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Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230385/auditory-cue-absence-as-a-conditioned-stimulus-for-delay-eyeblink-conditioning
#1
Matthew M Campolattaro, Sean W Savage, Olga Lipatova
The present experiment was designed to determine if the absence of an auditory cue (i.e., a "tone-off" cue) would be an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) for delay eyeblink conditioning and to test if the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) is part of the sensory pathway for tone-off conditioning. Rats were given paired or unpaired delay eyeblink conditioning to examine if responding to a tone-off CS was due to an associative process. An inactivation technique was performed on a separate group of rats to determine if the MGN is needed to express tone-off conditioning...
February 23, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221082/partial-lesion-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-pathway-in-rats-impairs-egocentric-learning-but-not-spatial-learning-or-behavioral-flexibility
#2
Katharine M Seip-Cammack, James J Young, Megan E Young, Matthew L Shapiro
Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, but the etiology of the cognitive deficits remains unclear. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway. Rats received bilateral infusions of either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle into the dorsolateral striatum and were tested in spatial and procedural learning tasks. Compared with intact rats, DA-depleted rats were impaired when the first task they learned required egocentric responses...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221081/threat-intensity-widens-fear-generalization-gradients
#3
Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Stephen H Braren, Elizabeth A Phelps
Research in nonhuman animals reveals threat-sensitive generalization of defensive behavior that favors widespread generalization when threat intensity is high and limited generalization (i.e., specificity) when threat intensity is low. Here, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to systematically investigate whether threat intensity widens behavioral generalization gradients to stimuli that decreasingly resemble a learned threat cue. Using a between-subjects design, volunteers underwent fear conditioning with a tone paired with either a high-intensity or low-intensity aversive stimulus prior to a test of fear generalization to novel tones...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221080/blockade-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-primate-basolateral-amygdala-suppresses-active-behavior-without-altering-social-interaction
#4
Patrick A Forcelli, Laurie L Wellman, Ludise Malkova
The amygdala is an integrator of affective processing, and a key component of a network regulating social behavior. While decades of lesion studies in nonhuman primates have shown alterations in social interactions after amygdala damage, acute manipulations of the amygdala in primates have been underexplored. We recently reported (Wellman, Forcelli, Aguilar, & Malkova, 2016) that acute pharmacological inhibition of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) or the central nucleus of the amygdala increased affiliative social interactions in experimental dyads of macaques; this was achieved through microinjection of a GABA-A receptor agonist...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221079/cue-induced-food-seeking-after-punishment-is-associated-with-increased-fos-expression-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-basolateral-and-medial-amygdala
#5
Erin J Campbell, David J Barker, Helen M Nasser, Konstantin Kaganovsky, Christopher V Dayas, Nathan J Marchant
In humans, relapse to unhealthy eating habits following dieting is a significant impediment to obesity treatment. Food-associated cues are one of the main triggers of relapse to unhealthy eating during self-imposed abstinence. Here we report a behavioral method examining cue-induced relapse to food seeking following punishment-induced suppression of food taking. We trained male rats to lever press for food pellets that were delivered after a 10-s conditional stimulus (CS) (appetitive). Following training, 25% of reinforced lever presses resulted in the presentation of a compound stimulus consisting of a novel CS (aversive) and the appetitive CS followed by a pellet and footshock...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054809/differential-patterns-of-constant-frequency-50-and-22-khz-usv-production-are-related-to-intensity-of-negative-affective-state
#6
James O Taylor, Catherine M Urbano, Brenton G Cooper
Adult rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are a valuable tool for noninvasively assessing an animal's emotional state. USVs are produced in 1 of 2 frequency ranges labeled as 22 kHz or 50 kHz vocalizations. One USV subtype within the 50 kHz call category, constant frequency 50 kHz (CF 50 kHz) calls, is not viewed as signaling an emotional state. The current study tested the hypothesis that CF 50 kHz calls are related to a mild negative affective state. In Experiment 1, diazepam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg), or control injections were administered prior to receiving a sequence of mild footshocks (0...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054808/cognitive-impairment-in-heart-failure-a-protective-role-for-angiotensin-1-7
