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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Vidthiya Menon, Rebecca Davis, Nick Shackel, Bjorn A Espedido, Alicia G Beukers, Slade O Jensen, Sebastiaan J van Hal
Daptomycin β-Lactam combination therapy offers "protection" against daptomycin non-susceptibility (DNS) development in Enterococcus faecium. We report failure of this strategy and the importance of source control. Mutations were detected in the LiaF and cls genes in DNS isolates. A single DNS isolate contained an unrecognized mutation, which requires confirmation.
November 28, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Giorgio Fedele, Pasqualina Leone, Stefania Bellino, Ilaria Schiavoni, Claudia Pavia, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Paola Stefanelli
Due to their specificity to B. pertussis antigens, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies should be measured primarily for diagnosing pertussis. We compared the diagnostic performance of commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) measuring IgG to B. pertussis antigens. An in-house ELISA with purified pertussis toxin (PT) was used as reference system. Commercial assays using PT only as coating antigen showed better performance as compared to those using a mixture of different antigens...
November 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Willames M B S Martins, Ana Clara Narciso, Rodrigo Cayô, Stéfanie Vanessa Santos, Lorena C C Fehlberg, Patrícia Locosque Ramos, João Batista da Cruz, Ana Cristina Gales
The production of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase (SPM-1) is the most common carbapenem resistance mechanism detected among multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Brazil. Dissemination of SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa has been restricted to the nosocomial settings, with sporadic reports of environmental isolates due to contamination by hospital sewage. Herein, we described the detection and molecular characterization of SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa recovered from the microbiota of migratory birds in Brazil...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Andreza Francisco Martins, Larissa Bail, Carmen Antonia Sanches Ito, Keite da Silva Nogueira, Tanise Vendruscolo Dalmolin, Amanda Silva Martins, Jaime Luis Lopes Rocha, Alisa W Serio, Felipe Francisco Tuon
Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of plazomicin against CPE (Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Serratia spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp.) from different Brazilian hospitals. A total of 4000 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from clinical samples in 50 Brazilian hospitals during 2013-2015...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Noemí Párraga-Niño, Sara Quero, Naroa Uria, Oscar Castillo-Fernandez, Josune Jimenez-Ezenarro, Francesc-Xavier Muñoz, Miquel Sabrià, Marian Garcia-Nuñez
Legionella pneumophila is responsible for Legionnaires' disease (LD). Its detection in both environmental and clinical samples is mainly performed by culture plate method which requires up to 10days to obtain results. Nowadays, there are commercial antibodies against this bacterium, but they have not been tested against all subgroups of L. pneumophila sg 1 or serogroups 1-16 or their cross-reactions with other non-Legionella bacteria. Indeed, many of these antibodies became available when only 8 serogroups of L...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Fabrice Compain, Daria Soroka, Beate Heym, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Delphine Dorchène, Michel Arthur, Vincent Dubée
Infections due to Mycobacterium abscessus carry a poor prognosis since this rapidly growing mycobacterium is intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics. Here, we evaluate the in vitro activity of the new oxazolidinone tedizolid against a collection of 44M. abscessus clinical isolates. The MIC50s and MIC90s of tedizolid (2 and 8μg/mL, respectively) were 2- to 16-fold lower than those of linezolid. There was no difference between the 3M. abscessus subspecies. Time-kill assays did not show any bactericidal activity at 4- and 8-fold the MIC...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares Medeiros, Aldo Ângelo Moreira Lima, Marjorie Moreira Guedes, Alexandre Havt, Mariana Duarte Bona, Luís Carlos Rey, Alberto Melo Soares, Richard Littleton Guerrant, Bernhard H Weigl, Ila Fernanda Nunes Lima
Molecular characterization of virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Shigella species isolated from children with diarrhea in Fortaleza, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected along with socioeconomic and clinical data from children with moderate to severe diarrhea requiring emergency care. Shigella spp. were isolated by standard microbiological techniques, and we developed 4 multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays to detect 16 virulence-related genes (VRGs). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion assays...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Tadakazu Kondo, Kazunai Aoki, Kouhei Yamashita, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) has the potential to cause two major adverse events, renal dysfunction and serum potassium abnormality; however, appropriate clinical management of these events remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding 128 hematology patients who received L-AMB in our institute and examined the association between clinical characteristics and renal dysfunction or serum potassium abnormality. We found that the median weight-normalized dose of L-AMB was 2.69mg/kg and the median administration period was 16days...
November 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Catherine François, Christine Segard, Maryline Bouvier, Martine Stefanski, Christine Pannier, Patricia Zawadzki, Catherine Roussel, Denise Hecquet, Gilles Duverlie, Etienne Brochot, Sandrine Castelain
This study compared the performance of 3 automated immunoassays, Architect® (Abbott), Immulite® (Siemens) and Liaison® (Diasorin), for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology. Ninety-one serum samples collected in Amiens University Hospital were analyzed for the presence of Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) IgG. The agreement between the 3 assays was calculated for each marker individually and for determination of the EBV profile, based on interpretation of the combination of these 3 EBV markers...
