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Social Science & Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035778/the-over-researched-community-an-ethics-analysis-of-stakeholder-views-at-two-south-african-hiv-prevention-research-sites
#1
Jennifer Koen, Douglas Wassenaar, Nicole Mamotte
Health research in resource-limited, multi-cultural contexts raises complex ethical concerns. The term 'over-researched community' (ORC) has been raised as an ethical concern and potential barrier to community participation in research. However, the term lacks conceptual clarity and is absent from established ethics guidelines and academic literature. In light of the concern being raised in relation to research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a critical and empirical exploration of the meaning of ORC was undertaken...
October 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992994/erratum-to-ethnic-density-immigrant-enclaves-and-latino-health-risks-a-propensity-score-matching-approach-soc-sci-med-189-2017-44e52
#2
Kelin Li, Ming Wen, Kevin A Henry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028559/-what-s-the-right-thing-to-do-correctional-healthcare-providers-knowledge-attitudes-and-experiences-caring-for-transgender-inmates
#3
Kirsty A Clark, Jaclyn M White Hughto, John E Pachankis
RATIONAL: Incarcerated transgender individuals may need to access physical and mental health services to meet their general and gender-affirming (e.g., hormones, surgery) medical needs while incarcerated. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine correctional healthcare providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences providing care to transgender inmates. METHOD: In 2016, 20 correctional healthcare providers (e.g., physicians, social workers, psychologists, mental health counselors) from New England participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews examining their experiences caring for transgender inmates...
October 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028558/determinants-of-trust-in-the-flu-vaccine-for-african-americans-and-whites
#4
Vicki S Freimuth, Amelia M Jamison, Ji An, Gregory R Hancock, Sandra Crouse Quinn
Trust is thought to be a major factor in vaccine decisions, but few studies have empirically tested the role of trust in adult immunization. Utilizing a 2015 national survey of African American and White adults (n = 1630), we explore multiple dimensions of trust related to influenza immunization, including generalized trust, trust in the flu vaccine, and trust in the vaccine production process. We find African Americans report lower trust than Whites across all trust measures. When considering demographic, racial, and ideological predictors, generalized trust shows statistically significant effects on both trust in the flu vaccine and trust in the vaccine process...
October 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032310/building-addiction-recovery-capital-through-online-participation-in-a-recovery-community
#5
Ana-Maria Bliuc, David Best, Muhammad Iqbal, Katie Upton
RATIONALE: This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. HYPOTHESES: It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program...
September 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992541/pastoral-power-in-hiv-prevention-converging-rationalities-of-care-in-christian-and-medical-practices-in-papua-new-guinea
#6
P Shih, H Worth, J Travaglia, A Kelly-Hanku
In his conceptualisation of pastoral power, Michel Foucault argues that modern healthcare practices derive a specific power technique from pastors of the early Christian church. As experts in a position of authority, pastors practise the care of others through implicitly guiding them towards thoughts and actions that effect self-care, and towards a predefined realm of acceptable conduct, thus having a regulatory effect. This qualitative study of healthcare workers from two Christian faith-based organisations in Papua New Guinea examines the pastoral rationalities of HIV prevention practices which draw together globally circulated modern medical knowledge and Christian teachings in sexual morality for implicit social regulation...
September 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992537/what-is-not-but-might-be-the-disnarrated-in-parents-stories-of-their-child-s-cancer-treatment
#7
Cecilia Vindrola-Padros, Eugenia Brage
The study of illness narratives is based on the premise that stories are told for a reason and storytellers make narrative decisions on what to include and leave out of a story, the style of narration, the place where the story is told and the audience. Through this narrative work, they situate themselves in particular ways and make sense of the illness and the world around them. In this article, we explore the disnarrated, a style of narration that features events that do not happen, but are nonetheless referred to in the story...
