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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Simon R Rüegg, Sarah Welby, Hurria Yassin, Yves Van der Stede, Rebekka Nafzger, Helmut Saatkamp, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Katharina D C Stärk
The aim of this study was to propose a procedure for optimising the cost-effectiveness of vector borne disease surveillance using a scenario tree model and cost-effectiveness analysis. The surveillance systems for Bluetongue Virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) implemented in Switzerland and Belgium were used as examples. In twenty four different, simulated population structures, passive surveillance and five designs of active surveillance were investigated. The influence of surveillance system design and parameters such as farmer disease awareness, veterinary disease awareness, herd and within-herd design prevalence on the overall surveillance system sensitivity were assessed...
February 13, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
José A Bran, Rolnei R Daros, Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Stephen J LeBlanc, Maria José Hötzel
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess lameness occurrence and to identify the associated risk factors in small-scale grazing dairy herds. Forty four farms (mean lactating herd size was 42 cows, SD = 11.2, range: 28-74) located in the south of Brazil were visited twice, approximately 4 months apart, in 2015. Locomotion was scored in 1633 and 1836 cows at the first and second visit, respectively. Potential risk factors for lameness were assessed through inspection of cows and facilities, and a questionnaire for farmers about herd management practices...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Bruna Nicoleti Santana, Brayan Kurahara, Alex Akira Nakamura, Vinícius da Silva Camargo, Elis Domingos Ferrari, Giane Serafim da Silva, Walter Bertequini Nagata, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles
The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic chickens raised in different chicken production systems in Brazil using three nested PCR protocols. The purification and concentration of oocysts present in 190 fecal samples from chickens raised in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive production systems were accomplished by centrifugal flotation in Sheather's solution and were followed by the extraction of genomic DNA. The detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were performed using three nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) protocols targeting the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing of the amplified fragments...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Marie J Ducrotoy, Pilar M Muñoz, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, José M Blasco, Ignacio Moriyón
Brucellosis is a worldwide extended zoonosis with a heavy economic and public health impact. Cattle, sheep and goats are infected by smooth Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, and represent a common source of the human disease. Brucellosis diagnosis in these animals is largely based on detection of a specific immunoresponse. We review here the immunological tests used for the diagnosis of cattle brucellosis. First, we discuss how the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp), balance should be adjusted for brucellosis diagnosis, and the difficulties that brucellosis tests specifically present for the estimation of DSe/DSp in frequentistic (gold standard) and Bayesian analyses...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
E Jurado-Tarifa, J M Daly, A Pérez-Écija, M Barba-Recreo, F J Mendoza, A M Al-Shuwaikh, I García-Bocanegra
Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease considered the most important respiratory disease in equids. Although influenza A virus (IAV) has caused outbreaks in equids worldwide, surveillance in these species in Spain has not been conducted. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the individual and herd prevalence of antibodies against H3N8 and H7N7 IAV in equids in Andalusia (southern Spain). Antibodies againsts IAV were measured by the single radial haemolysis assay. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using a Bernoulli model...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Lee L Schulz, Dermot J Hayes, Derald J Holtkamp, David A Swenson
Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) play a significant role in the prevention and mitigation of endemic animal diseases and serve an important role in surveillance of, and the response to, outbreaks of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. They also allow for business continuity in livestock operations and help improve human health. Despite these critical societal roles, there is no academic literature on the economic impact of VDLs. We present a case study on the economic impact of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISUVDL)...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Vladimir Draskovic, Jasna Bosnjak-Neumuller, Marko Vasiljevic, Branko Petrujkic, Nevenka Aleksic, Vladimir Kukolj, Zoran Stanimirovic
Lawsonia intracellularis is known to cause proliferative enteropathy (PE), one of the economically most important swine diseases with global distribution. Not unlike other enteric diseases, PE is a frequent indication for antibiotic therapy. However, their unjustified use leads to an emerging problem - antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess if a phytogenic additive may replace antibiotics in the control of PE in 144 weaned piglets (72 treated and 72 controls) naturally infected with L...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Marcos Amaku, Ricardo Augusto Dias, José Henrique Hildebrand Grisi Filho, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Fernando Ferreira
Estimates of owned dog population size are necessary to calculate measures of disease frequency and to plan and evaluate population management programs. We calculated the error and bias of estimates of the total number of owned dogs using a two-stage cluster sampling design. The estimates were conditioned on sample composition as well as on size and heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of owned dog populations. For this, we simulated nine cities that differed systematically in size (number of census tracts) and heterogeneity (variance of the number of dogs per census tract)...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Rosemirta Birungi, Peter Lule, Lawrence Mayega, Kanar Dizyee
Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
Participation in equestrian shows provides opportunities for contact between horses, increasing the risk of disease introduction and spread within the population. The magnitude of a potential outbreak, and the impact of disease prevention and control strategies, can be estimated using simulation modeling. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the potential spread of equine influenza in a network of horses associated with a 2-day equestrian show in Ontario, Canada; and (2) determine the effectiveness of several interventions during a simulated outbreak...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Rodolphe Michiels, Eva Van Mael, Christian Quinet, Sarah Welby, Ann Brigitte Cay, Nick De Regge
Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are two prototype members of the group of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs). Both result in progressive and persistent infections of sheep and goats that impact animal health and cause economic losses. In Belgium, the sheep and goat sector is small and consists mostly of hobbyist farmers keeping few animals. A voluntary control program however exists, but less than 2% of the farmers participate to the program. The current lack of SRLV seroprevalence data and knowledge on risk factors related to SRLV seropositivity in this hobbyist sector makes it difficult to evaluate the risk of SRLV transmission from non-certified to SRLV free certified farms...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kennedy Mwacalimba, Annette Litster
Since March 2015, canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 has caused widespread outbreaks in dogs across the USA. The effects of local H3N2 outbreaks on veterinary practices were investigated using an online interface and followed with phone calls to respondents when necessary. An outbreak was defined as confirmed diagnosis of H3N2 by either PCR or serology in at least four dogs. Of 30 practices invited to participate, five met the entry criteria: at least one documented H3N2 outbreak in the previous 12 months, a predominantly (≥70%) small animal caseload, and adequate financial records to complete the survey...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Julia Stadler, Lisa Moser, Jasmin Numberger, Anna Rieger, Katrin Strutzberg-Minder, Thorsten Stellberger, Andrea Ladinig, Mathias Ritzmann, Robert Fux
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has reemerged in Europe since 2014. Characterized by a rapid onset of diarrhea in pigs of all ages, morbidity can reach up to 100% whereas mortality is variable. The virus strains involved in the recent European outbreaks all cluster together with US strains (S INDEL) that lead to less severe clinical signs. In this study, fattening pigs and suckling piglets (n = 105) on farms with no prior PED history were monitored after an acute outbreak of the disease, caused by an S INDEL strain of PED virus (PEDV)...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Lisa Koeppel, Tobias Siems, Mareike Fischer, Hartmut H K Lentz
The trade in live pigs is an essential risk factor in the spread of animal diseases. Traders play a key role in the trade network, as they are logistics hubs and responsible for large animal movements. In order to implement targeted control measures in case of a disease outbreak, it is hence strongly advisable to use information about the holding type in the pig production chain. However, in many datasets the types of the producing farms or the fact whether the agent is a trader are unknown. In this paper we introduce two indices that can be used to identify the position of a producing farm in the pig production chain and more importantly, identify traders...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Luigi Bertocchi, Francesca Fusi, Alessandra Angelucci, Luca Bolzoni, Stefano Pongolini, Rosa Maria Strano, Jessica Ginestreti, Giorgia Riuzzi, Paolo Moroni, Valentina Lorenzi
An expert opinion elicitation, based on a modified Delphi technique, was organized to collect the opinion of 16 Italian veterinarians with the aim of conducting a hazard and a welfare promoter characterization for defining and weighing a list of management and housing factors potentially associated with negative or positive welfare outcomes in dairy cows kept in loose housing systems. In addition, the 16 experts judged a set of animal-based measures in order to rate them by appropriateness and by the level of animal pain and suffering due to the welfare consequences they measure...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Haruya Toyomaki, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Yosuke Sasaki, Masuo Sueyoshi, Kohei Makita
The objective of this study was to investigate factors that caused rapid spread during the early phase of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) epidemic in Japan in 2013 and 2014. Anonymized datasets from all pig farms were provided by Kagoshima (709 farms) and Miyazaki Prefectures (506 farms). Semi-parametric survival analysis was conducted using the first 180 days from the first case on December 3, 2013 in Kagoshima Prefecture. To compare the hazard between different farm management types, univariable survival analysis was conducted...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Alison K Howell, Sue C Tongue, Carol Currie, Judith Evans, Diana J L Williams, Tom N McNeilly
Escherichia coli O157 is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause haemorrhagic diarrhoea in humans and is of worldwide public health concern. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir for human infection. Fasciola hepatica is a globally important parasite of ruminant livestock that is known to modulate its host's immune response and affect susceptibility to bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella Dublin. Shedding of E. coli O157 is triggered by unknown events, but the immune system is thought to play a part...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Selene J Huntley, Michaela Mahlberg, Viola Wiegand, Yves van Gennip, Hui Yang, Rachel S Dean, Marnie L Brennan
The use of corpus linguistic techniques and other related mathematical analyses have rarely, if ever, been applied to qualitative data collected from the veterinary field. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a combination of corpus linguistic analyses and mathematical methods to investigate a free-text questionnaire dataset collected from 3796 UK veterinarians on evidence-based veterinary medicine, specifically, attitudes towards practice-based research (PBR) and improving the veterinary knowledge base...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Erin E Gorsich, Clifton D McKee, Daniel A Grear, Ryan S Miller, Katie Portacci, Tom Lindström, Colleen T Webb
Risk-based sampling is an essential component of livestock health surveillance because it targets resources towards sub-populations with a higher risk of infection. Risk-based surveillance in U.S. livestock is limited because the locations of high-risk herds are often unknown and data to identify high-risk herds based on shipments are often unavailable. In this study, we use a novel, data-driven network model for the shipments of cattle in the U.S. (the U.S. Animal Movement Model, USAMM) to provide surveillance suggestions for cattle imported into the U...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Petrus Malo Bulu, Ian D Robertson, Maria Geong
In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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