#7
Meredith Hay, Todd W Vanderah, Farmin Samareh-Jahani, Eleni Constantopoulos, Ajay R Uprety, Carol A Barnes, John Konhilas
Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have increased hospital readmission rates and mortality if they are concomitantly diagnosed with cognitive decline and memory loss. Accordingly, we developed a preclinical model of CHF-induced cognitive impairment with the goal of developing novel protective therapies against CHF related cognitive decline. CHF was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery to instigate a myocardial infarction (MI). By 4- and 8-weeks post-MI, CHF mice had approximately a 50% and 70% decline in ejection fraction as measured by echocardiography...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054807/retrograde-amnesia-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-evidence-for-retrosplenial-cortex-involvement-in-configural-processing
#8
Travis P Todd, Nicole E DeAngeli, Matthew Y Jiang, David J Bucci
It has been suggested that contextual fear conditioning can be supported by either an elemental system, where individual features of the environment are associated with shock, or a configural system, where environmental features are bound together and associated with shock. Although the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to be involved in contextual fear conditioning, it is not clear whether it contributes to the elemental or configural system. To isolate the role of the RSC in contextual fear conditioning, the current experiments examined the influence of RSC lesions on the context preexposure facilitation effect, a procedure known to produce conditioning to a configural representation of context...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054806/early-amygdala-or-hippocampus-damage-influences-adolescent-female-social-behavior-during-group-formation
#9
Gilda Moadab, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Melissa D Bauman, David G Amaral
This study continues a longitudinal analysis of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. The social behavior of female subjects was evaluated at a critical developmental time point-the transition to adulthood. At approximately 4 years of age, female subjects were housed in small groups with other female subjects and reproductively viable adult males. As compared with neurologically intact control animals and animals with early amygdala damage, animals with early hippocampal damage were more social with their female peers...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004955/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-modulates-associative-learning-between-environmental-cues-and-reward-probability
#10
Sam Hall-McMaster, Jessica Millar, Ming Ruan, Ryan D Ward
It has recently been recognized that orbitofrontal cortex has 2 subdivisions that are anatomically and functionally distinct. Most rodent research has focused on the lateral subdivision, leaving the medial subdivision (mOFC) relatively unexplored. We recently showed that inhibiting mOFC neurons eliminated the differential impact of reward probability cues on discrimination accuracy in a sustained attention task. In the present study, we tested whether increasing mOFC neuronal activity in rats would accelerate acquisition of reward contingencies...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004954/successful-and-unsuccessful-response-inhibitions-differentially-affect-the-effective-connectivity-between-insular-presupplementary-motor-and-striatal-areas
#11
Roberto Limongi, Francisco J Pérez
Successful response inhibition depends upon the delay between the cues that signal a response and its subsequent inhibition. Previous studies report activity in the right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), right anterior insula (rAI), and the right striatum (rSTR) when subjects attempt to inhibit responses. Although these regions are anatomically connected, how they interact during successful and unsuccessful inhibitions has not been studied. In this work, we used a temporal prediction task, functional MRI, and dynamic causal modeling to solve this question...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004953/phosphorylation-of-tyrosine-receptor-kinase-b-in-the-dorsal-striatum-and-dorsal-hippocampus-is-associated-with-response-learning-in-a-water-plus-maze
#12
Amanda R Pahng, Paul J Colombo
The dorsal hippocampus and dorsal striatum have dissociable roles in learning and memory that are related to region-specific changes in proteins necessary for neuronal plasticity and memory formation. There is additional evidence that the hippocampus and striatum can interact during memory formation. Phosphorylation of tyrosine receptor kinase B is important for memory formation in the hippocampus, but whether or not it has a role in striatum-dependent learning, or in interactions between the hippocampus and striatum, has not been examined...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004952/the-ventral-dentate-gyrus-mediates-pattern-separation-for-reward-value
#13
Ryan A Kirk, Sarah N Redmon, Raymond P Kesner
Rats with ventral dentate gyrus (DG) lesions, sham lesions, and controls were run in a runway for 20 pellets of food. After reaching running speed asymptote, the number of pellets was reduced to 1, 9, or 17 pellets. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether the ventral DG subregion of the hippocampus plays a role in pattern separation for reward value. The results indicated that sham lesioned and control rats displayed a graded decrease in runway velocities, supporting a pattern separation process...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004951/age-related-impairment-on-a-forced-choice-version-of-the-mnemonic-similarity-task
