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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442305/transfer-of-kpc-2-carbapenemase-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae-to-enterobacter-cloacae-in-a-patient-receiving-meropenem-therapy
#1
Evelin Rodrigues Martins, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Andressa Batista Zequini, Louise Cerdeira, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Maria Fernanda Campagnari Bueno, Gabriela Rodrigues Francisco, Leonardo Neves de Andrade, Ana Lúcia da Costa Darini, Fernanda Modesto Tolentino, Tiago Casella, Nilton Lincopan, Mara Corrêa Lelles Nogueira
The horizontal transfer of a plasmid bearing the blaKPC-2 gene from K. pneumoniae to E. cloacae infecting the respiratory tract of a patient during meropenem therapy was elucidated. This finding is particularly worrisome, since these drugs are of last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434899/mechanisms-responsible-for-imipenem-resistance-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-exposed-to-imipenem-concentrations-within-the-mutant-selection-window
#2
Foula Vassilara, Irene Galani, Maria Souli, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Helen Giamarellou, Antonios Papadopoulos
The aim of this study was to determine the propensities of imipenem to select for resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 9 unrelated clinical isolates and the accession of any relationship with mechanisms of resistance development. The MPC/MIC ratios ranged from 4 to 16. Detection of resistance mechanisms in the mutant derivatives of the nine isolates mainly revealed inactivating mutations in the gene coding for outer membrane protein OprD. Point mutations leading to premature stop codons or amino acid substitution S278P, ≥1bp deletion leading to frameshift mutations and interruption of the oprD by an insertion sequence, were observed...
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434898/bacteraemia-due-to-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-hospitalized-cancer-patients-risk-factors-antibiotic-therapy-and-outcomes
#3
Qing Zhang, Wenfang Zhang, Zheng Li, Changsen Bai, Ding Li, Shan Zheng, Peng Zhang, Sihe Zhang
AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (AmpC-EC) is one of the main antimicrobial resistant pathogens in patients with cancer. A cohort study was performed to evaluate the risk factors, antibiotic therapy, and outcomes of AmpC-EC bacteraemia in hospitalized cancer patients from September 2012 through December 2015. Two hundred forty-eight cases of E. coli bacteraemia were documented in cancer patients, 51 (20.6%) were caused by AmpC-EC and 197 (79.4%) were caused with non-AmpC-EC. Prior exposure to cephalosporins (OR 2...
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442306/evaluation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-rectal-screening-of-oxa-48-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-general-intensive-care-unit-of-an-endemic-hospital
#4
J Fernández, S A Cunningham, A Fernández-Verdugo, L Viña-Soria, L Martín, M R Rodicio, D Escudero, F Vazquez, J N Mandrekar, R Patel
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing worldwide. Rectal screening for these bacteria can inform the management of infected and colonized patients, especially those admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). A laboratory developed, qualitative duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-like and VIM producing Enterobacteriaceae, performed on rectal swabs, was designed and evaluated in an intensive care unit with endemic presence of OXA-48. During analytical assay validation, no cross-reactivity was observed and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained for both blaOXA-48-like and blaVIM in all spiked clinical samples...
April 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434897/epidemiology-of-polyomavirus-bk-bkv-and-the-emergent-african-variant-in-kidney-and-bone-marrow-transplant-recipients-in-the-fundacion-valle-del-lili-in-cali-colombia
#5
Luz Ángela Ocampo, Fernando Rosso, Robinson Pacheco, Adriana Villegas
To describe the epidemiology of BKV and to assess the presence of the African variant in bone marrow and kidney transplant patients who have suspected BKV reactivation. A descriptive study was conducted, using institutional records, at the Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali-Colombia. The overall prevalence of BKV during the study period was 51%. The African variant was identified in 49.4% of samples that were positive for BKV. 50.6% of the samples were found to have the wild strain of BKV. Among BKV positive patients, 57% were kidney transplant recipients and 43% were bone marrow transplant recipients...
April 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449844/relationship-between-vancomycin-exposure-and-outcomes-among-patients-with-mrsa-bloodstream-infections-with-vancomycin-etest%C3%A2-mic-values-of-1-5mg-l-a-pilot-study
#6
D M Martirosov, M R Bidell, M P Pai, M H Scheetz, S L Rosenkranz, T P Lodise
Data suggest that vancomycin is less effective for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) with vancomycin Etest® MIC (MICEtest) ≥1.5 mg/L. No published studies have evaluated the relationship between vancomycin exposure and outcomes among patients with MRSA BSIs vancomycin MICEtest ≥1.5 mg/L. This study was a retrospective cohort of 71 hospitalized, adult, non-dialysis patients with MRSA BSIs treated with vancomycin. All but three patients had a vancomycin MICEtest of 1...
