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Human Movement Science

Nan-Ying Yu, Shao-Hsia Chang
This study proposed a new technology to assess the accuracy of Chinese handwriting by comparing every stroke movement between a template model and a handwritten script. It tested the feasibility of a computerized evaluation in the parameterization of the handwriting deterioration caused by impaired cognitive function. This study recruited 22 participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 14 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); 18 age- and gender-matched healthy elderly individuals made up the health control...
June 19, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ben Serrien, Naaike Verhaeghe, Silke Verhaeghe, Bruno Tassignon, Jean-Pierre Baeyens
Hysteresis in the coordination of movement can be described in the language of coordination dynamics as an asymmetrical response of a system's order parameter with respect to opposite changes in a control parameter. For movement tasks involving a large number of active degrees-of-freedom, the order parameter can be modelled with a pattern recognition approach like Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). This study explored this method in a rope-skipping task, which involves the coordinated oscillation of several segments in the lower and upper limb and trunk and we compared the results to a classical order parameter like continuous relative phase...
June 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
Rosangela Alice Batistela, Alison Oates, Renato Moraes
Understanding the effects of haptic input while performing a cognitive-visual task on postural control can broaden comprehension of the functional integration hypothesis in older adults with and without a history of falls. We aimed to investigate the effect of haptic input provided by light touch (LT) and the anchors while performing a cognitive-visual task in faller and non-faller older adults when standing upright. Twenty-two fallers and twenty-two non-fallers older adults participated in this study. They stood upright with feet together and performed six experimental conditions combining haptic cues (none, LT, and anchors) and the presence/absence of the cognitive-visual task (the adapted visual Stroop test)...
June 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jarrod Blinch, Taylor Jensen Kouts
The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether integrated visual feedback and movement templates could facilitate bimanual movements with different patterns of spatiotemporal coupling and decoupling. Knowing when Lissajous feedback and movement templates improve bimanual movements, and when they do not, will help determine the mechanisms of task conceptualisation. We tested two bimanual asymmetric conditions where different movement templates were used to encourage the movements to travel different paths to the same targets...
June 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
Sadanori Sakamoto, Masaki Iguchi
Less attention to a balance task reduces the center of foot pressure (COP) variability by automating the task. However, it is not fully understood how the degree of postural automaticity influences the voluntary movement and anticipatory postural adjustments. Eleven healthy young adults performed a bipedal, eyes closed standing task under the three conditions: Control (C, standing task), Single (S, standing + reaction tasks), and Dual (D, standing  +  reaction + mental tasks). The reaction task was flexing the right shoulder to an auditory stimulus, which causes counter-clockwise rotational torque, and the mental task was arithmetic task...
June 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ana M F Barela, Sarah Caporicci, Paulo Barbosa de Freitas, John J Jeka, José A Barela
The present study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of detecting lower limb passive motion and use of additional sensory information from fingertip light touch for the postural control of older adults in comparison with young adults. A total of 11 older and 11 young adults (aged 68.1 ± 5.2 and 24.2 ± 2.2 years, respectively) underwent two tasks. We evaluated their sensitivity to passive ankle joint movement while seated in the first task. Participants then stood quietly on a force plate in a semi-tandem stance, for 30 s under two fingertip contact force conditions (no touch and light touch limited to 1 N)...
June 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yuming Lei, Areej Akbar, Jinsung Wang
After-effects following sensorimotor adaptation are generally considered as evidence for the formation of an internal model, although evidence lacks on whether the absence of after-effects necessarily indicates that the adaptation did not result in the formation of an internal model. Here, we examined direct- and after-effects of dynamic adaptation with one arm at one workspace on subsequent performance with the other arm, as well as the same arm at another workspace. During training, subjects performed reaching movements under a novel dynamic condition with the right arm; during testing, they performed reaching movements with the left or right arm at a new workspace, under either the same dynamic condition (direct-effects) or a normal condition (after-effects)...
June 1, 2018: Human Movement Science
Roberto N Barbosa, Nilson R S Silva, Daniel P R Santos, Renato Moraes, Matheus M Gomes
The force variability of the plantar flexor muscles (PFM) appears to be directly related to the control of upright standing. Nevertheless, this association is still uncertain in older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between PFM force variability and postural sway in the upright standing in older women. Forty older women performed submaximal plantar flexion movements measured by force transducers coupled to an experimental chair. They performed this task during three sets of 20 s at 5% and 10% of their maximum voluntary isometric contraction with and without the aid of visual feedback of the force produced...
May 31, 2018: Human Movement Science
Lee-Kuen Chua, Gabriele Wulf, Rebecca Lewthwaite
In the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016), three factors are postulated to facilitate motor performance and learning: Enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance, autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. We examined whether EE, AS, and EF would have immediate performance benefits and whether implementing these factors consecutively would lead to incremental performance increases. Participants were assigned to the optimized or control groups and performed a maximal jump...
May 30, 2018: Human Movement Science
Geoffrey P Bingham, Winona Snapp-Childs, Qin Zhu
How is information from different sensory modalities coordinated when learning an action? We tested two hypotheses. The first is that the information is amodal. The second is that the information is modality specific and one modality is used in first learning the action and then is used to teach the other modality. We investigated these hypotheses using a rhythmic coordination task. One group of participants learned to perform bimanual coordination at a relative phase of 90° using kinesthesis. A second group used vision to learn unimanual 90° coordination...
