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Brain and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710941/procedural-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-specific-language-impairment-dyslexia-schizophrenia-developmental-coordination-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-second-order-meta-analysis
#1
Gillian M Clark, Jarrad A G Lum
The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p=0...
July 12, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710940/procedural-learning-in-tourette-syndrome-adhd-and-comorbid-tourette-adhd-evidence-from-a-probabilistic-sequence-learning-task
#2
Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T Ullman
Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task...
July 12, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700954/cognitive-and-motor-reaction-times-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-study-based-on-computerized-measures
#3
Maria Devita, Sonia Montemurro, Andrea Zangrossi, Sara Ramponi, Maurizio Marvisi, Daniele Villani, Maria Clara Raimondi, Paola Merlo, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is mainly associated with executive dysfunction. Although delayed reaction times (RTs) in patients with OSAS have been reported, sensitivity of processing speed has not been adequately assessed. This study suggests sensitive and reliable measures to clarify whether different components of information processing speed, i.e. cognitive and motor responses, are equally impaired in OSAS. Thirty-three patients with OSAS were compared with thirty healthy controls. The MoCA test was administered to assess participants' global neuropsychological profile...
July 9, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697376/erps-and-oscillations-during-encoding-predict-retrieval-of-digit-memory-in-superior-mnemonists
#4
Yafeng Pan, Xianchun Li, Xi Chen, Yixuan Ku, Yujie Dong, Zheng Dou, Lin He, Yi Hu, Weidong Li, Xiaolin Zhou
Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Chinese SMs used a digit-image mnemonic for encoding digits, in which they associated 2-digit groups with images immediately after the presentation of each even-position digit in sequences...
July 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697375/interhemispheric-cortical-connections-and-time-perception-a-case-study-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#5
Miku Okajima, Akinori Futamura, Motoyasu Honma, Mitsuru Kawamura, Yuko Yotsumoto
In daily life, we sometimes select temporal cues of one sort while suppressing others. This study investigated the mechanism of suppression by examining a split-brain patient's perception of target intervals while ignoring distractor intervals. A patient with agenesis of corpus callosum and five age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in reproduction of target intervals while ignoring distractors displayed in the visual field either ipsilateral or contralateral to target. In the patient, the distractor interfered with reproduction performance more strongly when contralateral rather than ipsilateral...
July 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683338/encoding-focus-alters-diagnostic-recollection-and-event-related-potentials-erps
#6
P Andrew Leynes, Brittany A Mok
The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test...
July 3, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673464/force-related-hemodynamic-responses-during-execution-and-imagery-of-a-hand-grip-task-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#7
Selina C Wriessnegger, Daniela Kirchmeyr, Günther Bauernfeind, Gernot R Müller-Putz
We examined force related hemodynamic changes during the performance of a motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) task by means of multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses of fourteen healthy participants were measured while they performed a hand grip execution or imagery task with low and high grip forces. We found an overall higher increase of [oxy-Hb] concentration changes during ME for both grip forces but with a delayed peak maximum for the lower grip force...
June 30, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669422/slower-resting-alpha-frequency-is-associated-with-superior-localisation-of-moving-targets
#8
Christina J Howard, Craig P A Arnold, Matthew K Belmonte
We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Precision of these position reports declined with attentional load, and reports tended to best resemble positions occupied by the queried target between 0 and 30ms in the past...
June 29, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666553/binocular-rivalry-after-right-hemisphere-stroke-effects-of-attention-impairment-on-perceptual-dominance-patterns
#9
Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng
Binocular rivalry is when perception fluctuates while the stimuli, consisting of different images presented to each eye, remain unchanged. The fluctuation rate and predominance ratio of these images are regarded as information source for understanding properties of consciousness and perception. We administered a binocular rivalry task to 26 right-hemisphere stroke patients and 26 healthy control participants, using stimuli such as simple Gabor anaglyphs. Each single Gabor image was of unequal spatial frequency compared to its counterpart, allowing assessment of the effect of relative spatial frequency on rivalry predominance...
June 27, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648285/simultaneous-learning-of-two-languages-from-birth-positively-impacts-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-control
#10
Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J Chai, Kaija M Sander, Denise Klein
This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals...
June 22, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647115/when-noise-is-beneficial-for-sensory-encoding-noise-adaptation-can-improve-face-processing
#11
Claudia Menzel, Gregor U Hayn-Leichsenring, Christoph Redies, Kornél Németh, Gyula Kovács
The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. In addition, the faces were either preceded by noise adaptors or not. Moreover, we varied the statistics of the noise so that its spectral slope either matched that of the faces or it was steeper or shallower...
