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Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805433/overriding-actions-in-parkinson-s-disease-impaired-stopping-and-changing-of-motor-responses
#1
Wery P M van den Wildenberg, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Joseph S Neimat, Theodore R Bashore, Scott A Wylie
We administered a stop-change paradigm, an extended version of the stop task that requires (a) stopping an ongoing motor response and (b) changing to an alternative (change) response. Performance of a group of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) and taking dopaminergic medication was compared with that of matched healthy control (HC) participants. Behavioral results indicated that response latencies to the initial go signal did not distinguish between the 2 groups, but that stopping latencies were prolonged in PD patients...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805432/strain-dependent-sex-differences-in-a-long-term-forced-swim-paradigm
#2
José Colom-Lapetina, Sabrina L Begley, Megan E Johnson, Kristina J Bean, Whitney N Kuwamoto, Rebecca M Shansky
Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The development of improved therapeutic interventions is contingent upon a more complete grasp of both the neural and behavioral dynamics of the stress response in females. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is a valuable animal model for exploring the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for selection of active and passive responses to inescapable stressors, but it is often neglected in 2-day FST studies is the dissociation of innate (Day 1) versus learned (Day 2) coping responses...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805431/disentangling-the-effects-of-serotonin-on-risk-perception-s-carriers-of-5-httlpr-are-primarily-concerned-with-the-magnitude-of-the-outcomes-not-the-uncertainty
#3
Philip Millroth, Peter Juslin, Elias Eriksson, Thomas Agren
Serotonin signaling is vital for reward processing, and hence, also for decision-making. The serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been connected to decision making, suggesting that short-allele carriers (s) are more risk averse than long-allele homozygotes (ll). However, previous research has not identified if this occurs because s-carriers (i) are more sensitive to the uncertainty of the outcomes or (ii) are more sensitive to the magnitude of the outcomes. This issue was disentangled using a willingness-to-pay task, where the participants evaluated prospects involving certain gains, uncertain gains, and ambiguous gains...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805430/context-specific-habituation-of-the-freezing-response-in-newborn-chicks
#4
Cinzia Chiandetti, Massimo Turatto
Previous studies have found that in mature animals habituation is context-specific in some species but not in others. Given the mixed evidence present in the literature, we decided to explore whether habituation is context-specific in newborn chicks. The results showed that 3 days after hatching, chicks were capable of using global contextual information to rapidly habituate their freezing response to a series of sudden acoustic stimuli. Our study is the 1st to show context-specific habituation in this avian species, a result in agreement with those of previous findings in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805429/the-effect-of-scopolamine-on-matching-behavior-and-the-estimation-of-relative-reward-magnitude
#5
Matthew I Leon, Vanessa Rodriguez-Barrera, Aldo Amaya
We investigated the behavioral effects of scopolamine on rats that bar pressed for trains of electrically stimulating pulses under concurrent variable interval schedules of reward. For the first half of the session (30 min) a 1:4 ratio in the programmed number of stimulation trains delivered at each option was in effect. At the start of the second half of the session, an unsignaled reversal in the relative train number (4:1) occurred. We tracked the relative magnitude of reward estimated for each contiguous pair of reinforced visits to competing options...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805428/ventral-striatum-lesions-do-not-affect-reinforcement-learning-with-deterministic-outcomes-on-slow-time-scales
#6
Raquel Vicario-Feliciano, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
A large body of work has implicated the ventral striatum (VS) in aspects of reinforcement learning (RL). However, less work has directly examined the effects of lesions in the VS, or other forms of inactivation, on 2-armed bandit RL tasks. We have recently found that lesions in the VS in macaque monkeys affect learning with stochastic schedules but have minimal effects with deterministic schedules. The reasons for this are not currently clear. Because our previous work used short intertrial intervals, one possibility is that the animals were using working memory to bridge stimulus-reward associations from 1 trial to the next...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714720/the-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-sugar-and-or-caffeine-consumption-in-adult-and-adolescent-rats
#7
Jane L Franklin, Travis A Wearne, Judi Homewood, Jennifer L Cornish
Caffeine is a psychostimulant frequently consumed by adults and children, often in combination with high levels of sugar. Chronic pretreatment with either substance can amplify both amphetamine and cocaine-induced hyperactivity in rodents. The present study sought to elucidate whether age at the time of exposure to sugar and/or caffeine alters sensitivity to an acute illicit psychostimulant (methamphetamine, [METH]) challenge in adulthood. Adult and adolescent (Postnatal Day 35 on first day of treatment) male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 26 days with water, caffeine (0...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714719/temporal-ventriloquism-effect-in-european-starlings-evidence-for-two-parallel-processing-pathways
#8
Gesa Feenders, Yoko Kato, Katharina M Borzeszkowski, Georg M Klump
The brain constantly has to interpret stimuli from a range of modalities originating from the same or different objects to create unambiguous percepts. The mechanisms of such multisensory processing have been intensely studied with respect to the time window of integration or the effect of spatial separation. However, the neural mechanisms remain elusive with respect to the role of alerting effects and multisensory integration. We addressed this issue by choosing a test paradigm where we could manipulate potentially alerting stimuli and simultaneously activating stimuli independently: We measured the temporal ventriloquism effect in European starlings by using the temporal order judgment paradigm with subjects judging the temporal order of the lighting of 2 spatially separated lights...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714718/multiple-sclerosis-reduces-sensitivity-to-immediate-reward-during-decision-making
#9
Elisabetta Grippa, Manuela Sellitto, Cristina Scarpazza, Flavia Mattioli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often face important health-related and financial decisions that involve trade-offs between short-term and long-term benefits, yet decision making is rarely studied in MS patients. The temporal discounting paradigm is a useful tool for investigating such time-dependent choices in humans. Here, we investigated whether patients with relapsing-remitting MS differed from healthy controls when making choices between hypothetical monetary rewards available at different points in time...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714717/acetylcholine-contributes-to-the-integration-of-self-movement-cues-in-head-direction-cells