September 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024825/a-grounded-visualization-approach-to-explore-sociospatial-and-temporal-complexities-of-older-adults-mobility
#8
Thea Franke, Meghan Winters, Heather McKay, Habib Chaudhury, Joanie Sims-Gould
In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in older adults' mobility. Most often, mobility is measured quantitatively as physical movement (e.g. physical activity) or travel behavior (e.g. trips, modes, and distances). There is a need to integrate both quantitative and qualitative data over time to visualize both context and content in a spatial and temporal dimension and discover patterns and explanations for their underlying processes. We aim to address this gap by demonstrating how a grounded visualization approach can be used to explore sociospatial and temporal complexities of older adults' mobility...
September 28, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992540/kids-in-space-measuring-children-s-residential-neighborhoods-and-other-destinations-using-activity-space-gps-and-wearable-camera-data
#9
T Chambers, A L Pearson, I Kawachi, Z Rzotkiewicz, J Stanley, M Smith, M Barr, C Ni Mhurchu, L Signal
INTRODUCTION: Defining the boundary of children's 'neighborhoods' has important implications for understanding the contextual influences on child health. Additionally, insight into activities that occur outside people's neighborhoods may indicate exposures that place-based studies cannot detect. This study aimed to 1) extend current neighborhood research, using data from wearable cameras and GPS devices that were worn over several days in an urban setting; 2) define the boundary of children's neighborhoods by using leisure time activity space data; and 3) determine the destinations visited by children in their leisure time, outside their neighborhoods...
September 28, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985516/assessment-of-spatial-variation-in-breast-cancer-specific-mortality-using-louisiana-seer-data
#10
Rachel Carroll, Andrew B Lawson, Chandra L Jackson, Shanshan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest spatial differences in mortality for many types of cancer, including breast cancer. Identifying explanations for these spatial differences results in a better understanding of what leads to longer survival time. METHODS: We used a Bayesian accelerated failure time model with spatial frailty terms to investigate potential spatial differences in breast cancer mortality following breast cancer diagnosis using 2000-2013 Louisiana SEER data...
September 28, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028560/racial-discrimination-and-cortisol-output-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Kevin M Korous, José M Causadias, Deborah M Casper
RATIONALE: Although the relation between stress and physiology is well documented, attempts at understanding the link between racial discrimination and cortisol output, specifically, have produced mixed results, likely due to study characteristics such as racial/ethnic composition of the samples (e.g., African American, Latino), measures of discrimination, and research design (e.g., cross-sectional, experimental). OBJECTIVES: To estimate the overall association between racial discrimination and cortisol output among racial/ethnic minority individuals and to determine if the association between racial discrimination and cortisol output is moderated by age, race/ethnicity, type of discrimination measure, sex, and research design...
September 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982528/childhood-adolescent-stressors-and-allostatic-load-in-adulthood-support-for-a-calibration-model
#12
Mark T Berg, Ronald L Simons, Ashley Barr, Steven R H Beach, Robert A Philibert
RATIONALE: Past research has established an association between childhood and adolescent stressors and elevated inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in adulthood, but questions remain about the theoretical model most suited to explain this association. OBJECTIVE: This study examined alternative hypotheses from four theoretical models regarding the link between exposure to stressful early life circumstances and cumulative biological risk, or allostatic load, in adulthood...
September 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992538/health-lifestyles-across-the-transition-to-adulthood-implications-for-health
#13
Elizabeth M Lawrence, Stefanie Mollborn, Robert A Hummer
Research has long established the importance of individual health behaviors such as cigarette smoking for adult morbidity and mortality. However, we know little about how health behaviors cluster into health lifestyles among adolescents and young adults in the United States, or in turn, how such health lifestyles are associated with young adult health outcomes. This study establishes health lifestyles as distinct group phenomena at three developmental time points in a single cohort: late adolescence (ages 15-17), early adulthood (ages 20-24), and young adulthood (ages 26-31)...
