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Brain and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327354/the-neural-correlates-of-vertical-disparity-gradient-and-cue-conflict-in-panum-s-limiting-case
#1
Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Laipeng Jin, Dongchuan Yu
Although Panum's limiting case has been extensively researched, only recently has it been discovered that in addition to horizontal disparity, the final perception of depth is influenced by (i) the vertical disparity gradient and (ii) the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. The present study examines the neural correlates of the two factors, using EEG while observers viewed several versions of stereoscopic stimuli, which depicted Panum's limiting case. In these patterns the vertical disparity gradient was varied from 0...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258035/raising-the-alarm-individual-differences-in-the-perceptual-awareness-of-masked-facial-expressions
#2
Ljubica Damjanovic, Marcel Meyer, Francisco Sepulveda
A theoretical concern in addressing the unconscious perception of emotion is the extent to which participants can access experiential properties of masked facial stimuli. Performance on a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task as a measure of objective awareness was compared with a new measure developed to access experiential phenomena of the target-mask transition, the perceptual contrast-change sensitivity (PCCS) measure in a backward-masking paradigm with angry, happy and neutral facial expressions. Whilst 2AFC performance indicated that the targets were successfully masked, PCCS values were significantly higher in the happy-neutral face condition than in the angry-neutral face and the neutral-neutral face conditions (Experiment 1)...
February 28, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257971/walking-to-a-multisensory-beat
#3
Charlotte Roy, Julien Lagarde, Dobromir Dotov, Simone Dalla Bella
Living in a complex and multisensory environment demands constant interaction between perception and action. In everyday life it is common to combine efficiently simultaneous signals coming from different modalities. There is evidence of a multisensory benefit in a variety of laboratory tasks (temporal judgement, reaction time tasks). It is less clear if this effect extends to ecological tasks, such as walking. Furthermore, benefits of multimodal stimulation are linked to temporal properties such as the temporal window of integration and temporal recalibration...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242465/related-but-different-examining-pseudoneglect-in-audition-touch-and-vision
#4
Alison F Eardley, Stephen Darling, Paul Dumper, David Browne, Jose Van Velzen
Although researchers have consistently demonstrated a leftward attentional bias in visual and representational (e.g. tactile/mental number line) line bisection tasks, the results from audition have been mixed. Differences in methodology between auditory and visual bisection tasks, especially with regards to the location of stimuli of peripersonal versus extrapersonal space, have also meant that researchers have not been able to compare performance in visual, tactile and auditory line bisection directly. In this research, 39 neurologically typical individuals participated in standard visual and tactile line bisection tasks, together with a newly developed auditory line bisection task...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236738/distraction-decreases-prefrontal-oxygenation-a-nirs-study
#5
Sachiyo Ozawa, Kazuo Hiraki
When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235696/what-psychological-process-is-reflected-in-the-fn400-event-related-potential-component
#6
P Andrew Leynes, Heather Bruett, Jenna Krizan, Ana Veloso
During many recognition contexts, old items elicit a more positive event-related potentials (ERPs) than new items at mid-frontal electrodes about 300-500ms. The psychological processes that are reflected in is ERP component (i.e., the FN400) has been vigorously debated. Some argue that the FN400 reflects familiarity, whereas others argue that it reflects conceptual implicit memory. Three experiments contrasted these two hypotheses by presenting pre-experimentally familiar (i.e., name-brand) products and novel, off-brand products...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235695/the-differential-effects-of-prolonged-exercise-upon-executive-function-and-cerebral-oxygenation
#7
Gavin D Tempest, Karen Davranche, Jeanick Brisswalter, Stephane Perrey, Rémi Radel
The acute-exercise effects upon cognitive functions are varied and dependent upon exercise duration and intensity, and the type of cognitive tasks assessed. The hypofrontality hypothesis assumes that prolonged exercise, at physiologically challenging intensities, is detrimental to executive functions due to cerebral perturbations (indicated by reduced prefrontal activity). The present study aimed to test this hypothesis by measuring oxygenation in prefrontal and motor regions using near-infrared spectroscopy during two executive tasks (flanker task and 2-back task) performed while cycling for 60min at a very low intensity and an intensity above the ventilatory threshold...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193545/gaze-cueing-requires-intact-face-processing-insights-from-acquired-prosopagnosia
#8
Nicolas Burra, Dirk Kerzel, Meike Ramon
Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189898/brain-processing-of-visual-metaphors-an-electrophysiological-study
#9
Maria J Ortiz, M D Grima Murcia, E Fernandez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182972/defective-imitation-of-finger-configurations-in-patients-with-damage-in-the-right-or-left-hemispheres-an-integration-disorder-of-visual-and-somatosensory-information
#10
Manabu Okita, Takashi Yukihiro, Kenzo Miyamoto, Shu Morioka, Hideto Kaba
