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Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal

Norwin Rivera-Guzmán, Francisco Del Olmo-Arroyo, Carlos M Robles-Arías, William Rodríguez-Cintrón
Influenza virus causes annual epidemics of respiratory illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, malaise, myalgias, headache, cough, and other respiratory complains. Each year in the United States, it is estimated that this debilitating respiratory illness accounts for 294,000 excess hospitalizations and 36,000 attributable deaths. Epidemiological studies describe increased cardiovascular mortality during influenza seasons. Cardiovascular involvement in acute influenza infection can occur through direct effects of the virus on the myocardium or through exacerbation of existing cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Irma L Molina-Vicenty, Michelaldemar Santiago-Sánchez, Iván Vélez-Miró, Keryl Motta-Valencia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Sausan El Burai Félix, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
OBJECTIVE: Limited information has been published about opioid prescribing practices in Puerto Rico. The objective of this study was to create baseline trends of opioids distributed over a period of fourteen years in Puerto Rico. METHODS: We examined data from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration's Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) for the period 1999-2013. ARCOS data reflects the amount of controlled substances legally dispensed. Analyses include the distribution of opioids (in morphine milligram equivalent kg per 10,000 persons) by year and entity (pharmacy, hospital, practitioner)...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Norma I Cruz, Elvis Santiago, Anwar Abdul-Hadi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the surgical population of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR)-affiliated hospitals. METHODS: We examined all the surgical cases that were entered into the Surgical Database from April 1, 2014 through September 30, 2014. This database collects patient and procedural information from different surgical services of various UPR-affiliated hospitals (the University District Hospital, the University Pediatric Hospital, the UPR Carolina Hospital, the Dr...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Carlos E Rodríguez-Díaz, Gerardo G Jovet-Toledo, Carmen M Vélez-Vega, Edgardo J Ortiz-Sánchez, Edda I Santiago-Rodríguez, Ricardo L Vargas-Molina, Sheilla L Rodríguez Madera, José J Mulinelli-Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To identify the experiences of discrimination among and the perceived priorities for the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people in Puerto Rico (PR). METHODS: Data were collected during the 2013 LGBT Pride Parade in San Juan, using a brief self-administered survey that included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, the disclosure of sexual orientation/gender identity, experiences of discrimination, experiences while receiving social and health services, and perceived healthcare priorities and needs...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Vivian Colón-López, Ana P Ortiz, Naydi Pérez, Eliseo Acevedo, Vivian Tamayo, Carmen D Zorrilla
OBJECTIVE: Due to advances in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), life expectancy significantly increased, putting this group vulnerable to age-related comorbidities, such as cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge of cancer screening (cervical, breast, anal, colon, prostate) and other cancer prevention strategies (HPV vaccination, HPV testing) among HIV care professionals in Puerto Rico (PR). METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a sample of 104 HIV healthcare professionals in PR...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Frieda Silva, Ralph J Martin, Jannette Figueroa, Fernando Rincón, Diego Román
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the variability of stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in post-thyroidectomy patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) and determine the frequency of undetectable Tg in patients with evidence of functional thyroid tissue after a 131-I whole-body scan (WBS). METHODS: A retrospective record review of patients with WDTC referred to our clinic from 1990 to 2010. Demographic data, histology, staging, imaging studies, stimulated Tg values, and the presence if applicable of Tg antibodies (TgAb) were documented...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Polaris González-Barrios, Carlos M Morales-Rodríguez, Kritzianel Merced-Morales, Anabelle Lampón, Rafael González, Karen Martínez
OBJECTIVE: A dimensional assessment model as a supplement to the diagnosis process could overcome the current pitfalls in classifying psychopathology in ethnic minorities. The aim of the study described herein was to examine a sample of Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the specific scales that assess the following 3 domains: clinical symptoms, personality/trait, and affective style. METHODS: 80 subjects were recruited and interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify the presence of anxiety disorders...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Silvia Esther Rabionet
This essay discusses the educational evolution of the University of Puerto Rico-School of Tropical Medicine (UPR-STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It takes a closer look to what was taught, who taught it and who were the students benefitting from the educational, learning and advanced research activities. It highlights some characteristics of the educational environment that aimed to harvest a well-trained group of scientists, academicians, and practitioners. It examines the characteristics of the faculty and graduates and their role in the teaching and dissemination of knowledge in tropical medicine and closely related fields...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
José G Rigau-Pérez
In Puerto Rico and Cuba, the phrase "can't be saved even by the Chinese physician" ("no lo salva ni el médico chino") indicates a person with an incurable disease. The documents at the Archivo General de Puerto Rico include three requests for a medical license from a Chinese immigrant, Juan de Dios Sian (Lin Hua Cheng). Despite lacking legal credentials, he used herbal therapies to treat chronically ill persons in Ponce, San Juan and Mayaguez from 1851 to 1853. Before arriving in Ponce he had spent four years in Cuba, where he is again found by 1865...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Esteban A Del Pilar-Morales, Zaydalee Cardona-Rodríguez, Jorge Bertrán-Pasarell, Ruth Soto-Malave, Rafeal De León-Borras
Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhea, particularly when those infections are parasitic in nature. This propensity is more pronounced in AIDS, where opportunistic parasitic infections may cause severe diarrhea, marked absorptive dysfunction, and significant risk of mortality. There are scant data regarding parasitic infections among HIV patients in the developed world; most studies and research come from povertystricken areas of South Africa, India, Iran, and the South Pacific...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Nicole Grigg-Gutierrez, Carlos Laboy, Liliana Ramos, Karla Amaral, Doris H Toro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic yield of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in patients with small bowel gastrointestinal bleeding and examine the impact of this diagnostic technology on the clinical management of this complaint. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in which all patients who underwent VCE (May 7, 2003 - December 31, 2011) were included. Records were reviewed for the type of bleeding (overt vs. occult; when present), demographic data, lab results, and capsule endoscopy findings...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Horacio Islas-Granillo, Aida Borges-Yañez, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solis, Salvador Eduardo Lucas-Rincón, José de Jesús Navarrete-Hernández, Juan José Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado, Gerardo Maupomé
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the experience of tooth loss, as well as its associated variables, in a sample of adult Mexicans, aged 60 years and older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger project to measure diverse oral health indicators in a convenience sample: it included 139 adult Mexican seniors (69.1% of whom were women), ages 60 years and older, either living in long-term care facilities or living independently and participating in adult day care services...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Heriberto A Marín-Centeno, Gilberto Ramos-Valencia, Mario Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jesús González-Gavillán, Elba C Díaz-Toro, Mariela Torres-Cintrón
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is an important and serious public health problem in Puerto Rico; however, very few studies measuring the association between health care utilization and asthma control levels in adult asthma patients in Puerto Rico have been done. METHODS: This study is secondary analysis of an observational and cross-sectional database generated by the Latin American Asthma Insights and Management (LA AIM) survey. Our sub-sample consisted of adults 18 years or older living with asthma, representing a total of 343 individuals...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Gerardo E Miranda, Ruben Y Torres
OBJECTIVE: To describe the etiologies and frequency of traumatic peripheral nerve injury (TPNI) seen in the electrodiagnostic laboratory of a tertiary care hospital in Puerto Rico. METHODS: The charts of patients who underwent an electrodiagnostic study for a TPNI were revised. The main outcome measure was the frequency of each injury by anatomic location, specific nerve or nerves affected, injury mechanism, and injury severity. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six charts were included, and in them were listed a total of 163 nerve injuries; 109 (74...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Roberto E Torres-Zeno, Ruth Ríos-Motta, Yelitza Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jorge R Miranda-Massari, Heriberto Marín-Centeno
OBJECTIVE: To profile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization patterns in the municipality of Bayamón, Puerto Rico. METHODS: The study consisted of a cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2008. A multi-stage probabilistic sampling method was used to obtain a total of 203 household interviews. The survey used was based on a culturally adapted version of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Supplement of the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the U...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Maribel Tirado-Gómez, Daniel C Hughes, Velda González-Mercado, Rose A Treviño-Whitaker, Karen Basen-Engquist
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer survivors do not engage in appropriate levels of physical activity, despite the known benefits of such activity. This study aims to describe physical-activity levels and the barriers to it in a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, as well as detailing their preferences for an intervention. METHODS: Participants who finished their chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer at least 4 months prior to the study were included...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Raúl Mayo-Santana, Lucy Peña-Carro, Silvia E Rabionet
This article deals with the historical antecedents of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It presents a general view of the social, institutional and conceptual factors that were correlated with the establishment of the STM. The authors start by examining the historical continuities and discontinuities present during the imperial transitions between Spanish colonial and U.S. military medicine at the turn of the 20th century. The clarification of these changes is important for the proper understanding of the emergence of tropical medicine in Puerto Rico, marked by the identification of the biological determinant of the so called "peasants' anemia...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Raúl Mayo-Santana, Silvia E Rabionet, Lucy Peña-Carro, Adelfa E Serrano
This essay introduces a series of five historical articles on the scientific and educational contributions of the University of Puerto Rico School of Tropical Medicine (STM), under the auspices of Columbia University (1926-1949), to the fields of tropical medicine and public health. The articles will appear in several consecutive issues, and will address various themes as follows: 1) historical antecedents of the STM, particularly institutional precedents; 2) the educational legacy of the STM; 3) a history of the STM scientific journal ("The Puerto Rico Journal of Public Health and Tropical Medicine"); 4) the scientific practices and representations that prevailed at the institution; and, 5) a brief sociocultural history of malaria in Puerto Rico, mainly from the perspective of the STM's scientific and public health activities...
June 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Katherine Y Tossas-Milligan, Robert F Hunter-Mellado, Angel M Mayor, Diana M Fernández-Santos, Mark S Dworkin
OBJECTIVE: Late HIV testing (LT), defined as receiving an AIDS diagnosis within a year of one's first positive HIV test, is associated with higher HIV transmission, lower HAART effectiveness, and worse outcomes. Latinos represent 36% of LT in the US, yet research concerning LT among HIV cases in Puerto Rico is scarce. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with LT, and a Cochran‒Armitage test was used to determine LT trends in an HIV-infected cohort followed at a clinic in Puerto Rico specialized in the management and treatment of HIV...
May 24, 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
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