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Brain and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150311/functional-connectivity-of-the-vigilant-attention-network-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Florian D Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Richard M Stewart, Julia K Moore, Caroline S Biskup, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Robert Langner
The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9-14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122369/preserved-metacognitive-ability-despite-unilateral-or-bilateral-anterior-prefrontal-resection
#2
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Gilles Lafargue
Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex's hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Three groups of participants were recruited: (i) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex, including BA10 (n = 9); (ii) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex but not BA10 (n = 10); and (iii) healthy controls (n = 38)...
November 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122368/the-parietal-opercular-auditory-sensorimotor-network-in-musicians-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#3
Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. We therefore examined whether this PO network differs between musicians and non-musicians. We analyzed resting-state PO functional connectivity with Heschl's gyrus (HG), the planum temporale (PT), the precentral gyrus (preCG), and the postcentral gyrus (postCG) in 35 musicians and 35 non-musicians...
November 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065995/mental-flexibility-an-meg-investigation-in-typically-developing-children
#4
Alexandra Mogadam, Anne E Keller, Margot J Taylor, Jason P Lerch, Evdokia Anagnostou, Elizabeth W Pang
Mental flexibility is a core property of cognitive executive functions, relying on an extended frontoparietal network in the brain. fMRI research comparing typically developing children and adults has found that children from an early age recruit the same "classic" brain areas associated with mental flexibility as adults; however, there is evidence that the timing of activation may be different. To investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with mental flexibility in children, we recruited 22 typically developing children (8-15 years) to complete a set-shifting task in the MEG...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054542/cortical-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-covert-consolidation-sub-serves-associative-learning-evidence-for-an-active-rest-state
#5
Mathura Ravishankar, Alexandra Morris, Ashley Burgess, Dalal Khatib, Jeffrey A Stanley, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
We studied modulation of undirected functional connectivity (uFC) in cortical-hippocampal sub-networks during associative learning. Nineteen healthy individuals were studied (fMRI acquired on a Siemens Verio 3T), and uFC was studied between nodes in a network of regions identified by standard activation models based on bivariate correlational analyses of time series data. The paradigm alternated between Memory Encoding, Rest and Retrieval. "Rest" intervals promoted covert consolidation. Over the task, performance was broadly separable into linear (Early) and asymptomatic (Late) regimes, with late performance reflecting successful memory consolidation...
October 18, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030069/sex-differences-and-menstrual-cycle-effects-in-cognitive-and-sensory-resting-state-networks
#6
Susanne Weis, Sophie Hodgetts, Markus Hausmann
It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions...
October 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020639/associations-between-immunological-function-and-memory-recall-in-healthy-adults
#7
Grace Y Wang, Tamasin Taylor, Alexander Sumich, Fabrice Merien, Robert Borotkanics, Wendy Wrapson, Chris Krägeloh, Richard J Siegert
Studies in clinical and aging populations support associations between immunological function, cognition and mood, although these are not always in line with animal models. Moreover, very little is known about the relationship between immunological measures and cognition in healthy young adults. The present study tested associations between the state of immune system and memory recall in a group of relatively healthy adults. Immediate and delayed memory recall was assessed in 30 participants using the computerised cognitive battery...
October 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926752/response-bias-and-response-monitoring-evidence-from-healthy-older-adults-and-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Rebecca G Deason, Michelle J Tat, Sean Flannery, Prabhakar S Mithal, Erin P Hussey, Eileen T Crehan, Brandon A Ally, Andrew E Budson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding "old" more frequently than "new." Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Healthy older adults and AD patients studied lists of words and then were tested in three old/new ratio conditions (30%, 50%, or 70% old items)...
September 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923763/hemispheric-specialization-for-global-and-local-processing-a-direct-comparison-of-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-stimuli
#9
Sanne G Brederoo, Mark R Nieuwenstein, Monicque M Lorist, Frans W Cornelissen
It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli...
September 15, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899576/neuroscience-and-everyday-life-facing-the-translation-problem
#10
Jolien C Francken, Marc Slors
To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity...
