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Social Science & Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334652/does-educational-attainment-shape-reactions-to-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-results-from-a-national-survey-experiment
#1
Matthew A Andersson, Shana Kushner Gadarian, Rene Almeling
While higher education is associated with healthy lifestyles and health literacy, it remains unclear whether education shapes reactions to varying levels of genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, participants (N = 701) in the National Genetic Risk Survey Experiment (NGRISE) received a hypothetical genetic risk assessment for AD (ranging from 20 to 80% lifetime risk) and then completed items on their cognitive (perceived threat to health), emotional (general negative affect), and anticipated behavioral (seek information, improve health behaviors, engage in public or private civic action) reactions to this risk...
March 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334653/the-impact-of-transitions-in-insurance-coverage-on-gp-visiting-among-children-in-ireland
#2
Anne Nolan, Richard Layte
The use of direct out-of-pocket payments to finance general practitioner (GP) care by the majority of the population in Ireland is unusual in a European context. Currently, approximately 40 per cent of the population have means-tested access to free GP care, while the remainder must pay the full out-of-pocket cost. In this paper, we use nationally representative data from the Growing up in Ireland (GUI) study to examine the impact of transitions in insurance coverage on GP utilisation among children. GUI surveys two cohorts of nearly 20,000 children (aged 9 months and 9 years at baseline); we use data from the first two waves of each cohort (which covers the period 2007-2012)...
March 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324793/bureaucratization-and-medical-professionals-values-a-cross-national-analysis
#3
Girts Racko
Understanding the impact of the bureaucratization of governance systems on the occupational values of medical professionals is a fundamental concern of the sociological research of healthcare professions. While previous studies have examined the impact of bureaucratized management, organizations, and healthcare fields on medical professionals' values, there is a lack of cross-national research on the normative impact of the bureaucratized systems of national governance. Using the European Social Survey data for 29 countries, this study examines the impact of the bureaucratization of national governance systems on the occupational values of medical professionals...
March 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330625/can-a-causal-link-be-drawn-a-commentary-on-the-impact-of-imf-conditionality-on-government-health-expenditure-a-cross-national-analysis-of-16-west-african-nations
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324792/tolerance-of-uncertainty-conceptual-analysis-integrative-model-and-implications-for-healthcare
#5
REVIEW
Marij A Hillen, Caitlin M Gutheil, Tania D Strout, Ellen M A Smets, Paul K J Han
RATIONALE: Uncertainty tolerance (UT) is an important, well-studied phenomenon in health care and many other important domains of life, yet its conceptualization and measurement by researchers in various disciplines have varied substantially and its essential nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the meaning and logical coherence of UT as conceptualized by developers of UT measures, and 2) develop an integrative conceptual model to guide future empirical research regarding the nature, causes, and effects of UT...
March 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319909/stability-and-change-in-disease-prestige-a-comparative-analysis-of-three-surveys-spanning-a-quarter-of-a-century
#6
Dag Album, Lars E F Johannessen, Erik B Rasmussen
In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of three survey studies of disease prestige in medical culture. The studies were conducted in 1990, 2002 and 2014 using the same research design. In each of the three rounds, a sample of Norwegian physicians was asked to rate a set of 38 diseases on a scale from 1 to 9 according to the prestige they believed health personnel in general would award them. The results show a remarkable stability in the prestige rank order over 25 years. The top three diseases in all three surveys were leukaemia, brain tumour and myocardial infarction...
March 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324791/spatio-temporal-neighborhood-impacts-on-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-u-s-elementary-school-children-effect-modification-by-child-and-family-socio-demographics
#7
Jamie L Humphrey, Elisabeth D Root
Increasing evidence from experimental and non-experimental research has shown that children residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, above and beyond individual characteristics, and family or school contexts. Using the ECLS-K, a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of U.S. school children, this study examined direct neighborhood effects on internalizing (N = 14,870; N = 10,610) and externalizing (N = 14,960; N = 10,730) behaviors at the beginning and end of elementary school...
