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Nutrition Research

Tae-Jin Song, Yoonkyung Chang, A-Ram Kim, Yuri Kim, Yong-Jae Kim
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are closely associated with stroke. Elevated postprandial blood glucose is also an important risk factor for stroke. Dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) are frequently used as markers of postprandial blood glucose response used as an estimator of the overall glycemic effect of the diet. We hypothesized that high dietary GL or GI will be associated with presence of cerebral SVDs in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively included 263 patients who had experienced first-ever symptomatic cerebral infarction within 7 days after symptom onset and who submitted a fully filled-in semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire...
December 27, 2017: Nutrition Research
Shiva Houjeghani, Sorayya Kheirouri, Esmaeil Faraji, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
Considering the pathologic importance of metabolic disturbances, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus and ameliorating potentials of l-carnosine in hampering these detritions and because these effects have not been investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) so far, we conducted the current study. We hypothesized that l-carnosine would improve glycemic control, lipid profile, AGE, soluble receptor of AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammatory markers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 54 patients with T2D were recruited and assigned into either intervention group (n=27, receiving 2 capsules of l-carnosine 500 mg each) or control group (n=27)...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Nopporn Thangthaeng, Shibu M Poulose, Derek R Fisher, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Diets supplemented with walnuts have shown to protect brain against oxidative and inflammatory cytotoxicity and promote protective cellular and cognitive function. The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesize that whole walnut extract (WNE) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation by regulating calmodulin (CaM) expression through [Ca2+]i. To test this hypothesis, we used an in vitro model the highly aggressively proliferating immortalized cells, a rat microglial cell line, treated with various concentrations of WNEs...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Sun-Young Nam, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) derived by mast cells is recognized as a critical factor in many allergic inflammatory disorders. Cysteine is a well-known amino acid which exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect and mechanism of cysteine on TSLP production have not been investigated. Thus, we hypothesized that cysteine may regulate TSLP production from mast cells. To test this hypothesis, the anti-inflammatory effects and signaling pathways of cysteine were investigated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4 and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line HMC-1...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Chanaka N Kahathuduwa, Chathurika S Dhanasekara, Shao-Hua Chin, Tyler Davis, Vajira S Weerasinghe, Tharaka L Dassanayake, Martin Binks
Oral intake of l-theanine and caffeine supplements is known to be associated with faster stimulus discrimination, possibly via improving attention to stimuli. We hypothesized that l-theanine and caffeine may be bringing about this beneficial effect by increasing attention-related neural resource allocation to target stimuli and decreasing deviation of neural resources to distractors. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test this hypothesis. Solutions of 200mg of l-theanine, 160mg of caffeine, their combination, or the vehicle (distilled water; placebo) were administered in a randomized 4-way crossover design to 9 healthy adult men...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Qiucheng Lei, Jingcheng Bi, Huanwei Chen, Feng Tian, Xuejin Gao, Ning Li, Xinying Wang
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with increased infectious risks due to impaired intestinal immunity. Although glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances the gut barrier function, it is uncertain whether it improves mucosal immunologic barrier function. We hypothesized that injecting the PN mouse model with GLP-2 improved innate and acquired immunity, and prevented bacterial translocation. Forty-eight hours after venous cannulation, male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into 3 groups based on their diet: chow with saline (n = 10), PN (n = 9), or PN + GLP-2 (30 μg bid per mouse, n = 10) provided for 5 days...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Ammar Olabi, Nahla Hwalla, Hamza Daroub, Omar Obeid, Christelle Cordahi
The obesity prevalence worldwide is reaching epidemic proportions, which makes the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite of paramount importance. This study assessed whether the hedonic characteristics of a food item (high acceptability [HA] vs modified low acceptability [LA]) have a significant effect on postprandial ghrelin and insulin levels and appetite scores of isoenergetic meals in normal-weight men. We hypothesize that food acceptability would significantly impact appetite scores and affect the studied postprandial hormones...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Kentaro Murakami, Satoshi Sasaki
We investigated the hypothesis that the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of Japanese children is associated with both favorable and unfavorable aspects of dietary intake. This cross-sectional study was based on 1-day weighed dietary record data from 3866 children in the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. The GI of foods was assigned based on a stepwise published strategy using values from common GI databases. Mean dietary GI and GL were, respectively, 63.4 and 108.2 for children aged 1-6 years, 64...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Eunhee Chung, Huanbiao Mo, Shu Wang, Yujiao Zu, Manal Elfakhani, Steven R Rios, Ming-Chien Chyu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chwan-Li Shen
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Priya Dewansingh, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Wim P Krijnen, Cees P van der Schans, Harriët Jager-Wittenaar, Ellen G H M van den Heuvel
The purpose of these systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of dairy components on nutritional status and physical fitness in older adults, as evidence for efficacy of the supplementation of these components is inconclusive. Scopus and MEDLINE were searched. Main inclusion criteria for articles were as follows: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials including participants aged ≥55 years who received dairy components or a placebo. Outcome measures were nutrient status (body weight and body mass index) and physical fitness (body composition, muscle strength, and physical performance)...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Nahla Al-Bayyari, Jehan Hamadneh, Rae'd Hailat, Shereen Hamadneh
