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Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781628/early-life-stress-impairs-contextual-threat-expression-in-female-but-not-male-mice
#1
Gabriela Manzano-Nieves, Mizan Gaillard, Meghan Gallo, Kevin G Bath
Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered processing of threat signals, and increased lifetime risk of anxiety and affective pathology, disorders that disproportionately affect females. We tested the impact of a limited bedding paradigm of ELS (from P4-11) on contextual threat learning, context memory, footshock sensitivity, and anxietylike behavior, in adult male and female mice. To examine contextual threat learning, mice conditioned by context/footshock association were tested 24 hr later for the context memory...
May 21, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672109/maternal-protein-free-diet-during-lactation-programs-male-wistar-rat-offspring-for-increased-novelty-seeking-locomotor-activity-and-visuospatial-performance
#2
Bruna M Lotufo, Frank Tenório, Penha C Barradas, Paulo L Guedes, Sebastião S Lima, Michael L M Rocha, Vitor Hugo Duarte-Pinheiro, Vanessa S T Rodrigues, Patrícia C Lisboa, Cláudio C Filgueiras, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães
It is well established that chronic undernutrition has detrimental impacts on brain development and maturation. However, protein malnutrition during the period specifically encompassing the brain growth spurt has not been widely studied, particularly regarding its effects on adolescent and adult offspring behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of a protein-free diet during the 1st 10 postnatal days on the macronutrient content of the milk produced by lactating Wistar rats, on their maternal behavior, and on the offspring's behavior...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672108/a-greater-tendency-for-representation-mediated-learning-in-a-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#3
Ming Teng Koh, Paige S Ahrens, Michela Gallagher
Representation mediated learning is a behavioral paradigm that could be used to potentially capture psychotic symptoms including hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. In studies of mediated learning, representations of prior experience can enter into current associations. Using a ketamine model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether mice exposed to ketamine during late adolescence subsequently showed an increased tendency to use a representation of a prior gustatory experience to form associations in learning...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672107/combined-administration-of-mk-801-and-cycloheximide-produces-a-delayed-potentiation-of-fear-discrimination-memory-extinction
#4
Daniel E Kochli, Tiffany L Campbell, Ethan W Hollingsworth, Rain S Lab, Abagail F Postle, Megan M Perry, Victoria M Mordzinski, Jennifer J Quinn
Mixed evidence exists regarding the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in memory reconsolidation. We provide no evidence that NMDA receptors are involved with memory reconsolidation, but instead demonstrate that prereactivation systemic MK-801 injection, combined with postreactivation intrabasolateral amygdala (BLA) cycloheximide infusion, produces a delayed potentiation of extinction learning. These data suggest that an interaction between NMDA antagonism and protein synthesis inhibition may enhance extinction by exerting effects outside of the intended reconsolidation manipulation window...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494168/inter-and-intra-mouse-variability-in-odor-preferences-revealed-in-an-olfactory-multiple-choice-test
#5
Sonum Jagetia, Adrianna J Milton, Lucas A Stetzik, Samantha Liu, Kavya Pai, Keiko Arakawa, Nathalie Mandairon, Daniel W Wesson
Animals choose between sensory stimuli, a highly complex behavior which includes detection, discrimination, preference, and memory processes. Rodents are reported to display robust preferences for some odors, for instance, in the context of choosing among possible mates or food items. In contrast to the apparent robustness of responses toward these and other "ethologically relevant" odors, little is known about the robustness of behaviors toward odors which have no overt role in the rodent ecological niche, so-called "nonethologically relevant" odors...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481101/age-and-sex-differences-in-behavioral-flexibility-sensitivity-to-reward-value-and-risky-decision-making
#6
Sara R Westbrook, Emily R Hankosky, Megan R Dwyer, Joshua M Gulley
Compared with adults, adolescent behavior is often characterized by reduced behavioral flexibility, increased sensitivity to reward, and increased likelihood to take risks. These traits, which have been hypothesized to confer heightened vulnerability to psychopathologies such as substance use disorders (SUDs), have been the focus of studies in laboratory animal models that seek to understand their neural underpinnings. However, rodent studies to date have typically used only males and have adopted standard methodological practices (e...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553777/spared-motivational-modulation-of-cognitive-effort-in-a-maternal-immune-activation-model-of-schizophrenia-risk
#7
Vanessa Bates, Ashim Maharjan, Jessica Millar, David K Bilkey, Ryan D Ward
