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Brain and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#1
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#2
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064077/that-note-sounds-wrong-age-related-effects-in-processing-of-musical-expectation
#3
Andrea R Halpern, Ioanna Zioga, Martin Shankleman, Job Lindsen, Marcus T Pearce, Joydeep Bhattarcharya
Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies...
January 5, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027842/editorial-to-the-special-issue-on-perspectives-on-human-probabilistic-inference-and-the-bayesian-brain
#4
EDITORIAL
Johan Kwisthout, William A Phillips, Anil K Seth, Iris van Rooij, Andy Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 24, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814926/the-laminar-integration-of-sensory-inputs-with-feedback-signals-in-human-cortex
#5
Lucy S Petro, Lars Muckli
The cortex constitutes the largest area of the human brain. Yet we have only a basic understanding of how the cortex performs one vital function: the integration of sensory signals (carried by feedforward pathways) with internal representations (carried by feedback pathways). A multi-scale, multi-species approach is essential for understanding the site of integration, computational mechanism and functional role of this processing. To improve our knowledge we must rely on brain imaging with improved spatial and temporal resolution and paradigms which can measure internal processes in the human brain, and on the bridging of disciplines in order to characterize this processing at cellular and circuit levels...
November 1, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038367/age-differences-in-gain-and-loss-motivated-attention
#6
Ryan S Williams, Anna Lena Biel, Benjamin J Dyson, Julia Spaniol
Adaptive gain theory (Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) suggests that the phasic release of norepinephrine (NE) to cortical areas reflects changes in the utility of ongoing tasks. In the context of aging, this theory raises interesting questions, given that the motivations of older adults differ from those of younger adults. According to socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), aging is associated with greater emphasis on emotion-regulation goals, leading older adults to prioritize positive over negative information...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038366/brain-networks-underlying-novel-metaphor-production
#7
Roger E Beaty, Paul J Silvia, Mathias Benedek
Metaphors are widely used to convey abstract concepts and emotions in the arts and everyday life. Neuroimaging research suggests that dynamic interactions among large-scale brain networks, including the default and executive control networks, support the production of such creative ideas. However, the extent to which these networks interact to support other forms of creative language production such as metaphor remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by assessing functional interactions between brain regions during novel metaphor production...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978450/musicians-react-faster-and-are-better-multisensory-integrators
#8
Simon P Landry, François Champoux
The results from numerous investigations suggest that musical training might enhance how senses interact. Despite repeated confirmation of anatomical and structural changes in visual, tactile, and auditory regions, significant changes have only been reported in the audiovisual domain and for the detection of audio-tactile incongruencies. In the present study, we aim at testing whether long-term musical training might also enhance other multisensory processes at a behavioural level. An audio-tactile reaction time task was administrated to a group of musicians and non-musicians...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940303/neural-representation-of-a-melodic-motif-effects-of-polyphonic-contexts
#9
Madeline Huberth, Takako Fujioka
In music, a melodic motif is often played repeatedly in different pitch ranges and at different times. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects memory trace processing that encodes two separate melodic lines ("voices") with different motifs. Here we investigated whether a single motif presented in two voices is encoded as a single entity or two separate entities, and whether motifs overlapping in time impede or enhance encoding strength. Electroencephalogram (EEG) from 11 musically-trained participants was recorded while they passively listened to sequences of 5-note motifs where the 5th note either descended (standard) or ascended (deviant) relative to the previous note (20% deviant rate)...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923149/the-effect-of-cerebral-asymmetries-and-eye-scanning-on-pseudoneglect-for-a-visual-search-task
#10
Michael E R Nicholls, Amelia Hobson, Joanne Petty, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas
Pseudoneglect is the tendency for the general population to over-attend to the left. While pseudoneglect is classically demonstrated using line bisection, it also occurs for visual search. The current study explored the influence of eye movements and functional cerebral asymmetry on asymmetries for visual search. In Experiment 1, 24 participants carried out a conjunction search for a target within a rectangular array. A leftward advantage for detecting targets was observed when the eyes were free to move, but not when they were restricted by short exposure durations...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918935/depressive-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlate-with-cortical-atrophy-over-time
