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Dermatologic Clinics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890242/basic-science-insights-into-clinical-puzzles
#1
EDITORIAL
John J DiGiovanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890241/distinct-fibroblasts-in-the-papillary-and-reticular-dermis-implications-for-wound-healing
#2
REVIEW
David T Woodley
Human skin wounds heal largely by reparative wound healing rather than regenerative wound healing. Human skin wounds heal with scarring and without pilosebaceous units or other appendages. Dermal fibroblasts come from 2 distinct lineages of cells that have distinct cell markers and, more importantly, distinct functional abilities. Human skin wound healing largely involves the dermal fibroblast lineage from the reticular dermis and not the papillary dermis. If scientists could find a way to stimulate the dermal fibroblast lineages from the papillary dermis in early wound healing, perhaps human skin wounds could heal without scarring and with skin appendages...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890240/melanocytic-nevi-and-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-oncogene-induced-senescence
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer M Huang, Ijeuru Chikeka, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytic nevi represent benign clonal proliferations of the melanocytes in the skin that usually remain stable in size and behavior or disappear during life. Infrequently, melanocytic nevi undergo malignant transformation to melanoma. Understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying oncogene-induced senescence should help identify pathways underlying melanoma development, leading to the development of new strategies for melanoma prevention and early detection.
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890239/interleukin-22-and-cyclosporine-in-aggressive-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Alexis L Santana, Diane Felsen, John A Carucci
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) account for up to 10,000 deaths annually in the United States. Most of the more than 700,000 SCCs diagnosed are cured by excision with clear margins; however, metastasis can occur despite seemingly adequate treatment in some cases. Immune-suppressed organ transplant recipients are 60 to 100 times more likely to develop SCC than immune-competent individuals. Transplant-associated SCCs occur more frequently and behave more aggressively, showing higher risk of recurrence and metastasis...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890238/understanding-inherited-cylindromas-clinical-implications-of-gene-discovery
#5
REVIEW
Anna Dubois, Kirsty Hodgson, Neil Rajan
Cylindromas are cutaneous tumors first described in the medical literature over 150 years ago. They are now known to occur on an inherited basis as a result of mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene CYLD. The discovery of this gene has provided novel insights into this rare skin tumor syndrome. As well as enabling genetic counseling of affected patients, the knowledge of CYLD function has led to steps toward development of novel therapeutics, with CYLD-regulated signaling pathways as the target for this approach...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890237/mosaic-disorders-of-the-pi3k-pten-akt-tsc-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#6
REVIEW
Neera Nathan, Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Leslie G Biesecker, Joel Moss, Thomas N Darling
Somatic mutations in genes of the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/TSC/mTORC1 signaling pathway cause segmental overgrowth, hamartomas, and malignant tumors. Mosaicism for activating mutations in AKT1 or PIK3CA cause Proteus syndrome and PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, respectively. Postzygotic mutations in PTEN or TSC1/TSC2 cause mosaic forms of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome or tuberous sclerosis complex, respectively. Distinct features observed in these mosaic conditions in part reflect differences in embryological timing or tissue type harboring the mutant cells...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890236/the-critical-and-multifunctional-roles-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-dermatology
#7
REVIEW
Toshiya Takahashi, Richard L Gallo
Antimicrobial peptides are central effector molecules in skin immunology. The functions of antimicrobial peptides in skin diseases include the ability to act as cytokines or growth factors, driving disorders such as psoriasis and rosacea, as well as their action as natural antibiotics to control bacteria that influence diseases such as atopic dermatitis and acne.
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890235/dermatologic-manifestations-of-monogenic-autoinflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Kyawt Win Shwin, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
Autoinflammatory disorders are sterile inflammatory conditions characterized by episodes of early-onset fever, rash, and disease-specific patterns of organ inflammation. Gain-of-function mutations in innate danger-sensing pathways, including the inflammasomes and the nucleic acid sensing pathways, play critical roles in the pathogenesis of IL-1 and Type-I IFN-mediated disorders and point to an important role of excessive proinflammatory cytokine signaling, including interleukin (IL)-1b , Type-I interferons, IL-18, TNF and others in causing the organ specific immune dysregulation...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890234/current-status-of-dedicator-of-cytokinesis-associated-immunodeficiency-dock8-and-dock2
#9
REVIEW
Dimana Dimitrova, Alexandra F Freeman
DOCK8 deficiency is an autosomal recessive combined immunodeficiency disease associated with elevated IgE, atopy, recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections, and malignancy. The DOCK8 protein is critical for cytoskeletal organization, and deficiency impairs dendritic cell transmigration, T-cell survival, and NK cell cytotoxicity. Early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is gaining prominence as a definitive treatment given the potential for severe complications and mortality in this disease...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890233/establishing-tolerance-to-commensal-skin-bacteria-timing-is-everything
#10
REVIEW
Tiffany C Scharschmidt
Commensal bacteria live intimately and in constant dialogue with skin immune cells. Regulating our immune response to these bacteria is critical for skin homeostasis. Using a new murine model to track Staphylococcus epidermidis-specific T cells, we found that colonization during neonatal but not adult life led to S.epidermidis-specific immune tolerance. This tolerance protected against skin inflammation and was mediated by a wave of regulatory T cells entering neonatal skin. These findings provide new insight into how we establish a healthy symbiosis with commensal microbes and highlight avenues for future research to identify novel therapies for inflammatory skin disease...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692460/reflectance-confocal-microscopy-clinical-applications-the-skin-from-inside
#11
Jane M Grant-Kels, Giovanni Pellacani, Caterina Longo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692459/fluorescence-multiwave-confocal-microscopy
#12
J Welzel, Raphaela Kästle, Elke C Sattler
In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands.