September 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898720/not-so-secret-agents-event-related-potentials-to-semantic-roles-in-visual-event-comprehension
#11
Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, Marta Kutas
Research across domains has suggested that agents, the doers of actions, have a processing advantage over patients, the receivers of actions. We hypothesized that agents as "event builders" for discrete actions (e.g., throwing a ball, punching) build on cues embedded in their preparatory postures (e.g., reaching back an arm to throw or punch) that lead to (predictable) culminating actions, and that these cues afford frontloading of event structure processing. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to averbal comic panels depicting preparatory agents (ex...
September 9, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889923/social-risky-decision-making-reveals-gender-differences-in-the-tpj-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#12
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk...
September 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865994/resting-state-functional-connectivity-an-emerging-method-for-the-study-of-language-networks-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#13
Julian Klingbeil, Max Wawrzyniak, Anika Stockert, Dorothee Saur
Aphasia results both from direct effects of focal damage to eloquent cortical areas as well as dysfunction of interconnected remote areas within the language network. Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) can be used to examine functional connectivity (FC) within these networks. Herein we review publications, which applied rsfMRI to understand network pathology in post stroke aphasia. A common finding in this research is an acute disruption of connectivity within the language network, which is correlated with loss of language function and tends to resolve with recovery from aphasia...
August 30, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844505/using-resting-state-fmri-to-assess-the-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-dlpfc-in-older-overweight-adults
#14
Kristin Prehn, Anne Lesemann, Georgia Krey, A Veronica Witte, Theresa Köbe, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Cardiovascular fitness is thought to exert beneficial effects on brain function and might delay the onset of cognitive decline. Empirical evidence of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement, however, has not been conclusive, possibly due to short intervention times in clinical trials. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been proposed asan early indicator for intervention-induced changes. Here, we conducted a study in which healthy older overweight subjects took either part in a moderate aerobic exercise program over 6months (AE group; n=11) or control condition of non-aerobic stretching and toning (NAE group; n=18)...
August 23, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028508/jazz-musicians-reveal-role-of-expectancy-in-human-creativity
#15
Emily Przysinda, Tima Zeng, Kellyn Maves, Cameron Arkin, Psyche Loui
Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963993/common-framework-for-virtual-lesion-and-state-dependent-tms-the-facilitatory-suppressive-range-model-of-online-tms-effects-on-behavior
#16
Juha Silvanto, Zaira Cattaneo
The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are often nonlinear; factors such as stimulation intensity and brain state can modulate the impact of TMS on observable behavior in qualitatively different manner. Here we propose a theoretical framework to account for these effects. In this model, there are distinct intensity ranges for facilitatory and suppressive effects of TMS - low intensities facilitate neural activity and behavior whereas high intensities induce suppression. The key feature of the model is that these ranges are shifted by changes in neural excitability: consequently, a TMS intensity, which normally induces suppression, can have a facilitatory effect if the stimulated neurons are being inhibited by ongoing task-related processes or preconditioning...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950156/unpredictability-increases-the-error-related-negativity-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Brittany C Speed, Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked component in the event-related potential observed asa negative deflection 50-100ms following the commission of an error. An unpredictable context has been shown to potentiate amygdala activity, attentional bias toward threat, and the ERN in adults. However, it is unclear whether the impact of unpredictability on the ERN is also observed in children and adolescents. In a sample of 32 9-17year-old participants, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant unpredictable context on neural response to errors...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865310/dynamic-range-of-frontoparietal-functional-modulation-is-associated-with-working-memory-capacity-limitations-in-older-adults
#18
Jonathan G Hakun, Nathan F Johnson
Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753438/bilingual-language-intrusions-and-other-speech-errors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Tamar H Gollan, Alena Stasenko, Chuchu Li, David P Salmon
The current study investigated how Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e.g., saying la instead of the), and several types of within-language errors (e.g., saying their instead of the)...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074298/affective-mapping-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-ale-meta-analysis
#20
Lauren A J Kirby, Jennifer L Robinson
Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
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