To explore the mechanism underlying the imitation of finger gestures, we devised a simple imitation task in which the patients were instructed to replicate finger configurations in two conditions: one in which they could see their hand (visual feedback: VF) and one in which they could not see their hand (non-visual feedback: NVF). Patients with left brain damage (LBD) or right brain damage (RBD), respectively, were categorized into two groups based on their scores on the imitation task in the NVF condition: the impaired imitation groups (I-LBD and I-RBD) who failed two or more of the five patterns and the control groups (C-LBD and C-RBD) who made one or no errors...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167411/which-perseverative-behaviors-are-symptoms-of-spatial-neglect
#11
Meghan D Caulfield, Peii Chen, Michele M Barry, A M Barrett
Spatial neglect is a characterized by a failure to attend or make movements towards left-sided stimuli. Common paper-and-pencil tasks to diagnose spatial neglect are sensitive to perseverative errors, including additional marks over already cancelled targets and "scribbling" out a target. Here, we examine whether functionally distinct perseverative behaviors are related to spatial neglect. Line cancellation tasks of 45 healthy controls and 220 right-hemisphere stroke survivors were examined for recurrent marks (RM) and continuous marks (CM) perseverations...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167410/objects-rapidly-prime-the-motor-system-when-located-near-the-dominant-hand
#12
Paula J Rowe, Corinna Haenschel, Maciej Kosilo, Kielan Yarrow
Objects are said to automatically "afford" various actions depending upon the motor repertoire of the actor. Such affordances play a part in how we prepare to handle or manipulate tools and other objects. Evidence obtained through fMRI, EEG and TMS has proven that this is the case but, as yet, the temporal evolution of affordances has not been fully investigated. The aim here was to further explore the timing of evoked motor activity using visual stimuli tailored to drive the motor system. Therefore, we presented three kinds of stimuli in stereoscopic depth; whole hand grasp objects which afforded a power-grip, pinch-grip objects which afforded a thumb and forefinger precision-grip and an empty desk, affording no action...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160688/the-association-between-aerobic-fitness-and-congruency-sequence-effects-in-preadolescent-children
#13
Daniel R Westfall, Shih-Chun Kao, Mark R Scudder, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
Aerobic fitness has previously been related to cognitive control in preadolescents; however, these investigations have generally relied on global measures of performance. Thus, we have little understanding of how aerobic fitness may relate to trial-by-trial modulations in cognitive control. This study utilized congruency sequence effects (CSEs), which characterize how behavior on the current trial is influenced by the previous trial, to investigate the relation of aerobic fitness on varying levels of cognitive control...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160687/social-attention-in-children-with-epilepsy
#14
Judith Lunn, Tim Donovan, Damien Litchfield, Charlie Lewis, Robert Davies, Trevor Crawford
Children with epilepsy may be vulnerable to impaired social attention given the increased risk of neurobehavioural comorbidities. Social attentional orienting and the potential modulatory role of attentional control on the perceptual processing of gaze and emotion cues have not been examined in childhood onset epilepsies. Social attention mechanisms were investigated in patients with epilepsy (n=25) aged 8-18years old and performance compared to healthy controls (n=30). Dynamic gaze and emotion facial stimuli were integrated into an antisaccade eye-tracking paradigm...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160686/knowing-me-knowing-you-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-dissociates-memory-related-to-self-from-a-familiar-other
#15
Irene de Caso, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Elena Aggius-Vella, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Material related to the self, as well as to significant others, often displays mnemonic superiority through its associations with highly organised and elaborate representations. Neuroimaging studies suggest this effect is related to activation in regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Incidental memory scores for trait adjectives, processed in relation to the self, a good friend and David Cameron were collected. Scores for each referent were used as regressors in seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data performed in ventral, middle and dorsal mPFC seeds, as well as hippocampal formation...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119206/sex-differences-in-verbal-working-memory-performance-emerge-at-very-high-loads-of-common-neuroimaging-tasks
#16
Jessica L Reed, Natalie M Gallagher, Marie Sullivan, Joseph H Callicott, Adam E Green
Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113099/a-right-hemisphere-advantage-at-early-cortical-stages-of-processing-alphanumeric-stimuli-evidence-from-electrophysiology
#17
Dariusz Asanowicz, Rolf Verleger, Lena Kruse, Kathrin Beier, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
This study investigates hemispheric asymmetry evoked by non-target alphanumeric stimuli in a bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our indicators of asymmetry are shorter latencies and larger amplitudes of the right hemisphere (RH) P1 and N1 components of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). This VEP asymmetry might reflect either a RH advantage, possibly in early perceptual processing, or for familiar stimuli, or for directing attention, or might be a paradoxical reflection of left hemisphere specialization in letter processing...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107684/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-targeting-the-right-fusiform-gyrus-selectively-increases-working-memory-for-faces
#18
Tad T Brunyé, Joseph M Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor
The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#19
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#20
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
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