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Kevin S Kuehn, Annelise Wagner, Jennifer Velloza
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among US adolescents aged 12-19 years. Researchers would benefit from a better understanding of the direct effects of bullying and e-bullying on adolescent suicide to inform intervention work. AIMS: To explore the direct and indirect effects of bullying and e-bullying on adolescent suicide attempts (SAs) and to estimate the magnitude of these effects controlling for significant covariates. METHOD: This study uses data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of US high school youth...
September 14, 2018: Crisis
Alexandre Mikhail, Omaid Tanoli, Gilles Légaré, Pierre-André Dubé, Youssef Habel, Alain Lesage, Nancy C P Low, Suzanne Lamarre, Santokh Singh, Elham Rahme
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are frequently used in suicide attempts. Accessibility, toxicity, and unsupervised acquisition of large amounts may be facilitators. AIMS: To identify patient characteristics associated with OTC drug use as a suicide attempt method among adults. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using chart review of all individuals who presented to the emergency department (ED) of two adult general hospitals following a suicide attempt during 2009-2010 in Montreal, Canada...
September 14, 2018: Crisis
William Feigelman, Julie Cerel, John L McIntosh, David Brent, Nina Gutin
BACKGROUND: The trauma from experiencing a loved one's suicide is often seen as an instigator of change in a person's religious life. AIMS: We sought to examine whether suicide-bereaved adults were any differently disposed to religious participation and observances compared with the nonbereaved and whether religiously involved bereaved had any better mental health compared with religiously disaffiliated bereaved. METHOD: The 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) presented 11 new questions identifying suicide bereavement status...
September 14, 2018: Crisis
Susanne Condron, Lucas Godoy Garraza, Nora Kuiper, Bhuvana Sukumar, Christine Walrath, Richard McKeon
BACKGROUND: A common suicide prevention strategy is training gatekeepers to identify at-risk individuals and refer them to services. AIMS: The study aimed to examine whether differences in training outcomes were observed for brief versus in-depth gatekeeper trainings for trainees from varied professional settings while controlling for differences in trainee characteristics and community context. METHOD: Trainees' identification and referral behavior 3 months after gatekeeper training was compared with a sample of respondents matched on individual- and community-level variables using propensity score-based techniques...
August 15, 2018: Crisis
Miriam Van den Nest, Benedikt Till, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler
BACKGROUND: Little is known about linguistic differences between nonprofessional suicide message boards that differ in regard to their predominant attitude to suicide. AIMS: To compare linguistic indicators potentially related to suicidality between anti-suicide, neutral, and pro-suicide message boards, and between the types of posters (primary posters, who initiate the thread, and the respective respondents). METHOD: In all, 1,200 threads from seven German-language nonprofessional suicide message boards were analyzed using the software Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) with regard to wording related to suicidal fantasies, aggression, and indicators of so-called suicidal constriction...
August 15, 2018: Crisis
Jeremy T Goldbach, Harmony Rhoades, Daniel Green, Anthony Fulginiti, Michael P Marshal
BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are more than twice as likely to attempt suicide than their peers. Although LGBT-specific crisis services have been developed, little is known about the need for these services beyond that of general lifeline services. AIMS: The present study sought to (a) describe the primary reasons for calling a specialized provider as opposed to another and (b) examine sociodemographic differences in the primary reason by race, ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation...
August 15, 2018: Crisis
Joseph H Obegi
BACKGROUND: It is a peculiar fact that the deadliest psychiatric disturbance - suicidality - cannot be formally diagnosed. Suicidal behavior disorder (SBD), a condition for further study in the DSM-5, is the field's first attempt to capture suicidality in a diagnosis. AIMS: To provoke discussion about the standing of suicidality as a diagnosable psychiatric condition. METHOD: I present pragmatic and conceptual rationales for why a diagnosis of suicidality is clinically useful but conclude that SBD does little to aid clinicians in assessing suicidality's symptoms, planning treatment, or monitoring progress...
August 15, 2018: Crisis
Apolinaras Zaborskis, Gabriela Ilionsky, Riki Tesler, Andreas Heinz
BACKGROUND: Bullying and suicidality are serious worldwide problems with negative effects on the young population and therefore international comparisons in this field are of paramount importance. AIMS: To analyze the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying and their association with suicidal behavior among school-aged children in Israel, Lithuania, and Luxembourg. METHOD: In total, 3,814 15-year-olds from schools in Israel, Lithuania, and Luxembourg were surveyed in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) cross-national survey in 2013/2014 using standardized anonymous questionnaires...
August 15, 2018: Crisis
Louis Favril, Ciska Wittouck, Kurt Audenaert, Freya Vander Laenen
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of mortality in prisoners worldwide, yet empirical data on this matter are lacking in Belgium. AIMS: This study sought to describe characteristics associated with a consecutive series of suicides in Belgian prisons from 2000 to 2016 inclusive, in order to inform suicide prevention strategies. METHOD: All documented cases of suicide (N = 262) were reviewed using a standardized assessment checklist. Official records were abstracted for prisoners' sociodemographic, criminological, and clinical information, as well as for suicide-related characteristics...