March 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319907/the-impact-of-welfare-reform-on-the-health-insurance-coverage-utilization-and-health-of-low-education-single-mothers
#8
Kimberly Narain, Marianne Bitler, Ninez Ponce, Gerald Kominski, Susan Ettner
The Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity and Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 imposed time limits on the receipt of welfare cash benefits and mandated cash benefit sanctions for failure to meet work requirements. Many studies examining the health implications of PRWORA have found associated declines in health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among single mothers but no impact of PRWORA on health outcomes. A limitation of this literature is that most studies cover a time period before time limits were implemented in all states and also before individuals began actually timing out...
March 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324794/the-socio-political-context-of-migration-and-reproductive-health-disparities-the-case-of-early-sexual-initiation-among-mexican-origin-immigrant-young-women
#9
Kate Coleman-Minahan
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319908/the-sociology-of-space-as-a-catalyst-for-innovation-in-the-health-sector
#10
Trust Saidi, Katusha de Villiers, Tania S Douglas
This paper reviews the role of space in facilitating innovation. It draws on the sociology of space in exploring the social practices, institutional forces and material complexity of how people and spaces interact. We assess how space influences the development of innovative solutions to challenges in the health sector. Our aim is to advance an understanding of the social production of space for healthcare innovation. We draw empirical examples from the Innovation Hub at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town to illustrate that innovation does not take place in an institutional vacuum, but requires space that facilitates interaction of different players...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318760/from-undocumented-to-lawfully-present-do-changes-to-legal-status-impact-psychological-wellbeing-among-latino-immigrant-young-adults
#11
Caitlin Patler, Whitney Laster Pirtle
Exclusionary immigration policies, as a form of structural racism, have led to a sizeable undocumented population that is largely barred from access to resources in the United States. Existing research suggests that undocumented immigration status detrimentally impacts mobility, yet few studies have tested the impacts of legal status on psychological wellbeing. Most importantly, we know little about how changes to legal status impact wellbeing. Announced in 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program allows eligible undocumented youth to apply for temporary lawful status...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315595/the-social-logic-of-naloxone-peer-administration-harm-reduction-and-the-transformation-of-social-policy
#12
Rachel Faulkner-Gurstein
This paper examines overdose prevention programs based on peer administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. The data for this study consist of 40 interviews and participant observation of 10 overdose prevention training sessions at harm reduction agencies in the Bronx, New York, conducted between 2010 and 2012. This paper contends that the social logic of peer administration is as central to the success of overdose prevention as is naloxone's pharmacological potency. Whereas prohibitionist drug policies seek to isolate drug users from the spaces and cultures of drug use, harm reduction strategies like peer-administered naloxone treat the social contexts of drug use as crucial resources for intervention...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314229/how-did-the-good-school-toolkit-reduce-the-risk-of-past-week-physical-violence-from-teachers-to-students-qualitative-findings-on-pathways-of-change-in-schools-in-luwero-uganda
#13
N Kyegombe, S Namakula, J Mulindwa, J Lwanyaaga, D Naker, S Namy, J Nakuti, J Parkes, L Knight, E Walakira, K M Devries
Violence against children is a serious violation of children's rights with significant impacts on current and future health and well-being. The Good School Toolkit (GST) is designed to prevent violence against children in primary schools through changing schools' operational cultures. Conducted in the Luwero District in Uganda between 2012 and 2014, findings from previous research indicate that the Toolkit reduced the odds of past week physical violence from school staff (OR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.64, p < 0...
March 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301806/the-effects-of-women-s-education-on-maternal-health-evidence-from-peru
#14
Abigail Weitzman
This article examines the causal effect of women's education on maternal health in Peru, a country where maternal mortality has declined by more than 70% in the last two and a half decades. To isolate the effects of education, the author employs an instrumented regression discontinuity that takes advantage of an exogenous source of variation-an amendment to compulsory schooling laws in 1993. The results indicate that extending women's years of schooling reduced the probability of several maternal health complications at last pregnancy/birth, sometimes by as much as 29%...