November 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yang Lü, Wei Liu, Hui Liang, Shulong Zhao, Wei Zhang, Jia Liu, Cheng Jin, Hongyan Hu
A carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae hhy03 with a blaNDM-1 and blaSHV-12-coharboring plasmid was isolated from a sputum specimen of a patient. This is the third nucleotide sequence report of blaNDM-1-harboring plasmid from Enterobacter cloacae that have caused lethal infections in China, indicating the spread of NDM-1 by IncX3 plasmid between Enterobacteriaceae.
November 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Stefano Mancini, Laurent Poirel, Myriam Corthesy, Gilbert Greub, Patrice Nordmann
A carbapenem- and pan-aminoglycoside-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from a Brazilian patient hospitalized in a Swiss hospital. The clinical isolate carried genes encoding the KPC-2 carbapenemase and the RmtG 16S rRNA methyltransferase. This is the first report of a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae producing RmtG in Europe.
November 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Christian Morgenstern, Sabrina Cabric, Carsten Perka, Andrej Trampuz, Nora Renz
INTRODUCTION: Analysis of joint aspirate is the standard preoperative investigation for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We compared the diagnostic performance of culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of synovial fluid for diagnosis of PJI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in whom aspiration of the prosthetic hip or knee joint was performed before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included. The performance of synovial fluid culture and multiplex PCR was compared by McNemar's chi-squared test...
November 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Andrew Walkty, Yoav Keynan, James Karlowsky, Perry Dhaliwal, John Embil
Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that is capable of causing pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease, including infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis of CNS blastomycosis with non-invasive testing can be difficult, and a surgical biopsy may ultimately be required for microbiological and/or histopathological confirmation. A case of B. dermatitidis meningitis is presented where the diagnosis was made by testing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using the MVista® Blastomyces Quantitative Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay test...
October 31, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Dervla T D Kenna, Alice Fuller, Kate Martin, Claire Perry, Rachel Pike, Phillipa J Burns, Omendra Narayan, Stuart Wilkinson, Robert Hill, Neil Woodford, Julie M J Logan, Jane F Turton
Difficulties in distinguishing species of the Elizabethkingia genus by MALDI-TOF prompted use of rpoB sequencing to investigate species distribution among 44 isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Forty-three isolates from 38 patients formed a cluster comprising E. miricola and proposed novel species E. bruuniana sp. nov., the exception clustering with proposed species E. ursingii sp. nov., also part of this wider cluster. All 44 isolates were PCR-positive for urease gene ureG, whereas only one of 23 E...
October 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Laura Dize, Barbara Silver, Charlotte Gaydos
Self-collected rectal-swabs were tested for CT and NG on GeneXpert CT/NG as compared to APTIMA Combo2. Of 448 rectal-swabs, 22 were positive for CT; 7 for NG on both assays; two were discordant. Sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert was 95.5% and 99.7% for chlamydia, respectively; for gonorrhea both were 100%.
October 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Marine Butin, Yann Dumont, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Patricia Martins Simoes, Louise Hoden, Jean-Charles Picaud, Frédéric Laurent
The multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A is a major pathogen in neonates worldwide. We show that NRCS-A grows as mauve colonies with a cream-color halo after a 5-day incubation on MRSA Brilliance 2 agar (Oxoid®). This innovative protocol will ease the screening of clinical and environmental niches of this clone.
October 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Ohad Shalom, Amos Adler
The goals of the study were to examine the analytic and performance parameters of 2 commercial rapid carbapenem-hydrolysis assays, the β-CARBA test (Bio-Rad) and the Rapid CARB Blue Kit (ROSCO) in comparison with an in-house CARBA NP assay for the detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Their performance was evaluated following growth on 2 chromogenic CPE screening media. The sensitivity was highest (91%) in the β-CARBA test when used from the mSuperCARBA™ plates and was lowest when the same test was used from the chromID™ CARBA plates (75%)...
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
M A Pfaller, P R Rhomberg, M D Huband, R K Flamm
The activity of omadacycline and comparators when tested against a subset of Streptococcus pneumoniae from US and European regions of a 2014 global surveillance program (304 isolates) are reported. These MIC results were compared to those obtained when testing S. pneumoniae from 2010 surveillance (1,834 isolates). The omadacycline MIC50/90 for S. pneumoniae (2014) was 0.06/0.06μg/mL, similar to 2010 (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12μg/mL). The omadacycline MIC90 (0.06-0.12μg/mL) was similar for the penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, -resistant, multidrug-resistance (MDR; ≥3 classes), and ceftriaxone nonsusceptible subgroups...
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Biwei Yang, Yu Feng, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
Three carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) were recovered from different patients in a hospital. All 3 isolates carried 2 carbapenemase genes blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1. A study was performed to characterize their relatedness and to investigate possible links among the patients. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the isolates were Enterobacter hormaechei and belonged to ST177 of the ECC. There were 19-142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the isolates, suggesting that the isolates were likely from a central reservoir, which might have existed for some time...
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Meritxell Garcia-Quintanilla, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
A novel chromogenic medium CHROMagar mSuperCARBA was evaluated to detect carbapenem-resistant Gram-negatives. This medium is as sensitive and as specific as the SUPERCARBA medium for detecting KPC, MBL and OXA-48-type producers (100% and 100%, respectively) and is compatible with subsequent testing of carbapenemase activity using the RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP.
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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