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Cell Biochemistry and Function

Rasha Al-Attar, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog, Lithobates sylvaticus (also known as Rana sylvatica), is used for studying natural freeze tolerance. These animals convert 65% to 70% of their total body water into extracellular ice and survive freezing for weeks in winter. Freezing interrupts oxygen delivery to organs; thus, wood frogs limit their ATP usage by depressing their metabolism and redirecting the available energy only to prosurvival processes. Here, we studied the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factor family in response to 24-hour anoxia, and 4-hour aerobic recovery in liver and skeletal muscle...
November 8, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Mika Suzuki, Masaru Murakami, Mitsuyuki Shirai, Osamu Hashimoto, Teruo Kawada, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Activity of brown/beige adipocytes is higher in women than in men. The expression level of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is largely consistent with the thermogenic activity in brown/beige adipocytes. The present study examined the direct effects of sex hormones on Ucp1 expression in brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, which were differentiated from HB2 brown preadipocytes and 3T3-L1 white preadipocytes, respectively; treatment with estradiol or testosterone was used during the early (days 0-8) or late stage (days 8-12) of brown adipogenesis and beige adipogenesis...
November 8, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Dong Hwan Ho, Hyejung Kim, Daleum Nam, Hyuna Sim, Janghwan Kim, Hyung Gun Kim, Ilhong Son, Wongi Seol
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a causal gene of Parkinson disease. G2019S pathogenic mutation increases its kinase activity. LRRK2 regulates various phenotypes including autophagy, neurite outgrowth, and vesicle trafficking. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LRS) attaches leucine to tRNALeu and activates mTORC1. Down-regulation of LRS induces autophagy. We investigated the relationship between LRRK2 and LRS in regulating autophagy and observed interaction between endogenous LRRK2 and LRS proteins and LRS phosphorylation by LRRK2...
November 8, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Daliang Kong, Zhe Zhang
Nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (NAIF1) acts as an oncogene and involves in tumorigenesis in several cancers. However, the expression and mechanism of NAIF1 in osteosarcoma remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the downregulation of NAIF1 expression in both osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. We next explored the potential role of NAIF1 in osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration. The result showed that overexpression of NAIF1 evidently suppressed the cell proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma...
November 8, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Ying Xie, Peng Jin, Xuren Sun, Taiwei Jiao, Yining Zhang, Yue Li, Mingjun Sun
Sine oculis homeobox homologue 1 (SIX1) is a Six class homeobox gene conserved throughout many species. It has been reported to act as an oncogene and is overexpressed in many cancers. However, the function and regulatory mechanism of SIX1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In our study, we detected protein levels of SIX1 via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and its proliferation and invasion effects via CCK8 and transwell assays. Additionally, expression of cyclin D1, MMP2, p-ERK, and EMT-related proteins was measured by western blotting...
October 31, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Sameena Wani, Deepak Kaul
Genomic regulation and functional significance of PVT-1 gene locus, in the MYC-driven cancers, has remained enigmatic ever since its discovery. With the present study, an attempt is made to establish that cellular AATF genome encoded miR-2909 RNomics pathway involving crucial genes coding for KLF4, Deptor, mTORC1, STAT3, and p53 has the inherent capacity to ensure sustained co-amplification of PVT-1 gene locus together with c-Myc gene. Based upon these results, we propose that miR-2909 RNomics pathway may play a crucial role in the regulation of tumorigenic PVT-1 gene locus...
October 14, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
L Magri-Tomaz, L Melbouci, J Mercier, Ya Ou, N Auclair, F S Lira, J-M Lavoie, D H St-Pierre
Metabolic disorders are often associated with liver steatosis and increased plasma cholesterol levels. However, the link between excessive lipid accumulation and impairments in cholesterol metabolism remains uninvestigated in the liver. Short term of high-fat diet (HFD) was previously shown to promote excessive lipid accumulation prior to the development of metabolic disorders. The present study intended to characterize how increases in liver fat alter the expression of several key regulators of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in response to a short-term HFD...
October 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Sujeong Park, Jinjoo Oh, Yong-Il Kim, Seong-Kyu Choe, Churl-Hong Chun, Eun-Jung Jin
Even though increasing evidence indicates the importance of peroxisomal lipid metabolism in regulating biological and pathological events, its involvement in cartilage development has not been well studied. Here, we identified the importance of peroxisomal function, particularly the functional integrity of ABCD2, in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Knockdown of ABCD2 in OA chondrocytes induced the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, knockdown of ABCD2 altered profiles of miRNAs that affect the expression level of ACSL4, a known direct regulator of lipid metabolism...
October 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jéssica Campestrini, Douglas Bardini Silveira, Aguinaldo Roberto Pinto
The HIV transactivator protein (Tat) is a multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in viral replication and contributes to several pathological symptoms of HIV-1 infection, which has the loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as one of its hallmark features. It has been shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including viral infections, is implicated in cellular dysfunction and cell death through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we demonstrate that the bystander stimulus of Tat on Jurkat cells resulted in time-dependent overexpression of major UPR markers including ER chaperone BiP, ER stress sensors ATF6, PERK, and IRE1, as well as an increase in levels of downstream mediators eIF2α, ATF4, XBP-1, and proapoptotic factors CHOP, GADD34, and BIM...
October 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jianxun Liu, Liling Wang, Xuesong Li
High mobility group box 3 (HMGB3) is strongly involved in oncogenesis in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we have explored the role of HMGB3 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumorigenesis and have identified the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-200b-3p and miR-200c-3p as negative regulators of HMGB3 expression. We began by determining that endogenous HMGB3 expression levels were significantly elevated in GBM tissues and in 3 GBM cell lines. To study the function of HMGB3 in GBM, we transfected a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) against HMGB3 into GBM cell lines U251 and LN229...