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during gestation is a significant risk factor for development of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental diseases. In animal models of this risk factor, MIA during pregnancy can produce offspring that recapitulate certain aspects of the behavioral and neurophysiological impairments seen in schizophrenia. Here, the authors tested the effect of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-induced MIA in a task that explicitly assays the interaction between motivation and cognition...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553776/differential-effects-of-predictable-vs-unpredictable-aversive-experience-early-in-development-on-fear-memory-and-learning-in-adulthood
#8
Rheall F Roquet, Dong-Oh Seo, Carolyn E Jones, Marie-H Monfils
We examined the enduring effects of predictable versus unpredictable fear conditioning early in life on memory and relearning in adulthood. At postnatal Day 17 or 25 (P17 or P25), rats either remained naïve, or were fear conditioned using paired (predictable) or unpaired (unpredictable) presentations of white noise and foot shocks. At 2 months of age (adulthood), each group was fear conditioned (or reconditioned) with either paired or unpaired training, and then was tested for fear extinction the next day...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553775/rapid-forgetting-of-social-learning-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-new-evidence-for-hippocampal-dysfunction
#9
Brian E Powers, Nicholas A Santiago, Barbara J Strupp
The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome recapitulates the hallmark areas of dysfunction that characterize the human disorder, including impaired performance in tasks designed to tap hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Unfortunately, performance in the water maze tasks most commonly used for this purpose can be affected by behavioral and/or physiological abnormalities characteristic of Ts65Dn mice (e.g., thigmotaxis, susceptibility to hypothermia, stress reactivity), which complicates interpretation of impaired performance...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553774/effects-of-arginine-vasopressin-on-richardson-s-ground-squirrel-social-and-vocal-behavior
#10
Angela R Freeman, James F Hare, W Gary Anderson, Heather K Caldwell
In nearly every vertebrate species examined thus far arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its homologues modulate behavior; thus, providing rich systems for comparative research. In rodents, AVP is best known for its modulation of social behavior; however, to date, research on AVPs effects on behavior have been limited to laboratory models and a few experiments using large outdoor enclosures. To extend our understanding of AVPs role in modulating social behavior and communication in an ecologically relevant context, we examined the effects of AVP on behavior of free-living Richardson's ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii)...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553773/behavioral-disruption-of-memory-reconsolidation-from-bench-to-bedside-and-back-again
#11
Shira Meir Drexler, Oliver T Wolf
During the postretrieval reconsolidation "window", memories can be disrupted, strengthened, or updated using various pharmacological and behavioral manipulations. Behavioral manipulations are more ecologically valid, thus allowing better understating of memory modification under natural conditions, but they can also be less potent compared to pharmacological interventions. In this review we present the current human and animal literature, aiming to understand the modulatory factors (i.e., task relevance, complexity, intensity) that promote reconsolidation disruption in purely behavioral means...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389145/overlapping-brain-network-and-alpha-power-changes-suggest-visuospatial-attention-effects-on-driving-performance
#12
Justin R Brooks, Antony D Passaro, Scott E Kerick, Javier O Garcia, Piotr J Franaszczuk, Jean M Vettel
When humans perform prolonged, continuous tasks, their performance fluctuates. The etiology of these fluctuations is multifactorial, but they are influenced by changes in attention reflected in underlying neural dynamics. Previous work with electroencephalography has suggested that prestimulus alpha power is a neural signature of attention allocation with higher power portending relatively poorer performance. The functional mechanisms subserving these changes in alpha power and behavior are postulated to be the result of networked neural activity that permits flexibility in the allocation of attention...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355335/the-neuroscience-of-cognitive-motivational-styles-sign-and-goal-trackers-as-animal-models
#13
Martin Sarter, Kyra B Phillips
Cognitive-motivational styles describe predominant patterns of processing or biases that broadly influence human cognition and performance. Here we focus on the impact of cognitive-motivational styles on the response to cues predicting the availability of food or addictive drugs. An individual may preferably conduct an analysis of the motivational significance of reward cues, with the result that such cues per se are perceived as rewarding and worth approaching and working for. Alternatively, a propensity for a "cold" analysis of the behavioral utility of a reward cue may yield search behavior for food or drugs but not involve cue approach...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189020/effect-of-social-isolation-on-anxiety-related-behaviors-cortisol-and-monoamines-in-adult-zebrafish
#14
Soaleha Shams, Diane Seguin, Amanda Facciol, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