April 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427794/occurrence-of-a-novel-class-1-integron-harboring-qnrvc4-in-salmonella-rissen
#7
Sirirat Luk-In, Chaiwat Pulsrikarn, Aroon Bangtrakulnonth, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Wanla Kulwichit
We described qnrVC4 in S. Rissen 166ANSS50, a swine isolate, which was detected in the study on quinolone resistance mechanisms of nontyphoidal Salmonella in Thailand. The isolate was found to harbor a ̴17-kb non-conjugative plasmid carrying qnrVC4 within 8.91kb of a novel In4-like class 1 integron (In805). It contained the multi-drug resistance gene cassettes of qnrVC4-qacH4-aacA4-cmlA7-blaOXA-10-aadA1-dfrA14 and unusual 3'-CS of mobC-IS6100. This 1014-bp qnrVC4 cassette included with promoter (PqnrVC4: -35 TTGAGA and -10 TAGTCT) showed high homology with qnrVC4 in superintegron of V...
March 31, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389145/serodiagnosis-of-dengue-virus-infection-using-commercially-available-antibody-and-ns1-antigen-elisas
#8
D Granger, Y S Leo, L K Lee, E S Theel
Accuracy of the InBios DENV Detect IgM, IgG and NS1 antigen (Ag) ELISAs (Seattle, WA) for detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection were evaluated using 100 retrospectively selected sera from acutely febrile patients presenting to a Singapore hospital. The InBios DENV NS1, IgM and IgG ELISAs had an overall sensitivity of 83.6%, 40% and 58.2% and an overall specificity of 97.8%, 97.8% and 55.6%, respectively. Simultaneous testing for NS1 and IgM-antibodies yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 95...
March 30, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410853/use-of-organism-identification-by-16s-ribosomal-rna-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-shorten-antimicrobial-length-of-therapy
#9
Elise M Gilbert, Filiz Yucebay, Mike Malczynski, Danielle Smith, John S Esterly, Chao Qi, Michael Postelnick, Milena M McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Organism detection by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) PCR followed by amplicon sequencing identification may help guide antimicrobial treatment in culture-negative patients. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of a positive versus negative 16S rRNA PCR on antibiotic length of therapy (LOT) and rate of antibiotic discontinuation. METHODS: Patients with a sterile site, direct-specimen 16S rRNA PCR negative, and suspected active infection were matched 1:1 with 16S rRNA PCR positive patients based on specimen site and retrospectively evaluated...
March 28, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410852/cefiderocol-mic-quality-control-ranges-in-iron-depleted-cation-adjusted-mueller-hinton-broth-using-a-clsi-m23-a4-multi-laboratory-study-design
#10
Michael D Huband, Akinobu Ito, Masakatsu Tsuji, Helio S Sader, Kelley A Fedler, Robert K Flamm
Cefiderocol (formerly S-649266) is a new catechol-substituted parenteral siderophore cephalosporin with potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative isolates including multidrug-resistant strains. A recent study following CLSI M23-A4 quality control guidelines established cefiderocol MIC QC ranges against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (0.06-0.5 μg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (0.06-0.5 μg/mL).
March 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389146/rapid-molecular-diagnosis-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rangipo-strain-responsible-for-the-largest-recurring-tb-cluster-in-new-zealand
#11
Claire V Mulholland, Ali Ruthe, Ray T Cursons, Robert Durrant, Noel Karalus, Kathryn Coley, James Bower, Elizabeth Permina, Megan J Coleman, Sally A Roberts, Vickery L Arcus, Gregory M Cook, Htin Lin Aung
Despite New Zealand being a low-tuberculosis (TB) burden country, there are disproportionately high rates of TB in particular populations. Here, we report a rapid molecular diagnosis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rangipo strain responsible for the largest recurring TB cluster in New Zealand.
March 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365060/clinical-evaluation-of-a-new-single-tube-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-11-respiratory-viruses-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-chlamydia-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-respiratory-infections
#12
Meng-Chuan Zhao, Gui-Xia Li, Dan Zhang, Hang-Yu Zhou, Hao Wang, Shuo Yang, Le Wang, Zhi-Shan Feng, Xue-Jun Ma
Respiratory Pathogen 13 Detection Kit (13× kit) is able to simultaneously detect 11 respiratory viruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia in a single reaction. Using 572 Nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from hospitalized children, the clinical performance of 13× kit for detecting 11 respiratory viruses was evaluated in comparison with a routinely used 2-tube multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay (2-tube assay) at provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in China. The clinical performance of 13× kit for detecting MP and Chlamydia was evaluated by commercial real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) kits or sequencing...
