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Human Movement Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323219/effects-of-visual-and-auditory-guidance-on-bimanual-coordination-complexity
#1
Daniela V Vaz, Bruce A Kay, Michael T Turvey
Perceptual guidance of movement with simple visual or temporal information can facilitate performance of difficult coordination patterns. Guidance may override coordination constraints that usually limit stability of bimanual coordination to only in-phase and anti-phase. Movement dynamics, however, might not have the same characteristics with and without perceptual guidance. Do visual and auditory guidance produce qualitatively different dynamical organization of movement? An anti-phase wrist flexion and extension coordination task was performed under no specific perceptual guidance, under temporal guidance with a metronome, and under visual guidance with a Lissajous plot...
March 20, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323218/the-postural-control-can-be-optimized-by-the-first-movement-initiation-condition-encountered-when-submitted-to-muscle-fatigue
#2
Florian Monjo, Nicolas Forestier
We investigated whether and how the movement initiation condition (IC) encountered during the early movements performed following focal muscle fatigue affects the postural control of discrete ballistic movements. For this purpose, subjects performed shoulder flexions in a standing posture at maximal velocity under two movement IC, i.e., in self-paced conditions and submitted to a Stroop-like task in which participants had to trigger fast shoulder flexions at the presentation of incongruent colors. Shoulder flexion kinematics, surface muscle activity of focal and postural muscles as well as center-of-pressure kinematics were recorded...
March 18, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285156/the-role-of-cognition-for-different-stages-of-visuomotor-adaptation-in-younger-and-older-adults
#3
Anja Simon, Otmar Bock
A recent model identified three stages of learning, the first drawing on cognitive flexibility, the second on inhibition, and the third on automation. We explored the validity of this model for visuomotor learning and found that adaptation is associated with inhibition early during adaptation and with automaticity later on. An initial association with cognitive flexibility remained inconclusive. This work employs another marker of cognitive flexibility and extends our work to older adults. Twenty young and 20 older adults completed three cognitive tasks (switch task, Stroop task and four-choice-reaction-time-task)...
March 8, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284464/dcd-and-comorbidity-in-neurodevelopmental-disorder-how-to-deal-with-complexity
#4
EDITORIAL
Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman, Marianne Jover, Dido Green, Gillian Ferguson, Peter Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254534/lower-limb-mechanical-asymmetry-during-repeated-treadmill-sprints
#5
Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Jean-Benoit Morin, Grégoire P Millet
Stride mechanical imbalances between the lower limbs may be detrimental to performance and/or increase injury risks. This study describes the time course and magnitude of asymmetries in running mechanical variables during repeated treadmill sprints and examines whether inter-limb differences in sprinting mechanics increase with fatigue. Thirteen non-injured male athletes performed five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery on an instrumented treadmill, allowing the continuous (step-by-step) measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics calculation...
February 27, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237655/a-prospective-comparison-of-lower-extremity-kinematics-and-kinetics-between-injured-and-non-injured-collegiate-cross-country-runners
#6
Robert I Dudley, Derek N Pamukoff, Scott K Lynn, Robert D Kersey, Guillermo J Noffal
Collegiate cross country runners are at risk for running related injuries (RRI) due to high training volume and the potential for aberrant lower extremity biomechanics. However, there is a need for prospective research to determine biomechanical risk factors for RRI. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetics and ground reaction force characteristics between injured and non-injured cross country runners over a 14-week season. Biomechanical running analyses were conducted on 31 collegiate-cross country runners using a 3-dimensional motion capture system and force plate prior to the start of the season...
February 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237654/exploring-phase-dependent-functional-gait-variability
#7
Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega, Astrid Zech
Gait variability is frequently used to evaluate the sensorimotor system and elderly fallers compared to non-fallers exhibit an altered variability in gait parameters during unchanged conditions. While gait variability is often interpreted as movement error, it is also necessary to change the gait pattern in order to react to internal and external perturbations. This phenomenon has been described as functional variability and ensures the stability of gait motor control. The aim of the current study is to explore the functional variability in relation to the different phases of the gait cycle (phase-dependent gait variability)...
February 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222902/hybrid-is-not-a-dirty-word-commentary-on-wade-and-kazeck-2017
#8
Peter H Wilson, Karen Caeyenberghs, Deborah Dewey, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Bert Steenbergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222343/motor-skills-in-kindergarten-internal-structure-cognitive-correlates-and-relationships-to-background-variables
#9
Nicole Oberer, Venera Gashaj, Claudia M Roebers
The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills...
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222342/concussion-is-associated-with-altered-preparatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation
#10
Cailbhe Doherty, Liang Zhao, John Ryan, Yusuke Komaba, Akihiro Inomata, Brian Caulfield
Gait initiation is a useful surrogate measure of supraspinal motor control mechanisms but has never been evaluated in a cohort following concussion. The aim of this study was to quantify the preparatory postural adjustments (PPAs) of gait initiation (GI) in fifteen concussion patients (4 females, 11 males) in comparison to a group of fifteen age- and sex-matched controls. All participants completed variants of the GI task where their dominant and non-dominant limbs as the 'stepping' and 'support' limbs. Task performance was quantified using the centre of pressure (COP) trajectory of each foot (computed from a force plate) and a surrogate of the centre of mass (COM) trajectory (estimated from an inertial measurement unit placed on the sacrum)...