#10
Ryan M Yoder, Jeremy H M Chan, Jeffrey S Taube
Acetylcholine contributes to accurate performance on some navigational tasks, but details of its contribution to the underlying brain signals are not fully understood. The medial septal area provides widespread cholinergic input to various brain regions, but selective damage to medial septal cholinergic neurons generally has little effect on landmark-based navigation, or the underlying neural representations of location and directional heading in visual environments. In contrast, the loss of medial septal cholinergic neurons disrupts navigation based on path integration, but no studies have tested whether these path integration deficits are associated with disrupted head direction (HD) cell activity...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#11
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714715/the-development-of-perineuronal-nets-around-parvalbumin-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basolateral-amygdala-of-rats
#12
Kathryn D Baker, Arielle R Gray, Rick Richardson
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures that preferentially surround mature GABAergic neurons that express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). It has been suggested that aberrant PNN formation in humans may contribute to psychological disorders, many of which emerge during childhood and adolescence. The present experiment investigated the normative developmental trajectory of PNN formation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in juvenile (P24), adolescent (P35-36), and adult (∼P70) rats...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714714/no-evidence-for-enhancements-to-visual-working-memory-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-prefrontal-or-posterior-parietal-cortices
#13
Matthew K Robison, William P McGuirk, Nash Unsworth
The present study examined the relative contributions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to visual working memory. Evidence from a number of different techniques has led to the theory that the PFC controls access to working memory (i.e., filtering), determining which information is encoded and maintained for later use whereas the parietal cortex determines how much information is held at 1 given time, regardless of relevance (i.e., capacity; McNab & Klingberg, 2008; Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005)...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714713/promoting-transparency-and-reproducibility-in-behavioral-neuroscience-publishing-replications-registered-reports-and-null-results
#14
Mark G Baxter, Rebecca D Burwell
The editors of Behavioral Neuroscience have been discussing several recent developments in the landscape of scientific publishing. The discussion was prompted, in part, by reported issues of reproducibility and concerns about the integrity of the scientific literature. Although enhanced rigor and transparency in science are certainly important, a related issue is that increased competition and focus on novel findings has impeded the extent to which the scientific process is cumulative. We have decided to join the growing number of journals that are adopting new reviewing and publishing practices to address these problems...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541079/child-gender-influences-paternal-behavior-language-and-brain-function
#15
Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly E Rentscher, Patrick D Hackett, Matthias R Mehl, James K Rilling
Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541078/ensembles-in-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-construct-cognitive-maps-emphasizing-different-features-of-the-behavioral-landscape
#16
Nina Lopatina, Brian F Sadacca, Michael A McDannald, Clay V Styer, Jacob F Peterson, Joseph F Cheer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in the ability to use the current value of expected outcomes to guide behavior. More recently, this specific role has been conceptualized as a special case of a more general function that OFC plays in constructing a "cognitive map" of the behavioral task space by labeling the current task state and learning relationships among task states. Here, we have used single unit recording data from 2 prior studies to examine whether and how information relating different states within and across trials is represented in medial versus lateral OFC in rats...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471224/flavors-paired-with-internal-pain-or-with-nausea-elicit-divergent-types-of-hedonic-responses
#17
Dominic M Dwyer, Patricia Gasalla, Stefana Bura, Matías López
Pairing a taste with either internal pain (e.g., from hypertonic saline injection) or nausea (e.g., from LiCl administration) will reduce subsequent consumption of that taste. Here we examine the responses to a taste paired with either hypertonic saline or LiCl using the analysis of licking microstructure (mean lick cluster size: Experiments 1-3), taste reactivity (examining the distribution of appetitive and aversive orofacial responses: Experiments 2-3), and immobility (as a measure of fear: Experiments 2-3)...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471223/social-stress-in-early-puberty-has-long-term-impacts-on-impulsive-action
#18
Lina Fernanda González-Martínez, John D'Aigle, Steven M Lee, Hongjoo J Lee, Yvon Delville
In hamsters, individuals attacked by adults during puberty become aggressive adults. Perhaps, enhanced aggression observed as repeated attacks toward opponents is associated with a lack of impulse control. We examined impulsive action in male golden hamsters exposed daily to aggressive adults from postnatal Day 28 to 42. These animals were trained in conditioning chambers and tested during adulthood in a go-no-go task addressing action inhibition. Overall, previously stressed hamsters were less likely to inhibit a conditioned lever pressing response during no-go trials...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333492/perceptual-and-memory-inhibition-deficits-in-clinically-healthy-older-adults-are-associated-with-region-specific-doubly-dissociable-patterns-of-cortical-thinning
#19
Teal S Eich, Qolamreza R Razlighi, Yaakov Stern
Converging evidence suggests that the cognitive control processes that enable the inhibition of irrelevant information on a perceptual versus a memorial basis are qualitatively different and are underlain by unique neural systems that may be affected differentially in aging. In the current study, we investigated whether individual differences in performance on these 2 types of inhibitory processes were attributable to region-specific patterns of cortical thinning. Clinically healthy older adults completed a pair of behavioral memory and perceptual inhibition tasks and then underwent structural brain imaging...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471222/pigeon-ncl-and-nfl-neuronal-activity-represents-neural-correlates-of-the-sample
#20
Melissa Johnston, Catrona Anderson, Michael Colombo
Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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