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Brain and Cognition

Robin Shao, Way K W Lau, Mei-Kei Leung, Tatia M C Lee
Accumulating evidence indicates important roles of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and rostral limbic regions such as the anterior insula, in regulating stress-related affective responses and negative affect states in general. However, research is lacking in simultaneously assessing the inter-relations between trait and state affective responses to stress, and the functional connectivity between the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula. This preliminary research involved matched healthy participants with high (N = 10) and low (N = 10) self-reported trait stress resilience, and assessed their affective and subgenual anterior cingulate-anterior insula resting-state functional connectivity patterns before and after a psychosocial stress task...
May 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Nobuyoshi Iwaki, Saeko Tanaka
False memories endorsed with higher confidence are more likely to be corrected by feedback than those endorsed with lower confidence (hypercorrection effect). Errors made with high confidence and correct responses made with low confidence are both associated with large meta-memory mismatches. Therefore, they both represent a type of unexpected event which automatically captures participant attention, such that correct information provided via feedback is well-encoded. On the other hand, a study that measured participants' perceived practical value for items suggested that voluntary allocation of attention might involve the hypercorrection effect...
May 9, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Andrés A González-Garrido, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Rebeca Romo-Vazquez, Geisa B Gallardo-Moreno, Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel, Alicia Martínez-Ramos, Gustavo Berumen
Symbolic numerical magnitude processing is crucial to arithmetic development, and it is thought to be supported by the functional activation of several brain-interconnected structures. In this context, EEG beta oscillations have been recently associated with attention and working memory processing that underlie math achievement. Due to that EEG coherence represents a useful measure of brain functional connectivity, we aimed to contrast the EEG coherence in forty 8-to-9-year-old children with different math skill levels (High: HA, and Low achievement: LA) according to their arithmetic scores in the Fourth Edition of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4) while performing a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i...
May 7, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Eun Jung Choi, Margot J Taylor, Soon-Beom Hong, Changdai Kim, Soon-Hyung Yi
This study investigated neural correlates of children's attachment security using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-one boys' attachment styles (age mean = 9.5 years, SD = 0.61) were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). We created an fMRI version of the SAT to activate children's attachment system in fMRI environment and contrasted two conditions in which children were instructed to infer the specific feeling of the boy in the picture or to identify objects or physical activities...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Laura Schulz, Anja Ischebeck, Selina C Wriessnegger, David Steyrl, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Imagining a complex action requires not only motor-related processing but also visuo-spatial imagery. In the current study, we examined visuo-spatial complexity and action affordances in motor imagery (MI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural activity in MI of reach-to-grasp movements of the right hand in five conditions. Thirty participants were scanned while imagining grasping an everyday object, grasping a geometrical shape, grasping next to an everyday object, grasping next to a geometrical shape, and grasping at nothing (no object involved)...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Amy Wright, Sadhvi Saxena, Shannon M Sheppard, Argye E Hillis
The intent and feelings of the speaker are often conveyed less by what they say than by how they say it, in terms of the affective prosody - modulations in pitch, loudness, rate, and rhythm of the speech to convey emotion. Here we propose a cognitive architecture of the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes underlying recognition and generation of affective prosody. We developed the architecture on the basis of the computational demands of the task, and obtained evidence for various components by identifying neurologically impaired patients with relatively specific deficits in one component...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
France Simard, Geneviève Cadoret
Working memory is composed of different processes and encompasses not only the temporary storage of information but also its manipulation in order to perform complex cognitive activities. During childhood, one of these manipulation processes, namely active controlled retrieval, improves significantly between the age of 6 to 10, suggesting that the neuronal network supporting this function undergoes substantial maturational changes. The present study examined the neural activity of 14 healthy children and 14 adults while performing an active controlled retrieval task...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Tracy R Butler, Erin M O'Mara, Josephine F Wilson
The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). To induce positive or negative mood, participants played a game; then, the winner read a script depicting a positive interpersonal interaction and the loser read a script depicting a negative interpersonal interaction...
April 26, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Uta S Wiemers, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Andrew P Yonelinas, Oliver T Wolf
Stress before encoding is often linked to impaired memory. Further influences of stress on memory are arousal of the to be learned material and memory retrieval type (free recall vs. recognition). In the current study we tested the influence of stress on memory encoding for neutral and negative arousing pictures in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants (40 men) were subjected either to the socially evaluated cold pressure test or a control condition before encoding of arousing and neutral pictures...
