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Human Movement Science

John R Harry, C Roger James, Janet S Dufek
Weighted vest (WV) use during vertical jump landings (VJL) does not appear to alter peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) or peak joint torques. However, WV effects on joint work and sex differences during VJL are not well understood. This study assessed WV effects on vertical GRF and sagittal joint work during VJL in men and women. Twelve men and 12 women performed VJL wearing a WV with zero added mass (unloaded) and with 10% body mass (loaded) while GRF and kinematic data were obtained. Mixed-model analyses of variance (α = 0...
December 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Kohei Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the effect of stretchable characteristics of elastic therapeutic tape and its elongation on surface electromyography (EMG) of knee extensor muscles during knee extension movements. METHODS: Nine healthy men performed knee extension movement with the application of normal elastic tape or highly stretchable tape and without the tapes (control). Tapes were applied on the anterior thigh to cross the knee joint with no elongation and elongation of 50 and 75% of the maximum stretchability...
December 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Andressa Lagoa Nascimento, Aline Martins Toledo, Leila Foerster Merey, Eloisa Tudella, Daniele de Almeida Soares-Marangoni
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a brief reaching training with sticky mittens was effective to improve reaching behavior in newly reaching preterm infants. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, twenty four 5-month-old (±16-week-old corrected age) preterm infants were randomly allocated into experimental or control groups. Infants were assessed three times in a single session: pretraining (immediately before training), posttraining (immediately after training), and retention (4 min after the posttraining)...
December 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Mark Carpenter, Victor Spiandor Beretta, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
Postural control asymmetry is an important aspect of Parkinson's disease (PD) that may be associated with falls. The aim of this study was to compare the postural control asymmetry during postural tasks between fallers and non-fallers in people with PD and neurological healthy age-matched controls (CG). Individuals with idiopathic PD (n = 24) and CG (n = 24) were sub-divided into groups of fallers and non-fallers based on their fall history over the past year. Participants performed blocks of three 30-s trials of quiet standing with feet in a side-by-side and semi-tandem stance position...
December 4, 2018: Human Movement Science
David Shulman, Abbigale Spencer, Lori Ann Vallis
With the socioeconomic burden associated with falls expected to rise as the average age of the Canadian population increases, research is needed to elucidate the nature of postural responses generated by older adults (OA) following a posture-destabilizing event. This knowledge is even more imperative for novel and difficult tasks, such as gait initiation (GI), a task known to pose a postural threat to stability for OA. A common technique to regain stability following an unexpected perturbation is reactive stepping...
December 1, 2018: Human Movement Science
Clara M Moore, Natasha Lelievre, Diane M Ste-Marie
We compared varied model types and their potential differential effects on learning outcomes and consolidation processes when observational practice was interspersed with physical practice. Participants (N = 75) were randomly assigned to one of five groups: (1) unskilled model observation, (2) skilled model observation, (3) mixed-model observation, (4) physical practice only, and (5) no observational or physical practice (control). All were tasked with learning a waveform-matching task. With exception of the control group not involved in acquisition sessions, participants were involved in one pre-test, two acquisition sessions, four retention tests (immediate-post acquisition 1, 24hr post acquisition 1, immediate-post acquisition 2, and approximate 7-day retention), as well as an approximate 7-day transfer test...
