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Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054809/differential-patterns-of-constant-frequency-50-and-22-khz-usv-production-are-related-to-intensity-of-negative-affective-state
#1
James O Taylor, Catherine M Urbano, Brenton G Cooper
Adult rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are a valuable tool for noninvasively assessing an animal's emotional state. USVs are produced in 1 of 2 frequency ranges labeled as 22 kHz or 50 kHz vocalizations. One USV subtype within the 50 kHz call category, constant frequency 50 kHz (CF 50 kHz) calls, is not viewed as signaling an emotional state. The current study tested the hypothesis that CF 50 kHz calls are related to a mild negative affective state. In Experiment 1, diazepam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg), or control injections were administered prior to receiving a sequence of mild footshocks (0...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054808/cognitive-impairment-in-heart-failure-a-protective-role-for-angiotensin-1-7
#2
Meredith Hay, Todd W Vanderah, Farmin Samareh-Jahani, Eleni Constantopoulos, Ajay R Uprety, Carol A Barnes, John Konhilas
Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have increased hospital readmission rates and mortality if they are concomitantly diagnosed with cognitive decline and memory loss. Accordingly, we developed a preclinical model of CHF-induced cognitive impairment with the goal of developing novel protective therapies against CHF related cognitive decline. CHF was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery to instigate a myocardial infarction (MI). By 4- and 8-weeks post-MI, CHF mice had approximately a 50% and 70% decline in ejection fraction as measured by echocardiography...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054807/retrograde-amnesia-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-evidence-for-retrosplenial-cortex-involvement-in-configural-processing
#3
Travis P Todd, Nicole E DeAngeli, Matthew Y Jiang, David J Bucci
It has been suggested that contextual fear conditioning can be supported by either an elemental system, where individual features of the environment are associated with shock, or a configural system, where environmental features are bound together and associated with shock. Although the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to be involved in contextual fear conditioning, it is not clear whether it contributes to the elemental or configural system. To isolate the role of the RSC in contextual fear conditioning, the current experiments examined the influence of RSC lesions on the context preexposure facilitation effect, a procedure known to produce conditioning to a configural representation of context...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054806/early-amygdala-or-hippocampus-damage-influences-adolescent-female-social-behavior-during-group-formation
#4
Gilda Moadab, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Melissa D Bauman, David G Amaral
This study continues a longitudinal analysis of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. The social behavior of female subjects was evaluated at a critical developmental time point-the transition to adulthood. At approximately 4 years of age, female subjects were housed in small groups with other female subjects and reproductively viable adult males. As compared with neurologically intact control animals and animals with early amygdala damage, animals with early hippocampal damage were more social with their female peers...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004955/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-modulates-associative-learning-between-environmental-cues-and-reward-probability
#5
Sam Hall-McMaster, Jessica Millar, Ming Ruan, Ryan D Ward
It has recently been recognized that orbitofrontal cortex has 2 subdivisions that are anatomically and functionally distinct. Most rodent research has focused on the lateral subdivision, leaving the medial subdivision (mOFC) relatively unexplored. We recently showed that inhibiting mOFC neurons eliminated the differential impact of reward probability cues on discrimination accuracy in a sustained attention task. In the present study, we tested whether increasing mOFC neuronal activity in rats would accelerate acquisition of reward contingencies...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004954/successful-and-unsuccessful-response-inhibitions-differentially-affect-the-effective-connectivity-between-insular-presupplementary-motor-and-striatal-areas
#6
Roberto Limongi, Francisco J Pérez
