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Nutrition Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754829/randomization-to-6-month-mediterranean-diet-compared-with-a-low-fat-diet-leads-to-improvement-in-dietary-inflammatory-index-scores-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-the-ausmed-heart-trial
#1
Hannah L Mayr, Colleen J Thomas, Audrey C Tierney, Teagan Kucianski, Elena S George, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, James R Hebert, Nitin Shivappa, Catherine Itsiopoulos
A higher dietary inflammatory index (DII®) score is associated with inflammation and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention would reduce DII score. We assessed dietary data from a randomized controlled trial comparing 6-month MedDiet versus low-fat diet intervention, in patients with CHD. We aimed to determine the DII scores of the prescribed diets' model meal plans, followed by whether dietary intervention led to lower (i.e., more anti-inflammatory) DII scores and consequently lower high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (hs-IL-6)...
April 14, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703414/lactotripeptide-ingestion-increases-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#2
Nobuhiko Akazawa, Ai Hamasaki, Koichiro Tanahashi, Keisei Kosaki, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Seiji Maeda
The age-related decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Milk protein-derived bioactive peptides, e.g., lactotripeptide (LTP), have been shown to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme activities and increase vasodilator production. We hypothesized that LTP ingestion increases cerebral blood flow velocity in middle-aged and older adults. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 15 healthy middle-aged and older adults were assigned to either a LTP group or a placebo group...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685627/arginine-pretreatment-enhances-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cell-population-and-attenuates-inflammatory-response-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-with-limb-ischemia
#3
Yu-Fan Kuo, Chiu-Li Yeh, Juey-Ming Shih, Yao-Ming Shih, Sung-Ling Yeh
Obesity is a global health problem with an up-regulated inflammatory reaction. Obesity-induced endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction is associated with vascular complications that may contribute to critical limb ischemia. Arginine (Arg) is an amino acid with immune-modulatory property and has been found to promote EPCs mobilization in disease conditions. Thus in the present investigation, we hypothesized that arginine given to a murine model of diet-induced obesity would increase circulating EPCs and mitigate the inflammatory reactions in response to limb ischemia...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685626/a-greater-glycemic-load-reduction-was-associated-with-a-lower-diabetes-risk-in-pre-diabetic-patients-who-consume-a-high-glycemic-load-diet
#4
Feng-Yi He, Chao-Gang Chen, Diao-Zhu Lin, Xiu-Hong Lin, Yi-Qin Qi, Li Yan
Few prospective studies evaluating the association between dietary glycemic load (GL) and diabetes have accounted for changes in GL. However, the diet of patients could be modified in response to an awareness of pre-diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal associations between changes in GL and the incidence of diabetes among pre-diabetic patients. We hypothesized that subjects with low and high baseline GL would show different correlations with diabetes. A total of 493 pre-diabetic patients (142 men and 351 women) between 40 and 79 years of age were included in this study...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685622/early-dietary-restriction-in-rats-alters-skeletal-muscle-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-ribosomal-s6-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase
#5
Kara L Calkins, Shanthie Thamotharan, Yun Dai, Bo-Chul Shin, Satish C Kalhan, Sherin U Devaskar
Intrauterine growth restriction is linked to decreased lean body mass and insulin resistance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates muscle mass and glucose metabolism; however, little is known about maternal dietary restriction and skeletal muscle mTOR in offspring. We hypothesized that early dietary restriction would decrease skeletal muscle mass and mTOR in the suckling rat. To test this hypothesis, ab libitum access to food or dietary restriction during gestation followed by postnatal cross-fostering to a dietary-restricted or ad libitum-fed rat dam during lactation generated 4 groups: control (CON), intrauterine dietary restricted (IUDR), postnatal dietary restricted (PNDR), and IUDR+PNDR (IPDR)...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685625/increased-serum-iron-in-preeclamptic-women-is-likely-due-to-low-hepcidin-levels
#6
Fernanda Brunacci, Vivianne S Rocha, Eduardo De Carli, Breno P Espósito, Rodrigo Ruano, Célia Colli
The role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis in preeclamptic pregnant women is unclear. To test the hypothesis that increased serum iron in women diagnosed with preeclampsia results from decreased production of hepcidin, we performed an observational case-control study in which serum hepcidin concentration, dietary iron intake, hematological indices, iron status, liver function, and inflammatory markers in 18 preeclamptic women and 18 healthy normotensive pregnant women of similar age range were evaluated. Iron intake was established via a food frequency questionnaire, whereas hematological indices, iron status, liver function, and inflammatory markers were assessed using standard protocols...
