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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Katharina D C Stärk, Agnieszka Pękala, Petra Muellner
Diagnostic tools for the identification and confirmation of animal diseases have been evolving rapidly over the last decade, with diseases of aquatic animals being no exception. Hence, case definitions used in surveillance may now include molecular and genomic components and ultimately be based on the entire genome of a pathogen. While the opportunities brought on by this change in our ability to define and differentiate organisms are manifold, there are also challenges. These include the need to consider typing tool characteristics during sampling design, but also the re-thinking of diagnostic protocols and standards for the meaningful interpretation of the increasingly complex data presented to surveillance managers...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maria Garza, Chadag Vishnumurthy Mohan, Meezanur Rahman, Barbara Wieland, Barbara Häsler
The aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is an important employer and a significant source of foreign exchange. In addition, it contributes significantly to food security due to the role of fish in peoples' diets, the most important source of protein and micronutrients. However, infectious diseases represent an important barrier to sector development due to economic losses and vulnerability of smallholders. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the impact of infectious diseases in the aquaculture sector, and to assess the usefulness and use of impact studies in decision making for animal health management and biosecurity governance in Bangladesh...
March 20, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
S St-Hilaire, T Patanasatienkul, J Yu, A B Kristoffersen, H Stryhn, C Revie, R Ibarra, A Tello, G McEwan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A Muniesa, J Escobar-Dodero, N Silva, P Henríquez, P Bustos, A M Perez, F O Mardones
This short communication investigated in vitro differences between commercial disinfectants types (n = 36), doses of application, and time of action in the elimination of Piscirickettsia salmonis, the most important bacterium affecting farmed salmon in Chile. Seven different treatments were examined, including active and inactive chlorine dioxides, glutaraldehyde, hypochlorite disinfectants and detergents, peracetic acid, peroxides and other miscellaneous methods A 3 replicate set of each of the sample groups was stored at 20 °C and 95% relative humidity and retested after 1, 5 and 30 min with varying doses (low, recommended and high doses)...
March 8, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Zoe Belshaw, Natalie J Robinson, Rachel S Dean, Marnie L Brennan
Routine use of preventative medicines is advocated as part of responsible dog and cat ownership. However, it has been suggested that the number of owners in the United Kingdom (UK) using preventative medicines to protect their pets is in decline. The aim of this novel study was to use a qualitative methodology to explore the attitudes of pet owners and veterinary surgeons in the UK to using preventative medicine products in dogs and cats. Preventative medicine was defined as "a drug or any other preparation used to prevent disease, illness or injury...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Emily E John, Omid Nekouei, J T McClure, Marguerite Cameron, Greg Keefe, Henrik Stryhn
Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples are used to determine the infection status and estimate dairy herd prevalence for bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) using an antibody ELISA assay. BLV ELISA variability between samples from the same herd or from different herds has not been investigated over long time periods. The main objective of this study was to determine the within-herd and between-herd variability of a BTM BLV ELISA assay over 1-month, 3-month, and 3-year sampling intervals. All of the Canadian Maritime region dairy herds (n = 523) that were active in 2013 and 2016 were included (83...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Melissa C MacKinnon, David L Pearl, Carolee A Carson, E Jane Parmley, Scott A McEwen
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and related multidrug resistance (MDR) are important global public health issues. The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) conducts surveillance of AMR in enteric bacteria and monitors MDR. However, the analysis of MDR is complicated by the lack of consensus for MDR definitions. The objectives were to describe the most common resistance patterns in generic E. coli isolates from chicken cecal samples and determine the impact of using different MDR metrics for analysis of annual and regional variation in MDR...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ana R S Oliveira, Erin Strathe, Luciana Etcheverry, Lee W Cohnstaedt, D Scott McVey, José Piaggio, Natalia Cernicchiaro
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a virus of the Flavivirus genus that may result in encephalitis in human hosts. This vector-borne zoonosis occurs in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and an intentional or inadvertent introduction into the United States (US) would have major public health and economic consequences. The objective of this study was to gather, appraise, and synthesize primary research literature to identify and quantify vector and host competence for JEV, using a systematic review (SR) of the literature...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sophia Heitmann, Jenny Stracke, Henning Petersen, Birgit Spindler, Nicole Kemper
Measuring the severity of foot-pad dermatitis is an accepted tool monitoring the quality of animal husbandry and welfare. Up to now, a variety of scoring schemes have been used, most of them based on visual evaluation. However, a standardisation and validation of scoring systems is beneficial, not only to compare different studies, but to provide objective indicators in poultry welfare. In this study, we validated one visual scoring system, widely used in Northern Germany, by using additional information of histological measurements...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
L Hayes, S Britton, G Weerasinghe, R G Woodgate, M Hernandez-Jover
