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Neurologic Clinics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886898/neuro-ophthalmology-for-neurologists
#1
EDITORIAL
Andrew G Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886897/update-on-the-management-of-central-retinal-artery-occlusion
#2
REVIEW
Michael Dattilo, Valérie Biousse, Nancy J Newman
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is caused by partial or complete occlusion of the central retinal artery, most commonly by an embolus from the ipsilateral carotid artery, aortic arch, or heart, and is the ocular equivalent of an acute cerebral ischemic event. The risk factors for a CRAO and acute cerebral ischemia are very similar, if not identical. Because no current therapeutic intervention has been shown to improve visual outcomes compared with the natural history of CRAO, management of CRAO should be focused on secondary prevention of vascular events, such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886896/venous-sinus-stenting-for-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-where-are-we-now
#3
REVIEW
Marc J Dinkin, Athos Patsalides
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension causes headache, papilledema and visual field loss, typically in obese women of childbearing age. Its anatomical underpinnings remain unclear, but a stenosis at the junction of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses has been recognized in the majority of patients through venography. The stenosis may result from intrinsic dural sinus anatomy or extrinsic compression by increased intracranial pressure, but in either case, its stenting has been shown to lead to an improvement in symptoms of intracranial hypertension and papilledema in multiple retrospective, non-controlled studies...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886895/update-on-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Michael Wall
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of elevated intracranial pressure of unknown cause occurring predominantly in young women of childbearing age. The typical patient symptom profile is the presence of daily headache, pulse synchronous tinnitus, transient visual obscurations, and papilledema with its associated visual loss. Although surgical procedures are performed for those who fail medical therapy, their relative efficacy remains unclear. The main morbidity of IIH is from visual loss...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886894/homonymous-hemianopia-and-vision-restoration-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Frolov, Jeanne Feuerstein, Prem S Subramanian
Homonymous hemianopia from stroke causes visual disability. Although some patients experience spontaneous improvement, others have limited to no change and may be left with a severe disability. Current rehabilitation strategies are compensatory and cannot restore function. Animal studies suggest that central nervous system plasticity could allow for redirection of lost visual function into undamaged areas of cortex. A commercial therapy system was developed, from which claims of visual field expansion were disputed by independent researchers...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886893/erectile-dysfunction-agents-and-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#6
REVIEW
Howard D Pomeranz
Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5I) are used for treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension and have been implicated as a causative factor for development of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Controversy remains regarding a cause and effect between PDE5I use and NAION because the mechanism by which NAION occurs is still not well understood. Because neuro-ophthalmologists have accepted that there is a potential relationship between ingestion of the PDE5I class of medications and NAION, the neuro-ophthalmologist should inquire about PDE5I use when evaluating a patient with a new diagnosis of NAION, and counsel patients regarding the implication of continued use of PDE5I...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886892/optical-coherence-tomography-in-neuro-ophthalmology
#7
REVIEW
Fiona Costello
The afferent visual pathway is a functionally eloquent region of the central nervous system (CNS). Key clinical features of inflammatory, ischemic, and compressive CNS lesions can be appreciated through detailed ophthalmic examination. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides a noninvasive means of capturing manifestations of axonal and neuronal loss in the CNS. OCT represents a surrogate marker of structural integrity in the CNS, through which mechanisms of neurodegeneration and repair may be better understood...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886891/the-yield-of-diagnostic-imaging-in-patients-with-isolated-horner-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Johanna D Beebe, Randy H Kardon, Matthew J Thurtell
We sought to determine, with a retrospective chart review, the imaging yield for patients with clinically isolated Horner syndrome. MRI/MRA of the head and neck extending from the supraorbital ridge to T4 with fat suppression and with postcontrast images was obtained. Of 88 patients with isolated Horner syndrome who were imaged, 20% had a causative etiology on imaging. The most common cause of an isolated Horner syndrome was a carotid artery dissection. There was 1 patient with a primary malignancy found to be the causative lesion in this group, and 1 patient with spread of their known metastatic disease...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886890/orbital-disease-in-neuro-ophthalmology
#9
REVIEW
Jessica R Chang, Anna M Gruener, Timothy J McCulley
Many abnormalities of the orbit present with neuro-ophthalmic findings, such as impaired ocular motility or alignment, and sensory changes, including optic neuropathy. Comprehensive coverage of all orbital diseases is beyond the scope of this article. This review focuses on diagnosis and management of the most common and the most vision- or life-threatening orbital conditions as well as more recently discovered entities and points of active controversy. These conditions include orbital trauma, vascular disease, inflammatory and infectious diseases, and neoplasms...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886889/update-on-ocular-myasthenia-gravis
#10
REVIEW
Stacy V Smith, Andrew G Lee
Ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) is a localized form of myasthenia gravis in which autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors block or destroy these receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. The hallmark of OMG is a history of painless weakness or fatigability of the extraocular muscles and ptosis with normal pupillary function and visual acuity. Clinical, laboratory, electrophysiologic, and pharmacologic tests are available for diagnosis. Treatment can begin with symptom management; there is no cure...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886888/imaging-of-oculomotor-third-cranial-nerve-palsy
#11
REVIEW
Michael S Vaphiades, Glenn H Roberson
When evaluating a patient with an oculomotor cranial nerve palsy it may be unclear which neuroimaging modality is optimal; MRI, MR angiography, computed tomography, computed tomography angiography, or intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. We discuss the clinical guidelines in the evaluation of such patients and review neuroimaging techniques, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each.
