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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392087/evaluation-of-the-methodological-quality-of-studies-of-the-performance-of-diagnostic-tests-for-bovine-tuberculosis-using-quadas
#1
Sara H Downs, Simon J More, Anthony V Goodchild, Adam O Whelan, Darrell A Abernethy, Jennifer M Broughan, Angus Cameron, Alasdair J Cook, R Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech, Matthias Greiner, Jane Gunn, Javier Nuñez-Garcia, Shelley Rhodes, Simon Rolfe, Michael Sharp, Paul Upton, Eamon Watson, Michael Welsh, John A Woolliams, Richard S Clifton-Hadley, Jessica E Parry
There has been little assessment of the methodological quality of studies measuring the performance (sensitivity and/or specificity) of diagnostic tests for animal diseases. In a systematic review, 190 studies of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle (published 1934-2009) were assessed by at least one of 18 reviewers using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) checklist adapted for animal disease tests. VETQUADAS (VQ) included items measuring clarity in reporting (n=3), internal validity (n=9) and external validity (n=2)...
March 22, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347519/meta-analyses-of-the-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-ante-mortem-and-post-mortem-diagnostic-tests-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-uk-and-ireland
#2
Javier Nuñez-Garcia, Sara H Downs, Jessica E Parry, Darrell A Abernethy, Jennifer M Broughan, Angus R Cameron, Alasdair J Cook, Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech, Anthony V Goodchild, Jane Gunn, Simon J More, Shelley Rhodes, Simon Rolfe, Michael Sharp, Paul A Upton, H Martin Vordermeier, Eamon Watson, Michael Welsh, Adam O Whelan, John A Woolliams, Richard S Clifton-Hadley, Matthias Greiner
Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is a global health problem and eradication of the disease requires accurate estimates of diagnostic test performance to optimize their efficiency. The objective of this study was, through statistical meta-analyses, to obtain estimates of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp), for 14 different ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnostic tests for bTB in cattle. Using data from a systematic review of the scientific literature (published 1934-2009) diagnostic Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression models adjusting for confounding factors...
March 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532994/johne-s-disease-in-the-eyes-of-irish-cattle-farmers-a-qualitative-narrative-research-approach-to-understanding-implications-for-disease-management
#3
Conor G McAloon, Áine Macken-Walsh, Lisa Moran, Paul Whyte, Simon J More, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532993/canine-leptospirosis-in-switzerland-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study-examining-seroprevalence-risk-factors-and-urinary-shedding-of-pathogenic-leptospires
#4
Alessandro Delaude, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, Anou Dreyfus, Michel Jacques Counotte, Thierry Francey, Ariane Schweighauser, Sophie Lettry, Simone Schuller
Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonosis. While human leptospirosis remains rare in Switzerland, the incidence of canine leptospirosis is unusually high compared to other European countries. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the exposure of asymtomatic dogs to pathogenic Leptospira in Switzerland, to characterise risk factors associated with seropositivity and to determine the prevalence of urinary shedding. Sampling was stratified to cover the whole of Switzerland. Sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies against a panel of 12 serovars...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532992/assessment-of-concurrent-infection-with-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-bvdv-and-mycobacterium-bovis-a-herd-level-risk-factor-analysis-from-northern-ireland
#5
A W Byrne, M Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, S A J Strain, S McBride, J Graham, A Lahuerta-Marin, R Harwood, D A Graham, S McDowell
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a significant pathogen of cattle, leading to severe economic and animal-welfare impacts. Furthermore, the pathogen has been associated with impacting the progression or spread of other pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB)). During this study we investigated (i) risk factors for BVDV at a herd-level and (ii) whether there was any association between BVDV and herd-level bTB risk. The data for this study were gathered from a voluntary BVDV control programme in Northern Ireland (2013-2015) based on the identification of virus positive animals through tissue tag testing of calves...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532991/estimating-population-density-for-disease-risk-assessment-the-importance-of-understanding-the-area-of-influence-of-traps-using-wild-pigs-as-an-example
#6
Amy J Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532990/-catch-22-biosecurity-awareness-interpretation-and-practice-amongst-poultry-catchers
#7
Caroline Millman, Rob Christley, Dan Rigby, Diana Dennis, Sarah J O'Brien, Nicola Williams