Successful response inhibition depends upon the delay between the cues that signal a response and its subsequent inhibition. Previous studies report activity in the right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), right anterior insula (rAI), and the right striatum (rSTR) when subjects attempt to inhibit responses. Although these regions are anatomically connected, how they interact during successful and unsuccessful inhibitions has not been studied. In this work, we used a temporal prediction task, functional MRI, and dynamic causal modeling to solve this question...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004953/phosphorylation-of-tyrosine-receptor-kinase-b-in-the-dorsal-striatum-and-dorsal-hippocampus-is-associated-with-response-learning-in-a-water-plus-maze
#7
Amanda R Pahng, Paul J Colombo
The dorsal hippocampus and dorsal striatum have dissociable roles in learning and memory that are related to region-specific changes in proteins necessary for neuronal plasticity and memory formation. There is additional evidence that the hippocampus and striatum can interact during memory formation. Phosphorylation of tyrosine receptor kinase B is important for memory formation in the hippocampus, but whether or not it has a role in striatum-dependent learning, or in interactions between the hippocampus and striatum, has not been examined...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004952/the-ventral-dentate-gyrus-mediates-pattern-separation-for-reward-value
#8
Ryan A Kirk, Sarah N Redmon, Raymond P Kesner
Rats with ventral dentate gyrus (DG) lesions, sham lesions, and controls were run in a runway for 20 pellets of food. After reaching running speed asymptote, the number of pellets was reduced to 1, 9, or 17 pellets. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether the ventral DG subregion of the hippocampus plays a role in pattern separation for reward value. The results indicated that sham lesioned and control rats displayed a graded decrease in runway velocities, supporting a pattern separation process...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004951/age-related-impairment-on-a-forced-choice-version-of-the-mnemonic-similarity-task
#9
Derek J Huffman, Craig E L Stark
Previous studies from our lab have indicated that healthy older adults are impaired in their ability to mnemonically discriminate between previously viewed objects and similar lure objects in the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). These studies have used either old/similar/new or old/new test formats. The forced-choice test format (e.g., "Did you see object A or object A' during the encoding phase?") relies on different assumptions than the old/new test format (e.g., "Did you see this object during the encoding phase?"); hence, converging evidence from these approaches would bolster the conclusion that healthy aging is accompanied by impaired performance on the MST...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004950/stimulation-of-5-ht2a-receptors-recovers-sensory-responsiveness-in-acute-spinal-neonatal-rats
#10
Hillary E Swann, Sierra D Kauer, Jacob T Allmond, Michele R Brumley
Quipazine is a 5-HT2A-receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004949/effects-of-endothelin-induced-prefrontal-cortical-lesions-on-delay-discounting-in-the-rat
#11
Robert A Déziel, R Andrew Tasker
Stroke is one of the most prominent causes of neurological disability, and the number of stroke cases worldwide is expected to grow due to increases in both average life span and population. As such, new methods for both acute treatment and poststroke rehabilitation will be increasingly necessary. Although a number of approaches to restoring motor function poststroke are in development, there are few methods to alleviate the cognitive deficits caused by this disease. As well, there are very few preclinical models of stroke with a specific focus on higher-order cognitive functions...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893223/intervention-with-the-mother-infant-relationship-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-female-rat-pups
#12
Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann Duarte, Márcia Scherem de Azevedo, Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Aldo Bolten Lucion
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus involved in several neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. During the neonatal period, the LC is critical for olfactory learning. Full development occurs during the early postnatal period. Environmental interventions after birth may affect neurogenesis. In rats, the neonatal handling procedure has been used as a model to analyze the effects of environmental intervention early in life. It has been related to several long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes...
