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Journal of Environmental Biology

Nur Ceyhan-Güvensen, Dilek Keskin
The extract of ethanol, methanol and DMSO of pennyroyal leaves from Mugla Region (Turkey) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial and one yeast strain by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts assayed, the methanol extract of pennyroyal leaves exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with 20 mm diameter inhibition zone. The DMSO extract of pennyroyal leaves displayed significant activity against S.aureus (19 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (21mm) showing inhibition zone of 19 mm and 21 mm diameter, while the ethanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Danica Fazekašová, Zuzana Boguská, Juraj Fazekaš, Jana Škvareninová, Jana Chovancová
The present paper aims at clarifying the long-term impact of mining activities on the contamination of biotic components of the environment. The research was conducted in during 2011-2014 at selected locations of the cadastral territory of former mining towns of Central Spiš (Slovakia) with different ecosystems of permanent grassland, mine waste sites and bankside vegetation. The results of the analysis showed that considerably dominant species at contaminated locations such as Betula pendula, Silene vulgaris, Geranium sylvaticum, Petasites hybridus, Mentha longifolia could absorb high quantities of heavy metals...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Handan Ucun Özel
The present study effects of pollutant particles from Bartın Cement Factory on development of seeds and leaves of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) which in plantation area around the factory were examined. For this purpose, seeds were collected from sampling trees located 200m, 400m, 600m, 800m and 1000m (control) and germination percentage of seeds, and total chlorophyll content of seedlings were determined. Moreover, in the present study, the air movement around Bartın Cement Factory and level of pollutants in sampling areas were also determined...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Aravindaram Kandan, Jameel Akhtar, Baleshwar Singh, Deepa Pal, Dinesh Chand, Subramani Rajkumar, Prakash Chand Agarwal
Bipolaris sorghicola (Lefebvre and Sherwin) is a well known and economically important seed-borne pathogen with the specific species of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L] Moench) as host. Thirty-two strains were obtained from different geographical area of sorghum growing places in India. Molecular characterization using three marker systems i.e., universal rice primers (URP), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was carried out. Molecular marker work revealed differences along with geographical origin clustering of various B...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
B Sundararaman, K L Muthuramu
The waste mango seed generated from mango pulp industry in India is a major problem in handling the waste and hence, conversion of mango seed kernel. Mango seeds were collected and processed for oil extraction. Decolorization of methylene blue was achieved by mango seed kernel powder, mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder. Higher efficiency was attained in mango seed kernel powder when compared to mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder. A 60 to 95 % of removal efficiency was achieved by varying concentration...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Gurpreet Singh Makkar, Pardeep K Chhuneja
The regional bee diversity was investigated on pigeon pea in three agroclimatic zones of Punjab state in northern India. Of the total nine species recorded, population of Megachilids, in particular, was significantly higher in all the three zones. Appraisal of diversity metrics revealed highest bee community diversity in Sub-mountain Undulating zone, followed by Central Plain zone, while least diversity was noted in Western zone, which highlighted the effect of habitat on species richness and abundance. Diurnal variations were evident with the most diverse bee communities recorded at 11:00 hr, followed by at 14:00 and 08:00 hr, with the lowest community diversity at 17:00 hr...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Abhishek Churasia, Joginder Singh, Ajay Kumar
Transesterification of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols is used to produce biodiesel. In the present study, crude soybean oil was investigated on the basis of three principal variables, such as optimum reaction temperature (60?C), the amount of catalyst concentration from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%? and molar ratio of methanol 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6, respectively affecting yield of biodiesel. Under optimum condition, at molar ratio 1:6 in the presence of 0.5% NaOH and 60°C reaction temperature and 350 rpm approximately 99...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
A El-Taher, Ahmad Al-Turki
The present study deals with investigating radon level in groundwater, which is being used for irrigation in the environs of Qassim province, Saudi Arabia. Ninety nine samples of groundwater were collected from eight cities in Qassim province. Radon concentrations in the collected water samples were measured with RAD7 electronic radon detector connected to RAD- H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA). The concentration of (222)Rn in 99 irrigation groundwater samples ranged from 1.20 to 15.43 Bq l-1Radon level in? 5 samples 2 from Al-Asyah, 2 from Al shamasia and one sample from Al Moznib exceeded the permissible level of radon 11 Bq l-1 in groundwater...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
K R Soren, Priyanka Gangwar, Payal Khatterwani, Ram Ganesh Chaudhary, Subhojit Datta
An experiment was conducted to study the precise geographical distribution and racial complexity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceris (Foc) isolates representing 12 states of 4 agro-climatic zones of India at morphological, pathogenic and molecular level. The DNA based sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers was employed to differentiate Foc isolates at genome level. The genotypic data output of the isolates was examined for diversity parameter as marker's Polymorphic percentage (PM %), Polymorphic Information Content (PIC), Marker Index (MI) and Gene Diversity Index (DI)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Debashree Golder, Sanjib Chattopadhyay
