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Nutrition Research

David M Duriancik, Jared J Tippett, Jaslyn L Morris, Brooke E Roman, Elizabeth M Gardner
Calorie restriction (CR), also known as energy restriction, has been shown to have a deleterious impact on both adult and aged mouse survival during influenza virus infection. Natural killer (NK) cell phenotypic differences contribute to increased susceptibility of adult CR mice. We hypothesized NK cell phenotype from adult and aged C57Bl/6 mice fed NIH-31 diet ad libitum (AL) would be different from NK cell phenotype from adult and aged mice fed NIH-31/NIA fortified diet at 40% CR. We hypothesized NK cell phenotype from mice consuming 40% CR initiated at 20 months of age would not be different from 40% CR initiated at 3 months of age...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Yalan Wu, Wen Chen, Jun Shen, Long Tan, Mary R L'Abbe, Elizabeth N Pearce, Wenqiang Wang, Xiaoxiao Tian, Wei Wang, Wanqi Zhang
Iodine deficiency is a global issue that is correlated with a variety of diseases and can affect individuals of all ages. We hypothesized that a general, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could be a valuable tool to evaluate iodine intake in children. Study participants comprised 687 healthy children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. The FFQ was developed to assess habitual iodine intake over a 6-month period (FFQ1). A 3-day estimated food diary (3DEFD) and the habitual daily iodine intake, calculated from 2-repeated 24-hour urine iodine excretion, tested the intermethod relative validity of the FFQ...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Grant Quiller, Ángel Mérida-Ortega, Stephen J Rothenberg, Mariano E Cebrián, A Jay Gandolfi, Francisco Franco-Marina, Lizbeth López-Carrillo
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure increases risk of several diseases, including cancer. Some nutrients such as flavonoids enhance glutathione activity, which in turn play a key role in iAs elimination. Our objective was to explore whether dietary non-soy flavonoids are associated with iAs metabolism. We hypothesized that the intake of flavonoids belonging to the following groups, flavan-3-ols, flavone, flavonol, flavanone, and anthocyanidin, is positively associated with urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which is the most soluble iAs metabolite excreted...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Eran Barzilay, Ashley Moon, Lesley Plumptre, Shannon P Masih, Kyoung-Jin Sohn, Carly E Visentin, Anna Ly, Olga Malysheva, Ruth Croxford, Marie A Caudill, Deborah L O'Connor, Young-In Kim, Howard Berger
Both insufficiency and excess of one-carbon nutrients (folate, choline, vitamins B6 and B12) during pregnancy have been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the precise nature of this association has not been clearly established. We hypothesized that GDM may affect one-carbon nutrients concentrations in the fetus, thus possibly participating in epigenetic programing of the offspring. Maternal blood was collected at recruitment (12-16 weeks). At delivery (28-42 weeks), both maternal and cord blood were collected...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Fabiano B Carvalho, Jessié M Gutierres, Diego Beckmann, Rosmarini P Santos, Gustavo R Thomé, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Naiara Stefanello, Amanda Andrades, Graciane Aiello, Angel Ripplinger, Bruna M Lucio, Rafael Ineu, Alexandre Mazzanti, Vera Morsch, Maria Rosa Schetinger, Cinthia M Andrade
Quercetin is reported to exert a plethora of health benefits through many different mechanisms of action. This versatility and presence in the human diet has attracted the attention of the scientific community, resulting in a huge output of in vitro and in vivo (preclinical) studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that quercetin can protect Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity in the central nervous system, reestablish the peripheral cholinesterases activities, and reduce oxidative stress during demyelination events in rats...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Xi Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Jibin Li, Yongfu Yu, Yiqing Song
The link between sodium and obesity has been accumulated over years. However, there has been few data reported on such sodium-obesity association from the general US population. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is independently and positively associated with obesity, central obesity, and measures of body composition among generally healthy US adults. We analyzed data on 9162 healthy participants aged 24 to 48 years (4813 men and 4349 women) with at least one valid diet recall from the 8-year National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006)...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Chan-Hee Jung, Ji-Oh Mok, Sung Woon Chang, Bora Lee, Ji Hyon Jang, Sukho Kang, Sang Hee Jung
