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Human Movement Science

Jillian Lye, Stephanie Parkinson, Nicola Diamond, Jenny Downs, Susan Morris
The strategy used to generate power for forward propulsion in walking and running has recently been highlighted as a marker of gait maturation and elastic energy recycling. This study investigated ankle and hip power generation as a propulsion strategy (PS) during the late stance/early swing phases of walking and running in typically developing (TD) children (15: six to nine years; 17: nine to 13years) using three-dimensional gait analysis. Peak ankle power generation at push-off (peakA2), peak hip power generation in early swing (peakH3) and propulsion strategy (PS) [peakA2/(peakA2+peakH3)] were calculated to provide the relative contribution of ankle power to total propulsion...
October 17, 2016: Human Movement Science
F McIntyre, H Parker, A Thornton, M Licari, J Piek, D Rigoli, B Hands
Currently, only two motor tests have norms extending into young adulthood - the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND, McCarron 1997) and the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2, Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005). Research into the motor difficulties in early adulthood and health outcomes has been impeded because there is no agreed gold standard motor test for this group. The purposes of this study were to compare the discrimination accuracy, classification agreement, and predictive values, and gender distribution and prevalence of each test in identifying motor impairment (MI) in relation to DSM-V diagnostic criteria for DCD...
October 14, 2016: Human Movement Science
Douglas W Powell, Samantha Andrews, Cris Stickley, D S Blaise Williams
: High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. METHODS: Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded...
October 13, 2016: Human Movement Science
Christopher J Sorensen, Molly B Johnson, Barbara J Norton, Jack P Callaghan, Linda R Van Dillen
An induced-pain paradigm has been used in back-healthy people to understand risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP) during prolonged standing. We examined asymmetry of lumbopelvic movement timing during a clinical test of active hip abduction in back-healthy people who developed LBP symptoms during standing (Pain Developers; PDs) compared to back-healthy people who did not develop LBP symptoms during standing (Non Pain Developers, NPDs). Participants completed the hip abduction test while movement was recorded with a motion capture system...
October 12, 2016: Human Movement Science
Marco Hagen, Gerrit Schwiertz, Karl B Landorf, Hylton B Menz, George S Murley
The pronators and supinators play a key role in the medio-lateral stability of the ankle joint complex (i.e. talo-crural and subtalar joints). We hypothesized that each shank muscle has a specific activation pattern determined by its anatomical course around the axes of the subtalar and talo-crural joints. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of foot posture on these activation patterns. Forty-nine young adults (25 normal-arched feet, 24 flat-arched feet) performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions against manual resistance in four movement directions: plantarflexion (PF), dorsiflexion (DF), pronation (PRO) and supination (SUP)...
October 6, 2016: Human Movement Science
D Rigoli, R T Kane, V Mancini, A Thornton, M Licari, B Hands, F McIntyre, J Piek
Growing evidence has highlighted the importance of motor proficiency in relation to psychosocial outcomes including self-perceived competence in various domains, perceived social support, and emotional areas such as anxiety and depression. The Environmental Stress Hypothesis-elaborated (Cairney, Rigoli, & Piek, 2013) is a proposed theoretical framework for understanding these relationships and recent studies have begun examining parts of this model using child and adolescent populations. However, the extent to which the relationships between these areas exist, persist or change during early adulthood is currently unclear...
September 30, 2016: Human Movement Science
Renuka Roche, Priya Viswanathan, Jane E Clark, Jill Whitall
Children with DCD demonstrate impairments in bimanual finger tapping during self-paced tapping and tapping in synchrony to different frequencies. In this study, we investigated the ability of children with DCD to adapt motorically to perceptible or subliminal changes of the auditory stimuli without a change in frequency, and compared their performance to typically developing controls (TDC). Nineteen children with DCD between ages 6-11years (mean age±SD=114±21months) and 17 TDC (mean age±SD=113±21months) participated in this study...
September 19, 2016: Human Movement Science
Ayman Assi, Ziad Bakouny, Mohammad Karam, Abir Massaad, Wafa Skalli, Ismat Ghanem
The effect of dominance on upper limb (UL) kinematics has only been studied on scapular movements. Moreover, when an anatomical UL movement is performed in a specific plane, secondary movements in the remaining planes involuntarily occur. These secondary movements have not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of primary and secondary angles of dominant and non-dominant UL during anatomical movements in asymptomatic adults. 25 asymptomatic adults performed 6 anatomical movements bilaterally: shoulder flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, horizontal abduction-adduction, internal-external rotation, elbow flexion-extension and wrist pronation-supination...
