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Nutrition Research

William J Heerman, Julie Lounds-Taylor, Stephanie Mitchell, Shari L Barkin
Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices...
November 3, 2017: Nutrition Research
Mads V Lind, Lotte Lauritzen, Oluf Pedersen, Henrik Vestergaard, Ken D Stark, Torben Hansen, Alastair B Ross, Mette Kristensen
Several B-vitamins act as co-factors in one-carbon metabolism, a pathway that plays a central role in several chronic diseases. However, there is a lack of knowledge of how diet affects markers in one-carbon metabolism. The aim of this study was to explore dietary patterns and components associated with one-carbon metabolites. We hypothesized that intake of whole-grains and fish would be associated with lower Hcy, and higher SAM:SAH ratio due to their nutrient content. We assessed dietary information using a four-day dietary record in 118 men and women with features of the metabolic syndrome...
October 2, 2017: Nutrition Research
Anna M Amini, Karolin Muzs, Jeremy Pe Spencer, Parveen Yaqoob
This study hypothesized that the predominant strawberry anthocyanin, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-glc), and 3 of its plasma metabolites (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, and phloroglucinaldehyde [PGA]) would affect phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and the production of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a whole blood culture model. For the assessment of phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of monocytes and neutrophils, whole blood was preincubated in the presence or absence of the test compounds at concentrations up to 5 μmol/L, followed by analysis of phagocytic and oxidative burst activity using commercially available test kits...
September 21, 2017: Nutrition Research
Joshua L Hudson, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Wayne W Campbell
Amino acids from meals peak in the plasma at ~180 minutes postprandial. Conversely, amino acids from rapidly digestible whey protein appear in the plasma within 15 minutes and peak at 60 minutes postprandial. Therefore, we hypothesized that consuming a 20-g whey protein snack 2 hours after a standard mixed-macronutrient, lower protein breakfast (10 g) would result in peak and composite postprandial plasma essential amino acid (EAA) responses that were not different from consuming a 30-g protein breakfast alone...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Ping Tong, Lin Gao, Jinyan Gao, Xin Li, Zhihua Wu, Anshu Yang, Hongbing Chen
Ovotransferrin (OVT) is one of the main egg allergens with 2 iron-binding sites. Several studies have demonstrated that iron-chelation decreased the allergenicity of milk allergen and birch pollen allergens. Therefore, we hypothesized that iron-chelation could also reduce the allergenicity of OVT. Apo-OVT (iron-free OVT, the natural state in egg white) and Holo-OVT (iron-chelated OVT) were prepared, and the allergenicity of them were assessed and compared using a BALB/c mouse model as well as dendritic cells (DCs) based on antigen uptake...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
W Schlörmann, J Lamberty, D Ludwig, S Lorkowski, M Glei
Walnuts are rich in bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and dietary fiber. Therefore, the consumption of walnuts can contribute to a healthy diet and may reduce the risk for colon cancer. Heat treatment like roasting may change the chemical composition of walnuts and therefore their chemopreventive properties. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study is that different roasting conditions (RCs) alter the chemopreventive effects of walnuts. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether different RCs (RC1=139...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Xin Yao, Xian Cheng, Li Zhang, Huixin Yu, Jiandong Bao, Haixia Guan, Rongrong Lu
Punicalagin (PUN), a component derived from pomegranate, is well known for its anticancer activity. Our previous work revealed that PUN induces autophagic cell death in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. We hypothesized that PUN triggers DNA damage associated with cell death because DNA damage was reported as an inducer of autophagy. Our results showed that PUN treatment caused DNA breaks as evidenced by the significant enhancement in the phosphorylation of H2A.X. However, reactive oxygen species and DNA conformational alteration, 2 common inducing factors in DNA damage, were not involved in PUN-induced DNA damage...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Maisa Cruz Martins, Janet Trujillo, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Gilberto Kac
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) have been shown to be linked to obesity-related metabolic markers and phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that the LEP-rs7799039 and LEPR-rs1137101 SNPs are related to the risk of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) as well as to excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and high concentrations of leptin throughout pregnancy. We investigated a prospective cohort of 147 Brazilian pregnant women through weeks 5-13, 20-26, and 30-36 of gestation...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Bhesh Raj Sharma, Hyun Jung Kim, Min Suk Kim, Chul Min Park, Dong Young Rhyu
Seaweeds are considered a potential source of antiobesity agents. Because Caulerpa, a seaweed, has been consumed for food in Japan, China, South Korea, and Australia, we hypothesized that Caulerpa okamurae may have antiobesity effects in an animal model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Herein, we found that the ethanolic extract of C okamurae (COE) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of the master regulator of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
E O Igwe, K E Charlton, S Roodenrys, K Kent, K Fanning, M E Netzel
Consumption of anthocyanins from fruit sources may exert protection against hypertension and improve cognition. However, the effect of dose timing in studies is rarely considered. We hypothesized that timed-dose consumption of juice from an anthocyanin-rich Japanese plum variety (Queen Garnet plum, QGP) will have acute and dose-timing effects on cardiovascular responses, cognition, and urinary anthocyanin excretion profiles. Our study objective was to investigate the impact of plum juice on these health parameters...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Masaya Shimada, Masato Hibino, Anna Takeshita