October 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Majid Khaksar, Mansour Sayyari, Jafar Rezaie, Ayda Pouyafar, Soheila Montazersaheb, Reza Rahbarghazi
Murine c-kit+ cardiac cells were isolated and enriched by magnetic activated cell sorting technique. c-kit+ cells viability and colony-forming activity were evaluated by MTT and clonogenic assay. c-kit+ cells were exposed to endothelial, pericyte, and cardiomyocyte induction media containing 30mM glucose for 7 days. We monitored the level of endothelial (VE-cadherin, CD31, and vWF), pericyte (NG2 , α-SMA, and PDGFR-β), and cardiomyocyte markers (cTnT) using flow cytometry, real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) analyses...
October 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Akiko Muto, Yoshihiko Sugihara, Minami Shibakawa, Kenzi Oshima, Tsukasa Matsuda, Daita Nadano
While transcription plays an obviously important role in gene expression, translation has recently been emerged as a key step that defines the composition and quality of the proteome in the cell of higher eukaryotes including mammals. Selective translation is supposed to be regulated by the structural heterogeneity of cytoplasmic ribosomes including differences in protein composition and chemical modifications. However, the current knowledge on the heterogeneity of mammalian ribosomes is limited. Here, we report mammalian Serbp1 as a ribosome-associated protein...
August 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Huiwen Li, Shukui Yu, Fei Hao, Xiaohong Sun, Junpeng Zhao, Qunyuan Xu, Deyi Duan
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) was reported to trigger cellular senescence and reduce cell growth of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), but its contribution to neurogenic differentiation of BMSCs remains unknown. In the present study, BMSCs were isolated from the femur and tibia of young rats to investigate effects of IGFBP-4 on BMSC proliferation and growth of neurospheres derived from BMSCs. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 after treatment with IGFBP-4 or blockers of IGF-IR and β-catenin...
August 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Keywan Mortezaee
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) are key producer of reactive oxygen species in liver cells. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and Kupffer cells (KCs) are the two key cells for expression of NOX in liver. KCs produce only NOX2, while HSCs produce NOX1, 2, and 4, all of which play essential roles in the process of fibrogenesis within liver. These NOX subtypes are contributed to induction of liver fibrosis by acting through multiple pathways including induction of HSC activation, proliferation, survival and migration, stimulation of hepatocyte apoptosis, enhancement of fibrogenic mediators, and mediation of an inflammatory cascade in both KCs and HSCs...
August 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Qianjin Fang, Lin Sang, Shihua Du
Long noncoding RNA LINC00261 was reported to be downregulated in multiple cancers. LINC00261 overexpression inhibits cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. But the expression and function of LIN00261 in endometrial carcinoma are still elusive. We found that LINC00261 mRNA levels were downregulated in endometrial carcinoma, and LINC00261 overexpression inhibited endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. miRNAs, including miR-182, miR-183, miR-153, miR-27a, and miR-96, were predicted to bind LINC00261 and FOXO1, and functioned to attenuate expression of LINC00261 and FOXO1...
August 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jun Zou, Yamei Wang, Mingdi Liu, Xiushu Huang, Wenjian Zheng, Qian Gao, Haijing Wang
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most prevalent gynaecological cancers. Euxanthone, an active ingredient of the medicinal plant Polygala caudata, exhibits a selective cytotoxic effect in tumour cells. The present study was aimed to determine whether euxanthone could suppress ovarian tumour growth, and to study the relevant mechanism. Two EOC cell lines, SKOV3 and A2780, were used as the in vitro model and treated with euxanthone. Cell viability and apoptosis were assayed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining, respectively...
August 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Yun Zhu, Qian Wang, Xiaojun Tang, Genhong Yao, Lingyun Sun
Dysfunctional autophagy in intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (IBECs) is the main mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of bile duct lesions in primary biliary cholangitis. Autophagy may be a key pathogenesis for aetiology of primary biliary cholangitis. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses were used for the evaluation of autophagy in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HiBECs) at various time points. Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) induced autophagy in HiBECs; the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II/microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-I (LC3-II/LC3-I) expression markedly increased at 48 hours, and then declined...
July 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Wenzhong Que, Huili Liu, Qinqin Yang, Shanghua Xu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by proliferation and insufficient apoptosis of synovial cells. NK4 is a hepatocyte growth factor antagonist and is implicated in cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis of many tumour cells. This study aimed to investigate the role of NK4 in the regulation of human RA synovial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) isolated from RA patients and MH7A synovial cells were subjected to MTT, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis...
July 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Sunhye Shin, Jung-Won Choi, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Eun-Young Jun, Hyun-Min Sun, Il-Kwon Kim, Hoon-Bum Lee, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
Adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) are a heterogeneous collection of cells, and their regenerative modality has been applied in various animal experiments and clinical trials. Despite the attractive advantages of SVFs in clinical interventions, the recent status of clinical studies involving the application of SVFs in many diseases has not been fully evaluated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types despite their low numbers in heart tissue...
July 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jing Zhang, Xiangqian Guan, Naixin Liang, Shanqing Li
Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Estrogenic signals have been suggested to be important for the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Our present data showed that estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), while not ERRβ or ERRγ, was significantly elevated in NSCLC cell lines as compared with that in normal bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. The expression of ERRα in clinical NSCLC tissues was significantly greater than that in their matched normal adjacent tissues...
July 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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