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Human Movement Science

António Mesquita Montes, Carolina Tam, Carlos Crasto, Cristina Argel de Melo, Paulo Carvalho, Rita Santos, Rui Vilarinho, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Despite the reported benefits of postures involving leaning the trunk forward with arm support for relieving dyspnea, how those postures influence the mechanics of breathing remains unclear. In response, the aim of the study reported here was to evaluate how posture (i.e., standing and sitting) and leaning the trunk forward with arm support affect the activity of accessory respiratory muscles and thoracoabdominal movement in healthy individuals. Thirty-five volunteers (15 males and 20 females) aged 18-29 years breathed with the same rhythm in standing and sitting positions while upright and while leaning the trunk forward with arm support...
August 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Michael De Pretto, Marie-Pierre Deiber, Clara E James
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) requires aligning motor actions to external events and represents a core part of both musical and dance performances. In the current study, to isolate the brain mechanisms involved in synchronizing finger tapping with a musical beat, we compared SMS to pure self-paced finger tapping and listen-only conditions at different tempi. We analyzed EEG data using frequency domain steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) to identify sustained electrophysiological brain activity during repetitive tasks...
August 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
Joshua P Bailey, Julia Freedman Silvernail, Janet S Dufek, James Navalta, John A Mercer
With a growing interest in coordination variability and its role in endurance running, it is important to identify the effect of running velocity. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of treadmill running velocity on the coordination and variability of coordination of lower extremity couplings of healthy runners during stance. Fourteen apparently healthy runners ran on a split-belt force instrumented treadmill at five different velocities. Continuous relative phase (CRP) was used to quantify coordination and variability (vCRP) between lower extremity couplings of the right limb (thigh-shank, thigh-foot, shank-foot) during three phases of stance (loading, mid stance, and propulsion)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
William M Land
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine whether movement contingent sensory effects could be used to prime and facilitate motor performance on a ball-tossing task. DESIGN: The ball-tossing task was performed across two consecutive days, and consisted of an acquisition phase and a test phase. During the acquisition phase, participants (N = 30) practiced an underhanded ball tossing task to a near and far target (N = 360 total, n = 180 each distance)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
Kazumichi Ae, Sekiya Koike, Norihisa Fujii, Michiyoshi Ae, Takashi Kawamura, Tetsuya Kanahori
In this study, the kinetic characteristics of lower limbs during batting were investigated by comparing batting off a tee with batting a pitched ball. Participants were 10 male collegiate baseball players who performed tee batting (TB) and batting using a pitching machine (MB; approximate ball speed: 33.3 m/s). Three-dimensional coordinate data were acquired using a motion capture system, and ground reaction forces were measured using three force platforms. Lower limb joint torques were obtained by inverse dynamics calculations...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
Mako Fukano, Toru Fukubayashi, Scott Arthur Banks
The ankle joint, including the talocrural and subtalar joints, plays an important role in human locomotion. Sex differences in walking patterns among young and old adults have been studied; however, little information exists on sex-based variations in talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics during walking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate sex-based differences in the talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics during walking. We obtained lateral fluoroscopic images from 10 male and 7 female healthy volunteers during stance phase, and determined the three-dimensional bone orientations using 3D-2D model-image registration techniques to compare sex-specific differences...
August 4, 2018: Human Movement Science
Shinya Ogaya, Ryo Kubota, Yuta Chujo, Eiko Hirooka, Kenichi Ito, Kim Kwang-Ho, Kimitaka Hase
Many individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) generate low forward center of mass (COM) acceleration during the late stance phase, consequently making it difficult to walk fast. This study analyzed individual muscle contributions to forward COM acceleration and the muscle potential (i.e., acceleration by unit force) to clarify whether reduced acceleration was related to decreased muscle potential of forward progression by the triceps sure. Twelve individuals with knee OA and 12 healthy age-matched individuals participated in this study...
August 2, 2018: Human Movement Science
James Peacock, Kevin Ball
Accurate kicking is essential to team success in Australian football. It is not known how foot-ball impact characteristics influence kicking accuracy, nor is it known if variability in foot-ball impact characteristics is functional or dysfunctional to performance. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between foot-ball impact characteristics and kicking accuracy and determine if variability in foot-ball impact characteristics influenced performance variability. Ten players performed 30 drop punt kicks toward a target with an Australian football ball...
July 26, 2018: Human Movement Science
Daniel Boari Coelho, Luis Augusto Teixeira
Contextual cueing advancing the characteristics of an impending balance perturbation has been thought to induce optimized automatic postural responses. In this investigation, we aimed to disambiguate the cognitive and adaptive components of cueing a balance perturbation through the direction sequence of a series of base of support translations. We compared three experimental conditions: (a) block, with one perturbation cueing that the following one would be in the same direction; (b) serial, with one perturbation cueing that the following one would be in the opposite direction; and (c) random, representing a control uncued condition...
July 24, 2018: Human Movement Science
D B Alder, P R Ford, J Causer, A M Williams
Successful sports performance requires athletes to be able to mediate any detrimental effects of anxiety whilst being able to complete tasks simultaneously. In this study, we examine how skill level influences the ability to mediate the effects of anxiety on anticipation performance and the capacity to allocate attentional resources to concurrent tasks. We use a counterbalanced, repeated measures design that required expert and novice badminton players to complete a film-based anticipation test in which they predicted serve direction under high- and low-anxiety conditions...
