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Nutrition Research

Stephany P Monsanto, Korry J Hintze, Robert E Ward, Deanna P Larson, Michael Lefevre, Abby D Benninghoff
In this study, we determined the impact of the total Western diet (TWD) for rodents and its macro- and micronutrient components on weight gain and biomarkers of metabolic function in mice compared to a 45% fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet and the standard AIN93G diet. We hypothesized that mice fed the TWD would have increased body fat with indicators of metabolic syndrome similar to mice consuming the DIO diet. As expected, DIO-fed mice acquired a metabolic syndrome phenotype typified by increased energy intake, increased body weight gain, increased fat mass, higher fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and higher plasma leptin relative to the AIN93G diet...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Ruijuan Zhang, Yan Yu, Senke Hu, Jinghua Zhang, Haixia Yang, Bei Han, Yue Cheng, Xiaoqin Luo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by a nonalcohol relevant pathological accumulation of fat in the liver. Previous studies have shown that sesamin exerts antioxidant effects and improves lipid metabolism of the fatty liver. In this study, we hypothesized that sesamin improves lipid homeostasis of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) by regulating the expression of genes related to de novo lipogenesis and β-oxidation. We induced NAFLD in rats with HFD and examined the effect of sesamin in vivo...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Chaonan Fan, Huicong Fu, Hua Dong, Yuanyuan Lu, Yanfei Lu, Kemin Qi
In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
María F Andreoli, Cora Stoker, María F Rossetti, Gisela P Lazzarino, Enrique H Luque, Jorge G Ramos
Removing dietary phytoestrogens causes obesity and diabetes in adult male rats. Based on the facts that hypothalamic food intake control is disrupted in phytoestrogen-deprived animals and that several steroids affect food intake, we hypothesized that phytoestrogen withdrawal alters the expression of hypothalamic steroidogenic enzymes. Male Wistar rats fed with a high-phytoestrogen diet from conception to adulthood were subjected to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding them a low-phytoestrogen diet or a high-phytoestrogen, high-fat diet...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
William S Harris, Serge Masson, Simona Barlera, Valentina Milani, Silvana Pileggi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Luigi Tavazzi, Roberto Latini
The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Richard K Le Leu, Benjamin L Scherer, Mark T Mano, Jean M Winter, Tamsin Lannagan, Richard J Head, Trevor Lockett, Julie M Clarke
O(6)-methyl guanine (O(6)MeG) adducts are major toxic, promutagenic, and procarcinogenic adducts involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Resistant starch and its colonic metabolite butyrate are known to protect against oncogenesis in the colon. In this study, we hypothesized that a dietary intervention that specifically delivers butyrate to the large bowel (notably butyrylated high-amylose maize starch [HAMSB]) would reduce colonic levels of O(6)MeG in rats shortly after exposure to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) alkylating agent azoxymethane (AOM) when compared with a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS)...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Stephen F Crouse, John S Green, Thomas H Meade, Dana R Smith, Stephen B Smith
Exercise and diets with higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA):saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratios are independently linked to improved blood lipid profiles, yet interactive effects in men have not been studied. We hypothesized that dietary ground beef with a high MUFA:SFA ratio (HR = 1.1) would augment the beneficial changes in the lipid profile induced by exercise compared to dietary ground beef with a lower MUFA:SFA ratio (LR = 0.71). Untrained men (n = 13, age = 35 ± 12 y, weight = 91.4 ± 14.2 kg, body mass index = 27...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Xinsheng Zhang, Yong Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Jin Wang, Qing Xu, Xiaoming Yu, Xueyan Yang, Zhao Liu, Changyong Xue
We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Hak Chung, Dayong Wu, Donald Smith, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Sung Nim Han
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Melissa Ochoa, David Val-Laillet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Paul Meurice, Charles-Henri Malbert
