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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Brandon Kulengowski, Justin A Clark, David S Burgess
Amikacin is administered with a carbapenem to treat serious infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). The varying degrees of activity of the individual agents correspond to differences in activity of the 2 in combination. Amikacin and meropenem are not bactericidal against amikacin-resistant CRE.
November 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Jéssica Moreira, Carolina H de Oliveira, Bárbara P Peres, Ana Paula S Silva, Siddhartha Thakur, Roberto M La Ragione, Andrea M Moreno
Brazilian poultry meat samples were screened for colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica. Sixty Salmonella isolates were tested for in vitro colistin resistance and mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3 and mcr-4 genes. Two isolates harbored the mcr-1 gene and whole-genome analysis determined the serovar to be Schwarzengrund, ST96, harboring the IncX4 plasmid. This is the first report of mcr-1-harboring Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund in Brazil.
November 1, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Keith Ck Lau, Carla Osiowy, Carla S Coffin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have important clinical implications. Current genotyping methods are less sensitive in patients with ultra-low HBV viral load. We report a highly sensitive and specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for genotyping patient HBV. Total DNA derived from plasma of 14 (HBsAg+ and/or HBsAg-) HBcAb+ patients was used for HBV-specific nested PCRs targeting the preC/C, X/BCP/preC, and surface regions. All patients were treated with long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), and 12/14 have undetectable viremia (clinical PCR: sensitivity >10 IU/mL)...
November 1, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lihong Zhao, Aihua Liu, Ruiying Li, Shuping Zhao
A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR platform was developed in this study for combined detection of opa and/or porA genes (identification of N. gonorrhoeae) and the key mutations (Ala501Val/Thr/Pro, and/or Gly545Ser) in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) associated with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Firstly, the specificities of the TaqMan probes/primers for the multiplex TaqMan real time PCR platform were confirmed by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. Then the multiplex PCR platform was performed on 77 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (CRO) and 100 isolates with full susceptibility to CRO under universal optimized reaction conditions...
October 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Joan M Balada-Llasat, Ning Rosenthal, Rodrigo Hasbun, Louise Zimmer, Samuel Bozzette, Steven Duff, Jessica Chung, Christine C Ginocchio
A retrospective cohort study design was used to assess the use and costs of diagnostic tests, medication, and total hospitalization costs for pediatric patients with suspected meningitis/encephalitis who received a lumbar puncture (LP) procedure. Related costs were calculated by timing of LP performed and infectious etiology for infants (<1 year) and children (1-17 years). A total of 3030 infants and 3635 children with suspected ME diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study. The mean hospitalization cost for infants and children was $12,759 and $11,119, respectively, with medication and laboratory test costs of $834 and $1771 for infants and $825 and $855 for children, respectively...
October 27, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jasmine Martinez, Christine Liu, Nyah Rodman, Jennifer S Fernandez, Claudia Barberis, Rodrigo Sieira, Federico Perez, Robert A Bonomo, Maria Soledad Ramirez
Transformation is one of the mechanisms of acquisition of foreign genetic material leading to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Recently, human serum albumin (HSA) was shown to specifically increase transformation frequency in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. To further assess the relevance of HSA as a possible modulator of A. baumannii transformation in host-pathogen interactions, in this work we examined the effect of different human fluids. We observed a significant increase in transformation frequencies in the presence of pleural fluid, whole blood cells and liquid ascites, and to a lesser extent with urine...
October 23, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Awad Al-Omari, Ali A Rabaan, Samer Salih, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
In September 2012, a novel coronavirus was isolated from a patient who died in Saudi Arabia after presenting with acute respiratory distress and acute kidney injury. Analysis revealed the disease to be due to a novel virus which was named Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). There have been several MERS-CoV hospital outbreaks in KSA, continuing to the present day, and the disease has a mortality rate in excess of 35%. Since 2012, the World Health Organization has been informed of 2220 laboratory-confirmed cases resulting in at least 790 deaths...
October 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lise Schotte, Magali Wautier, Delphine Martiny, Denis Piérard, Melissa Depypere
Haemophilus influenzae, a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract, is the causative agent of several clinically important infections. In cases that require therapeutic intervention, laboratory susceptibility testing can detect beta-lactam antibiotic resistance and guide the best treatment course. In the absence of a beta-lactamase, beta-lactam resistance may be due to an altered form of the PBP3 protein, encoded by the ftsI gene. While these so-called beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains are of serious clinical interest, identification in the clinical laboratory is not always straightforward...
October 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Eva Bartáková, Marek Štefan, Alžběta Stráníková, Lenka Pospíšilová, Simona Arientová, Ondřej Beran, Marie Blahutová, Jan Máca, Michal Holub
The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of calprotectin and calgranulin C and routine biomarkers in patients with bacterial sepsis (BS). The initial serum concentrations of calprotectin and calgranulin C were significantly higher in patients with BS (n = 66) than in those with viral infections (n = 24) and the healthy controls (n = 26); the level of calprotectin was found to be the best predictor of BS, followed by the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) and the level of procalcitonin (PCT)...
October 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mahamoudou Ouattara, Melissa J Whaley, Laurel T Jenkins, Stephanie B Schwartz, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Seydou Diarra, Jean-Marc Collard, Claudio T Sacchi, Xin Wang
This study presents a triplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the direct detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae in one reaction without DNA extraction, with similar sensitivity and specificity to singleplex assays. This approach saves time, specimen volume and reagents while achieving a higher testing throughput.
October 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Thamer A Almangour, Gregory K Perry, Colleen M Terriff, Abdullah A Alhifany, Keith S Kaye
Dalbavancin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. It has promising pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles in treating bone infections and safety data after multiple weekly dosing. The primary objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness and tolerability of dalbavancin in the treatment of osteomyelitis in adults. This study is a multicenter retrospective review, designed to identify patients with osteomyelitis who were treated with dalbavancin...
