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Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547731/in-phase-and-opposed-phase-imaging-applications-of-chemical-shift-and-magnetic-susceptibility-in-the-chest-and-abdomen
#1
Anup S Shetty, Adam L Sipe, Maria Zulfiqar, Richard Tsai, Demetrios A Raptis, Constantine A Raptis, Sanjeev Bhalla
For the radiologist performing body MRI, chemical shift imaging is a unique tool available to investigate the cellular composition of tissue. By leveraging the inherent difference in resonant frequency between water and fat protons that is due to their local chemical environment, chemical shift image acquisition can be timed to image water and fat protons when their collective signals are in phase or out of phase, to determine the relative amount of fat signal and water signal within an individual voxel. Loss of signal intensity between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR images indicates intravoxel lipid and can be used to make definitive benign diagnoses, characterize the tissue composition of solid organs, and serve as an adjunct imaging feature aiding in the diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant processes in the chest and abdomen...
December 14, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547730/invited-commentary-on-an-analysis-of-nipple-enhancement-at-breast-mri-with-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#2
Michael A Cohen, Anna I Holbrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547729/an-analysis-of-nipple-enhancement-at-breast-mri-with-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#3
Yiming Gao, Elena F Brachtel, Osvaldo Hernandez, Samantha L Heller
Breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality for assessment of the nipple-areola complex (NAC), which is important both in cancer staging and in high-risk screening. However, the normal appearance of the nipple at MRI is not well defined because of a paucity of scientific literature on this topic. Hence, there is a lack of descriptive terminology and diagnostic criteria, which may account for the wide variability in interpretation among radiologists when assessing the NAC on MR images. In light of the current shift toward possible expanded use of abbreviated (ie, fast) breast MRI for screening in women at average risk for cancer in particular, and because an increasing number of women now undergo nipple-sparing mastectomy for therapeutic and/or prophylactic indications, careful assessment of the NAC at MRI is essential...
December 14, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526331/encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-the-abdominal-cocoon
#4
Manphool Singhal, Satheesh Krishna, Anupam Lal, Sabarish Narayanasamy, Amanjit Bal, Thakur D Yadav, Rakesh Kochhar, Saroj K Sinha, Niranjan Khandelwal, Adnan M Sheikh
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious condition that results in (a) encapsulation of bowel within a thickened fibrocollagenous peritoneal membrane and (b) recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. Although described by various names in the literature, the preferred term is encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis because it best describes the morphologic and histologic changes in this disorder. The etiology of EPS is multifactorial, with a wide variety of implicated predisposing factors that disrupt the normal physiologic function of the peritoneal membrane-prime among these factors being long-term peritoneal dialysis and bacterial peritoneal infections, especially tuberculosis...
December 7, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500305/normal-anatomy-and-traumatic-injury-of-the-midtarsal-chopart-joint-complex-an-imaging-primer
#5
William R Walter, Anna Hirschmann, Erin F Alaia, Monica Tafur, Zehava S Rosenberg
The midtarsal (Chopart) joint complex consists of the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints and their stabilizing ligaments. Detailed assessment of this complex at MRI can be challenging owing to frequent anatomic variation and the small size of the structures involved. Nevertheless, a wide spectrum of pathologic conditions affect the joint complex, and its imaging evaluation deserves more thorough consideration. This review focuses on MRI evaluation of normal ligamentous anatomy and common variations about the Chopart joint, presenting practical imaging tips and potential diagnostic pitfalls...
November 30, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500304/imaging-of-histiocytosis-in-the-era-of-genomic-medicine
#6
Hyesun Park, Mizuki Nishino, Jason L Hornick, Eric D Jacobsen
Histiocytosis describes a group of diseases that have long been considered enigmatic in the history of medicine. Recently, novel genomic analyses have identified somatic oncogenic driver mutations responsible for the pathogenesis of these entities. These discoveries have led to the recharacterization of histiocytoses as neoplastic diseases and have opened a new era of precision medicine approaches for treatment. The histiocytic disorders demonstrate a variety of imaging manifestations involving multiple organ systems, and radiologists play a major role in diagnosis and monitoring...
November 30, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468629/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-alternative-access-beyond-the-femoral-arterial-approach
#7
Demetrios A Raptis, Michael A Beal, David C Kraft, Hersh S Maniar, Andrew J Bierhals
Aortic stenosis is the most prevalent valvular cardiovascular disease affecting the population over the age of 65 years. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was developed as a minimally invasive surgical intervention to treat aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for surgical complications. Although the most commonly used approach for placement of a transcatheter aortic valve is in retrograde fashion via a transfemoral approach, narrowed luminal diameters, extensive atherosclerotic disease, or significant tortuosity may limit use of this route...
November 23, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468627/pediatric-central-nervous-system-imaging-of-nonaccidental-trauma-beyond-subdural-hematomas
#8
Divya Gunda, Benjamin O Cornwell, Hisham M Dahmoush, Sammer Jazbeh, Anthony M Alleman
Infants and children under 2 years of age are at greatest risk for devastating neurologic complications following nonaccidental trauma. While a subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common finding and is often enough to raise suspicion for abuse, no single injury is pathognomonic for abusive head trauma (AHT). Rather, the combination of imaging and physical findings and the clinical presentation help confirm the diagnosis of AHT. Familiarity with the spectrum of findings and proper identification of the imaging abnormalities is important for the radiologist to facilitate treatment and removal of the patient from the abusive environment...
