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Social Science & Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628782/incorporation-of-a-health-economic-modelling-tool-into-public-health-commissioning-evidence-use-in-a-politicised-context
#1
Tom Sanders, Amy Grove, Sarah Salway, Susan Hampshaw, Elizabeth Goyder
This paper explores how commissioners working in an English local government authority (LA) viewed a health economic decision tool for planning services in relation to diabetes. We conducted 15 interviews and 2 focus groups between July 2015 and February 2016, with commissioners (including public health managers, data analysts and council members). Two overlapping themes were identified explaining the obstacles and enablers of using such a tool in commissioning: a) evidence cultures, and b) system interdependency...
June 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625414/effects-of-health-empowerment-intervention-on-resilience-of-adolescents-in-a-tribal-area-a-study-using-the-solomon-four-groups-design
#2
Kaushik Sarkar, Aparajita Dasgupta, Multipada Sinha, Bhaskar Shahbabu
RATIONALE: Resilience prevents the emergence of stress-related mental health problems among adolescents. Adolescents in tribal areas of India are more prone to develop such problems. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the effect of combined life skills-based health empowerment intervention on the resilience of school-going adolescents in a tribal area. The secondary objectives were to determine the effect of the intervention on internal health locus of control and self-determination and to compare the effect of intervention on resilience between non-tribal and tribal adolescents...
June 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618290/defining-trauma-in-complex-care-management-safety-net-providers-perspectives-on-structural-vulnerability-and-time
#3
Ariana Thompson-Lastad, Irene H Yen, Mark D Fleming, Meredith Van Natta, Sara Rubin, Janet K Shim, Nancy J Burke
In this paper, we delineate how staff of two complex care management (CCM) programs in urban safety net hospitals in the United States understand trauma. We seek to (1) describe how staff in CCM programs talk about trauma in their patients' lives; (2) discuss how trauma concepts allow staff to understand patients' symptoms, health-related behaviors, and responses to care as results of structural conditions; and (3) delineate the mismatch between long-term needs of patients with histories of trauma and the short-term interventions that CCM programs provide...
June 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625413/invisible-people-with-invisible-pain-a-commentary-on-even-my-sister-says-i-m-acting-like-a-crazy-to-get-a-check-race-gender-and-moral-boundary-work-in-women-s-claims-of-disabling-chronic-pain
#4
Joanna Kempner
This commentary to Pryma's (2017) article on women with fibromyalgia argues that intersectional approaches to health research can reveal not only how racialized institutions shape illness experience and medical care, but also how these institutions make some individuals visible, while rendering others invisible. Perhaps by adopting an intersectional approach to understanding health, we can start to unpack the multiple jeopardies faced by people of color in pain.
June 10, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622609/the-strategic-defense-of-physician-autonomy-state-public-health-agencies-as-countervailing-powers
#5
Laura Senier, Rachael Lee, Lauren Nicoll
Advances in genetic testing and the aggressive marketing of genetic tests by commercial diagnostic laboratories have driven both consumer demand and the need for unbiased information about how tests should guide healthcare delivery. This paper uses the countervailing powers framework to explore the role of state public health agencies as arbiters of quality and safety, specifically through their efforts to encourage physicians to follow evidence-based recommendations for screening for hereditary cancers. Social scientists have often viewed actions by the state to regulate cost, quality, or safety as a threat to physician autonomy...
June 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603078/gatekeepers-in-the-healthcare-sector-knowledge-and-bourdieu-s-concept-of-field
#6
Fran M Collyer, Karen F Willis, Sophie Lewis
Choice is an imperative for patients in the Australian healthcare system. The complexity of this healthcare 'maze', however, means that successfully navigating and making choices depends not only on the decisions of patients, but also other key players in the healthcare sector. Utilising Bourdieu's concepts of capital, habitus and field, we analyse the role of gatekeepers (i.e., those who control access to resources, services and knowledge) in shaping patients' experiences of healthcare, and producing opportunities to enable or constrain their choices...
June 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602358/institutional-racism-in-public-health-contracting-findings-of-a-nationwide-survey-from-new-zealand
#7
H Came, C Doole, B McKenna, T McCreanor
Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding...