May 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Wendy Aertssen, Emmanuel Bonney, Gillian Ferguson, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman
PURPOSE: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have poor physical fitness. However, differentiating homogenous subgroups of DCD using fitness performance has not yet been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to identify subtypes in children with and without DCD using measures of physical fitness. METHOD: Children (aged 6-10 years, n = 217) constituted the sample for this study. They were assessed on 1) aerobic fitness (20m Shuttle Run test), 2) anaerobic fitness (Muscle Power Sprint Test), 3) isometric muscle strength (handheld dynamometry) 4) functional upper and lower body strength (Functional Strength Measurement) and 5) motor coordination [Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) test]...
May 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
P C Dixon, L Stirling, X Xu, C C Chang, J T Dennerlein, J M Schiffman
Stairs represent a barrier to safe locomotion for some older adults, potentially leading to the adoption of a cautious gait strategy that may lack fluidity. This strategy may be characterized as unsmooth; however, stair negotiation smoothness has yet to be quantified. The aims of this study were to assess age- and task-related differences in head and body center of mass (COM) acceleration patterns and smoothness during stair negotiation and to determine if smoothness was associated with the timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test of functional movement...
May 26, 2018: Human Movement Science
Celeste Bickle, Martine Deighan, Nicola Theis
Dancing en pointe significantly increases the risk of lower limb injuries by placing the foot and ankle joint in unfavorable positions. The pointe shoe, worn predominantly by female ballet dancers may aid movement and acts as a major stabilizer of the foot. The deterioration in pointe shoe structure with excessive wear may increase a dancer's risk of ankle and foot related injuries by placing excessive load on the joints when the foot is poorly aligned. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in foot and ankle kinetics and kinematics between new and worn pointe shoes...
May 25, 2018: Human Movement Science
Junjie Wang, Wenxue Yuan, Ruopeng An
BACKGROUND: Backward walking training (BWT) is thought to affect gait biomechanics, but relevant evidence has been sparse and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed and quantified the effectiveness of BWT on spatial-temporal gait characteristics (STGC). METHODS: A keyword and reference search of interventions on BWT was conducted in five bibliographic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library for articles published until November, 2017...
May 24, 2018: Human Movement Science
Michael Buchecker, Erich Müller, Stefan Wegenkittl, Gerold Sattlecker, Thomas Stöggl
This study evaluated the short- and long-term effects of unstable shoes (US) on the structure/shape of variability in gait. Therefore, sample entropy (SEn) values of centre of mass velocity (vCOM) signals in medio-lateral (ML), anterior-posterior (AP) and vertical (VT) direction were computed for 12 sport students during walking with US and flat shoes (FS) before and after a 10-week accommodation period. Statistical analysis included two-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by post hoc tests where appropriate (α = 0...
May 23, 2018: Human Movement Science
Hyung Suk Yang, C Roger James, Lee T Atkins, Steven F Sawyer, Phillip S Sizer, Neeraj A Kumar, Jongyeol Kim
Previous studies have investigated how additional arm weights affect gait. Although light weights (0.45 kg) seemed to elicit performance improvements in Parkinsonian patients, it was not studied how light weights affect gait parameters in healthy individuals. It is important to understand normal responses in a healthy population so that clinical effects might be better understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weights on arm swing amplitude, gait performance, and muscle activity in healthy people...
May 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
Brendan L Pinto, Shawn M Beaudette, Stephen H M Brown
Given the appropriate cues, kinematic factors associated with low back injury risk and pain, such as spine flexion, can be avoided. Recent research has demonstrated the potential for tactile sensory information to change movement. In this study an athletic strapping tape was applied bilaterally along the lumbar extensor muscles to provide continuous tactile feedback information during a repeated lifting and lowering task. The presence of the tape resulted in a statistically significant reduction in lumbar spine flexion when compared to a baseline condition in which no tape was present...
May 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
Akiko Imura, Yoichi Iino
This study examined how dancers regulate the hip joint kinetics to coordinate the upper and lower body angular momenta with the increased rotation of pirouette en dehors (pirouette) during the preparation. During the preparation of the pirouette, the upper body rotates greatly about the vertical axis; however, the lower extremity remains relatively stationary. Therefore, there must be specific control at the hip to coordinate the upper and lower body angular momenta in turns of increased rotation. Kinematics and kinetics of single to quadruple pirouettes performed by eight ballet dancers were analysed using a motion capture system and force plates...
May 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yi-Ying Tsai, Gwo-Ching Chang, Ing-Shiou Hwang
Joint constraint interferes with the coordinative structure in joint movements used to optimize postural stability. This study aimed to investigate changes in postural synergy when the ankle joints were bilaterally braced during a stabilometer stance. Twenty-four young adults stood on a stabilometer plate while wearing a pair of ankle-foot orthoses, which were either unlocked or locked to restrict ankle motion (the ankle constraint (AC) and non-constraint (NC) conditions). Although ankle constraint did not significantly affect the dynamics of the stabilometer movements, the size and regularity of the first principal component (PC1), which explained more than 80% of the variance of joint movements in the lower limb, were increased...
May 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
Leonardo C R Lima, Natália M Bassan, Adalgiso C Cardozo, Mauro Gonçalves, Camila C Greco, Benedito S Denadai
Running economy (RE) is impaired following unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercises that induce muscle damage. It is also known that muscle damage is reduced when maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are performed at a long muscle length 2-4 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise with the same muscle, a phenomenon that can be described as isometric pre-conditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that IPC could attenuate muscle damage and changes in RE following downhill running. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned into experimental or control groups and ran downhill on a treadmill (-15%) for 30 min...
May 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
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