Conflicting associations between total homocysteine (tHcy), body mass index (BMI) lean body mass, and fat mass in the general population have been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated tHcy levels are associated with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat mass percent. In Jordan, obesity and overweight are prevalent among reproductive women and hyperhomocysteinemia, along with obesity and overweight, are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The participants used in this cross-sectional study were 325 overweight Jordanian women aged between 18 and 49 years old...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Yasutoshi Ando, Shinichiro Saito, Hirona Miura, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi
Fat metabolism is an important consideration in obesity. Alpha-linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol (ALA-DAG), which mainly occurs as ALA esterifies to 1,3-diacyl-sn-glycerol (1,3-DAG), has beneficial effects on fat metabolism and body weight compared with triacylglycerol (TAG). Moreover, compared with ALA-TAG, ALA-DAG enhances β-oxidation activity in the small intestine and liver in rodents. We hypothesized that ALA-DAG consumption may increase dietary fat oxidation compared with ALA-TAG in humans. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized double-blind cross-over trial in 17 normal and moderately obese men and women (BMI: 25...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Alyson Haslam, Sara Wagner Robb, James R Hébert, Hanwen Huang, Mark H Ebell
To examine potential racial differences in Mediterranean diet scores and whether these differences are associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (CRA), a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial was performed. The authors hypothesize that people consuming a more Mediterranean-like diet have lower odds of CRA. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to determine the presence of colorectal adenoma. Mediterranean diet scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaire responses...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Leigh M Riby, Derek Lai Teik Ong, Nurulnadia Binti Mohamad Azmie, Ee Lyn Ooi, Caroline Regina, Eugene Ki Wai Yeo, Jacqueline Massa, Luca Aquili
Behavioral flexibility (BF) performance is influenced by both psychological and physiological factors. Recent evidence suggests that impulsivity and blood glucose can affect executive function, of which BF is a subdomain. Here, we hypothesized that impulsivity, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glucose changes (ie, glucoregulation) from postprandial blood glucose (PBG) following the intake of a 15-g glucose beverage could account for variability in BF performance. The Stroop Color-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of BF, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) to quantify participants' impulsivity...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Takashi Ide, Ai Tanaka
Dietary perilla oil rich in α-linolenic acid and α-lipoic acid lowers the serum lipid level through changes in hepatic fatty acid metabolism. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of these dietary factors may ameliorate lipid metabolism more than the factors individually. Moreover, α-lipoic acid exerts strong anti-oxidative activity. Hence, we also hypothesized that α-lipoic acid may attenuate perilla oil-mediated oxidative stress. We therefore studied the combined effects of perilla oil and α-lipoic acid on lipid metabolism and parameters of oxidative stress...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Natalya E Chalyk, Viktor A Klochkov, Tatiana Y Bandaletova, Nigel H Kyle, Ivan M Petyaev
Oxidative stress accelerates skin aging, and dietary supplementation with antioxidants may alleviate it. Morphological analysis of the residual skin surface components (RSSCs) allows detecting age-related changes in corneocyte desquamation, microbial presence, and lipid droplet size. We hypothesized that continuous ingestion of carotenoid antioxidant astaxanthin (4 mg/d) for 4 weeks could influence RSCC morphology and evaluated RSSC samples taken from middle-aged subjects before and after this dietary intervention...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Xi Wang, Yuan Wang, Zuchang Ma, Yang Xu, Qingyuan Wu
Previous studies have demonstrated differences in subjective comfort between different gas collecting methods during resting energy expenditure (REE) measurement. We hypothesized that gas collecting methods may have an influence on the time to achieve steady state and the optimum abbreviated period to estimate REE. Gas exchange variables were obtained using IIM-IC-100 (ventilated hood) and VO2000 (facemask) alternately among 32 healthy adults. A 10-minute test period was divided into 5-minute sliding time windows to obtain a subtle profile process of the coefficient of variation (CV) and REE...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Issam Al Amir, David Dubayle, Anne Héron, Carine Delayre-Orthez, Pauline M Anton
Links between food and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often suggested, but the role of food processing has not been extensively studied. Heat treatment is known to cause the loss of nutrients and the appearance of neoformed compounds such as Maillard reaction products. Their involvement in gut inflammation is equivocal, as some may have proinflammatory effects, whereas other seem to be protective. As IBDs are associated with the recruitment of immune cells, including mast cells, we raised the hypothesis that dietary Maillard reaction products generated through heat treatment of food may limit the colitic response and its associated recruitment of mast cells...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Alyssa N Varanoske, Jay R Hoffman, David D Church, Nicholas A Coker, Kayla M Baker, Sarah J Dodd, Leonardo P Oliveira, Virgil L Dawson, Ran Wang, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine (BA) supplementation results in elevated intramuscular carnosine content, enhancing buffering capacity during intense exercise. Although men have greater muscle carnosine content than women, elevations still appear to occur despite high baseline levels. Recent research has suggested that BA supplementation may also reduce muscle l-histidine. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to compare 28 days of BA (6 g·d -1 ) supplementation in men and women on performance and muscle carnosine, l-histidine, and BA...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
Urs Müller-Richter, C Betz, S Hartmann, R C Brands
Up to 80% of patients with head and neck cancers are malnourished because of their lifestyle and the risk factors associated with this disease. Unfortunately, nutrition management systems are not implemented in most head and neck cancer clinics. Even worse, many head and neck surgeons as well as hospital management authorities disregard the importance of nutrition management in head and neck cancer patients. In addition, the often extensive resection and reconstruction required for tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract pose special challenges for swallowing and sufficient food intake, placing special demands on nutrition management...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
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