July 20, 2018: Human Movement Science
Martina Navarro, John van der Kamp, Paulo Schor, Geert J P Savelsbergh
Implicit learning has been proposed to improve athletes' performance in dual-task situations. Yet, only a few studies tested this with a sports-relevant dual-task. Hence, the current study aimed to compare the effects of implicit and explicit training methods on penalty kicking performance. Twenty skilled football players were divided in two training groups and took part in a practice phase to improve kicking accuracy (i.e., without a goalkeeper) and in a post-test in order to check penalty kick performance (i...
July 18, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jin Hyun Kim, Joung Kyue Han, Doug Hyun Han
During putting in golf, the direction and velocity of the club head should be consistent across swings. In order to maintain consistency in swing timing, the cerebellum provides temporal information, motor timing, control of rhythm, and timing of movements. We utilized Interactive Metronome (IM), a brain training software program that combines the concepts of neurotechnology with the abilities of a computer, to improve an individual's rhythm and timing. We propose that IM would activate neural networks involved in decreasing variation in putt swing...
July 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Hiashi Saito, Rie Kurai, Isao Nambu, Yasuhiro Wada
The isochrony principle is a well-known phenomenon whereby the speed of human arm movement is regulated to increase as its trajectory distance increases. However, the relationship between the trajectory planning and the isochrony phenomenon has never been sufficiently explained. One computational study derived the algorithm for estimating the optimal movement segmentation and its duration based on the framework of the minimum commanded torque change criterion. By extending this finding, we can consider the hypothesis that the human arm trajectory is generated based on the minimum commanded torque change criterion to ensure that the duration average of the commanded torque changes (DCTCs) are equivalent between certain movement segmentations, rather than to satisfy the isochrony phenomenon...
July 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ranila Bhoyroo, Beth Hands, Kate Wilmut, Christian Hyde, Adam Wigley
Several studies suggest that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) may be able to plan simple movements as well as their peers, but experience increasing difficulties as the movements become complex. The present study aimed to clarify the nature of motor planning in DCD, including a putative deficit, by being the first to investigate motor planning using converging measures of simple and complex motor planning in a single sample of children with DCD. Boys aged between 8 and 12 years with (n = 10) and without DCD (n = 17) completed three commonly used 'simple' (bar grasping, sword, and bar transport tasks) measures and one 'complex' (octagon task) measure of end-state-comfort (ESC), a classic measurement of motor planning ability...
July 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Dobromir Dotov, Tom Froese
Tasks encountered in daily living may have instabilities and more dimensions than are sampled by the senses such as when carrying a cup of coffee and only the surface motion and overall momentum are sensed, not the fluid dynamics. Anticipating non-periodic dynamics is difficult but not impossible because mutual coordination allows for chaotic processes to synchronize to each other and become periodic. A chaotic oscillator with random period and amplitude affords being stabilized onto a periodic trajectory by a weak input if the driver incorporates information about the oscillator...
July 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
Bruno Travassos, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Paulo Pedroso, Jaime Sampaio
This study identified how the manipulation in the number of goal targets affects the tactical behaviour of players from different age groups (U9, U11, U15 and U17). Forty youth futsal players performed two small-sided games based on Gk + 4vs4 + Gk situation with one regular and two small targets. TACTO software was used to capture players and ball displacements. The following variables were computed and presented as absolute values, coefficient of variation and regularity (approximate entropy): (i) distance from each player to the team centre (DtC); (ii) distance from each player to the ball (DtB); (iii) distance between team centres (DbTC); and (iv) distance from team centre to the ball (DCtB)...
July 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
Viviane Kostrubiec, Raoul Huys, Pier-Gorgio Zanone
We investigated how two people learn to coordinate their movement to achieve a joint goal. Pairs of participants oscillated a joystick with their dominant hand whilst looking at a common feedback, a Lissajous figure, where each participant controlled either the vertical or horizontal coordinate of a moving dot. In the absence of specific instructions, inter-personal coordination was highly variable, punctuated by intermittent phase locking. When participants were required to produce a circular Lissajous figure, coordination variability decreased while accuracy, transfer entropy and the incidence of stable coordinative solutions (fixed points, including bi-stability) increased as a function of practice trials...
July 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
Nan-Ying Yu, Shao-Hsia Chang
This study proposed a new technology to assess the accuracy of Chinese handwriting by comparing every stroke movement between a template model and a handwritten script. It tested the feasibility of a computerized evaluation in the parameterization of the handwriting deterioration caused by impaired cognitive function. This study recruited 22 participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 14 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); 18 age- and gender-matched healthy elderly individuals made up the health control...
June 19, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yuming Lei, Areej Akbar, Jinsung Wang
After-effects following sensorimotor adaptation are generally considered as evidence for the formation of an internal model, although evidence lacks on whether the absence of after-effects necessarily indicates that the adaptation did not result in the formation of an internal model. Here, we examined direct- and after-effects of dynamic adaptation with one arm at one workspace on subsequent performance with the other arm, as well as the same arm at another workspace. During training, subjects performed reaching movements under a novel dynamic condition with the right arm; during testing, they performed reaching movements with the left or right arm at a new workspace, under either the same dynamic condition (direct-effects) or a normal condition (after-effects)...
June 1, 2018: Human Movement Science
Chadwick T Fuchs, Priscila Caçola
Motor imagery (MI) provides a unique window on the integrity of movement representation. Studies have shown that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience problems with tasks thought to rely on an internal model of movements. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare MI accuracy and MI vividness between typically developing (TD) and children with DCD. Ninety-three children with ages between 7 and 12 years (TD: n = 51; DCD: n = 42) were tested with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ-c) to assess MI vividness and the Florida Praxis Imagery Questionnaire (FPIQ) to assess MI accuracy...
August 2018: Human Movement Science
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