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Brain and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331916/aerobic-exercise-is-more-effective-than-goal-based-exercise-for-the-treatment-of-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Carolina R A Silveira, Eric A Roy, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD...
January 10, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316485/maternal-reading-fluency-is-positively-associated-with-greater-functional-connectivity-between-the-child-s-future-reading-network-and-regions-related-to-executive-functions-and-language-processing-in-preschool-age-children
#2
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, John S Hutton, Kieran Phelan, Scott K Holland
The role of the parent or educator in a child's learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent-child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children...
January 6, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309854/the-neural-substrates-of-procrastination-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#3
Yue Hu, Peiwei Liu, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants)...
January 5, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275124/effects-of-saccade-induced-retrieval-enhancement-on-conceptual-and-perceptual-tests-of-explicit-implicit-memory
#4
Andrew Parker, Daniel Powell, Neil Dagnall
The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation)...
December 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253727/proper-name-retrieval-and-structural-integrity-of-cerebral-cortex-in-midlife-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Vanja Kljajevic, Asier Erramuzpe
There is currently little understanding on whether retrieval of proper names differs in midlife compared to young adulthood and if so, whether the age differences in this ability are associated with differences in structural integrity of the cerebral cortex. To answer these questions, we studied retrieval of proper names in 115 cognitively healthy middle-aged persons (49.7, ±3.2), comparing their performance on a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) task with that of 68 young persons (25.4, ±3.5) from the Cam-Can data repository (http://www...
December 15, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247854/combined-attention-controls-complex-behavior-by-suppressing-unlikely-events
#6
Christopher D Blair, Jelena Ristic
Attention enables behavior by modulating both sensory inputs and task goals. Combining attentional resources from both of those sources exerts qualitatively large effects on manual performance. Here we tested how combined attention was represented in sensory processing, as reflected by the P1 component and associated activity in the alpha band. We measured performance and recorded EEG while participants' attention was engaged in an automated, endogenous, and combined (i.e., automated and endogenous) manner...
December 13, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222993/supplementation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-affects-temporal-but-not-spatial-visual-attention
#7
Anna Leonte, Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G Akyürek
In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field...
December 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202318/single-session-tdcs-over-the-left-dlpfc-disrupts-interference-processing
#8
Christian Frings, Thorsten Brinkmann, Maximilian A Friehs, Tim van Lipzig
Whether single session tDCS can impact upon cognition in healthy subjects is currently a heated debate against the background of inconsistent results. In view of the current methodological discussion concerning tDCS we developed an alternative approach to measure effects of single session tDCS on the Stroop task. The left DLPFC was stimulated in a pre-post design using a new electrode set-up (a 9 cm2 electrode was placed over the left DLPFC while a 35 cm2 was placed over the parieto-occipital cortex) contrasting anodal versus cathodal stimulation...
December 1, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153344/sex-differences-in-humor-processing-an-event-related-potential-study
#9
Yi-Tzu Chang, Li-Chuan Ku, Hsueh-Chih Chen
Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order...
November 15, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150311/functional-connectivity-of-the-vigilant-attention-network-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Florian D Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Richard M Stewart, Julia K Moore, Caroline S Biskup, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Robert Langner
The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9-14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122369/preserved-metacognitive-ability-despite-unilateral-or-bilateral-anterior-prefrontal-resection
#11
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Gilles Lafargue
Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex's hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Three groups of participants were recruited: (i) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex, including BA10 (n = 9); (ii) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex but not BA10 (n = 10); and (iii) healthy controls (n = 38)...
November 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122368/the-parietal-opercular-auditory-sensorimotor-network-in-musicians-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#12
Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. We therefore examined whether this PO network differs between musicians and non-musicians. We analyzed resting-state PO functional connectivity with Heschl's gyrus (HG), the planum temporale (PT), the precentral gyrus (preCG), and the postcentral gyrus (postCG) in 35 musicians and 35 non-musicians...
November 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028508/jazz-musicians-reveal-role-of-expectancy-in-human-creativity
#13
Emily Przysinda, Tima Zeng, Kellyn Maves, Cameron Arkin, Psyche Loui
Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963993/common-framework-for-virtual-lesion-and-state-dependent-tms-the-facilitatory-suppressive-range-model-of-online-tms-effects-on-behavior
#14
Juha Silvanto, Zaira Cattaneo
The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are often nonlinear; factors such as stimulation intensity and brain state can modulate the impact of TMS on observable behavior in qualitatively different manner. Here we propose a theoretical framework to account for these effects. In this model, there are distinct intensity ranges for facilitatory and suppressive effects of TMS - low intensities facilitate neural activity and behavior whereas high intensities induce suppression. The key feature of the model is that these ranges are shifted by changes in neural excitability: consequently, a TMS intensity, which normally induces suppression, can have a facilitatory effect if the stimulated neurons are being inhibited by ongoing task-related processes or preconditioning...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950156/unpredictability-increases-the-error-related-negativity-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
Brittany C Speed, Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked component in the event-related potential observed asa negative deflection 50-100ms following the commission of an error. An unpredictable context has been shown to potentiate amygdala activity, attentional bias toward threat, and the ERN in adults. However, it is unclear whether the impact of unpredictability on the ERN is also observed in children and adolescents. In a sample of 32 9-17year-old participants, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant unpredictable context on neural response to errors...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865310/dynamic-range-of-frontoparietal-functional-modulation-is-associated-with-working-memory-capacity-limitations-in-older-adults
#16
Jonathan G Hakun, Nathan F Johnson
Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826051/executive-function-and-cardiac-autonomic-regulation-in-depressive-disorders
#17
Alexandra Hoffmann, Ulrich Ettinger, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Stefan Duschek
Executive function impairments have been frequently observed in depressive disorders. Moreover, reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has repeatedly been described, especially in the high frequency band (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA), suggesting lower vagal cardiac outflow. The study tested the hypothesis of involvement of low vagal tone in executive dysfunction in depression. In addition to RSA, HRV in the low frequency (LF) band was assessed. In 36 patients with depression and 36 healthy subjects, electrocardiography recordings were accomplished at rest and during performance of five executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, flanker task, and antisaccade task)...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800429/bimanual-coordination-positively-predicts-episodic-memory-a-combined-behavioral-and-mri-investigation
#18
Keith B Lyle, Brynn A Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E Switala, Brendan E Depue
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797898/lateralization-of-spatial-rather-than-temporal-attention-underlies-the-left-hemifield-advantage-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#19
Dariusz Asanowicz, Lena Kruse, Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Rolf Verleger
In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753438/bilingual-language-intrusions-and-other-speech-errors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Tamar H Gollan, Alena Stasenko, Chuchu Li, David P Salmon
The current study investigated how Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e.g., saying la instead of the), and several types of within-language errors (e.g., saying their instead of the)...
November 2017: Brain and Cognition
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