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Brain and Cognition

C C J M de Klerk, V Southgate, G Csibra
A popular idea in cognitive neuroscience is that to predict others' actions, observers need to map those actions onto their own motor repertoire. If this is true, infants with a relatively limited motor repertoire should be unable to predict actions with which they have no previous motor experience. We investigated this idea by presenting pre-walking infants with videos of upright and inverted stepping actions that were briefly occluded from view, followed by either a correct (time-coherent) or an incorrect (time-incoherent) continuation of the action (Experiment 1)...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Péter Simor, Péter Pajkossy, Klára Horváth, Róbert Bódizs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Roberto Erro, Stephanie T Hirschbichler, Lucia Ricciardi, Agata Ryterska, Elena Antelmi, Christos Ganos, Carla Cordivari, Michele Tinazzi, Mark J Edwards, Kailash P Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Giovanna Mollo, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Boris C Bernhardt, Charlotte E Murphy, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Efficient semantic cognition depends on accessing and selecting conceptual knowledge relevant to the current task or context. This study explored the neurocognitive architecture that supports this function by examining how individual variation in functional brain organisation predicts comprehension and semantic generation. Participants underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and, on separate days, performed written synonym judgement, and letter and category fluency tasks. We found that better synonym judgement for high frequency items was linked to greater functional coupling between posterior fusiform and anterior superior temporal cortex (aSTG), which might index orthographic-to-semantic access...
September 20, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Damon G Lamb, Lauren N Correa, Talia R Seider, Diana M Mosquera, Julio A Rodriguez, Liliana Salazar, Zared J Schwartz, Ronald A Cohen, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: With aging, people commonly develop motor slowing (bradykinesia). Although this slowness with aging may be entirely related to degradation of the cerebral networks important in motor programing, it is possible that, at least in part, it may be a learned procedure for enhancing the accuracy and/or precision of movements. The goal of this study is to test these contradictory hypotheses. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy adults, 12 younger than age 26 and 12 older than age 65 were asked to make alternative marks with a pen between a card centered in front of them and a series of circles distributed across a page...
September 19, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Sander Van de Cruys, Ruth Van der Hallen, Johan Wagemans
Predictive coding has recently been welcomed as a fruitful framework to understand autism spectrum disorder. Starting from an account centered on deficient differential weighting of prediction errors (based in so-called precision estimation), we illustrate that individuals with autism have particular difficulties with separating signal from noise, across different tasks. Specifically, we discuss how deficient precision-setting is detrimental for learning in unstable environments, for context-dependent assignment of salience to inputs, and for robustness in perception, as illustrated in coherent motion paradigms...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Raffaella I Rumiati, Francesco Foroni, Giulio Pergola, Paola Rossi, Maria Caterina Silveri
The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Daniel Schuepbach, Stephan T Egger, Heinz Boeker, Stefan Duschek, Stefan Vetter, Erich Seifritz, Sabine C Herpertz
Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in cognitive functioning, and studies on cerebral hemodynamics have revealed aberrant patterns of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV), an equivalent of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Therefore, we carried out a controlled study that assessed MFV in schizophrenia during a well-known neuropsychological task, the Trail Making Test (TMT). We measured MFV in the middle cerebral arteries using functional transcranial Doppler sonography in 15 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Scott Ruddock, Karen Caeyenberghs, Jan Piek, David Sugden, Christian Hyde, Sue Morris, Daniela Rigoli, Bert Steenbergen, Peter Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a longitudinal design, the aim of the study presented here was to model the coupling that occurs between inhibitory systems and (predictive) online control in typically developing children (TDC) and in those with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) over an extended period of time, using a framework of interactive specialization...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Britt Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Ellie van Setten, Natasha Maurits, Ben Maassen, Titia van Zuijen
Atypical language lateralization has been marked as one of the factors that may contribute to the development of dyslexia. Indeed, atypical lateralization of linguistic functions such as speech processing in dyslexia has been demonstrated using neuroimaging studies, but also using the behavioral dichotic listening (DL) method. However, so far, DL results have been mixed. The current study assesses lateralization of speech processing by using DL in a sample of children at familial risk (FR) for dyslexia. In order to determine whether atypical lateralization of speech processing relates to reading ability, or is a correlate of being at familial risk, the current study compares the laterality index of FR children who did and did not become dyslexic, and a control group of readers without dyslexia...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Emmanuelle Dagenais, Isabelle Rouleau, Alexandra Tremblay, Mélanie Demers, Élaine Roger, Céline Jobin, Pierre Duquette
