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Nutrition Research

John C Mathers
The purpose of this review article is to examine the evidence of the mechanisms linking obesity with bowel cancer risk and to comment on the development of interventions that may lower risk of this common age-related disease. The choice of topics for inclusion reflects my personal research on the etiology and prevention of bowel cancer over the past 3 decades. I have cited literature which addresses each of these topics, but because of the breadth of the review article, I have not attempted to do this systematically...
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Research
Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Saskia Braber, Reinilde Loonstra, Nicole Buurman, Lieke Rutten, Karen Knipping, Paul J Savelkoul, Lucien F Harthoorn, Frode L Jahnsen, Johan Garssen, Anita Hartog
The conditionally essential amino acid glycine functions as inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Moreover, it has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory compound in animal models of ischemic perfusion, post-operative inflammation, periodontal disease, arthritis and obesity. Glycine acts by binding to a glycine-gated chloride channel, which has been demonstrated on neurons and immune cells, including macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytes. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of glycine on allergy development in a cow's milk allergy model...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Qi Xiong, Qin Ru, Xiang Tian, Mei Zhou, Lin Chen, Yi Li, Chaoying Li
Methamphetamine (METH) exposure can cause severe effects to the nervous system; however, the underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity caused by METH is still unclear. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are linked in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Krill oil (KO) benefits human health via its strong antioxidant ability. Therefore, we hypothesized that KO supplementation might effectively prevent METH-induced neurotoxicity via the inhibition of apoptotic responses and oxidative damages...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Brienna M Larrick, Kee-Hong Kim, Shawn S Donkin, Dorothy Teegarden
It is well established that adipose tissue can both store and metabolize vitamin D. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D], regulates adipocyte differentiation and inflammation, highlighting the multifaceted role that vitamin D plays in adipose tissue physiology. However, there is limited evidence regarding vitamin D regulation of mature adipocyte lipid metabolism. We hypothesize that 1,25(OH)2 D alters lipid and glucose metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to reduce triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Yu Jin Lee, Okkeun Jung, Jongsung Lee, Juhyeon Son, Jae Youl Cho, Chongsuk Ryou, Sang Yeol Lee
Maclurin is a phenolic compound extracted from purple mangosteen and mulberry twigs. Earlier reports indicated that it exerts antioxidant activity. We hypothesized that maclurin exerts antioxidant activity and anti-cancer effects in small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCNCs), a very aggressive type of human prostate cancer. To verify our hypothesis, we selected PC3 cells as a model system and investigated the antioxidant activity and anti-cancer effects of maclurin. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assay for the verification of antioxidant activity, we observed the unexpected prooxidant activity of maclurin in PC3 cells...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Lin Yan, Sneha Sundaram
A high energy intake contributes to obesity, a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that an excessive intake of dietary fat enhances malignant spread in mice. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of a diet with an excessive amount of sucrose enhances metastasis. In a spontaneous metastasis model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), male C57BL/6 mice were maintained on an AIN93G, a high-fat, or a high-sucrose diet for the duration of the study. Pulmonary metastases from a primary tumor, established by a subcutaneous injection of LLC cells, were quantified...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Mee Young Hong, Joshua Beidler, Shirin Hooshmand, Arturo Figueroa, Mark Kern
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is rich in l-citrulline, an l-arginine precursor that may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of watermelon powder and l-arginine on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon and l-arginine would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation by modulating hepatic gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 21 days (N = 32) were assigned to 3 groups and fed diets containing watermelon powder (0...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Małgorzata Woźniewicz, Paulina M Nowaczyk, Anna Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Marzena Wyganowska-Świątkowska, Małgorzata Lasik-Kurdyś, Jarosław Walkowiak, Joanna Bajerska
Periodontal disease is highly prevalent worldwide, and consumption of certain foods, such as fruits, seem to improve the effectiveness of periodontal therapy (PT) due to their antiadhesive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties. We hypothesized that the cranberry functional beverage (CFB) consumed for eight weeks improves gingival inflammation indices via inhibition of dental plaque, and alterations in antioxidant status, and systemic inflammation in patients with gingivitis. In this two-arm randomized controlled study, fifty participants were divided into an experimental group (CFB), administered daily with 750 ml CFB, or a control group administered the same amount of water...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Kun-Pyo Kim, Sanghun Jeon, Mi-Ju Kim, Yunhi Cho
Borage oil (BO) reverses a disrupted epidermal lipid barrier and hyperproliferation in essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). However, little is known about its effect on skin pH, which is maintained by epidermal lactate, free fatty acids (FFAs), and free amino acids (FAAs) which is generated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), or filaggrin degradation with peptidylarginine deiminase-3 (PADI3). We hypothesized that BO restores skin pH by regulating epidermal lactate, FFA metabolism, or FAA metabolism in EFAD...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Manami Saito, Julia Aoyama, Mohamed Elfeky, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
