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Human Movement Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223876/joint-moments-required-to-hold-a-posture-while-somersaulting
#1
Joanne Mikl
A pure somersault is a key skill in diving and gymnastics, and involves rotation about the transverse axis of the body. As the rotational speed increases the effort required to maintain a specified posture increases. This paper derives equations for the joint moments required for an athlete to hold three sport specific postures as a function of rotational speed. The joint moment is related to the isometric muscular strength and is the limiting factor of an athlete in their ability to hold a fixed posture while somersaulting...
December 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223033/the-mediating-role-of-cognitive-ability-on-the-relationship-between-motor-proficiency-and-early-academic-achievement-in-children
#2
Geneviève Cadoret, Nathalie Bigras, Stéphanie Duval, Lise Lemay, Tania Tremblay, Julie Lemire
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic achievement in 7 years-old children. A mediating model in which the relation between motor proficiency and academic achievement is mediated by cognitive ability was tested. Participants included 152 children from the longitudinal study Jeunes enfants et leurs milieux de vie (Young Children and their Environments). Motor proficiency was evaluated with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2), cognitive ability with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and academic achievement with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II)...
December 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207283/division-of-labor-as-an-emergent-phenomenon-of-social-coordination-the-example-of-playing-doubles-pong
#3
Niek H Benerink, Frank T J M Zaal, Remy Casanova, Nathalie Bonnardel, Reinoud J Bootsma
In many daily situations, our behavior is coordinated with that of others. This study investigated this coordination in a doubles-pong task. In this task, two participants each controlled a paddle that could move laterally near the bottom of a shared computer screen. With their paddles, the players needed to block balls that moved down under an angle. In doing so, they needed to make sure that their paddles did not collide. A successful interception led to the ball bouncing back upwards. Importantly, all communication other than through vision of the shared screen was excluded...
December 2, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202312/bernstein-s-levels-of-movement-construction-a-contemporary-perspective
#4
Vitor L S Profeta, Michael T Turvey
Explanation of how goal-directed movements are made manifest is the ultimate aim of the field classically referred to as "motor control". Essential to the sought-after explanation is comprehension of the supporting functional architecture. Seven decades ago, the Russian physiologist and movement scientist Nikolai A. Bernstein proposed a hierarchical model to explain the construction of movements. In his model, the levels of the hierarchy share a common language (i.e., they are commensurate) and perform complementing functions to bring about dexterous movements...
December 1, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197788/effects-of-antagonistic-and-synergistic-muscles-co-activation-on-mechanics-of-activated-spastic-semitendinosus-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#5
Filiz Ateş, Yener Temelli, Can A Yucesoy
OBJECTIVES: Most activities involve co-activation of several muscles and epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) can affect their mechanics. This can be relevant for spastic muscles of cerebral palsy (CP) patients. Isometric spastic semitendinosus (ST) forces vs. knee angle (KA-FST) data were collected intra-operatively to test the following hypotheses: (i) Inter-antagonistic EMFT elevates FST, (ii) changes the shape of KA-FST characteristics, (iii) reduces the muscle's joint range of force exertion (Range-FST) and (iv) combined inter-antagonistic and synergistic EMFT further changes those effects...
November 30, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195131/motor-priming-by-movement-observation-with-contralateral-concurrent-action-execution
#6
Yoshihiro Itaguchi, Fuminari Kaneko
In the present study, the influence of simultaneous action execution on motor priming was investigated during movement observation using a simple-reaction task. Although previous studies have reported various effects of priming on motor performance, it has not yet been clarified how an additional source conveying kinetic information would modulate the priming effects. In the experiment, participants were asked to respond to an auditory cue by flexing their wrist while observing a line movement, which was slowly swinging like an inverted pendulum...