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886887/new-treatments-for-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#12
REVIEW
Rod Foroozan
Despite increasing knowledge about the risk factors and clinical findings of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), the treatment of this optic neuropathy has remained limited and without clear evidence-based benefit. Historical treatments of NAION are reviewed, beginning with the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial. More recent treatments are placed within the historical context and illustrate the need for evidence-based therapy for ischemic optic neuropathy.
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720008/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720007/public-health-neuroepidemiology-and-health-systems
#14
David S Younger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720006/the-epidemiology-of-neuromuscular-diseases
#15
Jaydeep M Bhatt
Neuromuscular disorders as a group are linked by anatomy with significant differences in pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical expression, and time course of disease. Each neuromuscular disease is relatively uncommon, yet causes a significant burden of disease socioeconomically. Epidemiologic studies in different global regions have demonstrated certain neuromuscular diseases have increased incidence and prevalence rates over time. Understanding differences in global epidemiologic trends will aid clinical research and policies focused on prevention of disease...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720005/epidemiology-of-brain-tumors
#16
Katharine A McNeill
Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720004/epidemiology-of-ischemic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Albert S Favate, David S Younger
Ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder recognized by the sudden onset of neurologic signs related directly to the sites of injury in the brain where the morbid process occurs. The evaluation of complex neurologic disorders, such as stroke, in which multiple genetic and epigenetic factors interact with environmental risk factors to increase the risk has been revolutionized by the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach. This article reviews salient aspects of ischemic stroke emphasizing the impact of neuroepidemiology and GWAS...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720003/epidemiology-of-parkinson-disease
#18
Andrea Lee, Rebecca M Gilbert
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative condition, causing both motor and non motor symptoms. Motor symptoms include stiffness, slowness, rest tremor and poor postural reflexes, whereas nonmotor symptoms include abnormalities of mood, cognition, sleep and autonomic function. Affected patients show cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein into intracellular structures called Lewy bodies, within specific brain regions. The main known non modifiable risk factor is age...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720002/alzheimer-disease-and-its-growing-epidemic-risk-factors-biomarkers-and-the-urgent-need-for-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Richard A Hickman, Arline Faustin, Thomas Wisniewski
Alzheimer disease (AD) represents one of the greatest medical challenges of this century; the condition is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and no effective treatments have been developed for this terminal disease. Because the disease manifests at a late stage after a long period of clinically silent neurodegeneration, knowledge of the modifiable risk factors and the implementation of biomarkers is crucial in the primary prevention of the disease and presymptomatic detection of AD, respectively. This article discusses the growing epidemic of AD and antecedent risk factors in the disease process...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720001/epidemiology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Jonathan Howard, Stephen Trevick, David S Younger
The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) includes a consideration of genetic and environmental factors. Comparative studies of different populations have revealed prevalence and incidence rates that vary with geography and ethnicity. With a prevalence ranging from 2 per 100,000 in Japan to greater than 100 per 100,000 in Northern Europe and North America, the burden of MS is similarly unevenly influenced by longevity and comorbid disorders. Well-powered genome-wide association studies have investigated the genetic substrate of MS, providing insight into autoimmune mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of MS and elucidating possible avenues of biological treatment...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
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