November 30, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jorge E Morais, Tiago M Barbosa, Henrique P Neiva, Daniel A Marinho
This study aimed to assess the stability of the performance, pace and turn parameters of elite long-distance male swimmers during an 800 m freestyle race. The sample was composed by 38 male swimmers, participating in the 800 m event at the 2016 LEN European Aquatic Championships (long course meter). The performance, and a set of pace and turn parameters were analyzed. A customized software was used to perform each race analysis. Swimmers spent 64.05 ± 0.50% and 35.95 ± 0.49% of the final race time in the clean swim and turns, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Human Movement Science
Adam D Goodworth, Cody Barrett, Jonathan Rylander, Brian Garner
As perturbation training is gaining popularity, it is important to better understand postural control during complex three-dimensional stimuli. One clinically relevant and commonly used three-dimensional stimulus is found in hippotherapy and simulated hippotherapy on a mechanical horse. We tested nine healthy participants on a horse simulator, measured head and trunk kinematics, and characterized data in time (root-mean-square and variability) and frequency (amplitude spectra, gains, and phases) domains. We addressed three fundamental questions: 1) What is the specificity of postural responses to the simulator? 2) Which plane of motion is associated with the most and least variability (repeatable movements across repeated stimuli and across participants)? 3) To what extent are postural responses influenced by different degrees of stability (addition of pelvis straps and trunk support)? We found head and trunk responses were highly specific to the three-dimensional simulator perturbation direction and frequency...
November 29, 2018: Human Movement Science
Simone Montuori, Giulia D'Aurizio, Francesca Foti, Marianna Liparoti, Anna Lardone, Matteo Pesoli, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Laura Mandolesi, Giuseppe Curcio, Pierpaolo Sorrentino
Executive functions (EF) are crucial for the athletes' success, and they are even more essential in open skill sports (e.g. volleyball and football). In these sports, due to continuously changing conditions, goal-directed behaviours need to be repeatedly adjusted and corrected. One of the most important EF is the ability to continuously switch between two different tasks being required in a random sequence. We used a task-switching protocol in elite volleyball athletes, usually playing different roles, with the aim of evaluating if each role is characterized by specific switching abilities...
November 29, 2018: Human Movement Science
M Tal Saban, A Kirby
Empathy is defined as an emotional or cognitive response to another's emotional state. It is considered essential for navigating meaningful social interactions and is closely linked to prosocial behavior. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is characterized by an impairment of motor coordination that has a marked impact on both academic and day-to-day living activities. Children and adolescents with DCD have been shown to have less developed social support and friendships. The research linking empathy and DCD is scarce...
November 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
V Belluscio, E Bergamini, G Salatino, T Marro, P Gentili, M Iosa, D Morelli, G Vannozzi
Down (DS) and Prader-Willi (PWS) syndromes are chromosomal disorders both characterized by obesity, ligament laxity, and hypotonia, the latter associated with gait instability. Although these shared features may justify a common rehabilitation approach, evidence exists that adults with DS and PWS adopt different postural and walking strategies. The development of an instrumented protocol able to describe these strategies and quantify patients' gait stability in the current clinical routine would be of great benefit for health professionals, allowing them to design personalized rehabilitation programs...
November 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yu-Chien Lo, Chun-Ming Chen, Wu-Chung Shen, Yu-Ling Shih
The sensory acquisition hypothesis states that the sensory demand of a task is the most crucial factor in determining the level of cerebellar activity. The present study was conducted to examine whether the prediction of sensory demand holds when participants have different sensorimotor training experiences. Archery athletes and non-athletic control participants were asked to perform tactile discrimination tasks during fMRI scanning. In archery athletes, a pattern of reduced cerebellar activation accompanying higher sensory cortical activity was observed, whereas in non-athletic control participants the visual network was found to be in concert with extensive cerebellar activation...
November 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
C Peploe, S A McErlain-Naylor, A R Harland, M A King
The ability of a batsman to clear the boundary is a major contributor to success in modern cricket. The aim of this study was to identify technique parameters characterising those batsmen able to generate greater bat speeds, ball launch speeds, and carry distances during a range hitting task in cricket. Kinematic data were collected for 20 batsmen ranging from international to club standard, and a series of ball launch, bat-ball impact, and technique parameters were calculated for each trial. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis found impact location on the bat face in the medio-lateral and longitudinal directions and bat speed at impact to explain 68% of the observed variation in instantaneous post-impact ball speed...