It is suggested that vitamin D level and age at menarche are related to each other, and the prevalence of low vitamin D status and early menarche in women is increasing worldwide. Moreover, several studies revealed that both of them are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we hypothesized that there are significant associations among vitamin D status, age at menarche, and MetS and that the relationships differ according to menstrual state. We assessed whether the association among MetS, vitamin D, and menarche age is different between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and whether there is a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different age-at-menarche groups...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Mahsa Naghizadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Maryam Saghafi-Asl, Parichehr Amiri, Dariush Shanehbandi, Nahid Karamzad, Leila Mohamed-Khosroshahi
It is still unclear whether toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and serum levels of inflammatory markers in metabolically unhealthy abdominally obese (MUAO) are due to their obesity and/or their metabolic state. We hypothesized that abdominal obesity is an important mediator of the association of metabolic state with TLR signaling and serum inflammatory markers. Therefore, in this case-control study, we compared the expression levels of TLR4 and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon β (TRIF) and serum concentrations of interferon β and lipoprotein-binding protein (LBP) in metabolically healthy abdominally obese (MHAO) and MUAO individuals...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Masanobu Hibi, Hideto Takase, Masaki Iwasaki, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi
This post hoc pooled analysis assessed the effectiveness of green tea catechins (GTC) to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with abdominal fat reduction, because previous findings are unclear. Data were pooled from six human trials (n=921, 505 men) comparing the effects of GTC-containing beverages (540-588 mg GTC/beverage) and a placebo beverage. Outcome measures were abdominal fat [total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA)], and MetS risk. We estimated mean changes from baseline and calculated confidence intervals (CI) to assess reductions in abdominal fat accumulation and MetS improvement...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Hannah L Mayr, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Audrey C Tierney, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, James R Hebert, Nitin Shivappa, Colleen J Thomas
The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was designed to measure the inflammatory potential of one's diet. Evidence from observational studies supports that a higher (ie, more pro-inflammatory) DII score is associated with inflammation and cardiometabolic diseases. We hypothesized that reduction in DII score would improve inflammatory cytokines. To test this hypothesis, we assessed data from a dietary intervention trial in patients with diagnosed coronary heart disease (CHD) to determine whether reduction in DII scores through healthy diets is linked to improvement in inflammatory and related cardiometabolic risk markers...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Hannah L Mayr, Colleen J Thomas, Audrey C Tierney, Teagan Kucianski, Elena S George, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, James R Hebert, Nitin Shivappa, Catherine Itsiopoulos
A higher dietary inflammatory index (DII®) score is associated with inflammation and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention would reduce DII score. We assessed dietary data from a randomized controlled trial comparing 6-month MedDiet versus low-fat diet intervention, in patients with CHD. We aimed to determine the DII scores of the prescribed diets' model meal plans, followed by whether dietary intervention led to lower (i.e., more anti-inflammatory) DII scores and consequently lower high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (hs-IL-6)...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Salma Mukhtar Mir, Bidya Dhar Sahu, Meghana Koneru, Madhusudana Kuncha, Mahesh Kumar Jerald, Halley Gora Ravuri, Sanjit Kanjilal, Ramakrishna Sistla
Dietary supplementation of oats has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. The role of oat extract as prophylactic in treating acute liver injury is not thoroughly established. We, therefore, hypothesized that oat extract would exert protective effect against alcohol-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model. To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with phenolic-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of oats (prepared by fractionating aqueous ethanolic extract with solvents of increasing polarity) at dosages of 125 and 250 mg kg-1 d-1 for 12 consecutive days...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Nora Shero, Sylvain Fiset, Hélène Plamondon, Mohamed Thabet, France M Rioux
Iron deficiency (ID) has been reported as a risk factor in the pathology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, although the mechanisms seem unclear. Previous results from our research group showed that guinea pig offspring born from ID dams were significantly more active in the Open Field Test than the controls. This behavior could potentially be associated to stress. We therefore hypothesized that maternal iron deficiency (MID) elevates the offspring serum cortisol, a biomarker of stress, during childhood and possibly at mature age...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
