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Brain and Cognition

Tad T Brunyé, Amy M Smith, Carlene B Horner, Ayanna K Thomas
Retrieval practice involves repeatedly testing a student during the learning experience, reliably conferring learning advantages relative to repeated study. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has also been shown to confer learning advantages for verbal memory, though research is equivocal. The present study examined the effects of retrieval versus study practice with or without left dlPFC tDCS on verbal episodic memory. Participants (N = 150) experienced either retrieval practice or study practice, and active anodal, active cathodal, or sham tDCS while encoding word lists, and then returned two days later for a final recall test...
November 8, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Nancy Tsai, Jacquelynne S Eccles, Susanne M Jaeggi
Stress pervades everyday life and more importantly, affects prefrontal cortices that support executive control functions, processes that are critical to learning and memory as well as a range of life outcomes. The positive or negative effect of stress on cognition depends on an interaction of factors related to the situation and the individual. Research has shown that psychological characteristics related to self-relevance and the availability of resources may lead individuals to perceive a stressor as a threat or challenge, driving performance outcomes...
November 2, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Gabriella Cerri, Paola Borroni
Observation of others' actions evokes a motor resonant (MR) response, in the parieto-frontal Action Observation Network (AON, comprising BA40, BA6, BA4). In order to investigate the effect of cognitive processes on the AON we manipulated attention and cognitive load during central and peripheral observation of hand grasping actions with three experiments. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were elicited in the opponent of the thumb (OP) and abductor of the little finger (ADM) by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex...
October 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Andreas Fink, Mathias Benedek, Karl Koschutnig, Ilona Papousek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Deepika Bagga, Veronika Schöpf
A growing body of evidence suggests that creativity is associated with functional connectivity across widespread neural networks, including regions associated with executive processes and cognitive control, along with regions linked to the default mode network (DMN) of the brain. This study investigated whether a three-week verbal divergent thinking training modulates functional connectivity in networks that have been related to creativity. In a task-based functional imaging study (Fink et al., 2015), the employed creativity training was found to modulate brain activity in regions closely associated with semantic memory demands...
October 25, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Laura E Paige, Eric C Fields, Angela Gutchess
False memories are elicited from exposure to misleading information. It is possible that self-provided misinformation, or lying, has similar effects. We hypothesized that lying impairs memory for younger adults, as increased cognitive control, necessary to inhibit a truthful response, comes at the expense of retaining veridical information in memory. Because older adults show deficits in cognitive control, we hypothesized their memory is unaffected by lying. In the present study, participants made truthful and deceptive responses on a computer while EEG data were recorded...
October 22, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Zahira Z Cohen, Isabel Arend, Kenneth Yuen, Sharon Naparstek, Yarden Gliksman, Ronel Veksler, Avishai Henik
Enumeration is one of the building blocks of arithmetic and fingers are used as a counting tool in early steps. Subitizing-fast and accurate enumeration of small quantities-has been vastly studied in the visual modality, but less in the tactile modality. We explored tactile enumeration using fingers, and gray matter (GM) changes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), in acalculia. We examined JD, a 22-year-old female with acalculia following a stroke to the left inferior parietal cortex. JD and a neurologically healthy normal comparison (NC) group reported how many fingers were stimulated...
October 16, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Sandra J E Langeslag, Liselotte Gootjes, Jan W van Strien
Previous studies have examined the role of the eye region in emotional expressions, but the mouth region is understudied. The main goal of this study was to examine how mouth opening in emotional faces affects subjective experience and early automatic attentional capture, as measured by the early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitude. Participants in two studies viewed angry, happy, and neutral faces with mouths open and closed while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Afterwards, participants indicated how unpleasant-pleasant (i...
October 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff, Merim Bilalić
Skilled visual object and pattern recognition form the basis of many everyday behaviours. The game of chess has often been used as a model case for studying how long-term experience aides in perceiving objects and their spatio-functional interrelations. Earlier research revealed two brain regions, posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and collateral sulcus (CoS), to be linked to chess experts' superior object and pattern recognition, respectively. Here we elucidated the brain networks these two expertise-related regions are embedded in, employing resting-state functional connectivity analysis and meta-analytic connectivity modelling with the BrainMap database...
October 2, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Maheen Shermohammed, Juliet Y Davidow, Leah H Somerville, Vishnu P Murty
Psychological stress during memory encoding influences resulting memory representations. However, open questions remain regarding how stress interacts with emotional memory. This interaction has mainly been studied by characterizing the correct identification of previously observed material (memory "hits"), with few studies investigating how stress influences the endorsement of unobserved material as remembered (memory "false alarms"). While hits can provide information about the presence or strength of a memory representation, false alarms provide insight into memory fidelity, indicating to what extent stored memories are confused with similar information presented at retrieval...
September 26, 2018: Brain and Cognition
P Andrew Leynes, Cailin J Crawford
Event-related potential (ERP) evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the quality of information bound in memory, which can affect source memory. In the present study, participants studied product images with blue or and yellow filters while focusing either on the self (self-focus) or on the color of the filtered image (other-focus). Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, greater recognition for old/new judgments, and a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate for recollection)...