November 28, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854448/ventral-striatal-lesions-disrupt-dopamine-neuron-signaling-of-differences-in-cue-value-caused-by-changes-in-reward-timing-but-not-number
#13
Yuji K Takahashi, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
We recently showed that ventral striatal (VS) lesions abolished reward prediction errors that reflect changes in reward timing while leaving relatively unaffected errors that reflect changes in reward number. Here we extended those results by examining whether normal learning-related changes in firing to the reward-predictive cues in the same dopamine neurons were also disrupted by VS lesions. This analysis revealed that dopamine neurons recorded in VS-lesioned rats failed to show value-related changes in firing to the cues in timing but showed normal changes in number blocks...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854447/cerebellar-response-to-familiar-and-novel-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#14
Meghan D Caulfield, David C Zhu, J Devin McAuley, Richard J Servatius
Historically known for its key contribution to motor behavior, the cerebellum continues to break boundaries. Researchers have demonstrated the cerebellum also plays a role in learning, memory, and more recent evidence for contributions in language, attention, working memory, emotions, and social processes. Here, we present a study that adds to the list of nonmotor processes of the cerebellum. We used images of faces and outdoor scenes to examine the cerebellar response to familiar and novel stimuli. Participants were familiarized with a subset of stimuli, and then underwent functional MRI (fMRI) where they were presented with the previously stimuli and new stimuli while making "old" and "new" judgment...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854446/introduction-to-the-special-section-on-new-ideas-about-cerebellar-function
#15
Barbara J Knowlton
Richard Thompson's seminal contributions to neuroscience include the discovery of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus as the site of essential plasticity in the formation of the conditioned eyeblink response. In this section, context for this body of research is provided, as well as new findings on cerebellar function using a range of procedures. Current work on the role of the cerebellum in learning and memory include studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of plasticity in cortex and deep nuclei, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786501/participation-of-progesterone-receptors-in-facilitation-and-sequential-inhibition-of-lordosis-response-induced-by-ring-a-reduced-progesterone-metabolites-in-female-mice
#16
Wendy Portillo, Oscar González-Flores, Francisco J Camacho, Shaila K Mani, Raúl G Paredes
Sexual receptivity in female rodents induced by the sequential injection of estrogen and progesterone is followed by a period in which females do not respond behaviorally to a second administration of progesterone (P); this is known as sequential inhibition. It has been proposed that the induction of sequential inhibition by progesterone in rats depends on down regulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) in brain areas involved in the expression of female sexual receptivity. P is rapidly metabolized to a variety of 5α- or 5β-ring A-reduced progestins (RPrg)...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786500/effects-of-hydrocortisone-on-false-memory-recognition-in-healthy-men-and-women
#17
Moritz Duesenberg, Juliane Weber, Carmen Schaeuffele, Juliane Fleischer, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Stefan Roepke, Steffen Moritz, Christian Otte, Katja Wingenfeld
Most of the studies focusing on the effect of stress on false memories by using psychosocial and physiological stressors yielded diverse results. In the present study, we systematically tested the effect of exogenous hydrocortisone using a false memory paradigm. In this placebo-controlled study, 37 healthy men and 38 healthy women (mean age 24.59 years) received either 10 mg of hydrocortisone or placebo 75 min before using the false memory, that is, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM), paradigm. We used emotionally charged and neutral DRM-based word lists to look for false recognition rates in comparison to true recognition rates...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748617/cerebellar-activation-during-motor-sequence-learning-is-associated-with-subsequent-transfer-to-new-sequences
#18
Renee E Shimizu, Allan D Wu, Barbara J Knowlton
Effective learning results not only in improved performance on a practiced task, but also in the ability to transfer the acquired knowledge to novel, similar tasks. Using a modified serial reaction time (RT) task, the authors examined the ability to transfer to novel sequences after practicing sequences in a repetitive order versus a nonrepeating interleaved order. Interleaved practice resulted in better performance on new sequences than repetitive practice. In a second study, participants practiced interleaved sequences in a functional MRI (fMRI) scanner and received a transfer test of novel sequences...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709986/estradiol-is-associated-with-altered-cognitive-and-physiological-responses-during-fear-conditioning-and-extinction-in-healthy-and-spider-phobic-women
#19
Stella Li, Bronwyn M Graham
The first-line psychological treatment for anxiety disorders is exposure therapy, which can be modeled in the laboratory using fear extinction. In healthy women, estradiol levels predict return of fear following extinction, whereas low levels are associated with greater return of fear. Investigating whether estradiol is similarly associated with extinction in clinically anxious women may provide insight to mechanisms underlying symptom relapse following exposure therapy. In the present study, women with spider phobia and healthy women participated in a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction procedure during a period of high or low estradiol levels...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657308/serotonin-estrus-and-social-context-influence-c-fos-immunoreactivity-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#20
Jessica L Hanson, Laura M Hurley
A fundamental task of sensory systems is to extract relevant social information from a range of environmental stimuli in the face of changing behavioral contexts and reproductive states. Neuromodulatory pathways that interact with such contextual variables are 1 mechanism for achieving this. In the mouse inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain auditory region, the neuromodulator serotonin increases in females interacting with courting males, but events downstream of serotonin release have not been investigated...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
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