Excessive fructose ingestion drastically enhances hepatic lipid accumulation. The most prominent form of inositol-myo-inositol (MI)-remarkably reduces high sucrose-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Because MI is a major and strong lipotrope, we hypothesized in this study that MI improves fatty liver more induced by excessive ingestion of fructose than sucrose. Rats were fed a high-glucose diet (HGD), a high-fructose diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 0.2% MI for 12 days. Hepatic levels of TG and mRNAs for fructolysis (ketohexokinase and aldolase B), lipogenesis (pyruvate kinase, liver, and RBC; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; fatty acid synthase; and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1), and a key transcription factor for lipogenesis-carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the HGD group, and the increase was markedly decreased by MI supplementation...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Yu Yamamoto, Ran Sawa, Ikumi Wake, Ayaka Morimoto, Yasuhiko Okimura
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) have protective effects against muscle atrophy. Although plasma BCAA concentrations are higher in patients with diabetes than in healthy subjects, diabetes is related to sarcopenia. We hypothesized that high glucose concentration reduces the quantity of BCAA transporters, and consequently, the effects of BCAAs are diminished despite their high levels. We examined whether glucose reduces the expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), which transports neutral amino acids, including BCAA, in C2C12 myocytes...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Farah Naja, Hibeh Shatila, Lokman Meho, Mohamad Alameddine, Sally Haber, Lara Nasreddine, Abla Mehio Sibai, Nahla Hwalla
Effective public health nutrition interventions are needed to curb the escalating prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in many Arab countries. In order to generate the scientific evidence needed for the success of these interventions, an informed research agenda should be developed. The purpose of this review is to identify gaps and opportunities for research on nutrition and NCDs among Arab countries, which is an important step towards the formulation of this research agenda. Published papers that addressed nutrition and NCDs in Arab countries between the years 2006 and 2015 were reviewed (n=824)...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
Oghenekome A Gbinigie, Igho J Onakpoya, Elizabeth A Spencer
Hypertension is one of the most important preventable causes of premature death. Studies have been conducted assessing the impact of pomegranate on blood pressure, with varying results. The aim of this review was to critically appraise and evaluate the effect of pomegranate on blood pressure in adults, using evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Amed, and The Cochrane Library, and included RCTs assessing the effectiveness of pomegranate on blood pressure...
October 2017: Nutrition Research
Hitesh B Vaidya, Surendiran Gangadaran, Sukhinder K Cheema
Obesity is linked to several health complications, such as cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Dyslipidemia in obesity is one of the prime causes for health complications. We have previously shown that blue mussels (BM) are a rich source of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and increase the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor and adiponectin, thereby inducing anti-obesity and insulin sensitizing effects in vitro. However, the in vivo effects of BM on obesity and metabolic regulation are not known...
October 2017: Nutrition Research
Vladimir R Vukic, Dajana V Vukic, Spasenija D Milanovic, Mirela D Ilicic, Katarina G Kanuric, Mark S Johnson
Identification of bioactive milk peptides could improve food technology through improved selection of food supplements with a focus on antihypertensive properties. We hypothesized that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of milk di- and tripeptides could be predicted using 3-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship methods and that these activities could be explained through evaluation of structural features (hydrogen bond donor/acceptor, hydrophobic, steric, and electrostatic) that are responsible for this bioactivity...
October 2017: Nutrition Research
Michael R La Frano, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Natalie Weber, Kamil Borkowski, Theresa L Pedersen, Olivia Osborn, John W Newman
Bile acids (BAs) influence the metabolism of glucose, lipids, and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that BA concentrations and related gene expression would be altered in lean (low-fat diet fed; LFD) vs diet-induced obese (high-fat diet fed; HFD) groups of mice and that some detected changes would remain after weight loss in an HFD group switched to the LFD (SW). Taurine conjugates dominated the bile acid composition of the liver, epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), and hypothalamus, with the latter having lower levels (~95%, ~95%, and ~80%, respectively; P<...
October 2017: Nutrition Research
Min-Yu Chung, Eun Ju Shin, Hyo-Kyoung Choi, Sung Hee Kim, Mi Jeong Sung, Jae Ho Park, Jin-Taek Hwang
We hypothesized that hepatic steatosis could be mitigated by the hypolipidemic activity of Schisandra chinensis berry ethanol extract (SCE) via the inhibition of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid (OA) in the presence of SCE exhibited reduced OA-induced lipid accumulation, which was likely mediated by reductions in SREBP-1c expression. SCE attenuated the acetylation of total lysine and H3K9 that was otherwise increased by OA. Male obese mice fed with either a low-fat diet or Western diet exhibited reduced body and liver weights when supplemented with 1% SCE...
October 2017: Nutrition Research
Chad M Paton, Roger A Vaughan, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Fariba Assadi-Porter, Michael K Dowd
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diets are thought to provide beneficial effects toward metabolic health in part through their bioactive properties. We hypothesized that increasing PUFA intake in mice would increase peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARδ) expression and activity, and we sought to examine the effect of different PUFA-enriched oils on muscle PPARδ expression. One of the oils we tested was cottonseed oil (CSO) which is primarily linoleic acid (53%) and palmitic acid (24%)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
Fatimata Cisse, Elizabeth A Pletsch, Daniel P Erickson, Mohammad Chegeni, Anna M R Hayes, Bruce R Hamaker
Gastric emptying rate influences how fast the nutrients of a meal are delivered to the body, and when slow, it moderates glycemic response and may impact satiety. Carbohydrates are one of the macronutrients that trigger the ileal brake, and we hypothesized that slowly digestible carbohydrate (SDC) administered in a premeal load would delay gastric emptying. A crossover design study was conducted with 10 healthy adults using fabricated SDC-microspheres (cooked) that were given 20 minutes before a non-nutritive viscous paste meal...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
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