June 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615139/the-impact-of-marriage-and-parenthood-on-male-body-mass-index-static-and-dynamic-effects
#8
Joanna Syrda
RATIONALE: Numerous cross-sectional studies investigated the link between marital status and BMI in the context of competing social science theories (marriage market, marriage selection, marriage protection and social obligation), frequently offering conflicting theoretical predictions and conflicting empirical findings. OBJECTIVE: This study analysed the effects of marriage, divorce, pregnancy, and parenthood on male BMI in a longitudinal setting, avoiding the estimation bias of cross-sectional studies and allowing for an analysis of BMI fluctuation over time and the dynamic effects of these events...
June 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587868/-you-do-not-cross-them-hierarchy-and-emotion-in-doctors-narratives-of-power-relations-in-specialist-training
#9
Sophie Crowe, Nicholas Clarke, Ruairi Brugha
Studies of medical education often focus on experiences and socialisation processes among undergraduate students, with fewer examining emotionality among postgraduate trainees. This article explores the relationship between power and emotion, questioning how affective relations between senior and junior doctors are patterned on the hierarchical structure of medicine. The study employs qualitative methods of in-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews with fifty doctors at initial and advanced stages of specialist postgraduate training in teaching hospitals across Ireland, conducted between May and July, 2015...
May 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582656/non-linear-relationship-between-maternal-work-hours-and-child-body-weight-evidence-from-the-western-australian-pregnancy-cohort-raine-study
#10
Jianghong Li, Plamen Akaliyski, Jakob Schäfer, Garth Kendall, Wendy H Oddy, Fiona Stanley, Lyndall Strazdins
Using longitudinal data from the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and both random-effects and fixed-effects models, this study examined the connection between maternal work hours and child overweight or obesity. Following children in two-parent families from early childhood to early adolescence, multivariate analyses revealed a non-linear and developmentally dynamic relationship. Among preschool children (ages 2 to 5), we found lower likelihood of child overweight and obesity when mothers worked 24 h or less per week, compared to when mothers worked 35 or more hours...
May 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582655/coopetition-in-health-care-a-multi-level-analysis-of-its-individual-and-organizational-determinants
#11
Daan Westra, Federica Angeli, Martin Carree, Dirk Ruwaard
Cooperative inter-organizational relations are salient to healthcare delivery. However, they do not match with the pro-competitive healthcare reforms implemented in several countries. Healthcare organizations thus need to balance competition and cooperation in a situation of 'coopetition'. In this paper we study the individual and organizational determinants of coopetition versus those of cooperation in the price-competitive specialized care sector of the Netherlands. We use shared medical specialists as a proxy of collaboration between healthcare organizations...
May 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582654/can-present-biasedness-explain-early-onset-of-diabetes-and-subsequent-disease-progression-exploring-causal-inference-by-linking-survey-and-register-data
#12
Morten Raun Mørkbak, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, Trine Kjær
Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity, disability, mortality and health care resource use. The increasing prevalence of diabetes may therefore have dramatic future consequences for western societies. Diabetes entails a significant self-management component and it has previously been estimated that people with diabetes provide about 95% of their own care. Despite increased focus, self-management skills including basic knowledge acquisition, problem solving and setting realistic goals are often not mastered...
May 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577458/the-hispanic-mortality-paradox-revisited-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-life-course-differentials-in-latin-american-and-caribbean-immigrants-mortality
#13
Eran Shor, David Roelfs, Zoua M Vang
The literature on immigrant health has repeatedly reported the paradoxical finding, where immigrants from Latin American countries to OECD countries appear to enjoy better health and greater longevity, compared with the local population in the host country. However, no previous meta-analysis has examined this effect focusing specifically on immigrants from Latin America (rather than Hispanic ethnicity) and we still do not know enough about the factors that may moderate the relationship between immigration and mortality...
May 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570903/the-stratifying-role-of-job-level-for-sickness-absence-and-the-moderating-role-of-gender-and-occupational-gender-composition
#14
Hannes Kröger
The study investigates whether sickness absence is stratified by job level - understood as the authority and autonomy a worker holds - beyond the association with education, income, and occupation. A second objective is to establish the moderating role of gender and occupational gender composition on this stratification of sickness absence. Four competing hypotheses are developed that predict different patterns of moderation. Associations between job level and sickness absence are estimated for men and women in three groups of differing occupational gender composition, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)...
