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Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Rose M Gathungu, Roger Kautz, Bruce S Kristal, Susan S Bird, Paul Vouros
This review discusses the integration of liquid chromatography (LC), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the comprehensive analysis of small molecules from complex matrices. We first discuss the steps taken toward making the three technologies compatible, so as to create an efficient analytical platform. The development of online LC-MS-NMR, highlighted by successful applications in the profiling of highly concentrated analytes (LODs 10 μg) is discussed next. This is followed by a detailed overview of the alternative approaches that have been developed to overcome the challenges associated with online LC-MS-NMR that primarily stem from the inherently low sensitivity of NMR...
July 19, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Thomas Covey
This article tracts Paul Vouro's contributions to the field of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry in the context of the history of the development of modern day LC/MS.
July 19, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Kevin Titeca, Irma Lemmens, Jan Tavernier, Sven Eyckerman
The analysis of protein interaction networks is one of the key challenges in the study of biology. It connects genotypes to phenotypes, and disruption often leads to diseases. Hence, many technologies have been developed to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in a cellular context. The expansion of the PPI technology toolbox however complicates the selection of optimal approaches for diverse biological questions. This review gives an overview of the binary and co-complex technologies, with the former evaluating the interaction of two co-expressed genetically tagged proteins, and the latter only needing the expression of a single tagged protein or no tagged proteins at all...
June 29, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Giuseppe Grasso
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation and aggregation have been considered for many years the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and therefore have been the principal target of investigation as well as of the proposed therapeutic approaches (Grasso [2011] Mass Spectrom Rev. 30: 347-365). However, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which considers Aβ accumulation the only causative agent of the disease, has proven to be incomplete if not wrong. In recent years, actors such as metal ions, oxidative stress, and other cofactors have been proposed as possible co-agents or, in some cases, main causative factors of AD...
June 15, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Byeong Hwa Yun, Jingshu Guo, Medjda Bellamri, Robert J Turesky
Hazardous chemicals in the environment and diet or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. In addition, reactive intermediates can be generated in the body through oxidative stress and damage the genome. The identification and measurement of DNA adducts are required for understanding exposure and the causal role of a genotoxic chemical in cancer risk. Over the past three decades, 32 P-postlabeling, immunoassays, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been established to assess exposures to chemicals through measurements of DNA adducts...
June 11, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Iwona Belczacka, Agnieszka Latosinska, Jochen Metzger, David Marx, Antonia Vlahou, Harald Mischak, Maria Frantzi
Cancer is a heterogeneous multifactorial disease, which continues to be one of the main causes of death worldwide. Despite the extensive efforts for establishing accurate diagnostic assays and efficient therapeutic schemes, disease prevalence is on the rise, in part, however, also due to improved early detection. For years, studies were focused on genomics and transcriptomics, aiming at the discovery of new tests with diagnostic or prognostic potential. However, cancer phenotypic characteristics seem most likely to be a direct reflection of changes in protein metabolism and function, which are also the targets of most drugs...
June 11, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Vaneet Kumar Sharma, Ity Sharma, James Glick
Biological mass spectrometry has evolved as a core analytical technology in the last decade mainly because of its unparalleled ability to perform qualitative as well as quantitative profiling of enormously complex biological samples with high mass accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity and specificity. Mass spectrometry-based techniques are also routinely used to assess glycosylation and other post-translational modifications, disulfide bond linkage, and scrambling as well as for the detection of host cell protein contaminants in the field of biopharmaceuticals...
May 31, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Todd R Sandrin, Plamen A Demirev
MS applications in microbiology have increased significantly in the past 10 years, due in part to the proliferation of regulator-approved commercial MALDI MS platforms for rapid identification of clinical infections. In parallel, with the expansion of MS technologies in the "omics" fields, novel MS-based research efforts to characterize organismal as well as environmental microbiomes have emerged. Successful characterization of microorganisms found in complex mixtures of other organisms remains a major challenge for researchers and clinicians alike...
May 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Aihua Zhang, Hui Sun, Xijun Wang
Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era...
May 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Pere Ràfols, Dídac Vilalta, Jesús Brezmes, Nicolau Cañellas, Esteban Del Castillo, Oscar Yanes, Noelia Ramírez, Xavier Correig
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a label-free analytical technique capable of molecularly characterizing biological samples, including tissues and cell lines. The constant development of analytical instrumentation and strategies over the previous decade makes MSI a key tool in clinical research. Nevertheless, most MSI studies are limited to targeted analysis or the mere visualization of a few molecular species (proteins, peptides, metabolites, or lipids) in a region of interest without fully exploiting the possibilities inherent in the MSI technique, such as tissue classification and segmentation or the identification of relevant biomarkers from an untargeted approach...
