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Human Movement Science

Cássio M Siqueira, Aline Rossi, Cristyan Shimamoto, Clarice Tanaka
Flexibility evaluation is a standard assessment in clinical and in sports settings. The Toe-touch test (TTT) is a common assessment tool to evaluate posterior muscular chain flexibility, but the test procedure implies a balance demand. The objective of the study was to verify the hypothesis that the balance demand during the TTT may affect the flexibility measured by the test. Twenty healthy, active young adults participated in the present study. Toe-touch test outcome (the linear finger to toe distance), Center of Pressure (CP) and sagittal plane joint angles were compared under two balance conditions: (1) standard TTT (ST) and (2) minimised postural demand (MPD) during TTT (using a device that restrained the participant against a forward fall)...
October 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
Lana M Pfaff, Michael E Cinelli
Individuals use visual information to plan and adapt movements to dynamically changing environments. This information is used to accurately determine when and where they may come in contact with an object. More specifically, individuals may determine the time prior to contacting an object, known as time-to-contact (TTC). Sport provides a scenario where athletes compete in dynamically changing environments and must interact with opposing players. The effects of sport-specific training on obstacle avoidance is highly controversial and research suggests the quantifiable differences in behaviours compared to non-athletes is highly context specific...
October 1, 2018: Human Movement Science
Charles A Coey, Rachel W Kallen, Anthony Chemero, Michael J Richardson
When two people synchronize their rhythmic behaviors (e.g., finger tapping; walking) they match one another not only at a local scale of beat-to-beat intervals, but also at a global scale of the complex (fractal) patterns of variation in their interval series. This "complexity matching" had been demonstrated in a variety of timing behaviors, but the current study was designed to address two important gaps in previous research. First, very little was known about complexity matching outside of synchronization tasks...
September 27, 2018: Human Movement Science
Nils Eckardt, Noah J Rosenblatt
It is crucial to understand age-related degenerative processes that affect dynamic postural control and ultimately increase the risk of falling for older adults. Mediolateral stability during gait, which requires active control of foot placement, may be particularly diminished with age. Using the uncontrolled manifold-analysis (UCM), we aimed to quantify the effect of age and uneven surfaces on the ability to rely on motor equivalent control to stabilize the mediolateral trajectory of the swing limb during gait...
September 21, 2018: Human Movement Science
Lauren C Benson, Stephen C Cobb, Allison S Hyngstrom, Kevin G Keenan, Jake Luo, Kristian M O'Connor
Trips are a major cause of falls. Sagittal-plane kinematics affect clearance between the foot and obstacles, however, it is unclear which kinematic measures during obstacle-free walking are associated with avoiding a trip when encountering an obstacle. The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic factors during obstacle-free walking that are related to obstacle avoidance ability. It was expected that successful obstacle avoidance would be associated with greater peak flexion/dorsiflexion and range of motion (ROM), and differences in timing of peak flexion/dorsiflexion during swing of obstacle-free walking for the hip, knee and ankle...
September 20, 2018: Human Movement Science
Wenke Möhring, Stephanie Klupp, Alexander Grob
Effects of dual tasking on motor processes such as gait have been mainly investigated with healthy adults and clinical older samples whereas studies with clinical samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are rare. Similarly, even though methylphenidate (MPH) is the most often prescribed medication for children with ADHD, the influence of MPH on children's gait under single-task and dual-task situations remains poorly understood. In the current study, children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 26) came twice to the laboratory, once without and once with MPH medication...
September 19, 2018: Human Movement Science
Lucas Ettinger, Taylor Ostrander
Proprioception of the upper extremity is commonly measured using joint position sense tasks. Recent evidence suggests heightened position sense at elevation angles in the shoulder and elbow near 90° in the sagittal plane. The influence of external torque has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the heightened acuity in elevated positions due to increased moment arm with respect to gravitational vectors. We hypothesized that the addition of a buoyance vector in opposition to this gravitational vector would reduce the influence of torque on proprioceptive acuity, resulting in consistent position sense errors with respect to elevation angle...
September 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
Hyuk Oh, Allen R Braun, James A Reggia, Rodolphe J Gentili
Although the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is critical for action observation and imitation, most MNS investigations overlook the visuospatial transformation processes that allow individuals to interpret and imitate actions observed from differing perspectives. This problem is not trivial since accurately reaching for and grasping an object requires a visuospatial transformation mechanism capable of precisely remapping fine motor skills where the observer's and imitator's arms and hands may have quite different orientations and sizes...
September 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jessica Guilbert, Denis Alamargot, Marie-France Morin
Tablets are increasingly being used in schools for a variety of handwriting tasks. Given that the control of handwriting relies on both visual and proprioceptive feedback, especially in younger writers, this raises the question of whether the texture of the tablet surface affects graphomotor execution. A series of recent studies found that when the smoothness of a tablet screen modifies proprioceptive feedback, the impact on graphomotor execution varies according to the level of the writer's handwriting skills...
September 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Luca Laudani, José Mira, Flaminia Carlucci, Giorgio Orlando, Federica Menotti, Massimo Sacchetti, Arrigo Giombini, Fabio Pigozzi, Andrea Macaluso
This study aimed to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) at a frequency spectrum from 20 to 50 Hz on the Hoffmann (H) reflex and the voluntary motor output of ankle plantar-flexor muscles. A single-group (n: 8), repeated measures design was adopted with four conditions: standing (no vibration), 20, 35 and 50 Hz, each lasting one minute. H-reflex of the soleus muscle, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and central activation ratio (CAR) of the plantar-flexors were evaluated before, 1 and 5 min after each frequency condition...
