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Brain and Cognition

Guido Gainotti
Earlier studies, which suggested that anosognosia of hemiplegia might be related to right hemisphere (RH) lesions did not control for the influence of confounding variables, such as aphasia, in patients with left-hemisphere lesions and unilateral neglect in those with RH lesions. These confounding variables are absent in patients with degenerative brain disease, where a prevalence of right-sided lesions is often associated with emotional and behavioural disturbances. This review, which can be considered a 'qualitative synthesis', aimed, therefore, to determine whether the unawareness phenomena observed in degenerative brain diseases are linked to the RH dominance for emotions...
September 1, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Diana Van Lancker Sidtis, John J Sidtis
Formulaic language forms about one-fourth of everyday talk. Formulaic (fixed expressions) and novel (grammatical language) differ in important characteristics. The features of idioms, slang, expletives, proverbs, aphorisms, conversational speech formulas, and other fixed expressions include ranges of length, flexible cohesion, memory storage, nonliteral and situation meaning, and affective content. Neurolinguistic observations in persons with focal brain damage or progressive neurological disease suggest that producing formulaic expressions can be achieved by interactions between the right hemisphere and subcortical structures...
August 31, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Wei Wang, Bingbing Li, Chuanji Gao, Chunyan Guo
Recognition memory can be driven by both perceptual and conceptual fluency, but when and to what extent they contribute to recognition memory remains an open question. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency, when they gave rise to recognition. We manipulated the perceptual and conceptual fluency of retrieval cues in the recognition test independently to obtain the effects of different types of fluency. Behavioral results showed that perceptual fluency selectively affected K hits, while conceptual fluency affected R hits and K false alarms...
August 31, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Camilia Thieba, Xiangyu Long, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show that bilingual adults display structural and functional brain alterations, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dependent on when they learned their second language. However, it is unclear whether these differences are due to early exposure to another language, or to lifelong adaptation. We studied 22 children aged 3-5 years growing up in a multilingual environment and 22 age- and sex-matched controls exposed to an English-only environment. Resting-state functional MRI and T1-weighted MRI were used to assess functional connectivity and structure of the IFG...
July 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Alana J Anderson, Sammy Perone
Resting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Lisa H Evans, Edward L Wilding
The sensitivity of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the processes of recollection and familiarity has been explored extensively, and ERPs have been used subsequently to infer the contributions these processes make to memory judgments under a range of different circumstances. It has also been shown that event-related fields (ERFs, the magnetic counterparts of ERPs) are sensitive to memory retrieval processes. The links between ERFs, recollection and familiarity are, however, established only weakly. In this experiment, the sensitivity of ERFs to these processes was investigated in a paradigm used previously with ERPs...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Liling Jin
A key issue in the area of language processing is the mechanism underlying the processing of animacy information during sentence comprehension. In this ERP study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of animacy processing in Korean noun-classifier combinations that do not involve verb-noun thematic processing. We manipulated semantic and animacy relationships between nouns and their following classifiers, and there were three conditions in our experiment: (a) correct, (b) semantic mismatch, or (c) animacy mismatch...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Selina C Wriessnegger, Günther Bauernfeind, Eva-Maria Kurz, Philipp Raggam, Gernot R Müller-Putz
The activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. In the present neuroimaging study we investigated cortical activation of kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) based on emotional stimulus content by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy adult participants were instructed to imagine affective, and neutral motor tasks while multichannel fNIRS was recorded simultaneously...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Sarah François, Lucie Angel, Eric Salmon, Christine Bastin, Fabienne Collette
It is well-known that the ageing process disrupts episodic memory. The aim of this study was to use an fMRI visual recognition task to characterize age-related changes in cerebral regions activated, during encoding, for images that would subsequently lead to a recollection-based or to a familiarity-based recognition. Results show that, for subsequent recollection, young adults activated regions related to semantic processing more extensively than older ones. On the other hand, despite putatively producing less semantic elaboration, older adults activated contralateral regions supplementary to those found in young adults (which might represent attempted compensation), as well as regions of the default-mode network...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Ana Raposo, Sofia Frade, Mara Alves, J Frederico Marques
People are often confronted with the need of estimating the market price of goods. An important question is how people estimate prices, given the variability of products and prices available. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated how numerical processing modulates the neural bases of retail price estimation by focusing on two numerical dimensions: the size and precision of the estimates. Participants were presented with several product labels and made market price estimates for those products. Measures of product buying frequency and market price variability were also collected...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Liyang Sai, Haiyan Wu, Xiaoqing Hu, Genyue Fu
