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Nutrition Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964569/protein-blend-ingestion-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-protein-energy-malnutrition-in-patients-with-leukemia
#1
Guangxu Ren, Jianping Zhang, Minghua Li, Suqin Yi, Jin Xie, Hongru Zhang, Jing Wang
Severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and skeletal muscle wasting are commonly observed in patients with acute leukemia. Recently, the ingestion of a soy-whey protein blend has been shown to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the ingestion of a soy-whey blended protein (BP) may improve the PEM status and muscle mass in acute leukemia patients. In total, 24 patients from the same treatment group were randomly assigned to the natural diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the natural diet only (ND) group...
August 25, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931466/1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-up-regulates-the-expression-of-2-types-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-alternative-splicing-variants-in-caco-2-cells-and-may-be-an-important-regulator-of-their-expression-in-gut-homeostasis
#2
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Kanae Nakaoka, Masae Goseki-Sone
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation, and development. The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a differentiation marker for intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by vitamin D. Intestinal-type ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients...
August 4, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893413/fish-oil-emulsion-supplementation-might-improve-quality-of-life-of-diabetic-patients-due-to-its-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#3
Lucia Laubertová, Katarína Koňariková, Helena Gbelcová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Jana Muchová, Iveta Garaiova, Ingrid Žitňanová
Diabetes-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, are a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes. Previous studies have confirmed that hyperglycemia has pro-oxidative and proinflammatory properties which cause diabetic complications. We hypothesized that supplementation of fish oil emulsion (FOE), rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, to diabetic patients might reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathological changes due to specific properties of FOE...
August 3, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037332/dihydrosterculic-acid-from-cottonseed-oil-suppresses-desaturase-activity-and-improves-liver-metabolomic-profiles-of-high-fat-fed-mice
#4
Chad M Paton, Roger A Vaughan, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Fariba Assadi-Porter, Michael K Dowd
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diets are thought to provide beneficial effects toward metabolic health in part through their bioactive properties. We hypothesized that increasing PUFA intake in mice would increase peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARδ) expression and activity, and we sought to examine the effect of different PUFA-enriched oils on muscle PPARδ expression. One of the oils we tested was cottonseed oil (CSO) which is primarily linoleic acid (53%) and palmitic acid (24%)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037331/preload-of-slowly-digestible-carbohydrate-microspheres-decreases-gastric-emptying-rate-of-subsequent-meal-in-humans
#5
Fatimata Cisse, Elizabeth A Pletsch, Daniel P Erickson, Mohammad Chegeni, Anna M R Hayes, Bruce R Hamaker
Gastric emptying rate influences how fast the nutrients of a meal are delivered to the body, and when slow, it moderates glycemic response and may impact satiety. Carbohydrates are one of the macronutrients that trigger the ileal brake, and we hypothesized that slowly digestible carbohydrate (SDC) administered in a premeal load would delay gastric emptying. A crossover design study was conducted with 10 healthy adults using fabricated SDC-microspheres (cooked) that were given 20 minutes before a non-nutritive viscous paste meal...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037330/waist-circumference-shows-the-highest-predictive-value-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-waist-to-hip-ratio-for-its-components-in-spanish-adolescents
#6
Javier S Perona, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Blanca Rueda-Medina, María Correa-Rodríguez, Emilio González-Jiménez
Both waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) have been proposed as predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, but no consensus has been reached to date. This study hypothesizes that WC provides a greater predictive value for MetS in Spanish adolescents than WHR. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1001 adolescents (13.2 ± 1.2 years) randomly recruited from schools in southeast Spain. Anthropometric measures were correlated with the components of MetS (triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) as well as inflammation markers (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha , C-reactive protein, and ceruloplasmin)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037329/smokers-report-lower-intake-of-key-nutrients-than-nonsmokers-yet-both-fall-short-of-meeting-recommended-intakes