March 22, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342565/mini-review-new-pathogen-profiles-elizabethkingia-anophelis
#13
REVIEW
J Michael Janda, Denise L Lopez
Within a little more than 5 years since its taxonomic description in 2011, from the midgut of mosquitoes, Elizabethkingia anophelis has emerged as an important causes of sepsis in adults and children and in cases of neonatal meningitis. At least 3 moderate- to large-scale outbreaks of disease have been caused by this bacterium, the largest 2 occurring in the Midwest United States in 2015-2016. Several studies suggest that E. anophelis, and not E. meningoseptica, is the predominant human pathogen of this genus; identification to species is difficult...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341099/invitro-apramycin-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Anthony D Kang, Kenneth P Smith, George M Eliopoulos, Anders H Berg, Christopher McCoy, James E Kirby
The in vitro activity of apramycin was compared to that of amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Apramycin demonstrated an MIC50/MIC90 of 8/32μg/ml for A. baumannii and 16/32μg/ml for P. aeruginosa. Only 2% of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa had an MIC greater than an epidemiological cutoff value of 64μg/ml. In contrast, the MIC50/MIC90 for amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin were ≥64/>256μg/ml for A...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377165/a-case-of-strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-persistent-eosinophilia-but-negative-serology
#15
Stephen Osiro, Camille Hamula, Allison Glaser, Meenakshi Rana, Dallas Dunn
Strongyloides stercoralis is a unique intestinal nematode with the ability to replicate and complete its life cycle without leaving the host. We report a fatal case of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in a patient who had persistent eosinophilia for several years but negative Strongyloides serology. Our case suggests that ELISA serologies cannot solely be relied upon to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infection; history and clinical judgment remain crucial to this diagnosis.
March 14, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341097/first-report-of-oxa-232-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-in-tunisia
#16
Hella Lahlaoui, Rémy A Bonnin, Mohamed Ben Moussa, Anis Ben Haj Khelifa, Thierry Naas
Eleven carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were recovered from the military hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Three of these isolates carried the carbapenemase blaOXA-232 gene recently identified in France. These isolates were clonally related and co-expressed the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase, CTX-M-15. This work identified the occurrence of OXA-232 producers in North-African countries.
March 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377166/activity-of-telavancin-against-gram-positive-pathogens-isolated-from-bone-and-joint-infections-in-north-american-latin-american-european-and-asia-pacific-nations
#17
Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm, Mariana Castanheira, Helio S Sader, Jennifer I Smart, Rodrigo E Mendes
Telavancin was tested against a worldwide collection of Gram-positive pathogens (967) isolated from bone and joint infections (BJI). Most BJI isolates were from the United States (US) (49.9%) followed by Europe (26.4%), Latin America (LATAM; 14.4%), and Asia-Pacific (APAC; 9.3%). Organisms were tested by broth microdilution susceptibility methods. S. aureus (66.4%; range of 48.9% in APAC to 71.2% in LATAM) was the most common pathogen and had a 35.7% methicillin resistance (MRSA) rate and telavancin MIC50/90 of 0...
March 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318608/multi-center-evaluation-of-one-commercial-and-12-in-house-real-time-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae
#18
Roger Dumke, Alvaro J Benitez, Victoria Chalker, Karolina Gullsby, Birgit Henrich, Carlos Hidalgo-Grass, Theo Hoogenboezem, Darja Kese, Katherine Loens, Jolanda Maaskant, Ayelet Michael-Gayego, Allon E Moses, Ran Nir-Paz, Suzan D Pas, Sabine Pereyre, Randi F Petersen, Meike Rosenblatt, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Søren A Uldum, Wendy W J Unger, Dominique Ursi, Jonas M Winchell, Cecile Bebear
Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR is not yet standardized across laboratories. We have implemented a standardization protocol to compare the performance of thirteen commercial and in-house approaches. Despite differences on threshold values of samples, all assays were able to detect at least 20M. pneumoniae genomes per reaction.
March 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366610/increased-risk-of-death-with-recurrent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia
#19
K L McCarthy, D L Paterson
This study aimed to characterize recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa blood stream infection (BSI). Positive blood cultures for P. aeruginosa were identified over a 3-year period from seven tertiary care hospitals. Patients with recurrent BSI were identified. Extensive epidemiological, clinical and outcome data were obtained. BSI recurrence was found to be uncommon with 9% of patients having a first relapse of BSI. Fourteen percent of these patients went on to have a second relapse of BSI. Significant variables associated with recurrence were the presence of a hematological malignancy or receiving recent corticosteroid therapy...
March 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330738/graft-infection-after-a-bentall-procedure-a-case-series-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
I Machelart, C Greib, G Wirth, F Camou, N Issa, J F Viallard, J L Pellegrin, E Lazaro
INTRODUCTION: The Bentall procedure is a cardiac surgery involving graft replacement of the aortic valve, aortic root and ascending aorta. Graft infection after Bentall's procedure (BGI) is infrequent but severe, and often difficult to diagnose and treat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Bordeaux endocarditis database of adult patients admitted to the Bordeaux University Medical Hospital for BGI between 2008 and 2014. Published case reports were identified in the literature...
March 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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