November 27, 2018: Human Movement Science
Rongnian Tang, Janis Kim, Deborah J Gaebler-Spira, Ming Wu
The goal of this study is to determine whether the size and the variability of error have an impact on the retention of locomotor adaptation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eleven children with CP, aged 7-16 years old, were recruited to participate in this study. Three types of force perturbations (i.e., abrupt, gradual and noisy loads) were applied to the right leg above the ankle starting from late stance to mid-swing in three test sessions while the subject walked on a treadmill. Spatial-temporal gait parameters were recorded using a custom designed 3D position sensor during treadmill walking...
November 24, 2018: Human Movement Science
Margarita Cernych, Neringa Baranauskiene, Astra Vitkauskiene, Andrius Satas, Marius Brazaitis
Acute whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) increases blood markers concentration of stress, impairs motor drive to exercising muscles, and decreases resistance to neuromuscular fatigability. The functional natural residual consequences of WBH on neuromuscular functions remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of residual WBH on voluntary and electrically induced ankle plantar flexor contractility properties, motor drive transmission (reflexes), muscle torque steadiness, resistance to neuromuscular fatigability, and markers of stress as the body temperature recovers naturally to normothermia...
November 24, 2018: Human Movement Science
Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Silvia Leticia Pavão, Livia Pessarelli Visicato, Ana Carolina de Campos, Nelci Adriana C F Rocha
AIM: To investigate the effects of manipulating visual information and the compliance of the support surface on the area of sway and dynamical trajectories of center-of-pressure (CoP) in children with CP and children with typical development during static sitting. METHODS: 32 typical children, 14 children with mild CP and 12 with moderate-to-severe CP were tested for CoP sway during static sitting under four sensory conditions: (1) eyes open on a rigid surface; (2) eyes closed on a rigid surface; (3) eyes open on foam; (4) eyes closed on foam...
November 22, 2018: Human Movement Science
Annalisa Na, Thomas S Buchanan
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) gait is characterized by simultaneous flexor and extensor use, or co-contraction. Co-contraction can stabilize and redirect joint forces. However, co-contraction can push and pull on the femur and tibia that exacerbate OA symptoms and make walking difficult. Such movements are quantifiable by limb dynamics (i.e., linear acceleration and jerk); thus, this study examines limb dynamics and its relationship with co-contraction and OA related walking difficulty. Three groups of age-and-sex-matched subjects with and without OA and walking difficulty (N = 13 per group) walked with electromyography (EMG) on the knee extensors and flexors and inertial measurement units (IMUs) at the femur and tibia...
November 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
Evagoras Xydas, Loucas S Louca
Robotic rehabilitation of the upper limb has been proved beneficial for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In order to provide task-specific therapy for MS, given its complex impairing nature, it is desired to take advantage of the robots' ability to move and provide force feedback in generic three-dimensional motions. Previous investigations have shown that hand motion during reaching tasks is piecewise planar, therefore, it is possible to simplify the design of robotic rehabilitation trajectories by confining them on planes oriented in space...
November 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
Sandra J M van Cappellen-van Maldegem, Femke van Abswoude, Hilde Krajenbrink, Bert Steenbergen
Effective motor learning paradigms are essential for children with motor difficulties to enhance their motor skills and facilitate performance in physical activities and in daily life. This study aimed to examine the effect of feedback with an internal or external focus of attention on motor learning of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (pDCD). In addition, the role of working memory capacity was examined. Children were recruited via physical therapists, who integrated the experimental procedures within therapy sessions...
November 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
Sina David, Marion Mundt, Igor Komnik, Wolfgang Potthast
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relation of different previously reported preparatory strategies and musculo-skeletal loading during fast preplanned 90° cutting maneuvers (CM). The aim was to increase the understanding of the connection between whole body orientation, preparatory actions and the solution strategy to fulfil the requirements of a CM. METHODS: Three consecutive steps of anticipated 90° CMs were investigated in a 3D movement analysis setup...
November 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
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