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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Pini Pietro, Colombari Bruna, Marchi Enrico, Castagnoli Anna, Venturelli Claudia, Sarti Mario, Blasi Elisabetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sergio García-Fernández, María García-Castillo, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, María-Isabel Morosini, Yohann Bala, Gilles Zambardi, Rafael Cantón
Recent emergence of transferable plasmid-borne colistin resistance (mcr genes) raised fear for pan-resistance. We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium [CHROMID® Colistin R agar (COLR)] for the screening of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales. Specificity was evaluated using 89 rectal swabs and 89 stools prospectively collected. COLR sensitivity was evaluated by seeding 59 negative clinical samples artificially contaminated (105  CFU/mL) with 59 colistin-resistant Enterobacterales, including 20 mcr-1-positive strains...
August 7, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Oyewole Christopher Durojaiye, Katharine Cartwright, Fotinie Ntziora
This study reviews the current OPAT service provision in the UK and evaluates concordance with the national OPAT practice guidelines (standards of care). We conducted a survey of acute hospital trusts and health boards in the UK regarding OPAT practices between June and September 2017. 165 (93%) of the 178 acute hospital trusts/health boards that were contacted responded to the survey. 100 (61%) indicated they had an OPAT service. Ten (10%) OPAT services did not involve an infection specialist. Bone and joint infections, and skin and soft-tissue infections were the most common conditions treated...
July 24, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Md Zohorul Islam, Jesper Larsen, Robert Skov, Øystein Angen
Optimal transportation of bacteria is important for accurate clinical interpretation, quantitative assays, and microbiome studies. A transport medium should ideally keep the bacteria alive without supporting growth or altering the relative proportions of the constituent species. We investigated the effect of nasal mucus and mucin on the growth and survival of two Staphylococcus aureus strains in liquid Amies transport medium at room temperature and 4 °C for 14 days. The study showed that the presence of nasal mucus in microbiological samples stimulated undesired S...
July 19, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
M Thwaites, D Hall, A Stoneburner, D Shinabarger, A W Serio, K M Krause, A Marra, C Pillar
Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside that was approved by the US FDA in June 2018 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), including pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus mirabilis. Plazomicin is active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, where combination therapy is often used to treat infections caused by these pathogens. To determine synergy with other antibiotics, plazomicin was combined with antibiotics in checkerboard assays against MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including isolates with resistance to aminoglycosides and β-lactams; 10 Escherichia coli isolates, 8 Klebsiella spp...
July 11, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Alice Teich, Albert B Lowenfels, Lori Solomon, Gary P Wormser
Zika virus is an emerging infection transmitted in multiple ways. In 2016 we assessed the level of knowledge about Zika virus transmission in an underserved, predominantly Hispanic, mixed gender population living in suburban New York City, many of whom potentially travel to affected regions. Based on a convenience sample of 147 participants, 134 (91%) were aware of Zika virus transmission by mosquitoes; 116 (79%) knew about transmission from a pregnant female to the fetus; and 89 (61%) were aware of sexual transmission...
July 9, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Ferdaus Hassan, Jordan Crawford, Aleta B Bonner, Nathan A Ledeboer, Rangaraj Selvarangan
Rapid and accurate detection of influenza virus is critical for proper patient management. The Alere™ i Influenza A&B assay is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification test capable of detecting influenza A and B viruses directly from respiratory specimens. In this multicenter clinical trial conducted in the US, we evaluated the clinical performance of the Alere™ i Influenza A&B assay against that of the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay. A total of 1243 fresh, leftover nasal or nasopharyngeal swabs eluted in viral transport medium were tested by both assays...
July 7, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yazmin Anaya-Molina, Sergio Isaac De La Cruz Hernández, Atenea Estela Andrés-Dionicio, Heidi Lizbeth Terán-Vega, Héctor Méndez-Pérez, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Herlinda García-Lozano
Rotaviruses continue being the most important pathogens responsible of diarrhea in young children worldwide. Seminested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used to determine rotavirus genotype; however, this technique employs multistep procedures. The real-time RT-PCR is a fast and reliable tool that can be used as rotavirus genotyping tool, especially in rotavirus outbreaks. In this study, we tested a real-time RT-PCR to identify rotavirus genotype using a panel of 252 samples from patients with diarrheal disease caused by G9P[4] and G12P[8] genotypes, which were identified as emerging rotaviruses in 2 outbreaks in Chiapas, Mexico...
July 6, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Xingxing Xu, Yun Luo, Xiaojun Song, Jianfei Ying, Julian Ye, Yong Lu, Jian Cai, Jian Ma, Xianjun Wang, Wanjun Yu, Yiping Wang, Dazhi Jin
In this study, we compared the performance of an UltraFast LabChip (UL) V280 system for Clostridium difficile detection in stool with that of Xpert C. difficile/Epi and VIDAS CDAB. Among 176 stool specimens, UL V280 detected toxigenic C. difficile in 22 (22/176, 12.5%) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100.0%, 99.4%, 99.5% and 100.0%, respectively, which were higher than 95.2%, 97.4%, 83.3%, and 99.3% of Xpert C. difficile/Epi (P > 0.05). Notably, the sensitivity and NPV of ULV280 were significantly higher than those of VIDAS CDAB 52...
June 30, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
R Brigg Turner, Kyle Kojiro, Regina Won, Eric Chang, Dominic Chan, Fawzy Elbarbry
Rich pharmacokinetic data on vancomycin in critically ill patients are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population using rich pharmacokinetic sampling. Nineteen critically ill patients received individualized vancomycin doses by intermittent infusion to achieve target trough concentrations (15-20 mg/L). Blood samples were collected following the third or later dose of vancomycin. Serial blood samples were collected at 30 min following initiation of the vancomycin infusion; at the end of the infusion; serially at 60, 120, 300, and 480 min after the infusion finished; and immediately prior to the next dose...
