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Human Movement Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437638/motor-expertise-and-performance-in-spatial-tasks-a-meta-analysis
#1
Daniel Voyer, Petra Jansen
The present study aimed to provide a summary of findings relevant to the influence of motor expertise on performance in spatial tasks and to examine potential moderators of this effect. Studies of relevance were those in which individuals involved in activities presumed to require motor expertise were compared to non-experts in such activities. A final set of 62 effect sizes from 33 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed an overall advantage in favor of motor experts in spatial tasks (d=0...
April 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437637/analysis-of-free-moment-and-center-of-pressure-frequency-components-during-quiet-standing-using-magnitude-squared-coherence
#2
Dean C Hay, Mark P Wachowiak
To date, no postural studies have investigated the specific relationship between linear (anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML)) postural sway and the free moment (FM) over the range of biomechanically important frequencies. The goal of the current paper is to study the relationship between FM and the AP/ML movements during quiet standing with respect to individual frequencies. Mean squared coherence, which measures the degree of the relationship between two signals as a function of frequency, is employed to address this question...
April 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410536/the-influence-of-ball-swing-on-the-timing-and-coordination-of-a-natural-interceptive-task
#3
Vishnu Sarpeshkar, David L Mann, Wayne Spratford, Bruce Abernethy
Successful interception relies on the use of perceptual information to accurately guide an efficient movement strategy that allows performers to be placed at the right place at the right time. Although previous studies have highlighted the differences in the timing and coordination of movement that underpin interceptive expertise, very little is known about how these movement patterns are adapted when intercepting targets that follow a curvilinear flight-path. The aim of this study was to examine how curvilinear ball-trajectories influence movement patterns when intercepting a fast-moving target...
April 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410535/spinal-kinematics-during-gait-in-healthy-individuals-across-different-age-groups
#4
Stefan Schmid, Björn Bruhin, Dominika Ignasiak, Jacqueline Romkes, William R Taylor, Stephen J Ferguson, Reinald Brunner, Silvio Lorenzetti
Most studies investigating trunk kinematics have not provided adequate quantification of spinal motion, resulting in a limited understanding of the healthy spine's biomechanical behavior during gait. This study aimed at assessing spinal motion during gait in adolescents, adults and older individuals. Fourteen adolescents (10-18years), 13 adults (19-35years) and 15 older individuals (≥65years) were included. Using a previously validated enhanced optical motion capture approach, sagittal and frontal plane spinal curvature angles and general trunk kinematics were measured during shod walking at a self-selected normal speed...
April 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395147/acute-effect-of-stretching-modalities-on-global-coordination-and-kicking-accuracy-in-12-13year-old-soccer-players
#5
Mohamed Frikha, Mohammad S Derbel, Nesrine Chaâri, Adnene Gharbi, Karim Chamari
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of stretching procedures on global coordination and accuracy in instep soccer kicks achieved in different stress conditions. Twenty male young soccer players completed the global coordination test (GC), the instep kicking accuracy test in free (FKA) and in time-pressure (TPKA) conditions, either after static (SS), dynamic (DS), ballistic (BS) or no-stretching (CTR) protocols, on nonconsecutive days and in a randomized order. After performing a 5min standardized intensity jogging (70% of MAV), followed by stretching exercises for 10min, each participant completed, successively, the GC, FKA and TPKA tests...
April 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395146/the-action-specific-effect-of-execution-on-imagination-of-reciprocal-aiming-movements
#6
Emma Yoxon, Sandra M Pacione, Joo-Hyun Song, Timothy N Welsh
Past research has shown that the movement times of imagined aiming movements were more similar to actual movement times after the individual has experienced executing the movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine if experience with a set of movements altered the imagination of movements that were not experienced. Participants imagined a series of reciprocal aiming movements in different movement difficulty contexts (created by altering target width and movement amplitude) before and after actually executing a series of aiming movements...
April 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392098/a-soft-contact-model-for-computing-safety-margins-in-human-prehension
#7
Tarkeshwar Singh, Satyajit Ambike
The soft human digit tip forms contact with grasped objects over a finite area and applies a moment about an axis normal to the area. These moments are important for ensuring stability during precision grasping. However, the contribution of these moments to grasp stability is rarely investigated in prehension studies. The more popular hard-contact model assumes that the digits exert a force vector but no free moment on the grasped object. Many sensorimotor studies use this model and show that humans estimate friction coefficients to scale the normal force to grasp objects stably, i...
April 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371663/temporal-predictive-mechanisms-modulate-motor-reaction-time-during-initiation-and-inhibition-of-speech-and-hand-movement
#8
Karim Johari, Roozbeh Behroozmand
Skilled movement is mediated by motor commands executed with extremely fine temporal precision. The question of how the brain incorporates temporal information to perform motor actions has remained unanswered. This study investigated the effect of stimulus temporal predictability on response timing of speech and hand movement. Subjects performed a randomized vowel vocalization or button press task in two counterbalanced blocks in response to temporally-predictable and unpredictable visual cues. Results indicated that speech and hand reaction time was decreased for predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli...
March 31, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371662/do-kinematic-metrics-of-walking-balance-adapt-to-perturbed-optical-flow
#9
Jessica D Thompson, Jason R Franz
Visual (i.e., optical flow) perturbations can be used to study balance control and balance deficits. However, it remains unclear whether walking balance control adapts to such perturbations over time. Our purpose was to investigate the propensity for visuomotor adaptation in walking balance control using prolonged exposure to optical flow perturbations. Ten subjects (age: 25.4±3.8years) walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched virtual hallway with and without continuous mediolateral optical flow perturbations of three different amplitudes...