Social isolation can be used to study behavioral, neural, and hormonal mechanisms that regulate interactions in social animals. Although isolation effects have been reported in social mammals and various fish species, systematic studies with isolated zebrafish are rare. Here, the authors examined behavior (social and nonsocial), physiological stress (whole-body cortisol levels), and neurochemicals (serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites), following acute and chronic social isolation in adult zebrafish. To observe how isolated fish respond behaviorally to social stimuli, they exposed zebrafish to live conspecifics or animated images after acute (24 hr) or chronic (6 months) social isolation...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189019/across-sex-and-age-learning-and-memory-and-patterns-of-avian-hippocampal-gene-expression
#15
Saritha Kosarussavadi, Zachary T Pennington, Jeremy Covell, Aaron P Blaisdell, Barney A Schlinger
Age-related decrements in cognitive ability have been proposed to stem from deteriorating function of the hippocampus. Many birds are long lived, especially for their relatively small body mass and elevated metabolism, making them a unique model of resilience to aging. Nevertheless, little is known about avian age-related changes in cognition and hippocampal physiology. We studied spatial cognition and hippocampal expression of the age-related gene, Apolipoprotein D ( ApoD ), and the immediate early gene Egr-1 in zebra finches at various developmental time points...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189018/the-application-of-a-rodent-based-morris-water-maze-mwm-protocol-to-an-investigation-of-age-related-differences-in-human-spatial-learning
#16
Jimmy Y Zhong, Kathy R Magnusson, Matthew E Swarts, Cherita A Clendinen, Nadjalisse C Reynolds, Scott D Moffat
The current study applied a rodent-based Morris water maze (MWM) protocol to an investigation of search performance differences between young and older adult humans. To investigate whether similar age-related decline in search performance could be seen in humans based on the rodent-based protocol, we implemented a virtual MWM (vMWM) that has characteristics similar to those of the MWM used in previous studies of spatial learning in mice. Through the use of a proximity to platform measure, robust differences were found between healthy young and older adults in search performance...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189017/the-dorsomedial-striatum-mediates-pavlovian-appetitive-conditioning-and-food-consumption
#17
Sindy Cole, Andrew D Stone, Gorica D Petrovich
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is an important sensorimotor region mediating the acquisition of goal-directed instrumental reward learning and behavioral flexibility. However, whether the DMS also regulates Pavlovian cue-food learning is less clear. The current study used excitotoxic lesions to determine whether the DMS is critical in Pavlovian appetitive learning and behavior, using discriminative conditioning and reversal paradigms. The results showed that DMS lesions transiently retarded cue-food learning and subsequent reversal of this learning...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083204/running-wheel-exercise-reduces-renewal-of-extinguished-instrumental-behavior-and-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-rats
#18
Meghan C Eddy, John T Green
Physical exercise in rodents has repeatedly been shown to trigger positive effects on brain function, including increased neurotrophic factors and improved learning and memory. However, most of this work has focused on the adult hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behavior. Here we examined the effect of running wheel exercise in adult and adolescent male rats on ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental conditioning, in which acquisition occurs in Context A, extinction in Context B, and renewal testing occurs back in Context A...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083203/brief-optogenetic-inhibition-of-rat-lateral-or-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-augments-the-acquisition-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#19
Neda Assareh, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) coordinates the expression and topography of defensive behaviors to threat and also plays an important role in Pavlovian fear learning itself. Whereas the role of PAG in the expression of defensive behavior is well understood, the relationship between the activity of PAG neurons and fear learning, the exact timing of PAG contributions to learning during the conditioning trial, and the contributions of different PAG columns to fear learning are poorly understood. We assessed the effects of optogenetic inhibition of lateral (LPAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG) neurons on fear learning...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956947/effects-of-intra-accumbal-administration-of-dopamine-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-drugs-on-delay-discounting-performance-in-rats
#20
Justin R Yates, Michael T Bardo
Nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) has been implicated in impulsive choice, as measured in delay discounting. The role of dopamine (DA) in impulsive choice has received considerable attention, whereas glutamate (Glu) has recently been shown to be an important mediator of discounting. However, research has not examined how DA or Glu receptors in NAcc mediate different aspects of delay discounting performance, that is, (a) sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and (b) sensitivity to delayed reinforcement. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were first trained in a delay discounting task, in which the delay to a large magnitude food reinforcer increased across blocks of trials...
October 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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