June 30, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Franciele Viana Fabri, Mayara Assumpção Lolis, Marina Gimenes, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim, Silvana Martins Caparroz-Assef
We compared in vitro antimicrobial activity of four vancomycin formulations used clinically against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant and -susceptible (MRSA and MSSA, respectively), using different susceptibility assays. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against MRSA clinical isolates were significantly different for some vancomycin formulations by the broth microdilution and agar dilution methods. However, these variations would not compromise their clinical use, since the MICs were within the range recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
June 28, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jean-Michel Mansuy, Sébastien Lhomme, Michelle Cazabat, Christophe Pasquier, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Jacques Izopet
Zika (ZIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) co-circulate in the same geographical areas during the same seasonal period through the same biting arthropods. Therefore a rapid sensitive and specific molecular assay for these viruses would be a considerable help in the disease management and the epidemiological survey. We developed a one-step multiplex real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of these viruses. Intra and inter-reproducibilities varied from 0.41% to 3.29% and from 1.13% to 4.93% for each virus respectively...
June 28, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yasuhide Kawamoto, Kosuke Kosai, Hiromi Yamakawa, Norihito Kaku, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The MALDI Biotyper Selective Testing of Antibiotic Resistance-β-Lactamase (MBT STAR-BL) assay enables rapid detection of β-lactamase activity using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The assay is based on analysis of bacterially induced hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics. We investigated the performance of the MBT STAR-BL assay for detecting IMP metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) activity in Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 145 strains (30 Escherichia coli, 43 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 72 Enterobacter cloacae complex) were evaluated using meropenem hydrolysis assays...
June 27, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Esther L M Schoutrop, Michelle A E Brouwer, Josien C A Jenniskens, Beatriz E Ferro, Johan W Mouton, Rob E Aarnoutse, Jakko van Ingen
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria has increased the need for accurate drug susceptibility testing of mycobacteria. The stability of the tested drugs in relevant test media have been understudied. We assessed the stability of isoniazid, rifampicin, clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin in Middlebrook 7H9 medium and that of clarithromycin, amikacin and cefoxitin in the cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) methods for rifampicin and isoniazid and a microbiological assay for rifampicin, clarithromycin, amikacin, cefoxitin and linezolid...
June 27, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lian J Pennings, Sanne Zweijpfenning, Mike M Ruth, Melanie Wattenberg, Martin J Boeree, Wouter Hoefsloot, Jakko van Ingen
Diagnostic mycobacteriology often involves shipping of samples to centralized laboratories. Using two quantitative culture techniques, we show that 7 days storage of sputum samples at room temperature or 4 °C does not affect the number of viable Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria. Storage at room temperature increases the chance of contamination.
June 27, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lisa R McTaggart, Yan Chen, Rahgavi Poopalarajah, Julianne V Kus
Identification of Nocardia can be challenging, even by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). We examined the impact of incubation duration, culture media and bead-beading on identification success. When isolates were grown for 3 days on SAB (Saboround dextrose agar), then extracted using a bead-beating, ethanol/formic acid (EtOH/FA) procedure, MALDI-ToF MS correctly identified 36.4% to species level. By contrast, 80.9% of isolates were correctly identified to species level when processed with the standard EtOH/FA extraction from Columbia blood agar (CBA) cultures incubated until colonies first appeared...
June 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Brandon Kulengowski, W Cliff Rutter, Jeffrey J Campion, Grace C Lee, David J Feola, David S Burgess
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a growing threat worldwide. Infections caused by these organisms have exhibited high rates of mortality (50%) for which there is no standard of care and a dearth of clinical trials. Most in vitro data on CRE focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae, but it is known that effective therapy may depend on species or even strain. To address this, meropenem, amikacin, and polymyxin B alone and in combination were evaluated by time kill against four carbapenem-producing Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates representing a range of meropenem nonsusceptibility (2-32 mg/L) and resistance mechanisms (KPC 2 and/or VIM 1)...
June 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Johanna Sandlund, Sung Lim, Nuria Queralto, Richard Huang, Jaesub Yun, Brian Taba, Rinn Song, Ronald Odero, Gregory Ouma, Ruth Sitati, Wilfred Murithi, Kevin P Cain, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: Top priorities for tuberculosis control and elimination include a simple, low-cost screening test using sputum and a non-sputum-based test in patients that do not produce sputum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a colorimetric sensor array (CSA) test, for analysis of volatile organic compounds in urine, in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urine samples were collected from individuals suspected of having pulmonary TB in Western Kenya...
June 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Andrew Walkty, Heather Adam, Vanessa Tran, David C Alexander, David Boyd, Amrita Bharat, James Karlowsky
A case of an IMP-27-positive Morganella morganii isolate is reported, where the carbapenemase enzyme was demonstrated by whole genome sequencing. Carbapenemase detection using a multiplex PCR assay was negative due to mutations in the primer binding site. This case serves to illustrate the limitations of multiplex PCR for carbapenemase detection.
June 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Meire M Silva, Miriam R Fernandes, Fábio P Sellera, Louise Cerdeira, Lylian K G Medeiros, Felício Garino, Sérgio S Azevedo, Nilton Lincopan
Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacterial infections in veterinary medicine are a clinical and epidemiological challenge. We report a case of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection followed by persistent colonization, in a dog presenting with bilateral purulent nasal discharge and dyspnea. In this regard, 5 broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from infection and surveillance cultures, collected during 1 year and eight months study. Genomic analysis of a representative clone of K...
June 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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