David Thivel, Julien Verney, Maud Miguet, Julie Masurier, Charlotte Cardenoux, C Lambert, Daniel Courteix, Lore Metz, Bruno Pereira
The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity of bio-impedance (BIA) in tracking body composition changes in adolescents with various degrees of obesity. We hypothesized that while BIA provides a reliable measure of body composition, its accuracy decreases with increasing obesity and its ability to track changes might be reduced with higher degree of body weight and body composition. Whole-body and segmental body composition were assessed by bio-impedance analysis (BIA-Tanita MC-780) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic) among 196 obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14 ± 0...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Songcheng Yu, Yan Wang, Xing Li, Zhenxing Mao, Fei Yu, Ling Wang, Yue Ba, Chongjian Wang, Wenjie Li
As the major vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the group-specific component (GC) plays an important role in the bioactivity of vitamin D. Abnormal expression of GC gene may be associated with vitamin D related disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene expression. It has been reported that methylation in 3' untranslated region played a role in regulation of protein expression via interaction with miRNA. This study hypothesized that DNA methylation of 3' near region of GC gene (3'GC) might be associated with T2DM...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Hadi Khodabandehloo, ShadiSadat Seyyedebrahimi, Ensieh Nasli Esfahani, Farideh Razi, Reza Meshkani
Chronic low-grade inflammation is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although in vitro and animal studies have shown that resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory effects, clinical trials addressing these effects in patients with T2D are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesized that supplementation of resveratrol might improve inflammatory markers in patients with T2D in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 45 T2D patients were supplemented with either of 800 mg/d resveratrol or placebo capsules for 8 weeks...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Brett S Nickerson
Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are commonly utilized for total and segmental body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Group (i.e., constant error [CE]) and individual error (i.e., standard error of estimate [SEE] and 95% limits of agreement [LOAs]) of single-frequency BIA were determined in apparently healthy men and women (n = 28 and 45, respectively) when using DXA as a reference method. It was hypothesized that single-frequency BIA would provide lower error for the estimation of total and segmental FFM than FM and BF%...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Dana Jorgensen, Gretchen E White, Akira Sekikawa, Peter Gianaros
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase depression risk. Risk for future CVD, which can be estimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), and depression risk are both linked to systemic inflammation. Dietary consumption of proinflammatory food can be measured using the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score. We examined the potential impact of DII on depression and whether this effect is independent of FRS. We hypothesized that (1) both FRS and DII would be associated with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ≥ 10) and (2) associations between DII and depressive symptoms (continuous) would be mediated by FRS...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Rebecca Theal, Valerie Xin Pei Tay, Ingrid J Hickman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychological condition associated with significant physical comorbidities. There has been growing evidence to support the relationship between PTSD and cardiometabolic disease. Disordered eating behaviors often seen in people with PTSD symptoms may explain increased cardiometabolic risk. This systematic review aimed to assess the quality of evidence surrounding dietary intake of individuals with symptoms or a diagnosis of PTSD and their associated risk with cardiometabolic health outcomes...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
H C Yuan, Y Meng, H Bai, D Q Shen, B C Wan, L Y Chen
The effects of resistant starch (RS) on serum cholesterol levels have been previously investigated. However, the results of those studies are inconsistent. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to determine if RS affects blood lipids based on the current literature. The methods included searching databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) up to September 2017, as well as hand-searching reference lists of articles published in English. The initial search yielded 1228 articles. Of these, 14 articles (20 trials) were included in our investigation focusing on the effects of RS on total cholesterol (TC; 19 trials), triglycerides (TG; 19 trials), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 16 trials), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (17 trials)...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
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