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Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471222/pigeon-ncl-and-nfl-neuronal-activity-represents-neural-correlates-of-the-sample
#1
Melissa Johnston, Catrona Anderson, Michael Colombo
Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471221/the-salience-of-a-reward-cue-can-outlast-reward-devaluation
#2
Matteo De Tommaso, Tommaso Mastropasqua, Massimo Turatto
Reward cues can be perceived as highly attractive stimuli because of their acquired motivational properties. However, because the motivational value of reward changes after reward receipt, a debated question is whether the attentional salience of reward cues changes accordingly. In Experiment 1, thirsty participants learned 3 cue-reward associations involving different contingencies. Then, while thirsty, participants performed a visual-search task under extinction, during which the previous reward cues appeared as irrelevant stimuli containing target and distractor items...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714720/the-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-sugar-and-or-caffeine-consumption-in-adult-and-adolescent-rats
#3
Jane L Franklin, Travis A Wearne, Judi Homewood, Jennifer L Cornish
Caffeine is a psychostimulant frequently consumed by adults and children, often in combination with high levels of sugar. Chronic pretreatment with either substance can amplify both amphetamine and cocaine-induced hyperactivity in rodents. The present study sought to elucidate whether age at the time of exposure to sugar and/or caffeine alters sensitivity to an acute illicit psychostimulant (methamphetamine, [METH]) challenge in adulthood. Adult and adolescent (Postnatal Day 35 on first day of treatment) male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 26 days with water, caffeine (0...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714719/temporal-ventriloquism-effect-in-european-starlings-evidence-for-two-parallel-processing-pathways
#4
Gesa Feenders, Yoko Kato, Katharina M Borzeszkowski, Georg M Klump
The brain constantly has to interpret stimuli from a range of modalities originating from the same or different objects to create unambiguous percepts. The mechanisms of such multisensory processing have been intensely studied with respect to the time window of integration or the effect of spatial separation. However, the neural mechanisms remain elusive with respect to the role of alerting effects and multisensory integration. We addressed this issue by choosing a test paradigm where we could manipulate potentially alerting stimuli and simultaneously activating stimuli independently: We measured the temporal ventriloquism effect in European starlings by using the temporal order judgment paradigm with subjects judging the temporal order of the lighting of 2 spatially separated lights...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714718/multiple-sclerosis-reduces-sensitivity-to-immediate-reward-during-decision-making
#5
Elisabetta Grippa, Manuela Sellitto, Cristina Scarpazza, Flavia Mattioli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often face important health-related and financial decisions that involve trade-offs between short-term and long-term benefits, yet decision making is rarely studied in MS patients. The temporal discounting paradigm is a useful tool for investigating such time-dependent choices in humans. Here, we investigated whether patients with relapsing-remitting MS differed from healthy controls when making choices between hypothetical monetary rewards available at different points in time...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714717/acetylcholine-contributes-to-the-integration-of-self-movement-cues-in-head-direction-cells
#6
Ryan M Yoder, Jeremy H M Chan, Jeffrey S Taube
Acetylcholine contributes to accurate performance on some navigational tasks, but details of its contribution to the underlying brain signals are not fully understood. The medial septal area provides widespread cholinergic input to various brain regions, but selective damage to medial septal cholinergic neurons generally has little effect on landmark-based navigation, or the underlying neural representations of location and directional heading in visual environments. In contrast, the loss of medial septal cholinergic neurons disrupts navigation based on path integration, but no studies have tested whether these path integration deficits are associated with disrupted head direction (HD) cell activity...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#7
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714715/the-development-of-perineuronal-nets-around-parvalbumin-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basolateral-amygdala-of-rats
#8
Kathryn D Baker, Arielle R Gray, Rick Richardson
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures that preferentially surround mature GABAergic neurons that express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). It has been suggested that aberrant PNN formation in humans may contribute to psychological disorders, many of which emerge during childhood and adolescence. The present experiment investigated the normative developmental trajectory of PNN formation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in juvenile (P24), adolescent (P35-36), and adult (∼P70) rats...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714714/no-evidence-for-enhancements-to-visual-working-memory-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-prefrontal-or-posterior-parietal-cortices
#9
Matthew K Robison, William P McGuirk, Nash Unsworth
The present study examined the relative contributions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to visual working memory. Evidence from a number of different techniques has led to the theory that the PFC controls access to working memory (i.e., filtering), determining which information is encoded and maintained for later use whereas the parietal cortex determines how much information is held at 1 given time, regardless of relevance (i.e., capacity; McNab & Klingberg, 2008; Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005)...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714713/promoting-transparency-and-reproducibility-in-behavioral-neuroscience-publishing-replications-registered-reports-and-null-results
#10
Mark G Baxter, Rebecca D Burwell
The editors of Behavioral Neuroscience have been discussing several recent developments in the landscape of scientific publishing. The discussion was prompted, in part, by reported issues of reproducibility and concerns about the integrity of the scientific literature. Although enhanced rigor and transparency in science are certainly important, a related issue is that increased competition and focus on novel findings has impeded the extent to which the scientific process is cumulative. We have decided to join the growing number of journals that are adopting new reviewing and publishing practices to address these problems...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541079/child-gender-influences-paternal-behavior-language-and-brain-function
#11
Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly E Rentscher, Patrick D Hackett, Matthias R Mehl, James K Rilling
Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541078/ensembles-in-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-construct-cognitive-maps-emphasizing-different-features-of-the-behavioral-landscape