March 31, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371661/applying-an-active-lumbopelvic-control-strategy-during-lumbar-extension-exercises-effect-on-muscle-recruitment-patterns-of-the-lumbopelvic-region
#10
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Eline De Ridder, Andry Vleeming, Guy Vanderstraeten, Stijn Schouppe, Lieven Danneels
OBJECTIVE: Examine whether implementing an active lumbopelvic control strategy during high load prone lumbar extension exercises affects posterior extensor chain recruitment and lumbopelvic kinematics. METHODS: Thirteen healthy adults acquired an optimal active lumbopelvic control strategy during guided/home-based training sessions. During the experimental session electromyography was used to evaluate the activity of the posterior extensor chain muscles during high load trunk/bilateral leg extension exercises with/without application of the strategy...
March 31, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342556/on-constraints-and-affordances-in-motor-development-and-learning-the-case-of-dcd-a-commentary-on-wade-kazeck-2017
#11
Reint H Geuze
This commentary to the recent article by Wade & Kazeck discusses the role of constraints as a key concept in the understanding of the limitations in DCD. The concept of constraints is linked to affordances and is useful in the understanding of changes due to development and learning and the limitations of DCD, irrespective of theoretical point of view.
March 22, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323219/effects-of-visual-and-auditory-guidance-on-bimanual-coordination-complexity
#12
Daniela V Vaz, Bruce A Kay, Michael T Turvey
Perceptual guidance of movement with simple visual or temporal information can facilitate performance of difficult coordination patterns. Guidance may override coordination constraints that usually limit stability of bimanual coordination to only in-phase and anti-phase. Movement dynamics, however, might not have the same characteristics with and without perceptual guidance. Do visual and auditory guidance produce qualitatively different dynamical organization of movement? An anti-phase wrist flexion and extension coordination task was performed under no specific perceptual guidance, under temporal guidance with a metronome, and under visual guidance with a Lissajous plot...
March 20, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323218/the-postural-control-can-be-optimized-by-the-first-movement-initiation-condition-encountered-when-submitted-to-muscle-fatigue
#13
Florian Monjo, Nicolas Forestier
We investigated whether and how the movement initiation condition (IC) encountered during the early movements performed following focal muscle fatigue affects the postural control of discrete ballistic movements. For this purpose, subjects performed shoulder flexions in a standing posture at maximal velocity under two movement IC, i.e., in self-paced conditions and submitted to a Stroop-like task in which participants had to trigger fast shoulder flexions at the presentation of incongruent colors. Shoulder flexion kinematics, surface muscle activity of focal and postural muscles as well as center-of-pressure kinematics were recorded...
March 18, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285156/the-role-of-cognition-for-different-stages-of-visuomotor-adaptation-in-younger-and-older-adults
#14
Anja Simon, Otmar Bock
A recent model identified three stages of learning, the first drawing on cognitive flexibility, the second on inhibition, and the third on automation. We explored the validity of this model for visuomotor learning and found that adaptation is associated with inhibition early during adaptation and with automaticity later on. An initial association with cognitive flexibility remained inconclusive. This work employs another marker of cognitive flexibility and extends our work to older adults. Twenty young and 20 older adults completed three cognitive tasks (switch task, Stroop task and four-choice-reaction-time-task)...
March 8, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284464/dcd-and-comorbidity-in-neurodevelopmental-disorder-how-to-deal-with-complexity
#15
EDITORIAL
Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman, Marianne Jover, Dido Green, Gillian Ferguson, Peter Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254534/lower-limb-mechanical-asymmetry-during-repeated-treadmill-sprints
#16
Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Jean-Benoit Morin, Grégoire P Millet
Stride mechanical imbalances between the lower limbs may be detrimental to performance and/or increase injury risks. This study describes the time course and magnitude of asymmetries in running mechanical variables during repeated treadmill sprints and examines whether inter-limb differences in sprinting mechanics increase with fatigue. Thirteen non-injured male athletes performed five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery on an instrumented treadmill, allowing the continuous (step-by-step) measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics calculation...
February 27, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237655/a-prospective-comparison-of-lower-extremity-kinematics-and-kinetics-between-injured-and-non-injured-collegiate-cross-country-runners
#17
Robert I Dudley, Derek N Pamukoff, Scott K Lynn, Robert D Kersey, Guillermo J Noffal
Collegiate cross country runners are at risk for running related injuries (RRI) due to high training volume and the potential for aberrant lower extremity biomechanics. However, there is a need for prospective research to determine biomechanical risk factors for RRI. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetics and ground reaction force characteristics between injured and non-injured cross country runners over a 14-week season. Biomechanical running analyses were conducted on 31 collegiate-cross country runners using a 3-dimensional motion capture system and force plate prior to the start of the season...
February 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237654/exploring-phase-dependent-functional-gait-variability
#18
Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega, Astrid Zech
Gait variability is frequently used to evaluate the sensorimotor system and elderly fallers compared to non-fallers exhibit an altered variability in gait parameters during unchanged conditions. While gait variability is often interpreted as movement error, it is also necessary to change the gait pattern in order to react to internal and external perturbations. This phenomenon has been described as functional variability and ensures the stability of gait motor control. The aim of the current study is to explore the functional variability in relation to the different phases of the gait cycle (phase-dependent gait variability)...
February 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222902/hybrid-is-not-a-dirty-word-commentary-on-wade-and-kazeck-2017
#19
Peter H Wilson, Karen Caeyenberghs, Deborah Dewey, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Bert Steenbergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222343/motor-skills-in-kindergarten-internal-structure-cognitive-correlates-and-relationships-to-background-variables
#20
Nicole Oberer, Venera Gashaj, Claudia M Roebers
The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills...
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
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