September 14, 2016: Human Movement Science
Farid Bardid, An De Meester, Isabel Tallir, Greet Cardon, Matthieu Lenoir, Leen Haerens
The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports...
September 14, 2016: Human Movement Science
Alice Gomez, Manuela Piazza, Antoinette Jobert, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Caroline Huron
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a disorder of motor coordination which interferes with academic achievement. Difficulties in mathematics have been reported. Performance in the number line task is very sensitive to atypical development of numerical cognition. We used a position-to-number task in which twenty 7-to-10years old children with DCD and 20 age-matched typically developing (TD) children had to estimate the number that corresponded to a hatch mark placed on a 0-100 number line. Eye movements were recorded...
August 31, 2016: Human Movement Science
J Gentle, A L Barnett, K Wilmut
Given the importance of walking in everyday life, understanding why this is challenging for some populations is particularly important. Studies focusing on gait patterns of individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have shown that whilst increased variability is characteristic of walking patterns for this group, differences in spatio-temporal gait variables seem only to arise when task demands increase. However, these differences occur under rather artificial conditions, for example using a treadmill...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Marcos Daou, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller
Recent research has revealed that having learners study and practice a motor skill with the expectation of having to teach it enhances motor learning. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We attempted to replicate this effect and elucidate the mechanisms underlying it. Thus, participants studied golf putting instructions and practiced putting either with the expectation of having to teach another participant how to putt or the expectation of being tested on their putting. During this acquisition phase, participants' motivation, anxiety, and information processing (the duration they took preparing each putt) were indexed as possible mechanisms underlying a motor learning effect...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Amber M Leiker, Alessandro T Bruzi, Matthew W Miller, Monica Nelson, Rebecca Wegman, Keith R Lohse
This experiment investigated the relationship between motivation, engagement, and learning in a video game task. Previous studies have shown increased autonomy during practice leads to superior retention of motor skills, but it is not clear why this benefit occurs. Some studies suggest this benefit arises from increased motivation during practice; others suggest the benefit arises from better information processing. Sixty novice participants were randomly assigned to a self-controlled group, who chose the progression of difficulty during practice, or to a yoked group, who experienced the same difficulty progression but did not have choice...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Emily Carlson, Birgitta Burger, Justin London, Marc R Thompson, Petri Toiviainen
Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Gustavo Christofoletti, Marie E McNeely, Meghan C Campbell, Ryan P Duncan, Gammon M Earhart
Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Guilherme S Nunes, Marcos de Noronha, Bruna Wageck, Juliana Bonetti Scirea, Alessandro Haupenthal, Stella Maris Michaelsen
There is some evidence showing that people with functional ankle instability (FAI) can present changes in postural control during the landing phase of a jump. These studies also show preliminary results indicating possible changes during phases prior to landing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether movement adjustments prior to a jump are different between people with and without FAI. Sixty participants with (n=30) and without (n=30) FAI participated in this study. The main outcome measures were the variability of range of motion in ankle inversion/eversion and dorsiflexion/plantarflexion; and variability of center of pressure for the directions anterior-posterior and medio-lateral during the pre-jump period for drop jump, vertical jump and during single-leg stance...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Cain C T Clark, Claire M Barnes, Mark Holton, Huw D Summers, Gareth Stratton
Obese children move less and with greater difficulty than their normal-weight counterparts. Whilst the effect of high BMI on cardiovascular fitness is well known, the effect on movement quality characteristics during a standardised fitness test has not been investigated. The aims of this study were, to characterise the movement quality of children performing the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT), and, report how movement quality characteristics cluster according to weight status. One hundred and three children (10...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Julie Capistran, Rose Martini
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Aaron Siu, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Janessa Dm Drake
To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed)...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Camila Coelho Greco, Benedito Sérgio Denadai, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David Robert Pendergast
Our purpose was to examine the swimming biophysical responses at velocities (v) of 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30-min constant tests at imposed paces to determine 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS v. Gas exchange, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), stroke rate (SR) and v were determined during each test. The v values at 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS were 1.21±0.07, 1.24±0.07 and 1.27±0.07m.s(-1), respectively. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and Pulmonary ventilation (V̇E) increased as function of v...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
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