#12
Nina Lopatina, Brian F Sadacca, Michael A McDannald, Clay V Styer, Jacob F Peterson, Joseph F Cheer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in the ability to use the current value of expected outcomes to guide behavior. More recently, this specific role has been conceptualized as a special case of a more general function that OFC plays in constructing a "cognitive map" of the behavioral task space by labeling the current task state and learning relationships among task states. Here, we have used single unit recording data from 2 prior studies to examine whether and how information relating different states within and across trials is represented in medial versus lateral OFC in rats...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471224/flavors-paired-with-internal-pain-or-with-nausea-elicit-divergent-types-of-hedonic-responses
#13
Dominic M Dwyer, Patricia Gasalla, Stefana Bura, Matías López
Pairing a taste with either internal pain (e.g., from hypertonic saline injection) or nausea (e.g., from LiCl administration) will reduce subsequent consumption of that taste. Here we examine the responses to a taste paired with either hypertonic saline or LiCl using the analysis of licking microstructure (mean lick cluster size: Experiments 1-3), taste reactivity (examining the distribution of appetitive and aversive orofacial responses: Experiments 2-3), and immobility (as a measure of fear: Experiments 2-3)...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471223/social-stress-in-early-puberty-has-long-term-impacts-on-impulsive-action
#14
Lina Fernanda González-Martínez, John D'Aigle, Steven M Lee, Hongjoo J Lee, Yvon Delville
In hamsters, individuals attacked by adults during puberty become aggressive adults. Perhaps, enhanced aggression observed as repeated attacks toward opponents is associated with a lack of impulse control. We examined impulsive action in male golden hamsters exposed daily to aggressive adults from postnatal Day 28 to 42. These animals were trained in conditioning chambers and tested during adulthood in a go-no-go task addressing action inhibition. Overall, previously stressed hamsters were less likely to inhibit a conditioned lever pressing response during no-go trials...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333492/perceptual-and-memory-inhibition-deficits-in-clinically-healthy-older-adults-are-associated-with-region-specific-doubly-dissociable-patterns-of-cortical-thinning
#15
Teal S Eich, Qolamreza R Razlighi, Yaakov Stern
Converging evidence suggests that the cognitive control processes that enable the inhibition of irrelevant information on a perceptual versus a memorial basis are qualitatively different and are underlain by unique neural systems that may be affected differentially in aging. In the current study, we investigated whether individual differences in performance on these 2 types of inhibitory processes were attributable to region-specific patterns of cortical thinning. Clinically healthy older adults completed a pair of behavioral memory and perceptual inhibition tasks and then underwent structural brain imaging...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301190/involvement-of-serotonin-and-oxytocin-in-neural-mechanism-regulating-amicable-social-signal-in-male-mice-implication-for-impaired-recognition-of-amicable-cues-in-balb-c-strain
#16
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Social signals play a primary role in regulating social relationships among male mice. The present series of experiments investigated the neural mechanisms underlying an induction of amicable cues that facilitate social approach in male mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) strains. Male mice exhibit approach behavior and suppression of territorial scent marking toward amicable counterparts. Exposure of a group-housed mouse that maintains an amicable relationship induced social approach in B6 recipient mice, as expressed by increased preference of stay in proximity and decreased scent marks relevant to those of a single-housed mouse...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301189/differential-effects-of-neural-inactivation-of-the-dorsolateral-striatum-on-response-and-latent-extinction
#17
Jarid Goodman, Amanda Gabriele, Mark G Packard
The present study examined the role of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in extinction behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained on the straight alley maze, in which they were reinforced to traverse a straight runway and retrieve food reward at the opposite end of the maze. After initial acquisition, animals were given extinction training using 1 of 2 distinct protocols: response extinction or latent extinction. For response extinction, the animal was released from the same starting position and had the opportunity to perform the originally reinforced approach response to the goal end of the maze, which no longer contained food...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301188/effects-of-inference-on-dopaminergic-prediction-errors-depend-on-orbitofrontal-processing
#18
Yuji K Takahashi, Thomas A Stalnaker, Matthew R Roesch, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Dopaminergic reward prediction errors in monkeys reflect inferential reward predictions that well-trained animals can make when associative rules change. Here, in a new analysis of previously described data, we test whether dopaminergic error signals in rats are influenced by inferential predictions and whether such effects depend on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Dopamine neurons were recorded from controls or rats with ipsilateral OFC lesions during performance of a choice task in which odor cues signaled the availability of sucrose reward in 2 wells...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230385/auditory-cue-absence-as-a-conditioned-stimulus-for-delay-eyeblink-conditioning
#19
Matthew M Campolattaro, Sean W Savage, Olga Lipatova
The present experiment was designed to determine if the absence of an auditory cue (i.e., a "tone-off" cue) would be an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) for delay eyeblink conditioning and to test if the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) is part of the sensory pathway for tone-off conditioning. Rats were given paired or unpaired delay eyeblink conditioning to examine if responding to a tone-off CS was due to an associative process. An inactivation technique was performed on a separate group of rats to determine if the MGN is needed to express tone-off conditioning...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221082/partial-lesion-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-pathway-in-rats-impairs-egocentric-learning-but-not-spatial-learning-or-behavioral-flexibility
#20
Katharine M Seip-Cammack, James J Young, Megan E Young, Matthew L Shapiro
Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, but the etiology of the cognitive deficits remains unclear. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway. Rats received bilateral infusions of either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle into the dorsolateral striatum and were tested in spatial and procedural learning tasks. Compared with intact rats, DA-depleted rats were impaired when the first task they learned required egocentric responses...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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