#11
Alexandru Hanganu, Marie-Andrée Bruneau, Clotilde Degroot, Christophe Bedetti, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life. METHODS: The present study analyzed the correlations between over-time changes in depressive symptoms and gray matter parameters of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in non-demented PD patients. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed, between increased scores for depression over time and lower cortical thickness over time in the right temporo-parietal junction, right occipital medial region, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right posterior cingulate region, left middle temporal as well as left supplementary motor area...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886529/autobiographical-and-episodic-memory-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Jeffrey D Wammes, Tyler J Good, Myra A Fernandes
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842285/posterior-fossa-syndrome-with-a-large-inflammatory-ponto-mesencephalic-lesion
#13
S Breit, B Keserü, T Nyffeler, M Sturzenegger, H Krestel
Demonstration of a posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in a 32-year-old male patient with clinically isolated syndrome which subsequently developed into relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis. The patient suffered from double vision, coordination problems including unsteady gait and atactic dysarthria, concentration difficulties, as well as adynamia and impaired decision making. The patient clinically presented a cerebellar and dysexecutive syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a contrast enhancing ponto-mesencephalic lesion with a volume of 4...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842284/corrigendum-to-the-neural-correlates-of-moral-decision-making-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-moral-evaluations-and-response-decision-judgements-brain-cogn-108-2016-88-97
#14
Beverley Garrigan, Anna L R Adlam, Peter E Langdon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816784/pupillary-response-indexes-the-metrical-hierarchy-of-unattended-rhythmic-violations
#15
Atser Damsma, Hedderik van Rijn
The perception of music is a complex interaction between what we hear and our interpretation. This is reflected in beat perception, in which a listener infers a regular pulse from a musical rhythm. Although beat perception is a fundamental human ability, it is still unknown whether attention to the music is necessary to establish the perception of stronger and weaker beats, or meter. In addition, to what extent beat perception is dependent on musical expertise is still a matter of debate. Here, we address these questions by measuring the pupillary response to omissions at different metrical positions in drum rhythms, while participants attended to another task...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816783/default-mode-network-activation-and-transcendental-meditation-practice-focused-attention-or-automatic-self-transcending
#16
Frederick Travis, Niyazi Parim
This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention-voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816782/contribution-of-different-regions-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-lesion-laterality-to-deficit-of-decision-making-on-the-iowa-gambling-task
#17
Riadh Ouerchefani, Naoufel Ouerchefani, Philippe Allain, Mohamed Riadh Ben Rejeb, Didier Le Gall
Few studies have examined the contribution of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to decision-making abilities. In addition, there are inconsistent findings about the role of ventromedial and dorsolateral lesions in decision-making deficit. In this study, decision-making processes are investigated following different damaged areas of the prefrontal cortex. We paid particular attention to the contribution of laterality, lesion location and lesion volume in decision-making deficit...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816781/relationships-among-attention-networks-and-physiological-responding-to-threat
#18
Casey Sarapas, Anna Weinberg, Scott A Langenecker, Stewart A Shankman
Although researchers have long hypothesized a relationship between attention and anxiety, theoretical and empirical accounts of this relationship have conflicted. We attempted to resolve these conflicts by examining relationships of attentional abilities with responding to predictable and unpredictable threat - related but distinct motivational process implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Eighty-one individuals completed a behavioral task assessing efficiency of three components of attention - alerting, orienting, and executive control (Attention Network Test - Revised)...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#19
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816779/performance-monitoring-for-brain-computer-interface-actions
#20
Aaron Schurger, Steven Gale, Olivia Gozel, Olaf Blanke
When presented with a difficult perceptual decision, human observers are able to make metacognitive judgements of subjective certainty. Such judgements can be made independently of and prior to any overt response to a sensory stimulus, presumably via internal monitoring. Retrospective judgements about one's own task performance, on the other hand, require first that the subject perform a task and thus could potentially be made based on motor processes, proprioceptive, and other sensory feedback rather than internal monitoring...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
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