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Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Sara Crotti, Bianca Posocco, Elena Marangon, Donato Nitti, Giuseppe Toffoli, Marco Agostini
In the history of medicine, nature has represented the main source of medical products. Indeed, the therapeutic use of plants certainly goes back to the Sumerian and Hippocrates and nowadays nature still represents the major source for new drugs discovery. Moreover, in the cancer treatment, drugs are either natural compounds or have been developed from naturally occurring parent compounds firstly isolated from plants and microbes from terrestrial and marine environment. A critical element of an anticancer drug is represented by its severe toxicities and, after administration, the drug concentrations have to remain in an appropriate range to be effective...
March 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Tianyang Guo, Wei Yong, Yong Jin, Liya Zhang, Jiahui Liu, Sai Wang, Qilong Chen, Yiyang Dong, Haijia Su, Tianwei Tan
Direct analysis in real time (DART) represents a new generation of ion source which is used for rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. The combination of DART and various mass spectrometers allows analyzing multiple food samples with simple or no sample treatment, or in conjunction with prevailing protocolized sample preparation methods. Abundant applications by DART-MS have been reviewed in this paper. The DART-MS strategy applied to food supply chain (FSC), including production, processing, and storage and transportation, provides a comprehensive solution to various food components, contaminants, authenticity, and traceability...
March 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Purav Badani, Soumitra Das, Pramod Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Vatsa
Clusters on exposure to nanosecond laser pulses of gigawatt intensity exhibit a variety of photo-chemical processes such as fragmentation, intracluster reaction, ionization, Coulomb explosion, etc. Present article summarizes the experimental results obtained in our laboratory utilizing time-of-flight mass spectrometer which deal with one such aspect of cluster photochemistry related to generation of multiply charged atomic ions upon excessive ionization of cluster constituents (Coulomb explosion) at low intensity laser field (∼10(9)  W/cm(2) )...
March 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Mona M Khamis, Darryl J Adamko, Anas El-Aneed
Urine metabolomics has recently emerged as a prominent field for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers that can detect subtle metabolic discrepancies in response to a specific disease or therapeutic intervention. Urine, compared to other biofluids, is characterized by its ease of collection, richness in metabolites and its ability to reflect imbalances of all biochemical pathways within the body. Following urine collection for metabolomic analysis, samples must be immediately frozen to quench any biogenic and/or non-biogenic chemical reactions...
March 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Sakae Toyoda, Naohiro Yoshida, Keisuke Koba
Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules, molecules that have the same chemical constitution and configuration, but that only differ in isotope substitution, retain a record of a compound's origin and reactions. A method to measure isotopocule ratios of nitrous oxide (N2 O) has been established by using mass analysis of molecular ions and fragment ions. The method has been applied widely to environmental samples from the atmosphere, ocean, fresh water, soils, and laboratory-simulation experiments. Results show that isotopocule ratios, particularly the (15) N-site preference (difference between isotopocule ratios (14) N(15) N(16) O/(14) N(14) N(16) O and (15) N(14) N(16) O/(14) N(14) N(16) O), have a wide range that depends on their production and consumption processes...
March 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Dominic M Desiderio, Paul Vouros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Dietmar Kuck, Jürgen Grotemeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Ulrich Boesl
The intention of this tutorial is to introduce into the basic concepts of time-of-flight mass spectrometry, beginning with the most simple single-stage ion source with linear field-free drift region and continuing with two-stage ion sources combined with field-free drift regions and ion reflectors-the so-called reflectrons. Basic formulas are presented and discussed with the focus on understanding the physical relations of geometric and electric parameters, initial distribution of ionic parameters, ion flight times, and ion flight time incertitude...
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Wolf D Lehmann
This review retraces the role of stable isotopes and mass spectrometry in the life sciences. The timeline is divided into four segments covering the years 1920-1950, 1950-1980, 1980-2000, and 2000 until today. For each period methodic progress and typical applications are discussed. Application of stable isotopes is driven by improvements of mass spectrometry, chromatography, and related fields in sensitivity, mass accuracy, structural specificity, complex sample handling ability, data output, and data evaluation...
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Yulin Qi, Dietrich A Volmer
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides detailed information for structural characterization of biomolecules. The combination of electron capture dissociation (ECD) techniques with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) often provides unique ion-electron reactions and fragmentation channels in MS/MS. ECD is often a complimentary, sometimes even a superior tool to conventional MS/MS techniques. This article is aimed at providing a short overview of ECD-based fragmentation techniques (ExD) and optimization of ECD experiments for FTICR mass analyzers...
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Alessandra Sussulini, Julia Susanne Becker, Johanna Sabine Becker
In the last decade, the development of diverse bioanalytical methodologies based on mass spectrometry imaging has increased, as has their application in biomedical questions. The distribution analysis of elements (metals, semimetals, and non-metals) in biological samples is a point of interest in life sciences, especially within the context of metallomics, which is the scientific field that encompasses the global analysis of the entirety of elemental species inside a cell or tissue. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been efficiently employed to generate qualitative and quantitative maps of elemental distribution in thin tissue sections of a variety of biological samples, for example, brain, cartilage, spinal cord, etc...