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692458/the-role-of-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-clinical-trials-for-tumor-monitoring
#13
Josep Malvehy Guilera, Alicia Barreiro Capurro, Cristina Carrera Alvárez, Susana Puig Sardá
Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows the evaluation with superb accuracy of some skin tumors before, during, and after treatment. In clinical trials RCM has been shown to provide useful information for evaluation of efficacy of topical or systemic medication. With the recent introduction of handheld RCM a fast examination of the tumor can be done in minutes. In patients treated with surgery RCM plays a unique role to precisely map margins of the tumor in the skin surface and for the detection of subclinical recurrences...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692457/well-aging-early-detection-of-skin-aging-signs
#14
Caterina Longo
The aim of the current review is to provide an overview of the use of reflectance confocal microscopy to detect early skin aging signs. This new imaging tool holds the promise to morphologically explore the epidermis and upper dermis at nearly histologic resolution and over time. The main confocal findings of aged skin include the presence of irregular honeycombed pattern, linear skin furrows, mottled pigmentation, and distinct collagen types (coarse and huddled).
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692456/telediagnosis-with-confocal-microscopy-a-reality-or-a-dream
#15
Alexander Witkowski, Joanna Łudzik, H Peter Soyer
Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is becoming more popular among dermatologists aiming to improve their bedside diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary removal of benign cutaneous lesions. With increased interest in the field, limitation of experts, and dedicated training programs, telemedicine application to RCM (teleconfocal) helps to connect patients with experts at a distance. Diagnostic accuracy of store-and-forward telemedicine review of RCM images, patient safety, and cost-effectiveness are important considerations for proper acceptance and usage of the technology in the medical community...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692455/in%C3%A2-vivo-and-ex%C3%A2-vivo-confocal-microscopy-for-dermatologic-and-mohs-surgeons
#16
Caterina Longo, Moira Ragazzi, Milind Rajadhyaksha, Kishwer Nehal, Antoni Bennassar, Giovanni Pellacani, Josep Malvehy Guilera
Confocal microscopy is a modern imaging device that has been extensively applied in skin oncology. More specifically, for tumor margin assessment, it has been used in two modalities: reflectance mode (in vivo on skin patient) and fluorescence mode (on freshly excised specimen). Although in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy is an add-on tool for lentigo maligna mapping, fluorescence confocal microscopy is far superior for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma margin assessment in the Mohs setting...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692454/reflectance-confocal-microscopy-algorithms-for-inflammatory-and-hair-diseases
#17
Marco Ardigo, Marina Agozzino, Chiara Franceschini, Francesco Lacarrubba
Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows real-time, noninvasive microscopic view of the skin at nearly histologic resolution serially over time. RCM increases the sensibility and sensitivity of the diagnosis of skin tumours. RCM evaluates descriptive features of psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, contact dermatitis, and others. Three groups of optical histology have been described: psoriasiform, spongiotic, and interface dermatitis. In a multicenter study, RCM patterns of spongiotic, hyperkeratotic, and interface dermatitis have been analyzed and an algorithmic method of analysis for fast application in the clinical setting based on a multivariate analysis has been proposed...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692453/confocal-microscopy-for-special-sites-and-special-uses
#18
Elisa Cinotti, Bruno Labeille, Frédéric Cambazard, Jean-Luc Perrot
This article describes the use of confocal microscopy for special sites and unconventional applications. These new applications have been made possible thanks to the introduction on the market of a hand-held camera. Special sites discussed include mucosa, nails, and palms and soles. Special uses discussed include infections and infestations; tumor mapping; understanding clinical, dermoscopic, and histology features; videos and ex vivo confocal microscopy.
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692452/application-of-handheld-confocal-microscopy-for-skin-cancer-diagnosis-advantages-and-limitations-compared-with-the-wide-probe-confocal
#19
Syril Keena T Que, Jane M Grant-Kels, Harold S Rabinovitz, Margaret Oliviero, Alon Scope
The clinical diagnosis of tumors on the curved surfaces of the face, around the eyes, and on the mucosal surfaces can be difficult, while biopsies and excisions can have functional and aesthetic consequences. To avoid unnecessary surgery, clinicians have been aiming to attain accurate noninvasive diagnosis of lesions at these sites. However, acquisition of high-quality images with dermoscopy and with traditional wide-probe reflectance confocal microscopy (WP-RCM) have been hampered with technical difficulties...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692451/shining-into-the-white-the-spectrum-of-epithelial-tumors-from-actinic-keratosis-to-squamous-cell%C3%A2-carcinoma
#20
Martin Ulrich, Iris Zalaudek, J Welzel
Actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma represent different steps within the disease continuum of squamous neoplasia. Although these stages of squamous neoplasia share common findings, reflectance confocal microscopy may be applied for their differentiation and distinction from other benign or malignant lesions. Hyperkeratosis represents the most important limitation in the evaluation of squamous neoplasia as it may impair the analysis of deeper epidermal and dermal structures significantly...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
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