Campylobacter contamination of chicken on sale in the UK remains at high levels and has a substantial public health impact. This has prompted the application of many interventions in the supply chain, including enhanced biosecurity measures on-farm. Catching and thinning are acknowledged as threats to the maintenance of good biosecurity, yet the people employed to undertake this critical work (i.e. 'catchers') are a rarely studied group. This study uses a mixed methods approach to investigate catchers' (n=53) understanding of the biosecurity threats posed by the catching and thinning, and the barriers to good biosecurity practice...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532989/effect-of-vaccination-against-sub-clinical-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-a-high-health-finishing-pig-herd-a-randomised-clinical-field-trial
#8
Gitte Blach Nielsen, Jens Peter Nielsen, John Haugegaard, Matthew J Denwood, Hans Houe
During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with other respiratory pathogens often results in a larger effect on production, sometimes with clinical signs. Little is known about the impact of a moderate level PCV2 infection without co-infections, particularly in terms of feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial consumption...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532988/molecular-and-serological-detection-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-suggests-potential-transmission-risk-in-areas-of-recent-acute-chagas-disease-outbreaks-in-colombia
#9
Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Omar Triana-Chávez, Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Carolina Hernández, Juan David Ramírez, Agustín Góngora-Orjuela
Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America, including more than 50% of the Colombian territory. In the last years, an increase of outbreaks of acute Chagas disease has been observed in the east of the country due to environmental changes and mammal movements toward human settlements. Given the importance of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as reservoir hosts and sentinels of Trypanosoma cruzi infection across different regions of America, in this study we reported a serological and molecular detection of T...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460755/-snorkel-lice-barrier-technology-reduced-two-co-occurring-parasites-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-and-the-amoebic-gill-disease-causing-agent-neoparamoeba-perurans-in-commercial-salmon-sea-cages
#10
D W Wright, L H Stien, T Dempster, T Vågseth, V Nola, J-E Fosseidengen, F Oppedal
Diverse chemical-free parasite controls are gaining status in Atlantic salmon sea-cage farming. Yet, the intricacies of their use at commercial scale, including effects on co-occurring parasites, are seldom reported. A new salmon lice prevention method involves installing a deep net roof and 'snorkel' lice barrier in cages to shelter salmon from free-living infective larvae which concentrate at shallow depths, and allows salmon to jump and re- inflate their buoyancy-regulating swim bladder by swallowing air...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460754/pig-traders-networks-on-the-kenya-uganda-border-highlight-potential-for-mitigation-of-african-swine-fever-virus-transmission-and-improved-asf-disease-risk-management
#11
Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies, Yiheyis Maru, Philip M Kitala, Samuel M Githigia, Edward Okoth, Salome A Bukachi, Sam Okuthe, Richard P Bishop
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460753/population-level-effects-of-risk-factors-for-bovine-respiratory-disease-in-australian-feedlot-cattle
#12
K E Hay, J M Morton, A C A Clements, T J Mahony, T S Barnes
Results obtained from a nationwide longitudinal study were extended to estimate the population-level effects of selected risk factors on the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) during the first 50days at risk in medium-sized to large Australian feedlots. Population attributable fractions (PAF) and population attributable risks (PAR) were used to rank selected risk factors in order of importance from the perspective of the Australian feedlot industry within two mutually exclusive categories: 'intervention' risk factors had practical strategies that feedlot managers could implement to avoid exposure of cattle to adverse levels of the risk factor and a precise estimate of the population-level effect while 'others' did not...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460752/-we-ve-learned-to-live-with-it-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-horse-owners-attitudes-perceptions-and-practices-in-response-to-hendra-virus
#13
Anke K Wiethoelter, Kate Sawford, Nicole Schembri, Melanie R Taylor, Navneet K Dhand, Barbara Moloney, Therese Wright, Nina Kung, Hume E Field, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
Hendra virus causes sporadic zoonotic disease in Australia following spill over from flying foxes to horses and from horses to people. Prevention and risk mitigation strategies such as vaccination of horses or biosecurity and property management measures are widely publicised, but hinge on initiative and action taken by horse owners as they mediate management, care and treatment of their animals. Hence, underlying beliefs, values and attitudes of horse owners influence their uptake of recommended risk mitigation measures...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460751/a-retrospective-cohort-study-estimating-the-individual-aleutian-disease-progress-in-female-mink-using-a-vp2-elisa-and-its-association-to-reproductive-performance