The location of properties holding livestock is fluid; edging towards the boundaries of urban Australia, increasing the likelihood that veterinarians will be exposed to livestock as part of the provision of routine veterinary services. This study was conducted to ascertain the challenges, knowledge level and training needs of veterinarians working within this landscape, with the ultimate aim of informing the development of resources and training to better equip them in this capacity. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among Australian veterinarians...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Beatriz de Souza Lima Nino, Eloiza Teles Caldart, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Juliana Arena Galhardo, Camila Marinelli Martins, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Cristina Rojo-Gimeno, Jeroen Dewulf, Dominiek Maes, Erwin Wauters
A well-functioning swine health system is crucial to ensure a sustainable pig production. Yet, little attention has been paid to understand it. The objective of this study was to unravel the complexity of a swine health system by using a systems-thinking approach for the case of Flanders (Northern part of Belgium). To that end, qualitative interviews were held with 33 relevant stakeholders. A hybrid thematic analysis was conducted which consisted of two phases. First, an inductive thematic analysis was conducted and second, the resulting themes were classified into the building blocks of a systemic framework...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Vladimir Draskovic, Jasna Bosnjak-Neumuller, Marko Vasiljevic, Branko Petrujkic, Nevenka Aleksic, Vladimir Kukolj, Zoran Stanimirovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nils Fall, Anna Ohlson, Ulf Emanuelson, Ian Dohoo
The use of routinely recorded data for research purposes and disease surveillance is an attractive proposition. However, this requires that the validity and reliability of the data be evaluated for the purpose for which they are to be used. This manuscript reports an evaluation of milk shipment data for evaluating their usefulness in disease monitoring and the resilience of organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. A large number of inconsistencies were observed in the data, necessitating substantial efforts to "clean" the data...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Niorn Ratanapob, John VanLeeuwen, Shawn McKenna, Maureen Wichtel, Juan C Rodriguez-Lecompte, Paula Menzies, Jeffrey Wichtel
Late-gestation ewes are susceptible to ketonemia resulting from high energy requirement for fetal growth during the last few weeks of pregnancy. High lamb mortality is a possible consequence of effects of ketonemia on both ewes and lambs. Determining risk factors to ketonemia is a fundamental step to identify ewes at risk, in order to avoid losses caused by ketonemia. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations of 384 late-gestation ewe samples were determined. Physical examinations, including body condition, FAMACHA© and hygiene scoring, were performed...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
B B Singh, M S Khatkar, R S Aulakh, J P S Gill, N K Dhand
High seroprevalence estimates of brucellosis in livestock species and humans in India suggest that the disease is a significant public health concern in the country. We developed an economic model and conducted an assessment of the impact of human brucellosis in India to describe the current situation to help formulate prevention and control strategies. Economic losses of human brucellosis were calculated based on the official records and the data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. These data were used to estimate the disability adjusted life years (DALYs) due to human brucellosis...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
N B Alhaji, A E Haruna, B Muhammad, M K Lawan, T O Isola
The World Health Organization's Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recommended monitoring of antimicrobial use (AMU) through surveillance and research to help mitigate AMR. This survey was aimed at assessing poultry owners' knowledge/awareness and practices regarding AMU, identified pathways for AMR emergence and spread in small-scale commercial poultry farms and free-range local bird flocks in North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on commercial poultry farmers and local bird flock keepers in 2017...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink
Modelling the long-term seroprevalence evolution against Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is of first interest to plan vaccination strategies and to predict viral resurgence. The objectives of this study were first to estimate the duration of colostral immunity and the persistence of active immunity in a sheep flock that encountered two episodes of natural SBV infection and then to model the evolution of SBV seroprevalence by considering immune status as well as zootechnical variables. The entire sheep flock of the University of Namur composed by around 400 ewes producing 600 lambs a year and characterized by an annual 24...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Thibaut Lurier, Marie Laure Delignette-Muller, Benoit Rannou, Christina Strube, Marie-Anne Arcangioli, Gilles Bourgoin
Bovine dictyocaulosis is a pulmonary parasitic disease present in temperate countries, with potential important clinical and economic impacts. The Baermann technique is routinely used despite its low sensitivity in adult cows. Recently developed serological tests seem to offer better sensitivity, but validations of these tests in field conditions are few. We aimed to study two non-previously evaluated diagnosis methods of dictyocaulosis based on bronchoalveolar lavage sampling (BAL), which allows finding lungworm stages in the lungs as well as determination of eosinophilia...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ingrid H Holmøy, Nils Toft, Hannah J Jørgensen, Tormod Mørk, Liv Sølverød, Ane Nødtvedt
Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has re-emerged as a mastitis pathogen among Norwegian dairy cows. The Norwegian cattle health services recommend that infected herds implement measures to eradicate S. agalactiae, this includes a screening of milk samples from all lactating cows. The performance of the qPCR-test currently in use for this purpose has not been evaluated under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time qPCR assay in use in Norway (Mastitis 4 qPCR, DNA Diagnostics A/S, Risskov, Denmark) and compare it to conventional bacteriological culturing for detection of S...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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