November 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179043/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-joint-power-and-dynamics-in-ergometer-double-poling-performed-by-cross-country-skiers
#7
Jørgen Danielsen, Øyvind Sandbakk, David McGhie, Gertjan Ettema
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the role of joint powers in ergometer double poling (DP), while taking specific dynamic constraints into account. One main question was whether lower-body power contribution increased or decreased with increasing intensity. Nine male Norwegian national-level cross-country skiers performed ergometer DP at low, moderate, high and maximal intensity. Kinematics, and ground (GRF) and poling (Fpoling) reaction forces were recorded and used in link segment modeling to obtain joint and whole-body dynamics...
November 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174557/not-all-is-noticed-kinematic-cues-of-emotion-specific-gait
#8
Shaun Halovic, Christian Kroos
Perceiving emotions from gait can serve numerous socio-environmental functions (e.g. perceiving threat, sexual courting behaviours). Participant perceivers were asked to report their strategies for identifying happiness, sadness, anger and fear in point-light walkers. Perceivers claimed they identified happiness by a bouncing gait with increased arm movement, sadness by a slow slouching gait, anger by a fast stomping gait and fear by both fast and slow gaits. The emotion-specific point-light walker stimuli were kinematically analysed to verify the presence of the gait cues perceivers reported using to identify each emotion...
November 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174418/responses-of-human-ankle-muscles-to-mediolateral-balance-perturbations-during-walking
#9
A L Hof, J Duysens
During walking our balance is maintained by muscle action. In part these muscle actions automatically respond to the imbalance. This paper considers responses to balance perturbations in muscles around the ankle, peroneus longus (PL), tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO). It is investigated if their action is related to previously observed balance mechanisms: the 'braking reaction' and the mediolateral ankle strategy. Subjects walked on a treadmill and received pushes to the left and pulls to the right in various phases of the gait cycle...
November 22, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174399/better-together-contrasting-the-hypotheses-explaining-the-one-target-advantage
#10
Stephen R Bested, John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
Movement times are significantly shorter when moving from a start position to a single target, compared to when one has to continue onto a second target (i.e., the one-target advantage [OTA]). To explain this movement time difference, both the movement integration and the movement constraint hypotheses have been proposed. Although both hypotheses have been found to have explanatory power as to why the OTA exists, the support for each has been somewhat equivocal. The current review evaluated the relative support in the literature for these two hypotheses...
November 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161614/changes-of-lumbar-posture-and-tissue-loading-during-static-trunk-bending
#11
Faisal Alessa, Xiaopeng Ning
Static trunk bending is an occupational risk factor for lower back pain (LBP). When assessing relative short duration trunk bending tasks, existing studies mostly assumed unchanged spine biomechanical responses during task performance. The purpose of the current study was to assess the biomechanical changes of lumbar spine during the performance of relatively short duration, sustained trunk bending tasks. Fifteen participants performed 40-s static trunk bending tasks in two different trunk angles (30° or 60°) with two different hand load levels (0 or 6...
November 18, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149655/one-year-after-ischemic-stroke-changes-in-leg-movement-path-stability-in-a-speed-accuracy-task-but-no-major-effects-on-the-hands
#12
Albertas Skurvydas, Vilma Juodzbaliene, Tomas Darbutas, Marius Brazaitis
First year after the stroke is essential for motor recovery. The main motor control strategy (i.e., faster movement production at the expense of lower movement accuracy and stability, or greater movement accuracy and stability at the expense of slower movement) selected by poststroke patients during a unilateral speed-accuracy task (SAT) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the poststroke (12 months after stroke) effects on the trade-off between movement speed and accuracy, and intraindividual variability during a motor performance task...