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
Since the installation of anti-doping rules and regulations and their international enforcement in the mid-1960s, mass spectrometry has been an integral part of doping control procedures. Although its utility was limited in the first decade, instrumental improvements and method optimizations have made mass spectrometry, in all its facets, an indispensable tool in modern sports drug testing. In this review, milestones in doping control analysis accomplished in Germany and reaching from the early developments to the current use of hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques concerning low- and high molecular mass analytes are presented...
January 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Aihua Zhang, Hui Sun, Xijun Wang
Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era...
December 23, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Pere Ràfols, Dídac Vilalta, Jesús Brezmes, Nicolau Cañellas, Esteban Del Castillo, Oscar Yanes, Noelia Ramírez, Xavier Correig
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a label-free analytical technique capable of molecularly characterizing biological samples, including tissues and cell lines. The constant development of analytical instrumentation and strategies over the previous decade makes MSI a key tool in clinical research. Nevertheless, most MSI studies are limited to targeted analysis or the mere visualization of a few molecular species (proteins, peptides, metabolites, or lipids) in a region of interest without fully exploiting the possibilities inherent in the MSI technique, such as tissue classification and segmentation or the identification of relevant biomarkers from an untargeted approach...
November 9, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Félix Hernández, Sara Castiglioni, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Christoph Ort, Malcolm Reid, Juan V Sancho, Kevin V Thomas, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Ettore Zuccato, Lubertus Bijlsma
The analysis of illicit drugs in urban wastewater is the basis of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and has received much scientific attention because the concentrations measured can be used as a new non-intrusive tool to provide evidence-based and real-time estimates of community-wide drug consumption. Moreover, WBE allows monitoring patterns and spatial and temporal trends of drug use. Although information and expertise from other disciplines is required to refine and effectively apply WBE, analytical chemistry is the fundamental driver in this field...
October 17, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Manor Askenazi, Hisham Ben Hamidane, Johannes Graumann
The evolution of data exchange in Mass Spectrometry spans decades and has ranged from human-readable text files representing individual scans or collections thereof (McDonald et al., 2004) through the official standard XML-based (Harold, Means, & Udemadu, 2005) data interchange standard (Deutsch, 2012), to increasingly compressed (Teleman et al., 2014) variants of this standard sometimes requiring purely binary adjunct files (Römpp et al., 2011). While the desire to maintain even partial human readability is understandable, the inherent mismatch between XML's textual and irregular format relative to the numeric and highly regular nature of actual spectral data, along with the explosive growth in dataset scales and the resulting need for efficient (binary and indexed) access has led to a phenomenon referred to as "technical drift" (Davis, 2013)...
October 14, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Emanuele Magi, Marina Di Carro
The study of marine pollution has been traditionally addressed to persistent chemicals, generally known as priority pollutants; a current trend in environmental analysis is a shift toward "emerging pollutants," defined as newly identified or previously unrecognized contaminants. The present review is focused on the peculiar contribution of mass spectrometry (MS) to the study of pollutants in the seawater compartment. The work is organized in five paragraphs where the most relevant groups of pollutants, both "classical" and "emerging," are presented and discussed, highlighting the relative data obtained by the means of different MS techniques...
September 9, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Jürgen Claesen, Tomasz Burzykowski
Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange (HDX) has been applied, since the 1930s, as an analytical tool to study the structure and dynamics of (small) biomolecules. The popularity of using HDX to study proteins increased drastically in the last two decades due to the successful combination with mass spectrometry (MS). Together with this growth in popularity, several technological advances have been made, such as improved quenching and fragmentation. As a consequence of these experimental improvements and the increased use of protein-HDXMS, large amounts of complex data are generated, which require appropriate analysis...
September 7, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Kevin M Downard
This review article describes the origins, advantages, and application of an indirect approach with which to study protein and other macromolecular complexes and identify the nature and site of interaction interfaces by means of conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). First reported in 1999, it involves the detection of ion depletion or the absence of ions associated with a binding partner or domain in the MALDI mass spectrum of a mixture of interacting components compared to that for an untreated control...
September 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Tiago F Jorge, João A Rodrigues, Camila Caldana, Romy Schmidt, Joost T van Dongen, Jane Thomas-Oates, Carla António
Metabolomics is one omics approach that can be used to acquire comprehensive information on the composition of a metabolite pool to provide a functional screen of the cellular state. Studies of the plant metabolome include analysis of a wide range of chemical species with diverse physical properties, from ionic inorganic compounds to biochemically derived hydrophilic carbohydrates, organic and amino acids, and a range of hydrophobic lipid-related compounds. This complexitiy brings huge challenges to the analytical technologies employed in current plant metabolomics programs, and powerful analytical tools are required for the separation and characterization of this extremely high compound diversity present in biological sample matrices...
September 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
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