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to do something at the appropriate time in the future, is crucial in everyday life. One way to improve PM performance is to increase the salience of a cue announcing that it is time to act. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often report PM failures and there is growing evidence of PM deficits among this population. However, such deficits are poorly characterized and their relation to cognitive status remains unclear. To better understand PM deficits in MS patients, this study investigated the impact of cue salience on PM, and its relation to retrospective memory (RM) and executive deficits...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Yael Netz, Mona Abu-Rukun, Sharon Tsuk, Tzvi Dwolatzky, Raffi Carasso, Oron Levin, Ayelet Dunsky
Acute exercise appears to facilitate certain aspects of cognitive processing. The possibility that exercise may lead to more efficient inhibitory processes is of particular interest, owing to the wide range of cognitive and motor functions that inhibition may underlie. The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate and the delayed effect of acute aerobic exercise on response inhibition, motor planning, and eye-hand coordination in healthy active adults. Forty healthy and active participants (10 females) with a mean age of 51...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Michelle J Tat, Anothai Soonsawat, Corinne B Nagle, Rebecca G Deason, Maureen K O'Connor, Andrew E Budson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia exhibit high rates of memory distortions in addition to their impairments in episodic memory. Several investigations have demonstrated that when healthy individuals (young and old) engaged in an encoding strategy that emphasized the uniqueness of study items (an item-specific encoding strategy), they were able to improve their discrimination between old items and unstudied critical lure items in a false memory task. In the present study we examined if patients with AD could also improve their memory discrimination when engaging in an item-specific encoding strategy...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Eli Vakil, Hadas Liberman
There is ample evidence supporting the dissociation between the role of the left and right cerebral hemispheres in processing words and faces, respectively. Nevertheless, research has not yet studied the effect of perceptual asymmetry in memory context effect tasks using words and faces. Thus, the present study researches the advantages of presenting information in the right versus left hemispace and the effect of context on recognition when using faces compared to words presented in the right versus left hemispace...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Ineke J M van der Ham, Gregoire Borst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Felix Ströckens, Josef J Bless, Kenneth Hugdahl, René Westerhausen, Martina Manns
Several studies analyzing the ontogenetic origin of cerebral lateralization provide evidences for a genetic foundation of handedness in humans that is modulated by environmental influences. Since other forms of behavioral lateralization are less investigated, it is unclear as to how far different functions display similar heritability. But deeper knowledge is necessary to understand if and how developmental coupling of different functions is based on a shared genetic background or on the impact of environmental influences...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Leah Dudley, Richard J Stevenson
Many neuropsychological and animal lesion studies point to the hippocampus as being critical for mediating interoceptive awareness, while neuroimaging studies have been used to argue for the importance of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex. Here, using healthy young adults - as with the neuroimaging data - we tested for an association between performance on a hippocampal dependent learning and memory (HDLM) measure (logical memory percent retention) and interoceptive awareness assessed on three tasks - heart rate tracking, water loading and the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness questionnaire (MAIA)...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
S C Wriessnegger, D Steyrl, K Koschutnig, G R Müller-Putz
In this study brain activity during motor imagery (MI) of joint actions, compared to single actions and rest conditions, was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first neuroimaging study which directly investigated the neural correlates of joint action motor imagery. Twenty-one healthy participants imagined three different motor tasks (dancing, carrying a box, wiping). Each imagery task was performed at two kinds: alone (single action MI) or with a partner (joint action MI)...
September 12, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Vivian V Valentin, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Procedural learning of skills depends on dopamine-mediated striatal plasticity. Most prior work investigated single stimulus-response procedural learning followed by feedback. However, many skills include several actions that must be performed before feedback is available. A new procedural-learning task is developed in which three independent and successive unsupervised categorization responses receive aggregate feedback indicating either that all three responses were correct, or at least one response was incorrect...
September 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Beverley Garrigan, Anna L R Adlam, Peter E Langdon
The aims of this systematic review were to determine: (a) which brain areas are consistently more active when making (i) moral response decisions, defined as choosing a response to a moral dilemma, or deciding whether to accept a proposed solution, or (ii) moral evaluations, defined as judging the appropriateness of another's actions in a moral dilemma, rating moral statements as right or wrong, or identifying important moral issues; and (b) shared and significantly different activation patterns for these two types of moral judgements...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
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