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Brain and Cognition

Michael E R Nicholls, Amelia Hobson, Joanne Petty, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas
Pseudoneglect is the tendency for the general population to over-attend to the left. While pseudoneglect is classically demonstrated using line bisection, it also occurs for visual search. The current study explored the influence of eye movements and functional cerebral asymmetry on asymmetries for visual search. In Experiment 1, 24 participants carried out a conjunction search for a target within a rectangular array. A leftward advantage for detecting targets was observed when the eyes were free to move, but not when they were restricted by short exposure durations...
December 3, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Alexandru Hanganu, Marie-Andrée Bruneau, Clotilde Degroot, Christophe Bedetti, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life. METHODS: The present study analyzed the correlations between over-time changes in depressive symptoms and gray matter parameters of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in non-demented PD patients. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed, between increased scores for depression over time and lower cortical thickness over time in the right temporo-parietal junction, right occipital medial region, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right posterior cingulate region, left middle temporal as well as left supplementary motor area...
December 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Jeffrey D Wammes, Tyler J Good, Myra A Fernandes
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI...
November 22, 2016: Brain and Cognition
S Breit, B Keserü, T Nyffeler, M Sturzenegger, H Krestel
Demonstration of a posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in a 32-year-old male patient with clinically isolated syndrome which subsequently developed into relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis. The patient suffered from double vision, coordination problems including unsteady gait and atactic dysarthria, concentration difficulties, as well as adynamia and impaired decision making. The patient clinically presented a cerebellar and dysexecutive syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a contrast enhancing ponto-mesencephalic lesion with a volume of 4...
November 11, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Beverley Garrigan, Anna L R Adlam, Peter E Langdon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Atser Damsma, Hedderik van Rijn
The perception of music is a complex interaction between what we hear and our interpretation. This is reflected in beat perception, in which a listener infers a regular pulse from a musical rhythm. Although beat perception is a fundamental human ability, it is still unknown whether attention to the music is necessary to establish the perception of stronger and weaker beats, or meter. In addition, to what extent beat perception is dependent on musical expertise is still a matter of debate. Here, we address these questions by measuring the pupillary response to omissions at different metrical positions in drum rhythms, while participants attended to another task...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Frederick Travis, Niyazi Parim
This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention-voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Riadh Ouerchefani, Naoufel Ouerchefani, Philippe Allain, Mohamed Riadh Ben Rejeb, Didier Le Gall
Few studies have examined the contribution of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to decision-making abilities. In addition, there are inconsistent findings about the role of ventromedial and dorsolateral lesions in decision-making deficit. In this study, decision-making processes are investigated following different damaged areas of the prefrontal cortex. We paid particular attention to the contribution of laterality, lesion location and lesion volume in decision-making deficit...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Casey Sarapas, Anna Weinberg, Scott A Langenecker, Stewart A Shankman
Although researchers have long hypothesized a relationship between attention and anxiety, theoretical and empirical accounts of this relationship have conflicted. We attempted to resolve these conflicts by examining relationships of attentional abilities with responding to predictable and unpredictable threat - related but distinct motivational process implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Eighty-one individuals completed a behavioral task assessing efficiency of three components of attention - alerting, orienting, and executive control (Attention Network Test - Revised)...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Aaron Schurger, Steven Gale, Olivia Gozel, Olaf Blanke
When presented with a difficult perceptual decision, human observers are able to make metacognitive judgements of subjective certainty. Such judgements can be made independently of and prior to any overt response to a sensory stimulus, presumably via internal monitoring. Retrospective judgements about one's own task performance, on the other hand, require first that the subject perform a task and thus could potentially be made based on motor processes, proprioceptive, and other sensory feedback rather than internal monitoring...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Felicitas Ehlen, Isabelle Vonberg, Hannes O Tiedt, Andreas Horn, Ortwin Fromm, Andrea A Kühn, Fabian Klostermann
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is a therapeutic option for patients with essential tremor. Despite a generally low risk of side effects, declines in verbal fluency (VF) have previously been reported. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to specify effects of VIM-DBS on major cognitive operations needed for VF task performance, represented by clusters and switches. Clusters are word production spurts, thought to arise from automatic activation of associated information pertaining to a given lexical field...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Luigi Tamè, Anja Wühle, Caroline D Petri, Francesco Pavani, Christoph Braun
Localizing tactile stimuli on our body requires sensory information to be represented in multiple frames of reference along the sensory pathways. These reference frames include the representation of sensory information in skin coordinates, in which the spatial relationship of skin regions is maintained. The organization of the primary somatosensory cortex matches such somatotopic reference frame. In contrast, higher-order representations are based on external coordinates, in which body posture and gaze direction are taken into account in order to localise touch in other meaningful ways according to task demands...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Maud Grol, Guy Vingerhoets, Rudi De Raedt
Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Lucy S Petro, Lars Muckli
The cortex constitutes the largest area of the human brain. Yet we have only a basic understanding of how the cortex performs one vital function: the integration of sensory signals (carried by feedforward pathways) with internal representations (carried by feedback pathways). A multi-scale, multi-species approach is essential for understanding the site of integration, computational mechanism and functional role of this processing. To improve our knowledge we must rely on brain imaging with improved spatial and temporal resolution and paradigms which can measure internal processes in the human brain, and on the bridging of disciplines in order to characterize this processing at cellular and circuit levels...
November 1, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Stephan Getzmann, Julian Jasny, Michael Falkenstein
Verbal communication in a "cocktail-party situation" is a major challenge for the auditory system. In particular, changes in target speaker usually result in declined speech perception. Here, we investigated whether speech cues indicating a subsequent change in target speaker reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed event-related potential (ERP) measures and a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by four speakers. Changes in target speaker were either unpredictable or semantically cued by a word within the target stream...
November 1, 2016: Brain and Cognition
C C J M de Klerk, V Southgate, G Csibra
A popular idea in cognitive neuroscience is that to predict others' actions, observers need to map those actions onto their own motor repertoire. If this is true, infants with a relatively limited motor repertoire should be unable to predict actions with which they have no previous motor experience. We investigated this idea by presenting pre-walking infants with videos of upright and inverted stepping actions that were briefly occluded from view, followed by either a correct (time-coherent) or an incorrect (time-incoherent) continuation of the action (Experiment 1)...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Péter Simor, Péter Pajkossy, Klára Horváth, Róbert Bódizs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Roberto Erro, Stephanie T Hirschbichler, Lucia Ricciardi, Agata Ryterska, Elena Antelmi, Christos Ganos, Carla Cordivari, Michele Tinazzi, Mark J Edwards, Kailash P Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Damon G Lamb, Lauren N Correa, Talia R Seider, Diana M Mosquera, Julio A Rodriguez, Liliana Salazar, Zared J Schwartz, Ronald A Cohen, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: With aging, people commonly develop motor slowing (bradykinesia). Although this slowness with aging may be entirely related to degradation of the cerebral networks important in motor programing, it is possible that, at least in part, it may be a learned procedure for enhancing the accuracy and/or precision of movements. The goal of this study is to test these contradictory hypotheses. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy adults, 12 younger than age 26 and 12 older than age 65 were asked to make alternative marks with a pen between a card centered in front of them and a series of circles distributed across a page...
September 19, 2016: Brain and Cognition
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