediavilla, Barry N Kreiswirth, Fred C Tenover
We characterized spa types, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 516 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, collected between 2011 and 2014 from nares and blood cultures of United States patients. Among nares isolates, 45 spa types were observed; 29.9% were t002/SCCmec II and 30.9% were t008/SCCmec IV. Among blood isolates, 40 spa types were identified; 24.4% were t002/SCCmec II and 39.9% were type t008/SCCmec IV. Compared to data from our 2009-2010 survey, the percentage of t008/SCCmec IV isolates from nares increased significantly (20...
May 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506721/first-report-of-ndm-1-producing-clinical-isolate-of-leclercia-adecarboxylata-in-spain
#8
Cristina Riazzo, Lorena López-Cerero, María Dolores Rojo-Martín, Yannick Hoyos-Mallecot, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, Jose Luis Martín-Ruíz, Álvaro Pascual-Hernández, Thierry Naas, Jose María Navarro-Marí
We describe the case of NDM-1-producing Leclercia adecarboxylata recovered from the clinical sample of a patient hospitalized for a trauma-related injury to his foot. The isolate was resistant to all beta-lactams, quinolones, trimetroprim-sulfametoxazol, gentamicin and tobramicyn. The blaNDM-1 gene was located in a conjugative plasmid that also contained the blaSHV-12 gene and was preceded by a disrupted insertion sequence of ISAba125. The plasmid belongs to the incompatibility group X3, which is known to be an important vector for NDM-1 dissemination in China...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502396/comparative-evaluation-of-2-rapid-immunochromatographic-assays-for-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-northeastern-thailand
#9
LETTER
Wilawan Thipmontree, Chien-Chung Chao, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Zhiwen Zhang, Wei-Mei Ching
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511780/anti-mycobacterium-avium-complex-activity-of-clarithromycin-rifampin-rifabutin-and-ethambutol-in-combination-with-adenosine-5-triphosphate
#10
Yutaka Tatano, Seiko Yamabe, Chiaki Sano, Haruaki Tomioka
We previously reported that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) inhibited the growth of various bacteria, including mycobacteria, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas, without damaging bacterial surface structures. Notably, ATP's antibacterial activity was found to be attributable to its iron-chelating ability. ATP exhibited combined effects with some antimicrobials against Mycobacterium intracellulare and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, suggesting its usefulness as an adjunctive drug in the chemotherapy against certain intractable infections...
May 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502397/performance-of-the-check-points-check-mdr-ct103xl-assay-utilizing-the-cdc-fda-antimicrobial-resistance-isolate-bank
#11
Eleanor A Powell, David Haslam, Joel E Mortensen
The Check-MDR CT103XL beta-lactamase assay was validated for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory using two CDC-FDA Antimicrobial Resistant Isolate Bank panels (133 gram-negative bacilli known beta-lactamase genes). The CT103XL detected most reported resistance genes (123 of 136 genes) and additionally identified several resistance genes not reported by the CDC. Discrepant results were confirmed via whole genome sequencing.
April 28, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502395/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-rapidec%C3%A2-carba-np-test-for-rapid-screening-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-gram-negative-nonfermenters-from-clinical-specimens
#12
Marco Coppi, Alberto Antonelli, Tommaso Giani, Teresa Spanu, Flora Marzia Liotti, Carla Fontana, Walter Mirandola, Raffaele Gargiulo, Agostino Barozzi, Carola Mauri, Luigi Principe, Gian Maria Rossolini
The rapid diagnosis of carbapenemase-producing (CP) bacteria is essential for the management of therapy and infection control. In this study, RAPIDEC® CARBA NP (RCNP) was evaluated for the rapid screening of CP Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii complex, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical specimens collected at five Italian hospitals. Firstly, each site tested 20 well-characterized strains in a blinded fashion. Secondly, each center prospectively tested 25 isolates from blood cultures processed with a rapid workflow (6h after subculture) and 25 isolates from other specimens processed after an overnight culture...
April 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483305/bactec%C3%A2-blood-culture-bottles-allied-to-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-rapid-etiologic-diagnosis-of-bacterial-endophthalmitis
#13
Tatiana Tanaka, Luiza Manhezi de Freitas Oliveira, Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira, Juliana Mika Kato, Flavia Rossi, Karoline de Lemes Giuntini Correa, Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel, Joyce Hisae Yamamoto, João Nóbrega Almeida Junior
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been used for direct identification of pathogens from blood-inoculated blood culture bottles (BCBs). We showed that MALDI-TOF MS is an useful technique for rapid identification of the causative agents of endophthalmitis from vitreous humor-inoculated BCBs with a simple protocol.
April 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483306/pharmacodynamic-activity-of-fosfomycin-simulating-urinary-concentrations-achieved-after-a-single-3-g-oral-dose-versus-escherichia-coli-using-an-in-vitro-model
#14
George G Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A Karlowsky
We assessed the activity of fosfomycin simulating urinary concentrations achieved after a single 3-g oral dose against Escherichia coli using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Eleven urinary isolates of E. coli were studied. Isolates were ESBL-producing or carbapenemase-producing. The in vitro pharmacodynamic model was inoculated with an inoculum of (~1×10(6)cfu/mL). Fosfomycin was administered to simulate maximum free (ƒ) urine (U) concentrations and a t1/2 obtained after a standard single 3-g oral dose in healthy volunteers (ƒUmax, 4000mg/L; t1/2, 6h)...