May 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599142/opioid-pharmacovigilance-a-clinical-social-history-of-the-changes-in-opioid-prescribing-for-patients-with-co-occurring-chronic-non-cancer-pain-and-substance-use
#15
Kelly R Knight, Margot Kushel, Jamie S Chang, Kara Zamora, Rachel Ceasar, Emily Hurstak, Christine Miaskowski
There is growing concern among US-based clinicians, patients, policy makers, and in the media about the personal and community health risks associated with opioids. Perceptions about the efficacy and appropriateness of opioids for the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) have dramatically transformed in recent decades. Yet, there is very little social scientific research identifying the factors that have informed this transformation from the perspectives of prescribing clinicians. As part of an on-going ethnographic study of CNCP management among clinicians and their patients with co-occurring substance use, we interviewed 23 primary care clinicians who practice in safety-net clinical settings...
May 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554158/effect-of-interrupting-free-healthcare-for-children-drawing-lessons-at-the-critical-moment-of-national-scale-up-in-burkina-faso
#16
Thomas Druetz, Abel Bicaba, Telesphore Some, Seni Kouanda, Antarou Ly, Slim Haddad
With solid evidence that free healthcare increases the utilization of health services, Burkina Faso recently exempted all children under five and pregnant women from direct payment at health facilities. However, there is little insight into the capacity to maintain the gains attributable to free healthcare under routine conditions of implementation at the national scale. In particular, the repercussions of its interruption are unknown. The objective is to assess the effects of a sequence of natural interventions including the introduction, interruption and reintroduction of free healthcare on health-seeking practices and utilization of healthcare facilities by children under five...
May 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552294/structural-racism-in-the-workplace-does-perception-matter-for-health-inequalities
#17
Courtney L McCluney, Lauren L Schmitz, Margaret T Hicken, Amanda Sonnega
Structural racism has been linked to racial health inequalities and may operate through an unequal labor market that results in inequalities in psychosocial workplace environments (PWE). Experiences of the PWE may be a critical but understudied source of racial health disparities as most adults spend a large portion of their lives in the workplace, and work-related stress affects health outcomes. Further, it is not clear if the objective characteristics of the workplace are important for health inequalities or if these inequalities are driven by the perception of the workplace...
May 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579093/the-enduring-impact-of-historical-and-structural-racism-on-urban-violence-in-philadelphia
#18
Sara F Jacoby, Beidi Dong, Jessica H Beard, Douglas J Wiebe, Christopher N Morrison
Public health approaches to crime and injury prevention are increasingly focused on the physical places and environments where violence is concentrated. In this study, our aim is to explore the association between historic place-based racial discrimination captured in the 1937 Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) map of Philadelphia and present-day violent crime and firearm injuries. The creators of the 1937 HOLC map zoned Philadelphia based in a hierarchical system wherein first-grade and green color zones were used to indicate areas desirable for government-backed mortgage lending and economic development, a second-grade or blue zone for areas that were already developed and stable, a third-grade or yellow zone for areas with evidence of decline and influx of a "low grade population," and fourth-grade or red zone for areas with dilapidated or informal housing and an "undesirable population" of predominately Black residents...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554157/does-neighbourhood-deprivation-affect-the-genetic-influence-on-body-mass
#19
Gwilym Owen, Kelvyn Jones, Richard Harris
Most research into the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of obesity has taken environment to mean behaviours such as exercise and diet. While interesting, this is somewhat at odds with research into the social determinants of obesity, in which the focus has shifted away from individuals and behaviours to the types of wider obesogenic environments in which individuals live, which influence and produce these behaviours. This study combines these two strands of research by investigating how the genetic influence on body mass index (BMI), used as a proxy for obesity, changes across different neighbourhood environments measured by levels of deprivation...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577443/re-working-biographies-women-s-narratives-of-pregnancy-whilst-living-with-epilepsy
#20
Annalise Weckesser, Elaine Denny
This paper explores the multiple ways experiences of pregnancy and early motherhood come to 'rework' the biographies of women living with epilepsy. Pregnancy is explored as a temporarily concurrent status alongside the long-term condition of epilepsy. Narrative interviews were conducted with 32 women from across the UK. Analysis of these narratives suggests that biographical disruption and continuity are both useful in the conceptualisation of women's diverse experiences of pregnancy and epilepsy. Such findings challenge the notion that the presence of a condition over a long period of time leads to the normalisation of illness...
May 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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