September 22, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jarrad A G Lum, Andrea Mills, James M A Plumridge, Nicole P Sloan, Gillian M Clark, Martina Hedenius, Peter G Enticott
This study examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in the implicit learning and retention of a 'simple' first order conditional (FOC) sequence and a relatively 'complex' second order conditional (SOC) sequence, using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS). Groups of healthy adults received either a-tDCS (n = 18) over the left inferior frontal gyrus or sham/placebo (n = 18) stimulation. On separate days, participants completed a serial reaction time (SRT) task whilst receiving stimulation...
September 22, 2018: Brain and Cognition
J L He, I Fuelscher, J Coxon, P Barhoun, D Parmar, P G Enticott, C Hyde
This study aimed to evaluate the 'inhibitory deficit' hypothesis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We adopted a multifaceted approach, investigating two distinct, yet complimentary facets of motor inhibition: action restraint and action cancellation. This was achieved using carefully constructed versions of the 'Go/No-go' and 'Stop-signal' tasks, respectively. The sample comprised 11 young adults with DCD aged between 18 and 30 years of age and 11 typically developing, age-matched controls. Participants completed both the 'Go/No-go' and 'Stop-signal' tasks to assess action restraint and action cancellation respectively...
September 20, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Guido Gainotti
Earlier studies, which suggested that anosognosia of hemiplegia might be related to right hemisphere (RH) lesions did not control for the influence of confounding variables, such as aphasia, in patients with left-hemisphere lesions and unilateral neglect in those with RH lesions. These confounding variables are absent in patients with degenerative brain disease, where a prevalence of right-sided lesions is often associated with emotional and behavioural disturbances. This review, which can be considered a 'qualitative synthesis', aimed, therefore, to determine whether the unawareness phenomena observed in degenerative brain diseases are linked to the RH dominance for emotions...
September 1, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Diana Van Lancker Sidtis, John J Sidtis
Formulaic language forms about one-fourth of everyday talk. Formulaic (fixed expressions) and novel (grammatical language) differ in important characteristics. The features of idioms, slang, expletives, proverbs, aphorisms, conversational speech formulas, and other fixed expressions include ranges of length, flexible cohesion, memory storage, nonliteral and situation meaning, and affective content. Neurolinguistic observations in persons with focal brain damage or progressive neurological disease suggest that producing formulaic expressions can be achieved by interactions between the right hemisphere and subcortical structures...
August 31, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Wei Wang, Bingbing Li, Chuanji Gao, Chunyan Guo
Recognition memory can be driven by both perceptual and conceptual fluency, but when and to what extent they contribute to recognition memory remains an open question. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency, when they gave rise to recognition. We manipulated the perceptual and conceptual fluency of retrieval cues in the recognition test independently to obtain the effects of different types of fluency. Behavioral results showed that perceptual fluency selectively affected K hits, while conceptual fluency affected R hits and K false alarms...
August 31, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Alana J Anderson, Sammy Perone
Resting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Lisa H Evans, Edward L Wilding
The sensitivity of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the processes of recollection and familiarity has been explored extensively, and ERPs have been used subsequently to infer the contributions these processes make to memory judgments under a range of different circumstances. It has also been shown that event-related fields (ERFs, the magnetic counterparts of ERPs) are sensitive to memory retrieval processes. The links between ERFs, recollection and familiarity are, however, established only weakly. In this experiment, the sensitivity of ERFs to these processes was investigated in a paradigm used previously with ERPs...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Liling Jin
A key issue in the area of language processing is the mechanism underlying the processing of animacy information during sentence comprehension. In this ERP study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of animacy processing in Korean noun-classifier combinations that do not involve verb-noun thematic processing. We manipulated semantic and animacy relationships between nouns and their following classifiers, and there were three conditions in our experiment: (a) correct, (b) semantic mismatch, or (c) animacy mismatch...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Selina C Wriessnegger, Günther Bauernfeind, Eva-Maria Kurz, Philipp Raggam, Gernot R Müller-Putz
The activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. In the present neuroimaging study we investigated cortical activation of kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) based on emotional stimulus content by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy adult participants were instructed to imagine affective, and neutral motor tasks while multichannel fNIRS was recorded simultaneously...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
Sarah François, Lucie Angel, Eric Salmon, Christine Bastin, Fabienne Collette
It is well-known that the ageing process disrupts episodic memory. The aim of this study was to use an fMRI visual recognition task to characterize age-related changes in cerebral regions activated, during encoding, for images that would subsequently lead to a recollection-based or to a familiarity-based recognition. Results show that, for subsequent recollection, young adults activated regions related to semantic processing more extensively than older ones. On the other hand, despite putatively producing less semantic elaboration, older adults activated contralateral regions supplementary to those found in young adults (which might represent attempted compensation), as well as regions of the default-mode network...
October 2018: Brain and Cognition
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