October 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Martina Beckman, Matthew C Washam, Barbara DeBurger, David B Haslam, Joshua D Courter, Heidi Andersen, Joshua K Schaffzin, Michael J Tchou, Andrea Ankrum, Joel Mortensen
BACKGROUND: Targeted antimicrobial therapy can reduce morbidity in patients with sepsis. Molecular methodologies used in the clinical laboratory can provide information about infectious agents faster than traditional culture methods. Using molecular information to make clinical decisions more quickly has been shown to improve patient outcomes, and reduce length of stay and healthcare cost in adults. Its effect on pediatric care is less well described. METHODS: Blood cultures growing Gram-positive cocci or Gram-positive bacilli on Gram stain were evaluated by molecular and traditional methodologies...
October 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Fiona Senchyna, Rajiv L Gaur, Johanna Sandlund, Cynthia Truong, Guillaume Tremintin, Dietmar Kültz, Carlos A Gomez, Fiona B Tamburini, Tessa Andermann, Ami Bhatt, Isabella Tickler, Nancy Watz, Indre Budvytiene, Gongyi Shi, Fred C Tenover, Niaz Banaei
The mechanism of resistance in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has therapeutic implications. We comprehensively characterized emerging mechanisms of resistance in CRE between 2013 and 2016 at a health system in Northern California. A total of 38.7% (24/62) of CRE isolates were carbapenemase gene-positive, comprising 25.0% (6/24) blaOXA-48 like , 20.8% (5/24) blaKPC , 20.8% (5/24) blaNDM , 20.8% (5/24) blaSME , 8.3% (2/24) blaIMP , and 4.2% (1/24) blaVIM. Between carbapenemases and porin loss, the resistance mechanism was identified in 95...
October 13, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Gary N McAuliffe, Susan L Taylor, Sharon Moore, Joanne Hewitt, Arlo Upton, Anna S Howe, Emma J Best
Rotavirus vaccine has reduced disease prevalence in many countries. Consequently, we aimed to assess the reliability of a rotavirus immunoassay in the community population of Auckland and Northland, New Zealand. Between 22 October 2015 and 31 December 2016, 2873 fecal samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Rotascreen II, Microgen, UK) from 2748 patients (median age 8 years, range 0-101 years). Eighty-nine (3.1%) samples were reactive; 86 samples were tested by a second method. Rotavirus was confirmed in 49/86 (57%)...
October 11, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Nardeen Khoury, Sharon Amit, Yuval Geffen, Amos Adler
The goals of the study were to examine the analytical properties and the clinical utility of pan-microbial PCR (PM-PCR) assays in a retrospective study conducted in 2014-2015 at the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. PM-PCR included in-house assays for pan-bacterial, pan-fungal, and pan-mycobacterial PCR followed by sequencing. The clinical utility of the assays was decided based on defined criteria/categories. There were 585 PM-PCR tests performed on samples from 306 patients. The positivity rates of PM-PCR for bacterial, fungal, and mycobacterial infections were 72/316 (22...
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Gary P Wormser, Ronald P Wormser, Franc Strle, Ronnie Myers, Burke A Cunha
Tetracycline antimicrobials entered into clinical usage in the late 1940s. Permanent dental staining from tetracyclines was first appreciated in 1956, eventually leading to avoidance of this class of antibiotics whenever possible in young children and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Doxycycline, introduced in 1967, binds calcium less avidly than prior tetracyclines and is regarded by some authorities as safe to prescribe for pregnant women and young children. Review of the available data, however, suggests that this interpretation may be incorrect or at least premature...
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Marie-Luce Delforge, Joëlle Eykmans, Deborah Steensels, Elena Costa, Catherine Donner, Isabel Montesinos
CMV IgG avidity assays are widely used and can be helpful in pregnant women to date the onset of CMV primary infection; however, these tests are not standardized and sometimes give inconclusive results. We evaluated the performances of Mikrogen recomLine CMV IgG and IgG Avidity compared to the VIDAS CMV IgG Avidity. On a first sample set of 89 sequential sera collected from 40 women with precisely determined onset of CMV primary infection, the combination of Mikrogen recomLine CMV IgG and IgG Avidity showed an accurate interpretation in 83...
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Tatiana Rumyantseva, Guzel Khayrullina, Alexander Guschin, Gilbert Donders
The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in healthy women and patients with altered vaginal microflora. Vaginal samples from 2594 unselected female patients were divided into normal, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and aerobic vaginitis (AV) groups and tested for U. parvum, U. urealyticum and M. hominis. Normal flora was detected in 1773 patients (68.4%), BV in 754 patients (29.1%), and AV in 67 patients (2.6%). In the control group, 771 (43...
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Brandon Kulengowski, Justin A Clark, David S Burgess
Little is known regarding the appropriate timing and sequencing of a carbapenem and polymyxin in combination against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Meropenem and polymyxin B were administered simultaneously or 1 agent 2 h prior to the other, in vitro. The carbapenem should be administered prior to the polymyxin when used in combination.
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Patrick M Kinn, Derrick J Chen, Thomas M Gihring, Lucas T Schulz, Barry C Fox, Erin K McCreary, Alexander J Lepak
The invitro activity of meropenem-vaborbactam was examined against clinical carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected over 3 years at our medical center. Only 3 KPC-producers were identified. Susceptibility to meropenem-vaborbactam was noted in 15/16 (94%) isolates (MIC90 2mg/L) that were nonsusceptible to meropenem. Meropenem-vaborbactam may have utility at centers where non-KPC-producers are more frequent.
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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