#14
Anna-Maria Andersson, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren
Aleutian Disease (AD) is an important disease in mink characterized by a persistent chronic infection typically causing a progressive disease with symptoms such as weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, reduced reproductive performance and increased herd mortality. Due to lack of success in eradicating AD by stamping out, disease control programs based on estimating the disease progression have been implemented and used in the selection of future breeding animals. The aim of this project was to evaluate the association between the reproductive performance of female mink (expressed as being barren or not and litter size of non-barren females) and the individual AD status (defined as diseased or non-diseased based on the OD450 value in a dried blood spot samples (DBS) VP2 ELISA) while controlling for age and color type...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460750/cross-sectional-study-of-the-prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-hoof-disorders-in-horses-in-the-netherlands
#15
M Holzhauer, R Bremer, I Santman-Berends, O Smink, I Janssens, W Back
Information is scarce on the prevalence of hoof disorders in horses. In this study, we examined the prevalence of and risk factors for hoof disorders in a population of horses in The Netherlands. In a group of 942 randomly selected horses, hoof health was scored during regular foot trimming (one horse/farm). Hooves were assessed for the occurrence of one of 12 hoof disorders by a group of 21 certified farriers in two periods i.e. winter and summer of 2015. The mean age of the group of horses was 11.2±5.6years...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460749/veterinary-problems-of-endurance-horses-in-england-and-wales
#16
A Nagy, S J Dyson, J K Murray
Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB)...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460748/disease-burden-in-four-populations-of-dog-and-cat-breeds-compared-to-mixed-breed-dogs-and-european-shorthair-cats
#17
S F A Keijser, L E Meijndert, H Fieten, B J Carrière, F G van Steenbeek, P A J Leegwater, J Rothuizen, M Nielen
Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460747/equine-infectious-anemia-prevalence-in-feral-donkeys-from-northeast-brazil
#18
Fernanda G Oliveira, R Frank Cook, João H F Naves, Cairo H S Oliveira, Rejane S Diniz, Francisco J C Freitas, Joseney M Lima, Sidnei M Sakamoto, Rômulo C Leite, Charles J Issel, Jenner K P Reis
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although the virus infects all members of the Equidae the vast majority of studies have been conducted in horses (Equus caballus) with comparatively little information available for other equid species. Brazil has one of the most abundant donkey (E. asinus) populations of any nation although the economic importance of these animals is declining as transportation becomes increasingly mechanized. As a result, considerable numbers of donkeys especially in the Northeast of the country have been released and allowed pursue an almost feral existence...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460746/incidence-rates-and-risk-factor-analyses-for-owner-reported-vomiting-and-diarrhoea-in-labrador-retrievers-findings-from-the-dogslife-cohort
#19
Carys A Pugh, B Mark de C Bronsvoort, Ian G Handel, Damon Querry, Erica Rose, Kim M Summers, Dylan N Clements
Dogslife collects data directly from owners of Labrador Retrievers across the UK including information regarding signs of illness irrespective of whether the signs precipitated a veterinary visit. In December 2015, the cohort comprised 6084 dogs aged up to six years and their owners had made 2687 and 2601 reports of diarrhoea and vomiting respectively. The co-occurrence of vomiting and diarrhoea with other signs was described and the frequencies and durations of the two signs were examined with reference to veterinary visitation...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460745/bayesian-estimation-of-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-a-milk-pregnancy-associated-glycoprotein-based-elisa-and-of-transrectal-ultrasonographic-exam-for-diagnosis-of-pregnancy-at-28-45-days-following-breeding-in-dairy-cows
#20
Simon Dufour, Jean Durocher, Jocelyn Dubuc, Nandini Dendukuri, Shereen Hassan, Sébastien Buczinski
Using a milk sample for pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle is extremely convenient due to the low technical inputs required for collection of biological materials. Determining accuracy of a novel pregnancy diagnostic test that relies on a milk sample is, however, difficult since no gold standard test is available for comparison. The objective of the current study was to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the milk PAG-based ELISA and of transrectal ultrasonographic (TUS) exam for determining pregnancy status of individual dairy cows using a methodology suited for test validation in the absence of gold standard...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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