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Human Movement Science

Michael Wälchli, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Wolfgang Taube
Postural control undergoes rapid changes during child development. However, the influence of balance training (BT) on the compensation of perturbations has not yet been investigated in children. For this purpose, young (6.7 ± 0.6 years) and old children (12.0 ± 0.4 years) were exposed to externally induced anticipated (direction known) and non-anticipated (direction unknown) perturbations on a free swinging platform before and after either child-oriented BT (INT; young: n = 12, old: n = 18) or regular physical education (CON; young: n = 9, old: n = 9)...
April 20, 2018: Human Movement Science
F Martijn Verhoeven, Karl M Newell
In this article, we elaborate from a multiple time scales model of motor learning to examine the independent and integrated effects of massed and distributed practice schedules within- and between-sessions on the persistent (learning) and transient (warm-up, fatigue) processes of performance change. The timescales framework reveals the influence of practice distribution on four learning-related processes: the persistent processes of learning and forgetting, and the transient processes of warm-up decrement and fatigue...
April 20, 2018: Human Movement Science
John Pickavance, Arianne Azmoodeh, Andrew D Wilson
The stability of coordinated rhythmic movement is primarily affected by the required mean relative phase. In general, symmetrical coordination is more stable than asymmetrical coordination; however, there are two ways to define relative phase and the associated symmetries. The first is in an egocentric frame of reference, with symmetry defined relative to the sagittal plane down the midline of the body. The second is in an allocentric frame of reference, with symmetry defined in terms of the relative direction of motion...
April 18, 2018: Human Movement Science
Geoffrey P Bingham, Winona Snapp-Childs
A large proportion of school-aged children exhibit poor drawing and handwriting. This prevalence limits the availability of therapy. We developed an automated method for training improved manual compliance control and relatedly, prospective control of a stylus. The approach included a difficult training task, while providing parametrically modifiable support that enables the children to perform successfully while developing good compliance control. The task was to use a stylus to push a bead along a 3D wire path...
April 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Siobhan Thornton, Signe Bray, Lisa Marie Langevin, Deborah Dewey
Motor impairment is associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and to a lesser extent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous functional imaging studies investigated children with DCD or ADHD only; however, these two disorders co-occur in up to 50% of cases, suggesting that similar neural correlates are associated with these disorders. This study compared functional brain activation in children and adolescents (age range 8-17, M = 11.73, SD = 2.88) with DCD (n = 9), ADHD (n = 20), co-occurring DCD and ADHD (n = 18) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 20)...
April 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Daanish M Mulla, Alison C McDonald, Peter J Keir
The rotator cuff muscles are prominent stabilizers of the shoulder and are vulnerable to muscle fatigue. Rotator cuff fatigue may result in subacromial impingement (SAI) through the superior translation of the humeral head. Scapular changes have been reported inconsistently, but may prevent SAI. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in scapular kinematics, as well as muscle activity during glenohumeral motions following targeted rotator cuff fatigue. Ten healthy men completed four planar glenohumeral motions (cross-flexion, frontal, scapular, and sagittal plane elevation) prior to and immediately following a rotator cuff fatigue protocol on two separate days...
April 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Stephanie Blair, Mark J Lake, Rui Ding, Thorsten Sterzing
Different modes of perturbations have been used to understand how individuals negotiate irregular surfaces, with a general notion that increased locomotion variability induces a positive training stimulus. Individuals tend to walk slower when initially exposed to such locomotion tasks, potentially influencing the magnitude and variability of biomechanical parameters. This study investigated theeffects of gait speed on lower extremity biomechanics when walking on an irregular (IS) and regular surface (RS). Twenty physically active males walked on a RS and IS at three different speeds (4 km/h, 5 km/h, 6 km/h)...
April 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
Maurici A López-Felip, Tehran J Davis, Till D Frank, James A Dixon
Collective behavior can be defined as the ability of humans to coordinate with others through a complex environment. Sports offer exquisite examples of this dynamic interplay, requiring decision making and other perceptual-cognitive skills to adjust individual decisions to the team self-organization and vice versa. Considering players of a team as periodic phase oscillators, synchrony analyses can be used to model the coordination of a team. Nonetheless, a main limitation of current models is that collective behavior is context independent...
April 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
Giuseppe Coratella, Nicoletta Rinaldo, Federico Schena
The aim of this study was to compare quadriceps concentric and eccentric strength and muscle architecture in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients vs healthy men. Thirty-five COPD patients (age = 65 ± 4 yrs, forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ) = 63 ± 10%; FEV1 /forced vital capacity (FVC)=57 ± 13% of predicted) and 25 age-matched healthy men (age = 65 ± 4 yrs, FEV1 =114 ± 17%; FEV1 /FVC = 101 ± 6% of predicted) (CON) participated in the present cross-sectional study...
April 3, 2018: Human Movement Science
Giuseppe Coratella, Marco Beato, Federico Schena
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between in quadriceps and hamstrings inter-limb strength asymmetry and change of direction, sprinting and jumping abilities in U21 elite soccer players. Twenty-seven soccer players volunteered for this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque was measured at high and low angular velocities, both in concentric and eccentric modalities. Performance in agility T-test, 20 + 20 m shuttle-test, 10 m and 30 m sprint, squat jump (SJ) and counter-movement jump (CMJ), were measured...
