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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Amanda Carreira Devides, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Andréa de Faria Fernandes Belone, Neusa Maria Broch Coelho, Somei Ura, Eliane Aparecida Silva
Leprosy patients may present reactional episodes classified as type I or reversal reaction and type II or erythema nodosum leprosum. Early diagnosis of these reactions is hampered by lack of diagnostic tests. This study aimed at evaluating anti-Mycobacterium leprae antibody levels in reactional and nonreactional leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis. Clinical data and serum samples of 224 patients diagnosed between 2009 and 2010 were collected in the municipality of Rondonópolis-MTBR. Quantification of anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) IgM antibodies of M...
March 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kenneth V IRolston, Ruth Reitzel, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Samuel A Shelburne, Issam I Raad, Randall A Prince
A total of 248 Gram-positive isolates from cancer patients were tested for in-vitro susceptibility to tedizolid and 3 comparator agents using CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Tedizolid inhibited 97% of isolates at ≤0.5μg/ml. It was active against all Gram-positive species and consistently had 8 fold lower MICs than linezolid, although based on % susceptibility using CLSI breakpoints, most isolates were also susceptible to the comparators. Tedizolid was active against MRSA isolates with vancomycin MICs of ≥1...
March 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Caroline R Espada, Paola A Ortiz, Jeffrey J Shaw, Aldina M P Barral, Jackson M L Costa, Silvia R B Uliana, Adriano C Coelho
Hsp70 is a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein, encoded by a multicopy tandemly repeated gene that has recently been gaining popularity as a valuable marker for typing Leishmania species. In this study, we used a previously described hsp70 PCR-RFLP method for identifying Brazilian Leishmania isolates. We identified two distinct L. (L.) amazonensis hsp70 alleles that resulted in two different RFLP patterns. Also, we found RFLP polymorphisms amongst L. (Viannia) naiffi strains. The profiles of both L. (V.) shawi and L...
March 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
B J Gardiner, C E V Parker, A R Rabson, D R Snydman, S Doron
New on-demand multiplex molecular respiratory viral diagnostics offer superior performance although can be expensive and some platforms cannot process multiple specimens simultaneously. We performed a retrospective study reviewing results of patients tested for respiratory viruses following introduction of a two-stage testing algorithm incorporating an initial screen with Sofia® immunoassay then secondary Biofire Filmarray®, and compared to a period when only Filmarray® was used. Of 2976 testing episodes, 1814 underwent initial Sofia® then follow-up FilmArray®...
March 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Quézia Moura, Louise Cerdeira, Miriam R Fernandes, Marco A Vianello, Nilton Lincopan
Antimicrobial resistance in Morganella morganii has been mainly acquired via plasmids and class 1 integrons. We hereby report acquisition of blaGES-5 by a M. morganii isolated in a remote community from the Amazon region. Genomic analysis revealed that blaGES-5 was harbored by a novel class 1 integron designated as In1390.
March 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Hamed Fakhim, Afsane Vaezi, Eric Dannaoui, Cheshta Sharma, Bita Mousavi, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
In vitro interaction of voriconazole with micafungin was evaluated against 33 clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates, including azole-resistant (n=31) and -susceptible (n=2) isolates. Interaction was synergistic for only 1 resistant isolate carrying the TR34 /L98H mutation. No antagonistic effects were observed for 96.8% of azole-resistant isolates.
March 8, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Faith Moyo, Tendesayi Kufa, Jean Maritz, Gayle G Sherman
We describe the extent of and variables associated with irreproducible HIV-1 PCR positive results within South Africa's Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program from 2010 to 2015 and propose criteria for differentiating indeterminate from clearly positive results using the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative Test version 2.0 (CAP/CTM Qual v2.0). Fourteen percent of specimens with an instrument-positive result that were repeat-tested yielded a negative result for which cycle threshold (Ct) proved to be the only predictive variable...
March 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Louis D Saravolatz, Vladimir Labalo, Joel Fishbain, Susan Szpunar, Leonard B Johnson
We report a retrospective study of 173 patients with vertebral osteomyelitis evaluating the effect of antibiotics administered prior to percutaneous and open biopsy cultures. Antibiotics given prior to these biopsies did not have a significant effect on the yield of cultures.
February 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Maria Giufrè, Marisa Accogli, Enrico Ricchizzi, Fabrizio Barbanti, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Romano Mattei, Mario Sarti, Agostino Barozzi, Rossella Buttazzi, Marina Cosentino, Maria Nardone, Vincenzo Savini, Patrizia Spigaglia, Maria Luisa Moro, Marina Cerquetti
Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) residents constitute a public health concern. This multicenter study investigated the frequency of ESBL-producing pathogens and MDR Clostridium difficile in clinical specimens from LTCF residents in Italy. During October 2014-March 2015, all urine and diarrheic fecal samples from LTCF residents (≥65 years) with suspected urinary tract infection or C. difficile infection, respectively, received for diagnosis by 4 hospital laboratories located in different cities were analyzed...
February 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Joseph L Kuti, Rebecca S Pettit, Natalie Neu, Jeffrey J Cies, Craig Lapin, Marianne S Muhlebach, Kimberly J Novak, Sean T Nguyen, Lisa Saiman, David P Nicolau
Meropenem exposures from 15 children (8-17 years old) with cystic fibrosis (CF) acute pulmonary exacerbation were analyzed to define the pharmacodynamic threshold required for a positive response. The primary endpoint was the relative increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (↑FEV1 ) between pre- and posttreatment. Meropenem pharmacodynamic indices (fT > MIC, fAUC/MIC, fCmin /MIC) over the first 24 h were estimated for each participant based on their individual parameter estimates and the isolated pathogen with the highest meropenem MIC...