September 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965001/area-level-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Joanne-Marie Cairns, Eva Graham, Clare Bambra
The relationship between adverse individual socio-economic circumstances and suicidal behaviour is well established. However, the impact of adverse collective circumstances - such as the socio-economic context where people live - is less well understood. This systematic review explores the extent to which area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with inequalities in suicidal behaviour and self-harm in Europe. We performed a systematic review (in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, EconLit and Social Sciences Citation Index) from 2005 to 2015...
September 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028557/understanding-the-association-between-stunting-and-child-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-next-steps-for-research-and-intervention
#15
REVIEW
Jessica M Perkins, Rockli Kim, Aditi Krishna, Mark McGovern, Victor M Aguayo, S V Subramanian
Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992539/cross-lagged-associations-between-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-coping-self-efficacy-in-long-term-recovery-a-four-wave-comparative-study
#16
Mark W G Bosmans, Peter G van der Velden
RATIONALE: Trauma-related coping self-efficacy (CSE) - in brief, the perceived ability to cope with the aftermath of a traumatic event - has been shown to affect psychological outcomes. A previous study showed that CSE affects subsequent PTSS levels, but not vice versa among a sample exposed 0-6 months ago. OBJECTIVE: In this four-wave follow-up study we examined the cross-lagged relationships between CSE and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among those exposed to PTEs (potentially traumatic events) 1-2 years before T1 in order to examine direction of influence...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987982/a-qualitative-study-of-speaking-out-about-patient-safety-concerns-in-intensive-care-units
#17
Carolyn Tarrant, Myles Leslie, Julian Bion, Mary Dixon-Woods
Much policy focus has been afforded to the role of "whistleblowers" in raising concerns about quality and safety of patient care in healthcare settings. However, most opportunities for personnel to identify and act on these concerns are likely to occur much further upstream, in the day-to-day mundane interactions of everyday work. Using qualitative data from over 900 h of ethnographic observation and 98 interviews across 19 English intensive care units (ICUs), we studied how personnel gave voice to concerns about patient safety or poor practice...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985545/shaping-innovation-in-health-care-a-content-analysis-of-innovation-policies-in-the-english-nhs-1948-2015
#18
Tomas Farchi, Torsten-Oliver Salge
Governments around the world seek to design policies that enhance the innovative capacity of public service. Hence, identifying the underlying meanings attributed to innovation concepts in public policies is critical, as these very understandings inform not only the policy discourses, but also the overall institutional landscape regulating innovation activities. This paper examines such fundamental definitional aspects in the specific context of the National Health Service in England. For this purpose, it traces the evolution of the innovation concept in policy discourse based on the analysis of 21 key policy documents published or commissioned by the English Department of Health between 1948 and 2015...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965004/perceived-social-support-in-african-american-breast-cancer-patients-predictors-and-effects
#19
Tess Thompson, Maria Pérez, Matthew Kreuter, Julie Margenthaler, Graham Colditz, Donna B Jeffe
RATIONALE: Social support plays an important role in quality of life and health outcomes after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in perceived social support in African American women during the two years following a new breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This secondary analysis uses data collected from 2009 to 2015 from 227 newly diagnosed, African American women with breast cancer (mean age 56 [SD = 10], 59% household income < $25,000; 28% married/partnered, 72% early stage) participating in a randomized controlled trial testing the effects of a video-communication intervention on quality-of-life and follow-up care...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963987/how-the-built-environment-affects-change-in-older-people-s-physical-activity-a-mixed-methods-approach-using-longitudinal-health-survey-data-in-urban-china
#20
Peiling Zhou, Sue C Grady, Guo Chen
Although the general population in China is physically active, only 45% of older adults meet the World Health Organization's recommendation for weekly moderate-to-vigorous exercise, to achieve health benefits. This percentage is even lower (9.8%) in urban China. It is, therefore, important to understand the pathways by which physical activity behaviors are impacted by the built environment. This study utilized a mixed methods approach-interviews (n = 42) and longitudinal (2010-2015) health survey data (n = 3094) for older people residing in three neighborhoods in Huainan, a mid-sized city in Anhui Province, central eastern China...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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