The effects of digestible carbohydrates, fructose in particular, on the development of metabolic disturbances remain controversial. We explored the effects of prolonged consumption of high-fat diets differing in their carbohydrate source on fat deposits in the adult Yucatan minipig. Eighteen minipigs underwent computed tomographic imaging and blood sampling before and after 8 weeks of three isocaloric high-fat diets with different carbohydrate sources (20% by weight for starch in the control diet, glucose or fructose, n=6 per diet)...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Emily J Arentson-Lantz, Mi Zou, Dorothy Teegarden, Kimberly K Buhman, Shawn S Donkin
Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Jienny Lee, Moon Sam Shin, Mi Ok Kim, Sunghee Jang, Sae Woong Oh, Mingyeong Kang, Kwangseon Jung, Yong Seek Park, Jongsung Lee
Tissue regeneration using adult stem cells (ASCs) has significant potential as a novel treatment for many degenerative diseases. Previous studies have established that age negatively affects the proliferation status and differentiation potential of ASCs, suggesting a possible limitation in their potential therapeutic use. Therefore, we hypothesized that apple extract might exert beneficial effects on ASCs. The specific objectives were to investigate the proliferative effect of apple ethanol extract on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs), and identify the possible molecular mechanisms...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Seon-A Jang, SungRyul Lee, Eun-Hwa Sohn, Jaehyuk Yang, Dae Won Park, Yong Joon Jeong, Inhye Kim, Jung Eun Kwon, Hae Seong Song, Young Mi Cho, Xue Meng, Hyun Jung Koo, Se Chan Kang
Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki, Shinya Furukawa, Masashi Arakawa
Only one epidemiologic study has investigated the association between dairy product intake during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms. Epidemiologic evidence on the relationships between calcium and vitamin D intake during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms is also lacking. The present prospective study examined these issues in Japan. Study subjects were 1319 women. During pregnancy, dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire in the baseline survey...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Susan K Raatz, LuAnn K Johnson, Thad A Rosenberger, Matthew J Picklo
The US Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend twice weekly fish intake. Farmed Atlantic salmon is a good source of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids which have positive lipid modifying effects; however, it is unknown whether these responses are dose-dependent. Our primary research objective was to determine the effect of dose-dependent intake of farmed Atlantic salmon on lipoprotein particle (P) size and concentration. We hypothesized that low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-P and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-P size and concentration would increase with salmon intake in a dose-dependent manner...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Meysam Pirbaglou, Joel Katz, Russell J de Souza, Jennifer C Stearns, Mehras Motamed, Paul Ritvo
Gastrointestinal microbiota, consisting of microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in digestive, metabolic, and immune functioning. Preclinical studies on rodents have linked behavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system with deficits or alterations in these bacterial communities. Moreover, probiotic supplementation in rodents has been shown to markedly change behavior, with correlated changes in central neurochemistry. While such studies have documented behavioral and mood-related supplementation effects, the significance of these effects in humans, especially in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms, are relatively unknown...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Shan Dong, Ran Zhang, Ya-Cheng Ji, Jia-Yin Hao, Wei-Wei Ma, Xu-Dong Chen, Rong Xiao, Huan-Ling Yu
Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)...
August 2016: Nutrition Research
Sharon M Young, Laura K Gryder, Winnie B David, Yuanxin Teng, Shawn Gerstenberger, Daniel C Benyshek
Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements...
August 2016: Nutrition Research
Charlotte Atkinson, Roberta M Ray, Wenjin Li, Ming-Gang Lin, Dao Li Gao, Jackilen Shannon, Helge Stalsberg, Peggy L Porter, Cara L Frankenfeld, Kristiina Wähälä, David B Thomas, Johanna W Lampe
Equol (a bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein) is produced by 30% to 50% of humans and may be associated with health outcomes. We hypothesized that plasma equol would be inversely associated with risks of fibrocystic breast conditions (FBC) and breast cancer (BC). Plasma from women in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai with BC (n=269) or FBC (n=443), and age-matched controls (n=1027) was analyzed for isoflavones. Equol was grouped into categories (<20, 20-<45, and ≥45nmol/L) and, among women with daidzein ≥20nmol/L, the log10 equol:daidzein ratio was grouped into tertiles...
August 2016: Nutrition Research
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