November 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136539/an-examination-of-lower-limb-asymmetry-in-ankle-isometric-force-control
#13
Sheng-Che Yen, Laura C Olsavsky, Caitlin M Cloonan, Amelia R Llanos, Kara J Dwyer, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
While asymmetries have been observed between the dominant and non-dominant legs, it is unclear whether they have different abilities in isometric force control (IFC). The purpose of this study was to compare ankle IFC between the legs. IFC is important for stabilization rather than object manipulation, and people typically use their non-dominant leg for stabilization tasks. Additionally, studies suggested that a limb can better acquire a motor task when the control mechanism of the task is related to what the limb is specialized for...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136538/the-impact-of-core-muscles-training-on-the-range-of-anterior-pelvic-tilt-in-subjects-with-increased-stiffness-of-the-hamstrings
#14
Michał Tomasz Kuszewski, Rafał Gnat, Anna Gogola
The aim of this study is to verify the hypotheses that muscular coordination training of the core region in subjects showing increased hamstring stiffness results in an increase in anterior pelvic tilt and that there is a correlation between hamstring stiffness and anterior pelvic tilt. The two-group, non-blinded experimental controlled trial with three repeated measurements of the dependent variables. The experimental group received muscular coordination training during a period of two weeks, control group - no training...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132076/kinematic-analysis-of-direct-pointing-in-projection-based-stereoscopic-environments
#15
Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis
This work investigated the effects of visual information, parallax, and target positions on movement performances in projection-based stereoscopic displays (PSDs). Fifteen (26.5 ± 3.83 years) self-declared right-handed individuals, with normal or corrected to normal visual acuity, completed pointing tasks in stereoscopic and real environments (RE). Three-dimensional spatial data, recorded by a motion system composed of six infrared cameras, was used to compute kinematics of reaching a real/virtual object at a combination of three parallax and nine frontal planar positions...
November 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#16
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121507/the-effects-of-trunk-extensor-and-abdominal-muscle-fatigue-on-postural-control-and-trunk-proprioception-in-young-healthy-individuals
#17
Dennis J Larson, Stephen H M Brown
The purpose of this study was to induce both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue, on separate occasions, and compare their effects on standing postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as look at the effects of a recovery period on these outcome measures. A total of 20 individuals participated, with 10 (5 males and 5 females) completing either a standing postural control or lumbar axial repositioning protocol. Participants completed their randomly assigned protocol on two occasions, separated by at least 4  days, with either their trunk extensor or abdominal muscles being fatigued on either day...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121506/what-factors-determine-the-preferred-gait-transition-speed-in-humans-a-review-of-the-triggering-mechanisms
#18
Stacey M Kung, Philip W Fink, Stephen J Legg, Ajmol Ali, Sarah P Shultz
Human locomotion is a fundamental skill that is required for daily living, yet it is not completely known how human gait is regulated in a manner that seems so effortless. Gait transitions have been analyzed to gain insight into the control mechanisms of human locomotion since there is a known change that occurs as the speed of locomotion changes. Specifically, as gait speed changes, there is a spontaneous transition between walking and running that occurs at a particular speed. Despite the growing body of research on the determinants of this preferred transition speed and thus the triggering mechanisms of human gait transitions, a clear consensus regarding the control mechanisms of gait is still lacking...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121491/examination-of-reactive-motor-responses-to-achilles-tendon-vibrations-during-an-inhibitory-stepping-reaction-time-task
#19
Justine Magnard, Christophe Cornu, Gilles Berrut, Thibault Deschamps
Inhibition is known to influence balance, step initiation and gait control. A specific subcomponent of inhibition, the perceptual inhibition process, has been suggested to be specifically involved in the integration of proprioceptive information that is necessary for efficient postural responses. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition requirements of planning and executing a choice step initiation task in young adults following experimental perturbation of proprioceptive information using Achilles tendon vibrations...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121490/inter-joint-coordination-changes-during-and-after-muscle-fatigue
#20
Jeffrey C Cowley, Deanna H Gates
People produce multi-joint movements by organizing many degrees of freedom into a few major covarying relationships, indicating a high level of inter-joint coordination. These relationships can be identified using data decomposition analyses (e.g. principal components analysis, non-negative matrix factorization). The purpose of this study was to determine how movement coordination changes during muscle fatigue by analyzing the covariance structure of multi-joint movements. Sixteen (16) healthy adults completed a continuous, timed ratcheting task with the right arm for three 1-min intervals before, during, and after an intermittent shoulder fatigue protocol...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
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