The physicochemical parameters including temperature, pH, dissolved O2, free CO2, total alkalinity, permanent hardness, salinity, transparency, specific conductivity, BOD, COD, phosphate and nitrate were studied in a tropical lake, called Bonhooghly Lake (situated at Baranagar, Kolkata) around the year 2014 and the correlation between the said parameters, as well as their impact on Biodiversity indices were made. There is stable increase of CO2 content in water from August (27.24 mg l-1) and afterwards due to decaying of plant materials...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Arshid Hussain Ganie, Peerzada Yasir Yousuf, Amjid Ahad, Renu Pandey, Sayeed Ahmad, Ibrahim M Aref, Jewel Jameeta Noor, Muhammad Iqbal
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a multipurpose crop, which is immensely used worldwide for its nutritional as well as medicinal properties. This study evaluates the effect of varying concentrations of nitrogen (N) on accumulation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in different maize cultivars, including inbreds, hybrids and a composite, which were grown in natural light under controlled temperature (30°C/20°C D/N) and humidity (80%), with sufficient (4.5mM) and low (0.05mM) nitrogen supply. Seeds of different cultivars were powdered and extracted in a methanol:water (80:20) mixture through reflux at 60-75°C, and the extracts obtained were subjected to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), using ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water (109:16:12:31) solvent system for the separation of phenolic acids...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
M Shiji, A R Sabitha, Kavya Prabhakar, P S Harikumar
Assessment of water quality status of 7 sites of Kavvayi Wetland in northern Kerala (India) was carried out. The physico-chemical, bacteriological and biological parameters were monitored during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) water quality index of the Kavvayi Lake samples ranged from 43.99-44.77; indicating that water quality was threatened or impaired. The poor water quality status might be due to dumping of wastes from municipal and domestic sources and agricultural runoff...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
P Arulmathi, G Elangovan
Ethanol production from sugarcane molasses yields large volume of highly colored spent wash as effluent. This color is imparted by the recalcitrant melanoidin pigment produced due to the Maillard reaction. In the present work, decolourization of melanoidin was carried out using activated carbon prepared from pepper stem (Piper nigrum). The interaction effect between parameters were studied by response surface methodology using central composite design and maximum decolourization of 75 % was obtained at pH 7...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Ömer Saylor
The present study deals with acute toxicity and hematological, histopathological and genotoxical effects of permethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, on Pseudorasbora parva. Acute toxicity of 96-hrs LC50 value was found to be 88.25 (84.60-92.63) μgl-1. Sublethal dose was taken as 8.82 μgl-1 (the 1/10 of the LC50 value) in bio-experiments. Micronucleus changes in blood erythrocyte and hemotocyte level in P. parva exposed to sub-lethal concentration were investigated. Difference between nucleolus abnormalities in the experimental and control group was found to be statistically significant (t-test)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
S Gundappa, T Adak, P K Shukla
Weather factors play an important role in occurrence of thrips on mango. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was set out to assess the thrips population dynamics using humid thermal index, based on data sets from 22 fixed plot mango orchards in and around Lucknow. Results revealed that the highest thrips population of 3.36/panicle was recorded in Kakori (Fixed plot -I) orchard, which was followed by 2.4 and 2.06 at CISH III block and Kanar (Fixed II) respectively during the year 2013, whereas corresponding values were 4...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Poorva Sharma, Bharti Choudhary, Anand Nagpure, Rajinder K Gupta
An actinomycete isolate, Streptomyces exfoliatus MT9 was assessed for in vitro antagonism against wood-rotting fungi. Strain MT9 showed strong antagonistic activity (ZOI ? 25 mm) towards various tested wood-rotting fungi. Extracellular production of antifungal metabolite(s) including primary and secondary was monitored up to 10 days of submerged fermentation. Antagonist S. exfoliatus MT9 produces fungal cell-wall lytic enzymes, namely chitinase (3.098 U ml-1), b-1,3 glucanase (2.4 U ml-1) and protease (144...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Islem Abid, Ranaa Mujamammi, Muneera D F Alkahtani
Actinomycetes are group of Gram-positive bacteria with high GC-content in their DNA. They are extremely useful for the pharmaceutical industry due to their seemingly unlimited capacity to produce secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities and chemical structure. The genus Streptomyces constitutes 50% of the total population of soil actinomycetes and about 75% of commercially and medicinally useful antibiotics that have been derived from this genus. The present study aimed in isolation of bioactive compound showing antimicrobial activities from soil Streptomyces, previously isolated and morphologically characterized from Jazan in Saudi Arabia...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Liyong Zhang, Penghui Zhang, Meng Wang, Kai Yang, Junliang Liu
The processes and effects of coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) and coagulation sedimentation-ultrafiltration (CS-UF) process used in the treatment of Dalangdian Reservoir water were compared. The experiment data indicated that 99% of turbidity removal and basically 100% of microorganism and algae removal were achieved in both C-UF and CS-UF process. The organic removal effect of CS-UF? process was slightly better than C-UF process. However, the organic removal effect under different processes was not obvious due to limitation of ultrafiltration membrane aperture...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Wenhui Liu, Linjiang Yuan, Bo Wei
In the present study, a new type of interior optical fiber illuminating reactor was developed for H2 production to solve the problem of luminous intensity attenuation at the center portion of a reactor, and an immobilization technique was used to enhance the stability of a continuous hydrogen production process with attached photosynthetic bacteria, using glucose as a sole carbon substrate for the indigenous photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) Rhodopseudomonas palustris SP-6. Results of the experiments showed that the interior optical fiber illuminating reactor produces H2 more efficiently and productively than the exterior light source reactor, with the cumulative H2 production, the maximum H2 production rate and H2 yield increased by 813ml, 11...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Navjyot Kaur, Shalini Jhanji
Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
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