July 27, 2018: Crisis
René M Lento, Amanda Carson-Wong, Jonathan D Green, Christopher G AhnAllen, Phillip M Kleespies
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among US veterans. Associations between depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal behaviors have been found in this population, yet minimal research has explored how manifestations of self-injurious behavior (SIB) may vary among different diagnostic presentations. AIMS: This study aimed to identify clinically useful differences in SIB among veterans who experience comorbid mood disorder and PTSD (CMP) compared with those who experience a mood disorder alone (MDA)...
July 27, 2018: Crisis
Lisa Marzano, Lorna Fraser, Mia Scally, Stuart Farley, Keith Hawton
BACKGROUND: Media reporting of suicide has been associated with imitative acts. Internationally, this has led to the development of guidelines to promote responsible reporting of suicide. AIMS: To examine the nature and quality of news coverage of suicidal behavior in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI). METHOD: UK and ROI press clippings relating to suicide over 12 months (N = 8,101) were coded for content and assessed for quality against existing guidelines...
July 27, 2018: Crisis
Jane Brandt Sørensen, Melissa Pearson, Martin Wolf Andersen, Manjula Weerasinghe, Manjula Rathnaweera, D G Chathumini Rathnapala, Michael Eddleston, Flemming Konradsen
BACKGROUND: Irresponsible media reporting may influence suicidal behavior. Adherence to guidelines for responsible reporting of suicide has not been examined in Sri Lanka in recent times. AIMS: To examine the quality of reporting on self-harm and suicide in Sri Lankan newspapers and compare the quality between Sinhala and English newspapers. METHOD: From December 1, 2014 to January 31, 2015, 407 editions of newspapers were screened. Reporting quality was measured using the PRINTQUAL tool...
July 27, 2018: Crisis
Anna Palmer, Marshall E Cates, Greg Gorman
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that lithium may be effective at reducing suicide at low doses, such as those found in drinking water. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to compare suicide rates with natural lithium levels in the drinking water of various Alabama counties. METHOD: Five drinking water samples from each of 15 Alabama counties were collected. Lithium levels were measured in triplicate using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer and compared with suicide rate data for the period 1999-2013...
July 27, 2018: Crisis
Gregory Carter, Matthew J Spittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Crisis
Tatjana Schnell, Rebekka Gerstner, Henning Krampe
BACKGROUND: At times, the question for meaning comes to nothing and a crisis of meaning ensues. This state is very painful, but difficult to account. Both those who suffer from it and care professionals find themselves at a loss for words. AIMS: This study introduces an operationalization of a crisis of meaning. It aims to distinguish the concept from depression, and to investigate whether a crisis of meaning can explain suicidality beyond the known protective and risk factors self-esteem, family functioning, life-event load, and depression...
July 2018: Crisis
Christine Dunkley, Alan Borthwick, Ruth Bartlett, Laura Dunkley, Stephen Palmer, Stefan Gleeson, David Kingdon
BACKGROUND: Escaping from emotional pain is a recognized driver in suicidal patients' desire to die. Formal scales of emotional pain are rarely used during routine contact between patients and their care team. No study has explored facilitators and inhibitors of emotional pain communication between staff and suicidal patients during regular care. AIMS: To identify factors impeding or facilitating emotional pain communication between patients at risk of suicide and mental health professionals...
July 2018: Crisis
Myfanwy Maple, Tania Pearce, Rebecca Sanford, Julie Cerel, Dolores Angela Castelli Dransart, Karl Andriessen
BACKGROUND: Suicide may have disruptive and/or devastating effects on family, friends, and the broader community. Of late, increased interest from suicide researchers has given rise to an upsurge in research productivity addressing suicide bereavement and postvention. At this critical juncture, the establishment of an agenda will help guide the direction of future scholarly research in this field. AIMS: To conduct an exhaustive systematic mapping review and bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed suicide bereavement and postvention research published over the past 50 years...
July 2018: Crisis
Rahel Eynan, Ravi Shah, Marnin J Heisel, David Eden, Reuven Jhirad, Paul S Links
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the effectiveness of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCI) in the UK, the present study evaluated this approach in Southwestern Ontario. A systematic confidential examination of suicides in Ontario was developed to guide quality improvement of services and suicide prevention. METHOD: A 3-year case series of consecutive suicides in Southwestern Ontario identified by the Office of the Chief Coroner was compiled...
July 2018: Crisis
Avigal Snir, Alan Apter, Shira Barzilay, Dana Feldman, Eshkol Rafaeli, Vladimir Carli, Camilla Wasserman, Gergö Hadlaczky, Christina W Hoven, Marco Sarchiapone, Danuta Wasserman
BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviors in adolescence are a serious public health concern. AIMS: The current study aims to expand our understanding of motives for direct self-injurious behaviors (D-SIB). We examined the explicit motives but also the actual antecedents and consequences of D-SIB over time. METHOD: As part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years from Israel completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-ups...
July 2018: Crisis
Jess Zonana, Jessica Simberlund, Paul Christos
BACKGROUND: Safety plans are recommended as tools to mitigate suicide risk; however, their effectiveness remains unclear. AIM: To evaluate the impact of safety plans on patient care at an outpatient mental health clinic. METHOD: In this retrospective chart review, patients' treatment engagement, health-care utilization, and risk behaviors were measured. Patients served as their own historical controls, and we compared outcomes in the 6 months before and 6 months after creation of safety plans...
July 2018: Crisis
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