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Neurologic Clinics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673418/sports-neurology
#1
EDITORIAL
Tad Seifert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673417/neurologic-injuries-in-noncontact-sports
#2
REVIEW
Robert J Marquardt, Andrew Blake Buletko, Andrew Neil Russman
Noncontact sports are associated with a variety of neurologic injuries. Concussion, vascular injury (arterial dissection), and spinal cord trauma may be less common in noncontact sports, but require special attention from the sports neurologist. Complex regional pain disorders, muscle injury from repetitive use, dystonia, heat exposure, and vascular disorders (patent foramen ovale), occur with similar frequency in noncontact and contact sports. Management of athletes with these conditions requires an understanding of the neurologic consequences of these disorders, the risk of injury with return to play, and consideration for the benefits of exercise in health restoration and disease prevention...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673416/peripheral-nerve-injuries-in-sport
#3
REVIEW
Ricardo Olivo, Bryan Tsao
Sport-related peripheral nerve injuries (SRNIs) can occur in virtually any sport whether or not enjoyed by an amateur or in the career of a professional athlete. The diagnosis of SRNIs can be difficult, especially when trying to differentiate nerve injury from musculoskeletal pain. Clinicians should be able to recognize when a significant SRNI occurs and how to initiate a diagnostic and treatment pathway and referral to a specialist. This article reviews SRNIs and their specific sports, how to diagnose SRNIs, and how to select conservative or surgical management of these injuries...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673415/sleep-recovery-and-performance-in-sports
#4
REVIEW
Raman K Malhotra
Poor sleep can lead to decreases in performance and recovery for athletes. Sleep disorders and symptoms are commonly seen in athletes, and may be unrecognized. It is important to educate athletes on adequate duration, quality, and timing of sleep. Interventions may include changes to practice times or careful planning for travel to games in different time zones. It is important to screen and treat sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and insomnia that are seen in some athletes. In patients who suffer concussion, it is important to address sleep issues, as poor sleep can prolong or exacerbate other concussion symptoms...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673414/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-sports
#5
REVIEW
Claudia L Reardon
Athletes are not immune to mental illness, despite outward appearances of strength and wellness. Depression and anxiety disorders may occur in athletes at least as commonly as in the general population. Eating disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and substance use disorders may occur even more frequently in athletes than in the general population. Thus, it is imperative that medical professionals across all specialties are aware of these psychiatric comorbidities, and how to initiate evaluation for and treatment of them...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673413/neurologic-health-in-combat-sports
#6
REVIEW
Tad Seifert
Neurologic injuries of both an acute and chronic nature have been reported in the literature for various combat sport styles; however, reports of the incidence and prevalence of these injury types vary greatly. Combat sports clinicians must continue to strive for the development, implementation, and enforcement of uniform minimum requirements for brain safety. These health care providers must also seize on the honor to provide this oft-underserved population with the health care advocacy they very much deserve, but often do not receive...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673412/sport-related-headache
#7
REVIEW
Sylvia Lucas, Heidi K Blume
Headache occurring in a sports setting may be primary or secondary headache. Headache is the primary symptom reported after concussion. Cumulative incidence and prevalence of posttraumatic headache (PTH) are higher following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared with moderate to severe TBI. Frequency is higher in those with more severe PTH. Migraine or probable migraine is the most common headache type after any severity TBI using primary headache disorder criteria. Management is empiric. Expert opinion recommends treating PTH according to clinical characteristics of primary headache...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673411/neuropsychological-screening-of-sport-related-concussion
#8
REVIEW
Michael A McCrea, Breton Asken, Lindsay D Nelson
Neuropsychological assessment is a key component of the multidimensional approach recommended by international consensus guidelines for evaluation of athletes affected by sport-related concussion (SRC). Over the past 2 decades, a number of conventional and computerized neuropsychological test batteries have been developed for the assessment of SRC. Standardized neurocognitive assessment tools are now commonly used across the continuum of concussion care, ranging from the sports sideline to critical care setting and the outpatient concussion clinic...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673410/blood-based-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-sports-related-concussion
#9
REVIEW
Martina Anto-Ocrah, Courtney Marie Cora Jones, Danielle Diacovo, Jeffrey J Bazarian
Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are common among athletes in the United States. Most athletes who sustain an SRC recover within 7 to 10 days; however, many athletes who sustain the injury do not recover as expected and experience prolonged, persistent symptoms. In this document, the authors provide an overview of the empirical evidence related to the use of blood-based brain biomarkers in the athlete population for diagnosis of SRCs, prognosis of recovery and return to play guidelines, and indications of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673409/neurosurgical-emergencies-in-sport
#10
REVIEW
Brian Sindelar, Julian E Bailes
Sports related severe brain and spinal cord injuries are medical and potentially surgical emergencies that require timely intervention in order to reduce worsening secondary injury. For this reason, it is important for all medical professionals managing athletic injuries to be knowledgeable in the clinical approach to this type of acute event. This article reviews the initial evaluation of the athlete that occurs on the field and also within the emergency department with a focus on presenting clinical signs of a neurosurgical emergency...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673408/sideline-sports-concussion-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Kenneth Podell, Chase Presley, Howard Derman