February 24, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
M A Pfaller, P R Rhomberg, M D Huband, R K Flamm
Omadacycline is an aminomethylcycline with in vitro activity against many gram-negative pathogens. Omadacycline and comparators were tested against Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs) selected from a 2014 global surveillance program and compared to results of isolates from 2010 surveillance. The omadacycline MIC50/90 for Enterobacteriaceae collected during 2014 was 2/≥8 μg/mL (1/4 μg/mL minus Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella spp.). The MIC50/90 for E. coli was 1/2 μg/mL, similar to that in 2010 (MIC50/90 , 0...
February 24, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
So Lim Kim, Steven M Gordon, Nabin K Shrestha
The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of streptococci causing infective endocarditis (IE). A total of 296 patients with definite IE admitted from July 2007 to December 2014 were identified, with microbial identification done by a combination of blood culture, valve culture, and valve polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall distribution of streptococci was 76% viridans (n = 224), 17% pyogenic (50), 6% nutritionally variant (17), and 2% anaerobic (5). Sixty-three (21%) viridans group streptococci were not identified further...
February 24, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Annukka Pietikäinen, Jarmo Oksi, Jukka Hytönen
Cerebrospinal fluid chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13) is a marker for Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). CXCL13 lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) was compared with CXCL13 ELISA. CXCL13 LFA results correlated strongly with CXCL13 ELISA results. CXCL13 LFA is a rapid and easy-to-perform test, which is suitable for routine point-of-care diagnostics of suspected LNB patients.
February 23, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jiann-Yuan Chen, Ming-Li Liou, Han-Yueh Kuo, Chia-Wei Lu, Yi-Chieh Lai, Yun-Yu Lin, Chang-Hua Chen
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) was up to 30% between 2014 and 2016 in the study hospital. Of these 77 CRKP isolates, 22 isolates with sequence type ST11 carried the new pKPC_P16 plasmid, a pKPC_LK30 variant, and were widely disseminated between 2014 and 2015 in northern Taiwan.
February 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mari Kusuki, Kayo Osawa, Kentaro Arikawa, Miho Tamura, Katsumi Shigemura, Toshiro Shirakawa, Tatsuya Nakamura, Yuji Nakamachi, Masato Fujisawa, Jun Saegusa, Issei Tokimatsu
Mycobacterium abscessus complex, including three subspecies-M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii-is resistant to a variety of antibiotics so limited treatment options are available. The susceptibility of these subspecies to antimicrobial agents depends in particular on the erm(41) sequevar and rrl mutations in the 23S rRNA, which are potentially related to clarithromycin (CLR) resistance. The purpose of this study was to carry out identification and molecular characterization of these subspecies based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis...
February 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Justin Hardick, David Metzgar, Lisa Risen, Christopher Myers, Melinda Balansay, Trent Malcom, Richard Rothman, Charlotte Gaydos
Clinical samples were evaluated with the Mobile Analysis Platform (MAP) to determine platform performance for detecting respiratory viruses in samples previously characterized using clinical reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. The percent agreement between MAP and clinical results was 97% for influenza A (73/75), 100% (21/21) for influenza B, 100% (6/6) for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and 80% (4/5) for negative specimens. The approximate limit of detection of the MAP was 30 copies/assay for RSV and 1500 copies/assay for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus...
February 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Laurent Dortet, Sandrine Bernabeu, Camille Gonzalez, Thierry Naas
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the Carbapenemase Detection Set™ (CDS; Mast Diagnostics) in association with i) the EUCAST meropenem screening cut-off and ii) the faropenem-temocillin algorithm (FTa) for the screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). A total of 200 well-characterized enterobacterial isolates with reduced susceptibility to at least one carbapenem including 63 non-CPEs and 137 CPEs belonging to different Ambler classes were initially screened for CPEs using i) the EUCAST meropenem cut-off (diameter <25 mm) and ii) the FTa...
February 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Thomas Valentin, Gebhard Feierl, Lilian Masoud-Landgraf, Peter Kohek, Josefa Luxner, Gernot Zarfel
We describe a case of carbapenemase-harboring Proteus mirabilis together with detection of NDM-5 in Austria accompanied by other bacterial strains with a wide range of beta-lactamases including OXA-181 and VEB-6. Isolates were obtained from a subphrenic abscess from one patient who was previously treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics in Bangladesh.
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Gary P Wormser, Claudia R Molins, Andrew Levin, Susan C Lipsett, Lise E Nigrovic, Martin E Schriefer, John A Branda
To diagnose Lyme disease, a two-tier testing algorithm is used in which supplemental IgM and IgG immunoblots to detect antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi are reflexively performed if a first-tier assay, such as a whole-cell sonicate-based enzyme immunoassay (WCS EIA), is reactive. Recent data suggest that equal specificity is found by substituting the C6 peptide EIA for immunoblots. In this study using 3956 control sera, we demonstrated that although this two-tier testing algorithm does significantly improve diagnostic specificity compared with each of the EIAs individually, the WCS EIA and the C6 peptide EIA are not independent tests...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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