June 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629646/memory-and-time-backward-and-forward-telescoping-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Mohamad El Haj, Steve M J Janssen, Pascal Antoine
Backward and forward telescoping are opposite timing biases. The former refers to misattributing events to earlier dates, whereas the latter refers to misattributing events to later dates. The present study investigated both biases in participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and education level. Participants were asked to recall the years when five remote and five recent public events had occurred. They were also assessed with a cognitive and clinical battery that included a context memory task on which they had to associate letters and locations...
June 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629645/atypical-activation-of-action-semantic-network-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Tracey A Knaus, Claire Burns, Jodi Kamps, Anne L Foundas
In typical adults, fMRI studies have shown activation of primary and pre-motor regions during action word processing. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments. ASD studies have shown atypical semantic processing and motor deficits. The objective of this study was to examine semantic processing of verbs in ASD. 15 ASD adolescents and 19 typically developing adolescents, 11-16years, completed a semantic similarity judgment task during fMRI...
June 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460215/mirror-neuron-activation-of-musicians-and-non-musicians-in-response-to-motion-captured-piano-performances
#14
Jiancheng Hou, Ravi Rajmohan, Dan Fang, Karl Kashfi, Kareem Al-Khalil, James Yang, William Westney, Cynthia M Grund, Michael W O'Boyle
Mirror neurons (MNs) activate when performing an action and when an observer witnesses the same action performed by another individual. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and presentation of motion captured piano performances were used to identify differences in MN activation for musicians/non-musicians when viewing piano pieces played in a "Correct" mode (i.e., emphasis on technical correctness) or an "Enjoyment" mode (i.e., simply told to "enjoy" playing the piece). Results showed greater MN activation in a variety of brain regions for musicians, with these differences more pronounced in the "Enjoyment" mode...
April 28, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618361/diffusion-tensor-mri-tractography-reveals-increased-fractional-anisotropy-fa-in-arcuate-fasciculus-following-music-cued-motor-training
#15
Emma Moore, Rebecca S Schaefer, Mark E Bastin, Neil Roberts, Katie Overy
Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606388/the-role-of-dorsal-premotor-cortex-in-mental-rotation-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#16
Giorgia Cona, Giulia Panozzo, Carlo Semenza
Although activation of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been consistently observed in the neuroimaging studies of mental rotation, the functional meaning of PMd activation is still unclear and multiple alternative explanations have been suggested. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of PMd in mental rotation. Two tasks were used, involving mental rotation of hands and abstract objects, with either matching (same stimuli) or mirror stimuli. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS over right and left PMd regions significantly affected accuracy in the object task, specifically for the same stimuli...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606387/the-effect-of-integration-masking-on-visual-processing-in-perceptual-categorization
#17
Sébastien Hélie
Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. In this article, we explore how the brain processes categorization stimuli in low signal-to-noise conditions using multivariate pattern analysis. We used an integration masking paradigm with mask opacity of 50%, 60%, and 70% inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599147/integration-of-identity-and-emotion-information-in-faces-fmri-evidence
#18
Alla Yankouskaya, Moritz Stolte, Zargol Moradi, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn Humphreys
Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of both personal and emotional expression target information triggers changes in functional connectivity between frontal and extrastriate areas in the brain...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582665/the-influence-of-chrna4-comt-and-maternal-sensitivity-on-orienting-and-executive-attention-in-6-month-old-infants
#19
Jeffry Quan, Mei-Lyn Ong, Jean-Francois Bureau, Lit Wee Sim, Shamini Sanmugam, Adam B Abdul Malik, Eric Wong, Johnny Wong, Yap-Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Anqi Qiu, Joanna D Holbrook, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
Despite claims concerning biological mechanisms sub-serving infant attention, little experimental work examines its underpinnings. This study examines how candidate polymorphisms from the cholinergic (CHRNA4 rs1044396) and dopaminergic (COMT rs4680) systems, respectively indicative of parietal and prefrontal/anterior cingulate involvement, are related to 6-month-olds' (n=217) performance during a visual expectation eye-tracking paradigm. As previous studies suggest that both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes may influence susceptibility to the influence of other genetic and environmental factors, we further examined whether these candidate genes interact with one another and/or with early caregiving experience in predicting infants' visual attention...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570905/the-role-of-affective-evaluation-in-conflict-adaptation-an-lrp-study
#20
Kerstin Fröber, Birgit Stürmer, Romy Frömer, Gesine Dreisbach
Conflict between incompatible response tendencies is typically followed by control adjustments aimed at diminishing subsequent conflicts, a phenomenon often called conflict adaptation. Dreisbach and Fischer (2015, 2016) recently proposed that it is not the conflict per se but the aversive quality of a conflict that originally motivates this kind of sequential control adjustment. With the present study we tested the causal role of aversive signals in conflict adaptation in a more direct way. To this end, after each trial of a vertical Simon task participants rated whether they experienced the last trial as rather pleasant or unpleasant...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
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