March 21, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685623/dysregulated-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-levels-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-can-be-restored-by-changing-to-a-lower-fat-diet-in-mice
#7
Young Sun Jung, Dayong Wu, Donald Smith, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Sung Nim Han
Altered regulation of vitamin D metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D), was observed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We hypothesized that these HFD-induced changes in vitamin D metabolism would be reversed by decreasing fat mass through dietary intervention. Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diet groups: (1) the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, (2) the HH group was fed an HFD for 31 weeks, and (3) the HL group was fed HFD for 15 weeks then switched to the control diet for the remaining 16 weeks...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685624/folic-acid-supplementation-repressed-hypoxia-induced-inflammatory-response-via-ros-and-jak2-stat3-pathway-in-human-promyelomonocytic-cells
#8
Jing Ma, Xiaozhou Zhen, Xiaoyan Huang, Xinwei Jiang
Hypoxia is associated with inflammation and various chronic diseases. Folic acid is known to ameliorate inflammatory reactions, but the metabolism of folic acid protecting against hypoxia-induced injury is still unclear. In our study, we examined the inflammatory signal transduction pathway in human promyelomonocytic cells (THP-1 cells) with or without treatment with folic acid under hypoxic culture conditions. Our results indicated that supplementation with folic acid significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypoxic conditions...
March 19, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661555/directly-quantified-dietary-n-3-fatty-acid-intakes-of-canadian-toddlers-are-lower-than-current-dietary-recommendations
#9
R J Scott Lacombe, Richard J Kratz, Bruce J Holub
To date, few studies have evaluated the intake of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in young North American children and current estimates are based on indirect approaches which have concerning limitations. Furthermore, there is a lack of available knowledge regarding the proportion of children meeting current dietary recommendations for the consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFA as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective of the present study was to directly quantify the intake of n-3 PUFA in toddlers aged 2 to 3 years and determine if intakes met international recommendations...
March 2, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764627/dietary-factors-influence-the-association-of-cyclin-d2-polymorphism-rs11063069-with-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Gelareh Koochakpoor, Parvin Mirmiran, Maryam S Daneshpour, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Bahareh Sedaghati-Khayat, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Fereidoun Azizi
The relationship of CCND2 gene variation, rs11063069 with metabolic syndrome (MetS) modulates by dietary factors but enough data are not available on this issue. So, the hypothesis, which assumes that dietary factors modulate the relationship of CCND2 polymorphisms with the risk of MetS was investigated in our study. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Each case (n=974) was pair-matched individually with a control by age, sex and the follow-up duration...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764626/25-hydroxvitamin-d-concentrations-are-not-lower-in-children-with-bronchial-asthma-atopic-dermatitis-obesity-or-attention-deficient-hyperactivity-disorder-than-in-healthy-children
#11
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Langrock, Eckard Hamelmann, Thomas Lücke, Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Martin Holtmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Stephanie Gest, Mirjam Frank, Börge Schmidt, Katharina Radkowski, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in immune regulation, and its receptor has been identified in several tissues including lung, adipose tissue, brain, and skin. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that vitD has an essential role not only in bone metabolism but also in other diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), bronchial asthma (BA), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obesity because the affected tissues express vitD receptors. Furthermore, obesity, AD, and BA are regarded as inflammatory diseases...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764625/recognition-of-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-taste-test-is-related-to-blood-group-b-phenotype-females-and-risk-of-developing-food-allergy-a-cross-sectional-brazilian-based-study
#12
Isac César Roldão Leite, José Carlos Dos Santos Júnior, Cinthya Clara Silva de Sousa, Alexandre Vasconcelos Lima, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela
Anti-nutritional factors, including hemagglutinins, are natural substances that reduce nutritional bioavailability and/or generate adverse physiological effects. Most are bitter toxic compounds, but present chemo-protective properties at low concentrations. Responses to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) allow for an evaluation of humans' perception of bitter taste, a perception that has evolutionary advantages. Therefore, we hypothesized that relationships between food preference, dietary exposures and disease risk could reflect possible associations not only with the recognition threshold for the bitter taste of PTC, but also with ABO/Rh blood group phenotypes...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764624/hydrolyzed-proteins-from-herring-and-salmon-rest-raw-material-contain-peptide-motifs-with-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-resulted-in-lower-urine-concentrations-of-protein-cystatin-c-and-glucose-when-fed-to-obese-zucker-fa-fa-rats
#13
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Daniela Maria Pampanin, Rasa Slizyte, Ana Carvajal, Ingmar Høgøy, Tore Remman, Oddrun Anita Gudbrandsen
The use of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is a common strategy for treating kidney disease. Several amino acid sequences with ACE inhibiting activity are identified in filet and rest raw material from various species of fish, and fish protein hydrolysates could be of interest for possible treatment or prevention of kidney disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that protein hydrolysates from rest raw material from herring and salmon contained ACE inhibiting motifs, and could beneficially affect typical markers for kidney function in an obesity rat model prone to developing renal failure...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764623/pancreatic-cancer-a-critical-review-of-dietary-risk