The sideline assessment of concussions is a complex multisystem assessment to detect whether an athlete shows signs or symptoms of concussion and should be removed from practice or competition to prevent greater neurologic compromise. Sideline concussion assessments are challenging given some of the environmental conditions, substitution rules of some sports, the possibility of athletes underreporting symptoms, and the difficulties of defining a concussion. The SCAT is the standard of care and is augmented with other procedures to enhance sensitivity and specificity...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673407/estimating-concussion-incidence-using-sports-injury-surveillance-systems-complexities-and-potential-pitfalls
#12
REVIEW
Zachary Y Kerr, Scott L Zuckerman, Johna K Register-Mihalik, Erin B Wasserman, Tamara C Valovich McLeod, Thomas P Dompier, R Dawn Comstock, Stephen W Marshall
Numerous sports injury surveillance systems exist with the capability of tracking concussion incidence data. It is important for the consumers of sport-related concussion data, be they researchers or the public, to have a comprehensive understanding of the strengths and limitations of sports injury surveillance systems. This article discusses issues of system design and analysis that affect the interpretation and understanding of sport-related concussion incidence data from sports injury surveillance systems...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673406/pathophysiology-of-sports-related-concussion
#13
REVIEW
Kristen Steenerson, Amaal Jilani Starling
Concussion pathophysiology is complicated and involves numerous mechanisms, including excessive neurotransmitter release, metabolic derangements, neuroinflammation, cerebral blood flow changes, and axonal disruption. The initial biomechanical impact in a concussion results in abnormal function at the cellular level, which initiates a cascade of events that leads to microstructural changes and, in the minority of cases, more persistent, permanent damage.
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673405/the-current-state-of-sports-concussion
#14
REVIEW
Johna K Register-Mihalik, Melissa C Kay
Concussion is a complex injury that requires a multimodal assessment to identify and manage the resulting dysfunction. To appropriately manage concussion, clinicians must be aware of the accompanying pathophysiology and dysfunction that occurs following the injury. The current best practice model of care includes symptom, motor, and neurocognitive assessment and management. Furthermore, clinicians should be aware that lifetime accumulation of head impacts may also play a role in neurologic presentation and response to concussion...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410664/alzheimer-and-the-dementias
#15
EDITORIAL
John M Ringman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410663/frontotemporal-dementia
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas T Olney, Salvatore Spina, Bruce L Miller
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous disorder with distinct clinical phenotypes associated with multiple neuropathologic entities. Presently, the term FTD encompasses clinical disorders that include changes in behavior, language, executive control, and often motor symptoms. The core FTD spectrum disorders include behavioral variant FTD, nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, and semantic variant PPA. Related FTD disorders include frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease, progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410662/lewy-body-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Douglas Galasko
Dementia syndromes associated with Lewy bodies are subdivided into dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), an underdiagnosed cause of dementia in the elderly, and Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), cognitive impairment appearing in people diagnosed with Parkinson disease. Their neuropathologic substrates are the widespread distribution of aggregates of the protein α-synuclein in neurons in cortical brain regions, accompanied by variable Alzheimer pathology. Clinical features of DLB and PDD include distinctive changes in cognition, behavior, movement, sleep, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410661/vascular-contributions-to-cognitive-impairment-in-late-life
#18
REVIEW
Helena C Chui, Liliana Ramirez Gomez
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second leading cause of cognitive impairment in late life. Structural neuroimaging offers the most sensitive and specific biomarkers for hemorrhages and infarcts, but there are significant limitations in its ability to detect microvascular disease, microinfarcts, dynamic changes in the blood-brain barrier, and preclinical cerebrovascular disease. Autopsy studies disclose the common co-occurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative conditions, suggesting that in late life, a multifactorial approach to cognitive impairment may be more appropriate than traditional dichotomous classifications...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410660/late-onset-alzheimer-disease
#19
REVIEW
Aimee L Pierce, Szofia S Bullain, Claudia H Kawas
The oldest-old represent the fastest growing segment of society, and the risk of developing dementia continues to increase with advancing age into the 9th and 10th decades of life. The most common form of dementia in the oldest-old is Alzheimer disease (AD), although there are often mixed pathologies contributing to dementia in addition to amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Diagnosing AD in the oldest-old is challenging due to cognitive and physical changes associated with aging. Treatment remains supportive, with current approved medications able to provide modest symptomatic benefit but unable to slow the progression of disease...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410659/early-onset-alzheimer-disease
#20
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), with onset in individuals younger than 65 years, although overshadowed by the more common late-onset AD (LOAD), differs significantly from LOAD. EOAD comprises approximately 5% of AD and is associated with delays in diagnosis, aggressive course, and age-related psychosocial needs. One source of confusion is that a substantial percentage of EOAD are phenotypic variants that differ from the usual memory-disordered presentation of typical AD. The management of EOAD is similar to that for LOAD, but special emphasis should be placed on targeting the specific cognitive areas involved and more age-appropriate psychosocial support and education...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
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