May 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Félix Hernández, Sara Castiglioni, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Christoph Ort, Malcolm Reid, Juan V Sancho, Kevin V Thomas, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Ettore Zuccato, Lubertus Bijlsma
The analysis of illicit drugs in urban wastewater is the basis of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and has received much scientific attention because the concentrations measured can be used as a new non-intrusive tool to provide evidence-based and real-time estimates of community-wide drug consumption. Moreover, WBE allows monitoring patterns and spatial and temporal trends of drug use. Although information and expertise from other disciplines is required to refine and effectively apply WBE, analytical chemistry is the fundamental driver in this field...
May 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Zijuan Lai, Oliver Fiehn
Mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics detects many peaks that cannot be identified. While advances have been made for automatic structure annotations in LC-electrospray-MS/MS, no open source solutions are available for hard electron ionization used in GC-MS. In metabolomics, most compounds bear moieties with acidic protons, for example, amino, hydroxyl, or carboxyl groups. Such functional groups increase the boiling points of metabolites too much for use in GC-MS. Hence, in GC-MS-focused metabolomics, derivatization of these groups is essential and has been employed since the 1960s...
May 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
David J Harvey
This review is the eighth update of the original article published in 1999 on the application of Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and brings coverage of the literature to the end of 2014. Topics covered in the first part of the review include general aspects such as theory of the MALDI process, matrices, derivatization, MALDI imaging, fragmentation, and arrays. The second part of the review is devoted to applications to various structural types such as oligo- and poly- saccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosides, and biopharmaceuticals...
April 17, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Claudio Iacobucci, Mathias Schäfer, Andrea Sinz
Free radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) has recently been introduced as an analytical strategy to create peptide radical ions in a predictable and effective way by collisional activation of specifically modified peptides ions. FRIPS is based on the unimolecular dissociation of open-shell ions and yields fragments that resemble those obtained by electron capture dissociation (ECD) or electron transfer dissociation (ETD). In this review article, we describe the fundamentals of FRIPS and highlight its fruitful combination with chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) as a highly promising option to derive complementary structural information of peptides and proteins...
April 16, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Xiangfeng Chen, Ze Wang, Y-L Elaine Wong, Ri Wu, Feng Zhang, T-W Dominic Chan
The structural elucidation of natural products (NPs) remains a challenge due to their structurally diversities and unpredictable functionalities, motifs, and scaffolds. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is an effective method that assists the full elucidation of complicated NP structures. Ion activation methods play a key role in determining the fragmentation pathways and the structural information obtained from MS/MS. Electron-ion reaction-based dissociation (ExD) methods, including electron capture dissociation (ECD), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron-induced dissociation (EID), and electron detachment dissociation (EDD), can induce the breakage of specific chemical bonds and the generation of distinct fragment ions...
March 30, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Yury Kostyukevich, Thamina Acter, Alexander Zherebker, Arif Ahmed, Sunghwan Kim, Eugene Nikolaev
The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry...
March 30, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Michael W Linscheid
To understand biological processes, not only reliable identification, but quantification of constituents in biological processes play a pivotal role. This is especially true for the proteome: protein quantification must follow protein identification, since sometimes minute changes in abundance tell the real tale. To obtain quantitative data, many sophisticated strategies using electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) have been developed in recent years. All of them have advantages and limitations. Several years ago, we started to work on strategies, which are principally capable to overcome some of these limits...
March 30, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Şule Yılmaz, Genet A Shiferaw, Josep Rayo, Anastassios Economou, Lennart Martens, Elien Vandermarliere
Chemical cross-linking analyzed by mass spectrometry (XL-MS) has become an important tool in unravelling protein structure, dynamics, and complex formation. Because the analysis of cross-linked proteins with mass spectrometry results in specific computational challenges, many computational tools have been developed to identify cross-linked peptides from mass spectra and subsequently interpret the identified cross-links within their structural context. In this review, we will provide an overview of the different tools that are currently available to tackle the computational part of an XL-MS experiment...
March 12, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Zian Lin, Zongwei Cai
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an excellent analytical technique for rapid and sensitive analysis of macromolecules such as polymers and proteins. However, the main drawback of MALDI-TOF MS is its difficulty to detect small molecules with mass below 700 Da because of the intensive interference from MALDI matrix in the low mass region. In recent years there has been considerable interest in developing matrix-free laser desorption/ionization by using nanostructured substrates to substitute the conventional organic matrices, which is often referred as surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS)...
March 6, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Paul Vouros, Dominic Desiderio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
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