Dietary supplementation with melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) has been proposed as an anti-obesity strategy. However, it remains unclear how MSE modulates energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary MSE reduces energy intake and/or increases physical activity and metabolic thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) in mice. Twenty-four C57BL/6 J mice were provided with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 1% MSE added, for 17 weeks. Food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Nadia Panera, Barbara Barbaro, Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifaceted disorder that ranges from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis, which may evolve toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is currently considered a "global" and "epidemic" disease, whose prevalence is progressively increasing even in pediatric age. The incidence of NAFLD is very high in overweight/obese children, and a greater risk of disease progression is associated with severe obesity, highlighting the role of nutrition...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Anna Czajka, Ewa M Kania, Licia Genovese, Andrea Corbo, Giovanni Merone, Cecilia Luci, Sara Sibilla
Aging is a multifactorial and natural process that causes physiological changes in organs, tissues and cells over time. In the skin and cartilage, aging leads to a decrease in the synthesis and changes in the arrangement of proteoglycans and collagen, in addition to the loss of glycosaminoglycans, which are responsible for the integrity and health of these tissues. We hypothesized that daily oral supplementation with a liquid nutraceutical containing hydrolyzed fish collagen, vitamins, antioxidants and other active ingredients could improve skin texture and elasticity, and in addition have a protective effect on joint health...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Asdrubal Aguilera-Mendez, María G Hernández-Equihua, Alfonso C Rueda-Rocha, Clotilde Guajardo-López, Renato Nieto-Aguilar, Deyanira Serrato-Ochoa, León F Ruíz Herrera, José A Guzmán-Nateras
Several reports have demonstrated that pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. We hypothesized that biotin could exert a protective effect on some illness-associated metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 30% fructose in drinking water and classified into four groups: C, the control group; B, the group receiving biotin (intraperitoneal injection, 2 mg/kg); F, the group receiving fructose (30% w/v); and FB, the group receiving fructose-biotin...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Eunyoung Ha, Ji-Hyun Bae
Herein, we hypothesized that ZIP11 variants would be important risk factors for chronic gastritis and that there would be an interaction effect of the relationship between their variants and spicy food intake on the development of chronic gastritis. Participants in this cross-sectional study (n = 3882 + 252) were recruited from a cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study in 2001. Age, sex, education, smoking and drinking status, exercise, stress, and income level of all participants were determined by a questionnaire...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Rui Lin, Xuan He, Huafeng Chen, Qin He, Ziting Yao, Yuanfan Li, Hui Yang, Steve Simpson
Oil tea has traditionally been used in minority populations in China for treating various ailments in traditional Chinese medicine. Individually, green tea and ginger, which are the main ingredients of oil tea, have demonstrated antidiabetic effects; however, whether oil tea exerts antidiabetic effects remains unknown. In addition, aberrant gut microbiota structure is associated with diabetic status, and research indicates that there may be beneficial effects of tea on gut microbiota. Therefore, we hypothesized that oil tea exerts antidiabetic effects and induces alteration in gut microbiota...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Nerylee A Watson, Kathryn A Dyer, Jonathan D Buckley, Grant D Brinkworth, Alison M Coates, Gaynor Parfitt, Peter R C Howe, Manny Noakes, Karen J Murphy
Food cravings are common in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Higher-protein diets are effective in improving satiety but their effect on cravings is unclear. It was hypothesized that a high protein (HP) diet would provide greater reductions in cravings than an isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC). In a randomized controlled trial, 61 adults (54% males) with T2D (means ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2 ; aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed either a HP diet (mean across study: 29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%) for 12-weeks each of weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance (WM)...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Soheil Varasteh, Saskia Braber, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Heat stress (HS) induced by exposure to high ambient temperatures or prolonged excessive physical activities is known to primarily induce deleterious effects on the intestinal integrity by disrupting junctional complexes. Considering the association of l-arginine (l-Arg) with the improvement of gut function, the hypothesis of this study was to assess whether l-Arg supplementation can prevent the intestinal barrier disruption under HS conditions and to understand whether the l-Arg-induced effects are associated with maintaining nitric oxide (NO) as the major product of l-Arg metabolism...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Yoriko Sato, Yusuke Sato, Kodwo Amuzuah Obeng, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Branched-chain amino acids promote both protein and mRNA synthesis through mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. A previous report demonstrated that chronic branched-chain amino acid supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle of middle-aged mice through activation of mTOR signaling. In this study, we hypothesized that the acute oral administration of L-leucine alone has the ability to alter the gene expression related to fiber type and metabolism in skeletal muscle of young rats through the activation of mTOR signaling...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Josefina Aguayo-Armendáriz, Maricela Montalvo-Corral, Karla A González-Martínez, María I Grijalva-Haro, Martha N Ballesteros-Vásquez, Graciela Caire-Juvera, Silvia Y Moya-Camarena
The relationship of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene with obesity and its modulation by dietary fat has been proposed, but the few studies addressing this issue have yielded controversial results. In a Mexican population characterized by high-fat consumption, we hypothesized that the Pro12Ala PPARγ genotype is related to obesity and this relationship is modulated by intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs). We recruited 69 adults for this cross-sectional study...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Lara M Nasreddine, Amira N Kassis, Jennifer J Ayoub, Farah A Naja, Nahla C Hwalla
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is undergoing social and economic changes that may impact the nutritional status of children living in its countries. The objective of this review is to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intakes of children (0-12 years) in selected EMR countries, namely, Jordan, Lebanon, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the United Arab Emirates. MedLine, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles published between 1990 and 2016; international organizations and governmental websites were also searched...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
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