April 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Bethany Lusch, Jake Weholt, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
The accurate diagnosis and assessment of neurodegenerative disease and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) remain open challenges. Both cause cognitive and functional deficits due to focal axonal swellings (FAS), but it is difficult to deliver a prognosis due to our limited ability to assess damaged neurons at a cellular level in vivo. We simulate the effects of neurodegenerative disease and TBI using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as our model of cognition. We utilize biophysically relevant statistical data on FAS to damage the connections in CNNs in a functionally relevant way...
March 26, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Karl Kuntzelman, L Jack Rhodes, Lillian N Harrington, Vladimir Miskovic
There is a broad family of statistical methods for capturing time series regularity, with increasingly widespread adoption by the neuroscientific community. A common feature of these methods is that they permit investigators to quantify the entropy of brain signals - an index of unpredictability/complexity. Despite the proliferation of algorithms for computing entropy from neural time series data there is scant evidence concerning their relative stability and efficiency. Here we evaluated several different algorithmic implementations (sample, fuzzy, dispersion and permutation) of multiscale entropy in terms of their stability across sessions, internal consistency and computational speed, accuracy and precision using a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) and synthetic 1/ƒ noise signals...
March 18, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Rachel Yep, Stephen Soncin, Donald C Brien, Brian C Coe, Alina Marin, Douglas P Munoz
Despite distinct diagnostic criteria, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share cognitive and emotion processing deficits that complicate diagnoses. The goal of this study was to use an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and emotion processing in adult ADHD and BD. Participants (21 control, 20 ADHD, 20 BD) performed an interleaved pro/antisaccade task (look toward vs. look away from a visual target, respectively) in which the sex of emotional face stimuli acted as the cue to perform either the pro- or antisaccade...
July 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jessica I Fleck, Robert Olsen, Michael Tumminia, Francesco DePalma, John Berroa, Abigail Vrabel, Shannon Miller
The present research assessed how engaging in bilateral eye movements influences brain activity. Participants had their resting-state brain activity recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) before and after they performed 30 s of bilateral eye movements or a center-control manipulation. We assessed differences in change scores for absolute power and coherence between the eye-movement and center-control conditions. A main effect for handedness was present for EEG power in the theta and beta frequency bands, with inconsistent-handed participants displaying a greater increase than consistent-handed participants in both frequency bands...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
William Winter
From the earliest published reports, Henry Gustav Molaison-who until his death in 2008 was known simply by his initials H.M.-was characterized as having a profound anterograde amnesia subsequent to mid temporal lobe resection, and that this amnestic condition was uncomplicated by other cognitive or behavioral impairments. Post-mortem neuropathological examination has detected-in addition to the expected temporal lobe lesions-previously unreported frontal lobe and white matter pathology, inviting questions concerning the behavioral and cognitive consequences that might result from such lesions...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
Lisa Campioni, Tommaso Banfi, Enrica L Santarcangelo
The study investigates the cortical representation of the visual and kinesthetic image of a rotated position of the head in highly (highs) and low hypnotizable individuals (lows) of both gender. Participants were invited to imagine maintaining their head rotated toward one side by seeing their chin aligned with their right shoulder (V, visual imagery), and in a different condition, by feeling tension in their neck muscles (K, kinaesthetic imagery). Vividness of imagery and cognitive effort were reported after each task...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
Erik M Benau, Laura C DeLoretta, Stephen T Moelter
In the present study, healthy undergraduates were asked to identify if a visual stimulus appeared on screen for the same duration as a memorized target (2 s) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. Trials consisted of very short (1.25 s), short (1.6 s), target (2 s), long (2.5 s) or very long (3.125 s) durations, and a yes or no response was required on each trial. We examined behavioral response as signal detection (d') and response bias via a Generalized Accuracy Coefficient (GAC)...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
Caitlin M Hudac, Trent D DesChamps, Anne B Arnett, Brianna E Cairney, Ruqian Ma, Sara Jane Webb, Raphael A Bernier
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
Marilena Aiello, Elisabetta Ambron, Roberta Situlin, Francesco Foroni, Gianni Biolo, Raffaella I Rumiati
Impulsivity, conceptualized as impulsive personality trait, poor inhibitory control and enhanced reward sensitivity, has been strongly linked to obesity. In particular, a disequilibrium between cognitive control and reward sensitivity has been observed in obese individuals in both behavioural and imaging studies. While this issue has been widely investigated in children and adults, it has received little attention in older adults. Here, obese and non-obese participants aged between 40 and 70 years completed the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (assessing motor, non-planning and attentional impulsiveness), a Go/no-go task with foods and non-foods (assessing inhibitory control) and a reward sensitivity battery with high and low caloric foods (assessing liking, wanting, tastiness and frequency of consumption)...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
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