November 23, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620704/limitations-in-us-diagnosis-of-adenomysosis
#9
Medica Sam, Rishi Philip Matthew, Vimal Patel, Florin Manolea, Gavin Low
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620703/leukemic-involvement-in-the-thorax
#10
Girish S Shroff, Mylene T Truong, Brett W Carter, Marcelo F Benveniste, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Greg Rauch, Chitra Viswanathan, Prajwal C Boddu, Naval Daver, Carol C Wu
Leukemias are malignancies in which abnormal white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, resulting in compromise of normal bone marrow hematopoiesis and subsequent cytopenias. Leukemias are classified as myeloid or lymphoid depending on the type of abnormal cells produced and as acute or chronic according to cellular maturity. The four major types of leukemia are acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clinical manifestations are due to either bone marrow suppression (anemia, thrombocytopenia, or neutropenia) or leukemic organ infiltration...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620702/overcoming-human-barriers-to-safety-event-reporting-in-radiology
#11
Bettina Siewert, Olga R Brook, Suzanne Swedeen, Ronald L Eisenberg, Mary Hochman
In high-reliability industries that are dedicated to ensuring safety, safety event reporting is the cornerstone of improvement. However, human factors can interfere with consistent reporting. Common human factors that are barriers to safety event reporting include liability concerns; time constraints; physician autonomy; self-regulation; collegiality; the lack of listening, language training, and/or feedback regarding reported events; unclear responsibilities within safety teams; and a high reporting threshold...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620701/2018-in-review-and-plans-for-2019
#12
Jeffrey S Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620699/revisiting-prostate-cancer-recurrence-with-psma-pet-atlas-of-typical-and-atypical-patterns-of-spread
#13
Felipe G Barbosa, Marcelo A Queiroz, Rafael F Nunes, Publio C C Viana, José Flávio G Marin, Giovanni G Cerri, Carlos A Buchpiguel
The introduction of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in clinical practice has revolutionized evaluation of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after curative-intent treatment. The high expression of this glycoprotein in prostate cancer cells makes PSMA imaging superior to the current conventional staging methods, namely bone scanning and CT. The high capability of PSMA imaging for identifying very small previously undetected lesions has been widely demonstrated in the literature, leading to a rethinking of patient management by oncologists, urologists, and radiation oncologists...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620698/dual-energy-ct-in-evaluation-of-the-acute-abdomen
#14
Nicolas Murray, Kathryn E Darras, Frances E Walstra, Mohammed F Mohammed, Patrick D McLaughlin, Savvas Nicolaou
Evaluation of the nontraumatic acute abdomen with multidetector CT has long been accepted and validated as the reference standard in the acute setting. Dual-energy CT has emerged as a promising tool, with multiple clinical applications in abdominal imaging already demonstrated. With its ability to allow characterization of materials on the basis of their differential attenuation when imaged at two different energy levels, dual-energy CT can help identify the composition of internal body constituents. Therefore, it is possible to selectively identify iodine to assess the enhancement pattern of an organ, including the identification of hyperenhancement in cases of inflammatory processes, or ischemic changes secondary to vascular compromise...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620697/connective-tissue-disorders-in-childhood-are-they-all-the-same
#15
María Navallas, Emilio J Inarejos Clemente, Estíbaliz Iglesias, Mónica Rebollo-Polo, Jordi Antón, Oscar M Navarro
Systemic connective tissue disorders are characterized by the presence of autoantibodies and multiorgan system involvement. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with or without associated antiphospholipid syndrome; juvenile dermatomyositis; sclerodermiform syndromes, including systemic and localized sclerodermas and eosinophilic fasciitis; mixed connective tissue disease; and Sjögren syndrome are the disorders that affect children most frequently. Diagnosis is difficult, because the clinical presentation of patients is diverse, from mild to severe disease...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620696/selective-chemoembolization-of-caudate-lobe-hepatocellular-carcinoma-anatomy-and-procedural-techniques
#16
Hyo-Cheol Kim, Shiro Miyayama, Jin Wook Chung
Transarterial chemoembolization is the most common treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, when an HCC is located in the caudate lobe, many interventional radiologists are reluctant to perform chemoembolization and percutaneous ablation owing to the tumor's complex vascular supply and deep location. With the advent of C-arm CT, rendering the three-dimensional display of the hepatic artery and detecting the tumor-feeding vessels are possible and can help guide interventional radiologists to the tumor...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620695/acute-nontraumatic-back-pain-infections-and-mimics
#17
Olga Laur, Jacob C Mandell, David S Titelbaum, Charles Cho, Stacy E Smith, Bharti Khurana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620694/perfusion-scintigraphy-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Farshad Moradi, Timothy A Morris, Carl K Hoh
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening complication of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Because the treatment of CTEPH is markedly different from that of other types of pulmonary hypertension, lung ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy is recommended for the workup of patients with unexplained pulmonary hypertension. Lung V/Q scintigraphy is superior to CT pulmonary angiography for detecting CTEPH. Perfusion defect findings of CTEPH can be different from those of acute PE...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620693/adult-leukodystrophies-a-step-by-step-diagnostic-approach
#19
Lucas Lopes Resende, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão de Paiva, Fernando Kok, Claudia da Costa Leite, Leandro Tavares Lucato
Leukodystrophies usually affect children, but in the last several decades, many instances of adult leukodystrophies have been reported in the medical literature. Because the clinical manifestation of these diseases can be nonspecific, MRI can help with establishing a diagnosis. A step-by-step approach to assist in the diagnosis of adult leukodystrophies is proposed in this article. The first step is to identify symmetric white matter involvement, which is more commonly observed in these patients. The next step is to fit the symmetric white matter involvement into one of the proposed patterns...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620692/videofluoroscopic-evaluation-of-normal-and-impaired-oropharyngeal-swallowing
#20
Javier Azpeitia Armán, Rosa M Lorente-Ramos, Pilar Gete García, Teresa Collazo Lorduy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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