April 3, 2018: Human Movement Science
Matheus M Pacheco, Karl M Newell
It is generally held that transfer of practice is a function of the similarity between the originally learned task and the subsequent transfer task. In the present paper, we examine the proposition that individuals learn a coordination function that is specific to the task, individual and yet generalizable, depending on the characteristics of the learned coordination function. Seventeen individuals performed for 5 days the task of learning to throw for accuracy to a target and then performed two transfer tests that differed in terms of the axis of variation that individuals could vary in task outcome...
April 2, 2018: Human Movement Science
Roberto Izquierdo-Herrera, Xavier García-Massó, Luis-Millan González, Michael G Wade, Thomas A Stoffregen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Human Movement Science
Zhujun Pan, Arend W A Van Gemmert
Bimanual coordination requires task-specific control of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the movements of both hands. The present study focused on the spatial relationship between hand movements when their amplitude and direction were manipulated. In the experiment in question, participants were instructed to draw two lines simultaneously. These two lines were instructed to be drawn in mirror symmetric or perpendicular directions of each other while the length was instructed to be the same or different...
March 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Kelly A Hawkins, Emily J Fox, Janis J Daly, Dorian K Rose, Evangelos A Christou, Theresa E McGuirk, Dana M Otzel, Katie A Butera, Sudeshna A Chatterjee, David J Clark
BACKGROUND: Control of walking by the central nervous system includes contributions from executive control mechanisms, such as attention and motor planning resources. Executive control of walking can be estimated objectively by recording prefrontal cortical activity using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate group differences in prefrontal/executive control of walking among young adults, older adults, and adults post-stroke...
March 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ewa Gajewska, Magdalena Sobieska, Jerzy Moczko
The aim of the study is to select elements of motor skills assessed at 3 months that provide the best predictive properties for motor development at 9 months. In all children a physiotherapeutic assessment of the quantitative and qualitative development at the age of 3 months was performed in the prone and supine positions, which was presented in previous papers as the quantitative and qualitative assessment sheet of motor development. The neurological examination at the age of 9 months was based on the Denver Development Screening Test II and the evaluation of reflexes, muscle tone (hypotony and hypertony), and symmetry...
March 27, 2018: Human Movement Science
Zachary J Conway, Tim Blackmore, Peter A Silburn, Michael H Cole
It is well understood that stability during ambulation is reliant upon appropriate control of the trunk segment, but research shows that the rhythmicity of this segment is significantly reduced for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the increased risk associated with stair ambulation, this study investigated whether people with PD demonstrate poorer trunk control during stair ambulation compared with age-matched controls. Trunk accelerations were recorded for twelve PD patients and age-matched controls during stair ascent and descent...
March 27, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ari Z Zivotofsky, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Pnina Grossman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
Recent studies have shown that gait synchronization during natural walking is not merely anecdotal, but it is a repeatable phenomenon that is quantifiable and is apparently related to available sensory feedback modalities. However, the mechanisms underlying this phase-locking of gait have only recently begun to be investigated. For example, it is not known what role, if any, attention plays. We employed a dual tasking paradigm in order to investigate the role attention plays in gait synchronization. Sixteen pairs of subjects walked under six conditions that manipulated the available sensory feedback and the degree of difficulty of the dual task, i...
March 23, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jeffrey D Simpson, Brandon L Miller, Eric K O'Neal, Harish Chander, Adam C Knight
External load training (ELT) is a supplemental training method used to potentially improve high intensity task performance. However, biomechanical parameters such as ground reaction forces (GRF), ground contact time, and time to peak GRF during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) following an ELT intervention have yet to be examined. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of ELT on certain biomechanical parameters of a DVJ task. Well-trained females stratified into two groups (ELT = 9, Control = 10) completed a DVJ from a 45...
March 23, 2018: Human Movement Science
Bradley Fawver, Jaimie A Roper, Carolina Sarmento, Chris J Hass
We investigated the impact of initial body position on the displacement and velocity of center of pressure adjustments made during gait initiation. Twenty-nine healthy adults (21 ± 1y) initiated forward gait following six seconds of sustained forward posture based on percentage of their forward maximum voluntary lean (0, 5, 10, 20, 50%). Final center of pressure positions for each trial were back-calculated, as a percentage of maximum voluntary lean, using average anteroposterior constant error to the target during the last second of feedback...
March 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
Penelope Hannant
A number of studies have evidenced marked difficulties in language in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Studies have also shown that language and word knowledge are associated with the same area of brain that is also responsible for visual perception in typically developing (TD) individuals. However, in ASC, research suggests word meaning is mapped differently, on to situational sensorimotor components within the brain. Furthermore, motor coordination is associated with communication skills. The current study explores whether motor coordination and visual perception are impaired in children with ASC, and whether difficulties in coordination and visual perception correlate with receptive language levels...
March 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
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