#7
Susan K Raatz, Lisa Jahns, LuAnn K Johnson, Angela Scheett, Alicia Carriquiry, Andrine Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Mustafa al'Absi
Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037328/xyloglucan-intake-attenuates-myocardial-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-and-improving-energy-metabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#8
Sun Ha Lim, Jongwon Lee
The development of coronary heart disease can be divided into preocclusion and postocclusion steps. We previously showed that cell wall polysaccharides consisting of a high content of arabinose and/or xylose, such as apple pectin, protected against myocardial injury by inhibiting postocclusion steps. We hypothesized that xyloglucan, another apple cell wall polysaccharide that consists of a high content of xylose, might also show myocardial protection. To test the hypothesis, rats were supplemented with either tamarind xyloglucan (TXG) (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg per day) or cotton cellulose (CCL) (100mg/kg per day) for 3 days...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037327/low-dietary-intake-of-n-3-fatty-acids-niacin-folate-and-vitamin-c-in-korean-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-the-development-of-dietary-guidelines-for-schizophrenia
#9
Eun Jin Kim, So Young Lim, Hee Jae Lee, Ju-Yeon Lee, Seunggi Choi, Seon-Young Kim, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Soo Jin Yang, Sung-Wan Kim
Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037326/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-may-improve-recovery-and-muscle-adaptations-after-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Vagner R Silva, Felipe L Belozo, Thayana O Micheletti, Marcelo Conrado, Jeffrey R Stout, Gustavo D Pimentel, Adam M Gonzalez
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967457/dieting-attempts-modify-the-association-between-quality-of-diet-and-obesity
#11
Laura Sares-Jäske, Paul Knekt, Annamari Lundqvist, Markku Heliövaara, Satu Männistö
Evidence on the nature of the relationship between obesity and the quality of diet remains controversial. Likewise, the possible effect of dieting attempts on this association is poorly understood. This study investigates the possible modifying effect of dieting attempts on the association between the quality of diet and obesity. The authors hypothesize that among dieters the association may be biased. The study was based on a Finnish cohort, including 5910 men and women aged 30 to 99 years, with information on diet and body mass index (BMI)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821321/educational-level-and-family-structure-influence-the-dietary-changes-after-the-diagnosis-of-type-2-diabetes-evidence-from-the-e3n-study
#12
Francesca Romana Mancini, Aurelie Affret, Courtney Dow, Beverley Balkau, Hélène Bihan, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Fabrice Bonnet, Guy Fagherazzi
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has no cure but can be controlled by medication, diet, and lifestyle changes. It has been suggested that diabetes dietary self-management is more difficult for people with socioeconomic difficulties. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic factors impact the change of diet after T2D diagnosis. The 57 304 French women included in the present study answered food frequency questionnaires in 1993 and 2005 and questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, and were free from T2D in 1993...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821320/reduced-neural-responses-to-food-cues-might-contribute-to-the-anorexigenic-effect-of-acute-exercise-observed-in-obese-but-not-lean-adolescents
#13
S N Fearnbach, L Silvert, B Pereira, Y Boirie, M Duclos, K L Keller, D Thivel
Acute exercise has been found to reduce subsequent energy intake in obese adolescents. Although it has been suggested that some neural pathways are involved in this post-exercise energy intake regulation, it remains unknown whether the post-exercise attentional response to food cues differs as a function of weight status. We hypothesize that there will be a reduction in the neural response to food cues as a result of exercise in obese adolescents, but not in their lean counterparts. Fourteen obese and 14 lean adolescent boys (12-15 years) were randomized (within-subjects design) to remain seated (CON) or to exercise 45 minutes at 65% of their maximal capacities (EX)...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821319/higher-dietary-acid-load-is-weakly-associated-with-higher-adiposity-measures-and-blood-pressure-in-japanese-adults-the-national-health-and-nutrition-survey
#14
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki
Epidemiologic evidence on the associations between dietary acid load and metabolic risk factors are limited and inconsistent. We investigated the hypothesis that dietary acid load is associated with adverse profiles of metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary acid load was characterized as potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) based on information on nutrient intake, which was derived from a 1-day semi-weighed dietary record...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821318/consumption-of-an-acid-protease-derived-from-aspergillus-oryzae-causes-bifidogenic-effect-in-rats
#15
Yongshou Yang, Akane Iwamoto, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Yukako Okazaki, Manabu Kuroda, Shotaro Yamaguchi, Norihisa Kato
A marked elevation in the abundance of Bifidobacterium was found in the cecum of rats that were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with an Amano protease preparation (derived from Aspergillus oryzae). The protease preparation contains several digestive enzymes, including acid protease (AcP), alkaline protease, and amylase. We hypothesized that the elevation in the abundance of Bifidobacterium by Amano protease preparation is associated with the digestive enzymes involved in the protease preparation. To test this hypothesis, this study was conducted to investigate if such bifidogenic effect is because of the AcP...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821317/growth-patterns-in-early-childhood-better-trajectories-in-afro-ecuadorians-independent-of-sex-and-socioeconomic-factors
#16
Sheila Maria Alvim Matos, Leila D Amorim, Ana Clara P Campos, Mauricio L Barreto, Laura C Rodrigues, Yadira A Morejón, Martha E Chico, Philip J Cooper
The first years of life are the most dynamic period for childhood growth. There are limited data available on growth patterns of infants and children living in rural Latin America. The aim of this study was to describe the growth patterns from birth to 5years in children living in a rural District of tropical coastal Ecuador using data from a birth cohort of 2404 neonates. We hypothesize that there would be growth differences according to ethnicity and sex. Evaluations were conducted at birth or until 2weeks of age and at 7, 13, 24, 36 and 60months during clinic and home visits...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821316/obesity-and-fatty-liver-are-prevented-by-inhibition-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-both-female-and-male-mice
#17
Benjamin J Moyer, Itzel Y Rojas, Joanna S Kerley-Hamilton, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Heidi W Trask, Carol S Ringelberg, Barjor Gimi, Eugene Demidenko, Craig R Tomlinson
Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) prevents Western diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in C57Bl/6J (B6) male mice. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and T-cell differentiation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AHR antagonism would also prevent obesity and fatty liver in female mice and that B6 mice (higher-affinity AHR) and congenic B6.D2 mice (lower-affinity AHR) would differentially respond to AHR inhibition. Female and male adult B6 and B6...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821315/starch-entrapped-microsphere-fibers-improve-bowel-habit-but-do-not-exhibit-prebiotic-capacity-in-those-with-unsatisfactory-bowel-habits-a-phase-i-randomized-double-blind-controlled-human-trial
#18
Heather E Rasmussen, Bruce Hamaker, Kumar B Rajan, Ece Mutlu, Stefan J Green, Michael Brown, Amandeep Kaur, Ali Keshavarzian
Approximately one-third of individuals in the United States experience unsatisfactory bowel habits, and dietary intake, especially one low in fiber, could be partly responsible. We hypothesized that intake of a fermentable fiber (starch-entrapped microspheres, SM) that has a delayed, slow fermentation profile in vitro would improve bowel habit while exhibiting prebiotic capacity in those with self-described unsatisfactory bowel habits, all with minimal adverse effects. A total of 43 healthy volunteers completed a 3-month, double-blind, parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to assess the ability of a daily dose (9 or 12 g) of SM vs psyllium (12 g) to improve bowel habit, including stool consistency and frequency, and modify gut milieu through changes in stool microbiota and short-chain fatty acids while remaining tolerable through minimal gastrointestinal symptoms...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821314/intraventricular-administration-of-tenebrio-molitor-larvae-extract-regulates-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-mice-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Minchul Seo, Jongwan Kim, Seong-Su Moon, Jae-Sam Hwang, Mi-Ae Kim
We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821313/the-influence-of-the-position-of-palmitate-in-infant-formula-triacylglycerols-on-health-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
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