#14
Derek J Huffman, Craig E L Stark
Previous studies from our lab have indicated that healthy older adults are impaired in their ability to mnemonically discriminate between previously viewed objects and similar lure objects in the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). These studies have used either old/similar/new or old/new test formats. The forced-choice test format (e.g., "Did you see object A or object A' during the encoding phase?") relies on different assumptions than the old/new test format (e.g., "Did you see this object during the encoding phase?"); hence, converging evidence from these approaches would bolster the conclusion that healthy aging is accompanied by impaired performance on the MST...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004950/stimulation-of-5-ht2a-receptors-recovers-sensory-responsiveness-in-acute-spinal-neonatal-rats
#15
Hillary E Swann, Sierra D Kauer, Jacob T Allmond, Michele R Brumley
Quipazine is a 5-HT2A-receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004949/effects-of-endothelin-induced-prefrontal-cortical-lesions-on-delay-discounting-in-the-rat
#16
Robert A Déziel, R Andrew Tasker
Stroke is one of the most prominent causes of neurological disability, and the number of stroke cases worldwide is expected to grow due to increases in both average life span and population. As such, new methods for both acute treatment and poststroke rehabilitation will be increasingly necessary. Although a number of approaches to restoring motor function poststroke are in development, there are few methods to alleviate the cognitive deficits caused by this disease. As well, there are very few preclinical models of stroke with a specific focus on higher-order cognitive functions...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893223/intervention-with-the-mother-infant-relationship-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-female-rat-pups
#17
Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann Duarte, Márcia Scherem de Azevedo, Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Aldo Bolten Lucion
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus involved in several neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. During the neonatal period, the LC is critical for olfactory learning. Full development occurs during the early postnatal period. Environmental interventions after birth may affect neurogenesis. In rats, the neonatal handling procedure has been used as a model to analyze the effects of environmental intervention early in life. It has been related to several long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854448/ventral-striatal-lesions-disrupt-dopamine-neuron-signaling-of-differences-in-cue-value-caused-by-changes-in-reward-timing-but-not-number
#18
Yuji K Takahashi, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
We recently showed that ventral striatal (VS) lesions abolished reward prediction errors that reflect changes in reward timing while leaving relatively unaffected errors that reflect changes in reward number. Here we extended those results by examining whether normal learning-related changes in firing to the reward-predictive cues in the same dopamine neurons were also disrupted by VS lesions. This analysis revealed that dopamine neurons recorded in VS-lesioned rats failed to show value-related changes in firing to the cues in timing but showed normal changes in number blocks...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854447/cerebellar-response-to-familiar-and-novel-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#19
Meghan D Caulfield, David C Zhu, J Devin McAuley, Richard J Servatius
Historically known for its key contribution to motor behavior, the cerebellum continues to break boundaries. Researchers have demonstrated the cerebellum also plays a role in learning, memory, and more recent evidence for contributions in language, attention, working memory, emotions, and social processes. Here, we present a study that adds to the list of nonmotor processes of the cerebellum. We used images of faces and outdoor scenes to examine the cerebellar response to familiar and novel stimuli. Participants were familiarized with a subset of stimuli, and then underwent functional MRI (fMRI) where they were presented with the previously stimuli and new stimuli while making "old" and "new" judgment...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854446/introduction-to-the-special-section-on-new-ideas-about-cerebellar-function
#20
Barbara J Knowlton
Richard Thompson's seminal contributions to neuroscience include the discovery of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus as the site of essential plasticity in the formation of the conditioned eyeblink response. In this section, context for this body of research is provided, as well as new findings on cerebellar function using a range of procedures. Current work on the role of the cerebellum in learning and memory include studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of plasticity in cortex and deep nuclei, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
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