Does deception necessarily involve false statements that are incompatible with the truth? In some cases, people choose truthful statements in order to mislead others. This type of deception has been investigated less. The current study employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive processes when both truthful and false statements were used to deceive others. We focused our ERP analysis on two stages: a decision making stage during which participants decided whether to tell a false or a truthful statement, and an outcome evaluation stage during which participants evaluated whether their deception had succeeded or not...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jutta Peterburs, David Hofmann, Michael P I Becker, Alexander M Nitsch, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Straube
Previous studies have reported cerebellar activations during error and reward processing. The present study investigated if the cerebellum differentially processes feedback depending on changes in response strategy during reversal learning, as is conceivable given its internal models for movement and thought. Negative relative to positive feedback in an fMRI-based reversal learning task was hypothesized to be associated with increased cerebellar activations. Moreover, increased activations were expected for negative feedback followed by a change in response strategy compared to negative feedback not followed by such a change, and for first positive feedback after compared to final negative feedback before a change, due to updating of internal models...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Stefan Duschek, Alexandra Hoffmann, Angela Bair, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Casandra I Montoro
In addition to complaints including fatigue, mood disturbance, dizziness or cold limbs, chronic low blood pressure (hypotension) is associated with reduced cognitive performance. Deficiencies in cerebral blood flow regulation may contribute to this impairment. This study investigated cerebral blood flow modulations during proactive control in hypotension. Proactive control refers to cognitive processes during anticipation of a behaviourally relevant event that allow optimization of readiness to react. Using functional transcranial Doppler sonography, bilateral blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries were recorded in 40 hypotensive and 40 normotensive participants during a precued Stroop task...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Olivier Dupuy, Laurent Bosquet, Sarah Anne Fraser, Véronique Labelle, Louis Bherer
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: This study compared cognitive performances and cardiac autonomic measures of higher fit and lower fit middle-aged and older highly active adults. The working hypotheses were that higher fit (master athletes) would show cognitive benefits in executive control conditions due to a high level of fitness compared to lower fit people and that this effect would be mediated by better cardiac autonomic adaptations in athletes. METHODS: We recruited 39 highly active middle aged and older adults from Master Athletes' organizations...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Nicola Del Maschio, Simone Sulpizio, Federico Gallo, Davide Fedeli, Brendan S Weekes, Jubin Abutalebi
Evidence that bilingualism protects against age-related neurocognitive decline is mixed. One relatively consistent finding is that bilingual seniors have greater grey matter volume (GMV) in regions implicated in executive control (EC) and language processing. Here, we compare the neuroplastic effects of bilingual experience on the EC network of young and aging populations directly, and for the first time we evaluate the extent to which such effects may predict executive control performance across age. We used GMV as an index of neural reserve and response time (RT) performance on the Flanker task for measuring EC efficiency...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Alyssa Cruse, Kelsey Offen, Julie Markant
Selective attention is a dynamic process that rapidly shifts processing resources to information that is most relevant to our goals. Although individuals often show spatial biases in attention, these biases can be modified by both long-term factors, such as musical training, or by momentary changes in the auditory context. The present study used a visual search task to examine the influence of these factors on spatial attention biases while increasing demands on selective attention. Experiment 1 examined the effects of musical experience on baseline spatial selective attention biases during search...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Fred Travis, Laurent Valosek, Arthur Konrad, Janice Link, John Salerno, Ray Scheller, Sanford Nidich
BACKGROUND: Psychological stability and brain integration are important factors related to physical and mental health and organization effectiveness. This study tested whether a mind-body technique, the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program could increase EEG brain integration and positive affect, and decrease psychological distress in government employees. METHOD: Ninety-six central office administrators and staff at the San Francisco Unified School District were randomly assigned to either immediate start of the TM program or to a wait-list control group...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Eva-Maria Kurz, Guilherme Wood, Silvia Erika Kober, Walter Schippinger, Gerald Pichler, Gernot Müller-Putz, Günther Bauernfeind
BACKGROUND: Recently, fNIRS has been proposed as a promising approach for awareness detection, and a possible method to establish basic communication in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). AIM: Using fNIRS, the present study evaluated the applicability of auditory presented mental-arithmetic tasks in this respect. METHODS: We investigated the applicability of active attention to serial subtractions for awareness detection in ten healthy controls (HC, 21-32 y/o), by comparing the measured patterns to patterns induced by self-performance of the same task...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
Tobias Bormann, Lars Frings, Andrea Dreßing, Volkmar Glauche, Cornelius Weiller
Pure alexia is a deficit of reading affecting the ability to process a word's letters in parallel. Instead, a slow, effortful letter-by-letter reading strategy is employed. It has been claimed that a visual impairment caused the reading impairment. The present study compares visual processing and word reading of a patient with severe visuospatial deficits due to probable posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) to two patients with pure alexia. A double dissociation emerged between visual processing and word reading: The participant with PCA was severely impaired in all visual tasks but read fluently while the patients with pure alexia read slowly but exhibited better preserved visual processing...
August 2018: Brain and Cognition
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