April 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442305/transfer-of-kpc-2-carbapenemase-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae-to-enterobacter-cloacae-in-a-patient-receiving-meropenem-therapy
#15
Evelin Rodrigues Martins, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Andressa Batista Zequini, Louise Cerdeira, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Maria Fernanda Campagnari Bueno, Gabriela Rodrigues Francisco, Leonardo Neves de Andrade, Ana Lúcia da Costa Darini, Fernanda Modesto Tolentino, Tiago Casella, Nilton Lincopan, Mara Corrêa Lelles Nogueira
The horizontal transfer of a plasmid bearing the blaKPC-2 gene from K. pneumoniae to E. cloacae infecting the respiratory tract of a patient during meropenem therapy was elucidated. This finding is particularly worrisome, since these drugs are of last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434899/mechanisms-responsible-for-imipenem-resistance-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-exposed-to-imipenem-concentrations-within-the-mutant-selection-window
#16
Foula Vassilara, Irene Galani, Maria Souli, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Helen Giamarellou, Antonios Papadopoulos
The aim of this study was to determine the propensities of imipenem to select for resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 9 unrelated clinical isolates and the accession of any relationship with mechanisms of resistance development. The MPC/MIC ratios ranged from 4 to 16. Detection of resistance mechanisms in the mutant derivatives of the nine isolates mainly revealed inactivating mutations in the gene coding for outer membrane protein OprD. Point mutations leading to premature stop codons or amino acid substitution S278P, ≥1bp deletion leading to frameshift mutations and interruption of the oprD by an insertion sequence, were observed...
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434898/bacteraemia-due-to-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-hospitalized-cancer-patients-risk-factors-antibiotic-therapy-and-outcomes
#17
Qing Zhang, Wenfang Zhang, Zheng Li, Changsen Bai, Ding Li, Shan Zheng, Peng Zhang, Sihe Zhang
AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (AmpC-EC) is one of the main antimicrobial resistant pathogens in patients with cancer. A cohort study was performed to evaluate the risk factors, antibiotic therapy, and outcomes of AmpC-EC bacteraemia in hospitalized cancer patients from September 2012 through December 2015. Two hundred forty-eight cases of E. coli bacteraemia were documented in cancer patients, 51 (20.6%) were caused by AmpC-EC and 197 (79.4%) were caused with non-AmpC-EC. Prior exposure to cephalosporins (OR 2...
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478111/evaluation-of-a-commercially-available-zika-virus-igm-elisa-specificity-in-focus
#18
Kamran Kadkhoda, Ainsley Gretchen, Adrianna Racano
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging arbovirus, has become the center of attention since it was linked to congenital abnormalities. Given the overlapping clinical picture of ZIKV disease with other infectious diseases and as an exigent public health matter, timely and reliable diagnosis of ZIKV infection is crucial. We evaluated the performance of a commercially available NS1-based ZIKV IgM ELISA. Our results showed suboptimal sensitivity within the first 5 days after onset while specificity remained robust.
April 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456430/comparison-of-four-pcr-methods-for-efficient-detection-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-routine-diagnostics
#19
Peter Seiringer, Michael Pritsch, María Flores-Chavez, Edoardo Marchisio, Kerstin Helfrich, Carolin Mengele, Stefan Hohnerlein, Gisela Bretzel, Thomas Löscher, Michael Hoelscher, Nicole Berens-Riha
Due to increased migration, Chagas disease has become an international health problem. Reliable diagnosis of chronically infected people is crucial for prevention of non-vectorial transmission as well as treatment. This study compared four distinct PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA for the use in well-equipped routine diagnostic laboratories. DNA was extracted of T. cruzi-positive and negative patients' blood samples and cultured T. cruzi, T. rangeli as well as Leishmania spp. One conventional and two real-time PCR methods targeting a repetitive Sat-DNA sequence as well as one conventional PCR method targeting the variable region of the kDNA minicircle were compared for sensitivity, intra- and interassay precision, limit of detection, specificity and cross-reactivity...
April 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442306/evaluation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-rectal-screening-of-oxa-48-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-general-intensive-care-unit-of-an-endemic-hospital
#20
J Fernández, S A Cunningham, A Fernández-Verdugo, L Viña-Soria, L Martín, M R Rodicio, D Escudero, F Vazquez, J N Mandrekar, R Patel
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing worldwide. Rectal screening for these bacteria can inform the management of infected and colonized patients, especially those admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). A laboratory developed, qualitative duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-like and VIM producing Enterobacteriaceae, performed on rectal swabs, was designed and evaluated in an intensive care unit with endemic presence of OXA-48. During analytical assay validation, no cross-reactivity was observed and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained for both blaOXA-48-like and blaVIM in all spiked clinical samples...
April 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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