#14
REVIEW
Asmaa A Salem, Gerardo G Mackenzie
Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease. It is estimated that about 90% of pancreatic cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors. Among these, approximately 50% of pancreatic cancer cases may be attributed to diet, which is largely modifiable. Given this large attribution to diet, there have been numerous epidemiological studies assessing the risk of various dietary factors on the incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, many of these studies present conflicting and/or inconclusive findings. The objective of this review is two-fold: (a) to summarize the current evidence on the association between various dietary factors and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer and (b) to discuss what additional studies are needed to better elucidate the role of diet as a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530622/acute-administration-of-capsaicin-increases-resting-energy-expenditure-in-young-obese-subjects-without-affecting-energy-intake-appetite-and-circulating-levels-of-orexigenic-anorexigenic-peptides
#15
Antonello E Rigamonti, Claudia Casnici, Ornella Marelli, Alessandra De Col, Sofia Tamini, Elisa Lucchetti, Gabriella Tringali, Roberta De Micheli, Laura Abbruzzese, Mauro Bortolotti, Silvano G Cella, Alessandro Sartorio
Although capsaicin has been reported to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure in an adult (normal weight or overweight) population, thus resulting in a net negative energy balance and weight loss, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in young obese subjects. We hypothesize that capsaicin acutely administered in young obese subjects exerts the same effects on energy balance and that these effects are mediated by changes in gastrointestinal peptides regulating appetite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of capsaicin (2 mg) or placebo on energy intake, hunger, and satiety in obese adolescents and young adults (female-male ratio: 4:6, age: 21...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526395/up-regulation-of-ho-1-by-nrf2-activation-protects-against-palmitic-acid-induced-ros-increase-in-human-neuroblastoma-be-2-m17-cells
#16
Yun Shi, Yan Sun, Xuepei Sun, Hongye Zhao, Min Yao, Lianguo Hou, Lingling Jiang
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a ROS response pathway. Therefore, high ROS is always accompanied by increase of HO-1, an anti-oxidative enzyme; but it remains unknown why there is no significant reduction of ROS with the increase of HO-1 in SFAs-treated neurons. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of HO-1 is compensatory for response to fatty acid-induced oxidative stress but not enough to reduce ROS levels...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525611/potato-phenolics-impact-starch-digestion-and-glucose-transport-in-model-systems-but-translation-to-phenolic-rich-potato-chips-results-in-only-modest-modification-of-glycemic-response-in-humans
#17
Sydney Moser, Ingrid Aragon, Amber Furrer, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, Byung-Hoo Lee, Judy George, Bruce R Hamaker, Richard Mattes, Mario G Ferruzzi
Beneficial effects of some phenolic compounds in modulation of carbohydrate digestion and glycemic response have been reported, however effects of phenolics from processed potato products on these endpoints are not well known. The aims of this study were to characterize phenolic profiles of fresh potatoes (purple, red, or white fleshed; 2 varieties each) and chips, and to examine the potential for potato phenolic extracts (PPE) to modulate starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems. Following in vitro assessment, a pilot clinical study (n=11) assessed differences in glycemic response and gastric emptying between chips from pigmented and white potatoes...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525610/arctigenin-protects-against-steatosis-in-wrl68-hepatocytes-through-activation-of-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein-kinase-b-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-pathways
#18
Kung-Yen Chen, Jui-An Lin, Han-Yun Yao, An-Chih Hsu, Yu-Ting Tai, Jui-Tai Chen, Mao-Chih Hsieh, Tang-Long Shen, Ren-Yi Hsu, Hong-Tan Wu, Guey Horng Wang, Bing-Ying Ho, Yu-Pei Chen
Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673546/interactions-among-the-variants-of-insulin-related-genes-and-nutrients-increase-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
Kyung-Won Hong, Sung Hoon Kim, Xin Zhang, Sunmin Park
Asians easily develops type 2 diabetes (T2DM) since they have insufficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in insulin resistant states. Since this may be associated with genetic background, the hypothesis of this study was that inter-genetic and gene-nutrient interactions may explain the low insulin secretory capacity of Asians. Accordingly, we identified the best gene-gene and gene-nutrient interactions using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) in a large Korean cohort (n=8,842)...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673545/curcumin-induces-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-via-the-activation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-independent-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway-in-smad4-and-p53-mutated-colon-adenocarcinoma-ht29-cells
#20
Ayushi Agarwal, Akiladdevi Kasinathan, Ramamoorthi Ganesan, Akhila Balasubramanian, Jahnavi Bhaskaran, Samyuktha Suresh, Revanth Srinivasan, K B Aravind, Nageswaran Sivalingam
Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol compound that has various pharmacological activities such as antiproliferative and cancer-preventive activities on tumor cells. Indeed, the role reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by curcumin on cell death and cell proliferation inhibition in colon cancer is poorly understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that curcumin-induced ROS may promote apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in colon cancer. To test this hypothesis, the apoptosis-inducing potential and cell cycle inhibition effect of ROS induced by curcumin was investigated in Smd4 and p53 mutated HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
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