September 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jeffrey D Eggleston, John R Harry, Janet S Dufek
How children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and peers with typical development (TD) modulate lower extremity stiffness during walking could identify a mechanism for gait differences between groups. We quantified differences in lower extremity joint stiffness and linear impulses, along the vertical and anterior/posterior axes during over-ground walking in children with ASD compared to age- and gender-matched children with TD. Nine age- and gender-matched pairs of children, aged 5-12 years, completed the current study...
September 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Abbigail L Fietzer, Carolee J Winstein, Kornelia Kulig
Substantial evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external (vs. internal) focus of attention on task performance during goal-directed movements. Counter-intuitively, an external focus has also been shown to increase joint-level movement variability. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether shifting attentional focus can alter the structure of movement variability, thereby offering a probable mechanistic explanation for how adopting an external focus of attention might confer its benefits...
September 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Francesca Marini, Martina Ferrantino, Jacopo Zenzeri
Regarding our voluntary control of movement, if identification of joint position, that is independent of the starting condition, is stronger than kinaesthetic movement reproduction, that implies knowledge of the starting position and movement's length for accuracy, is still a matter of debate in motor control theories and neuroscience. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms that individuals seem to prefer/adopt when they locate spatial positions and code the amplitude of movements. We implemented a joint position matching task on a wrist robotic device: this task consists in replicating (i...
August 29, 2018: Human Movement Science
Stefan Hess, Petroula Mousikou, Julius Verrel, Sascha Schroeder
Syllables are thought to be processing units in handwritten word production. Yet, little is known about whether the orthographic characteristics of different languages influence syllabic processing during handwriting, which is critical for the evaluation and further development of extant models of handwritten language production. In the present study, we manipulated syllabic ambiguity, a characteristic of the German language, to investigate the role of syllables in handwritten word production in German. Forty-four 10 to 12-year-old children and fourteen adults were asked to write on pen tablets five-letter disyllabic words that varied in terms of their syllabic ambiguity, while their handwriting was recorded with high spatiotemporal resolution...
August 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jérémy Danna, Jean-Luc Velay, Alexandre Eusebio, Lauriane Véron-Delor, Tatiana Witjas, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Serge Pinto
One of the current scientific challenges is to propose novel tools and tasks designed to identify new motor biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PD). Among these, a focus has placed on drawing tasks. Independently from clinical ratings, this study aimed to evaluate the pen movement and holding in digitalized spiral drawing in individuals with PD without and with medical treatment and in healthy controls. A three-step data-driven analysis was conducted. First, the effects of spatial and temporal constraints on several variables were determined...
August 22, 2018: Human Movement Science
Michael De Pretto, Marie-Pierre Deiber, Clara E James
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) requires aligning motor actions to external events and represents a core part of both musical and dance performances. In the current study, to isolate the brain mechanisms involved in synchronizing finger tapping with a musical beat, we compared SMS to pure self-paced finger tapping and listen-only conditions at different tempi. We analyzed EEG data using frequency domain steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) to identify sustained electrophysiological brain activity during repetitive tasks...
August 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
Joshua P Bailey, Julia Freedman Silvernail, Janet S Dufek, James Navalta, John A Mercer
With a growing interest in coordination variability and its role in endurance running, it is important to identify the effect of running velocity. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of treadmill running velocity on the coordination and variability of coordination of lower extremity couplings of healthy runners during stance. Fourteen apparently healthy runners ran on a split-belt force instrumented treadmill at five different velocities. Continuous relative phase (CRP) was used to quantify coordination and variability (vCRP) between lower extremity couplings of the right limb (thigh-shank, thigh-foot, shank-foot) during three phases of stance (loading, mid stance, and propulsion)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
William M Land
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine whether movement contingent sensory effects could be used to prime and facilitate motor performance on a ball-tossing task. DESIGN: The ball-tossing task was performed across two consecutive days, and consisted of an acquisition phase and a test phase. During the acquisition phase, participants (N = 30) practiced an underhanded ball tossing task to a near and far target (N = 360 total, n = 180 each distance)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
Kazumichi Ae, Sekiya Koike, Norihisa Fujii, Michiyoshi Ae, Takashi Kawamura, Tetsuya Kanahori
In this study, the kinetic characteristics of lower limbs during batting were investigated by comparing batting off a tee with batting a pitched ball. Participants were 10 male collegiate baseball players who performed tee batting (TB) and batting using a pitching machine (MB; approximate ball speed: 33.3 m/s). Three-dimensional coordinate data were acquired using a motion capture system, and ground reaction forces were measured using three force platforms. Lower limb joint torques were obtained by inverse dynamics calculations...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
James Peacock, Kevin Ball
Accurate kicking is essential to team success in Australian football. It is not known how foot-ball impact characteristics influence kicking accuracy, nor is it known if variability in foot-ball impact characteristics is functional or dysfunctional to performance. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between foot-ball impact characteristics and kicking accuracy and determine if variability in foot-ball impact characteristics influenced performance variability. Ten players performed 30 drop punt kicks toward a target with an Australian football ball...
July 26, 2018: Human Movement Science
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