March 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288316/anticipated-support-from-children-and-later-life-health-in-the-united-states-and-china
#15
Cheng Cheng
Past research has shown that anticipated support, the belief that someone will provide support if needed, benefits health. Few studies considered whether the relationship between anticipated support and health depends on the source of such support. This project addresses this gap and examines how anticipated support from children is related to older parents' health and whether such support can be replaced by anticipated support from other relatives and friends. Ordered logit and negative binomial regression models with lagged health outcomes were estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study and the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study...
March 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288315/social-capital-deprivation-and-self-rated-health-does-reporting-heterogeneity-play-a-role-results-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#16
M G O'Doherty, D French, A Steptoe, F Kee
Self-rated health (SRH) is commonly assessed in large surveys, though responses can be influenced by different individuals' perceptions of and beliefs about health. Therefore, instead of providing evidence of 'true' health disparities across groups, findings may actually reflect reporting heterogeneity. Using data from participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Wave 3 (2006/07; participation rate = 73%), associations between three dimensions of social capital (local area & trust, social support and social networks), deprivation and SRH were examined using the vignette methodology in 2341 individuals who completed both the self-report and at least one of the 18 vignettes...
March 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285232/influencing-health-policy-through-public-deliberation-lessons-learned-from-two-decades-of-citizens-community-juries
#17
Chris Degeling, Lucie Rychetnik, Jackie Street, Rae Thomas, Stacy M Carter
Citizens'/community juries [CJs] engage members of the public in policy decision-making processes. CJs can be employed to develop policy responses to health problems that require the consideration of both community values and scientific evidence. Based on the principles of deliberative democracy, recent reviews indicate that findings from CJs have successfully been used to influence health policy decision-making. Despite this evidence of success, there appears to be a gap between the goals of health researchers who organize CJs and the needs of policy actors and decision makers...
March 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284145/cumulative-receipt-of-an-anti-poverty-tax-credit-for-families-did-not-impact-tobacco-smoking-among-parents
#18
Frank Pega, Paola Gilsanz, Ichiro Kawachi, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
The effect of anti-poverty tax credit interventions on tobacco consumption is unclear. Previous studies have estimated short-term effects, did not isolate the effects of cumulative dose of tax credits, produced conflicting results, and used methods with limited control for some time-varying confounders (e.g., those affected by prior treatment) and treatment regimen (i.e., study participants' tax credit receipt pattern over time). We estimated the longer-term, cumulative effect of New Zealand's Family Tax Credit (FTC) on tobacco consumption, using a natural experiment (administrative errors leading to exogenous variation in FTC receipt) and methods specifically for controlling confounding, reverse causation, and treatment regimen...
March 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279924/physicians-responses-to-financial-and-social-incentives-a-medically-framed-real-effort-experiment
#19
Mylène Lagarde, Duane Blaauw
Because compensation policies have critical implications for the provision of health care, and evidence of their effects is limited and difficult to study in the real world, laboratory experiments may be a valuable methodology to study the behavioural responses of health care providers. With this experiment undertaken in 2013, we add to this new literature by designing a new medically framed real effort task to test the effects of different remuneration schemes in a multi-tasking context. We assess the impact of different incentives on the quantity (productivity) and quality of outputs of 132 participants...
March 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274600/-sharing-one-s-destiny-effects-of-austerity-on-migrant-health-provisioning-in-the-mediterranean-borderlands
#20
Megan A Carney
Italy has been on the frontlines of the European Union's "migration crisis," intercepting hundreds of thousands of migrants and asylum-seekers at sea and on its shores. Yet it has lacked adequate resources to ensure humane reception, as other forms of welfare state provisioning have also been rolled back through recent and ongoing austerity measures enforced by the EU and the IMF. While Italians face fewer employment opportunities, lower pensions, and higher taxes, migrants of precarious legal status and asylum-seekers struggle to navigate the weakened bureaucratic apparatus of the Italian state, including the health system...
March 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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