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219842/differences-in-the-activation-and-co-activation-ratios-of-the-four-subdivisions-of-trapezius-between-genders-following-a-computer-typing-task
#11
Kimberly A Szucs, Megan Molnar
The aim of this study was to provide a description of gender differences of the activation patterns of the four subdivisions of the trapezius (clavicular, upper, middle, lower) following a 60min computer work task. Surface EMG was collected from these subdivisions from 21 healthy subjects during bilateral arm elevation pre-/post- task. Subjects completed a standardized 60min computer work task at a standard, ergonomic workstation. Normalized activation and activation ratios of each trapezius subdivision were compared between genders and condition with repeated measures ANOVAs...
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213152/central-neuronal-motor-behaviour-in-skilled-and-less-skilled-novices-approaching-sports-specific-movement-techniques
#12
Tobias Vogt, Kouki Kato, Stefan Schneider, Stefan Türk, Kazuyuki Kanosue
Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i...
February 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199903/the-effect-of-variable-rest-intervals-and-chronic-ankle-instability-on-triplanar-ankle-motion-during-performance-of-the-star-excursion-balance-test
#13
Yong Ung Kwon, D S Blaise Williams
Inadequate rest intervals may contribute to impaired performance during functional tests. However, the effect of different rest intervals on performance of the SEBT in individuals with and without CAI is not known. Our purposes were to determine whether different rest intervals impact ankle kinematics during the SEBT and whether there differences between those two populations. 24 controls and 24 CAI completed 3 trials in 3 reach directions (anteromedial; AM, medial; M, posteromedial; PM). The order of rest intervals and reach distance were randomized and counterbalanced...
February 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189892/older-adults-exhibit-altered-motor-coordination-during-an-upper-limb-object-transport-task-requiring-a-lateral-change-in-support
#14
Andrew H Huntley, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
Investigating an ecologically relevant upper limb task, such as manually transporting an object with a concurrent lateral change in support (sidestepping alongside a kitchen counter), may provide greater insight into potential deficits in postural stability, variability and motor coordination in older adults. Nine healthy young and eleven older, community dwelling adults executed an upper limb object transport task requiring a lateral change in support in two directions at two self-selected speeds, self-paced and fast-paced...
February 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187353/towards-an-ecologically-grounded-functional-practice-in-rehabilitation
#15
Daniela Virgínia Vaz, Paula Lanna Silva, Marisa Cotta Mancini, Claudia Carello, Jeffrey Kinsella-Shaw
According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, effective rehabilitation requires interventions that go beyond minimizing pathological conditions and associated symptoms. The scope of practice must include promoting an individual's activity within relevant contexts. We argue that best practice requires decisions that are not only evidence-based but also theory-based. Perception and action theories are essential for interpreting evidence and clinical phenomena as well as for developing new interventions...
February 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182970/reconstruction-of-human-swing-leg-motion-with-passive-biarticular-muscle-models
#16
Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi, Aida Mohammadi Nejad Rashty, Christian Rode, Andre Seyfarth
Template models, which are utilized to demonstrate general aspects in human locomotion, mostly investigate stance leg operation. The goal of this paper is presenting a new conceptual walking model benefiting from swing leg dynamics. Considering a double pendulum equipped with combinations of biarticular springs for the swing leg beside spring-mass (SLIP) model for the stance leg, a novel SLIP-based model, is proposed to explain human-like leg behavior in walking. The action of biarticular muscles in swing leg motion helps represent human walking features, like leg retraction, ground reaction force and generating symmetric walking patterns, in simulations...
February 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182969/experience-level-influences-the-effect-of-attentional-focus-on-sprint-performance
#17
Nicklaas C Winkelman, Kenneth P Clark, Larry J Ryan
Two experiments evaluated the influence of attentional focus on 10-meter sprint time and start kinetics in a group of collegiate soccer players and highly experienced sprinters. In Experiment 1, the collegiate soccer players were asked to perform 10-meter sprints under an external focus condition, an internal focus condition and a control condition. For the 10-meter sprint time, the results showed that both the external focus and control conditions resulted in significantly faster sprint times than the internal focus condition...
February 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182968/measuring-postural-control-during-mini-squat-posture-in-men-with-early-knee-osteoarthritis
#18
M Petrella, K Gramani-Say, P R M S Serrão, G C Lessi, J A Barela, R P Carvalho, S M Mattiello
Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain...
February 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153568/the-relationship-between-motor-performance-and-parent-rated-executive-functioning-in-3-to-5-year-old-children-what-is-the-role-of-confounding-variables
#19
Suzanne Houwen, Gerda van der Veer, Jan Visser, Marja Cantell
It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different levels of motor skill proficiency, while controlling for age, gender, socio-economic status (SES), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. EF was reported by parents of 153 children (mean age 4years 1months, SD 8months; 75 male) by means of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P)...
January 30, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135584/athletic-background-is-related-to-superior-trunk-proprioceptive-ability-postural-control-and-neuromuscular-responses-to-sudden-perturbations
#20
Grace O Glofcheskie, Stephen H M Brown
Trunk motor control is essential for athletic performance, and inadequate trunk motor control has been linked to an increased risk of developing low back and lower limb injury in athletes. Research is limited in comparing relationships between trunk neuromuscular control, postural control, and trunk proprioception in athletes from different sporting backgrounds. To test for these relationships, collegiate level long distance runners and golfers, along with non-athletic controls were recruited. Trunk postural control was investigated using a seated balance task...
January 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
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