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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716209/understanding-animal-health-communication-networks-among-smallholder-livestock-producers-in-australia-using-stakeholder-analysis
#1
L Hayes, R Woodgate, L Rast, J-A L M L Toribio, M Hernández-Jover
Smallholder livestock producers are a diverse population with wide ranging motivations for keeping livestock. The biosecurity risk posed by smallholders has been the subject of much conjecture, with comparisons often made between the level of animal health and biosecurity knowledge of smallholders, versus that of commercial livestock producers. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of current knowledge of smallholder production in Australia, particularly in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease, and to investigate the relationships that exist between smallholders and the organisations and individuals from which they seek information, assistance and support...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716208/spatial-dynamics-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-ped-spread-in-the-southern-kyushu-japan
#2
Yosuke Sasaki, Haruya Toyomaki, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Masuo Sueyoshi, Kohei Makita, Satoshi Otake, Andres Perez, Julio Alvarez
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was detected for the first time in seven years in Japan in October 2013 in Okinawa Prefecture. By December 2013, PED had spread into Miyazaki and Kagoshima Prefectures in the southern part of Kyushu, one of the regions with the highest farm density in the country. The objective of the study here was to assess the spatial dynamics of PED spread during the 8 months of the epidemic in the southern part of Kyushu between December 2013, the month observed first case in the studied region, and July 2014...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716207/influence-of-true-within-herd-prevalence-of-small-ruminant-lentivirus-infection-in-goats-on-agreement-between-serological-immunoenzymatic-tests
#3
Michał Czopowicz, Olga Szaluś-Jordanow, Marcin Mickiewicz, Agata Moroz, Lucjan Witkowski, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Emilia Bagnicka, Jarosław Kaba
The study was conducted to evaluate influence of the true within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on agreement beyond chance between three different types of commercial serological ELISAs. Blood samples were collected from 865 goats from 12 dairy goat herds. Serum samples were tested using three commercial ELISA kits: whole-virus indirect ELISA (wELISA), indirect ELISA based on recombined TM and CA antigens (TM/CA-ELISA), and competitive-inhibition ELISA based on SU antigen (SU-ELISA)...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716206/contextual-herd-factors-associated-with-cow-culling-risk-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-dairy-herds-a-multilevel-analysis
#4
Denis Haine, Hector Delgado, Roger Cue, Asheber Sewalem, Kevin Wade, René Lacroix, Daniel Lefebvre, Julie Arsenault, Émile Bouchard, Jocelyn Dubuc
Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716205/attitudes-towards-worm-egg-counts-and-targeted-selective-treatment-against-equine-cyathostomins
#5
H Rose Vineer, F Vande Velde, K Bull, E Claerebout, E R Morgan
Gastrointestinal nematodes present a major threat to the health and welfare of equids worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is increasingly reported and challenges effective control in horses and ponies in many regions. The use of faecal worm egg counts (FECs) to support targeted treatment (FEC-TT) and targeted selective treatment (FEC-TST) has been promoted as an effective deworming strategy that may prolong the useful life of anthelmintics and reduce the costs associated with parasite control. However, treatment applied at set intervals or on pre-determined dates remains common...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716204/a-protocol-to-identify-and-minimise-selection-and-information-bias-in-abattoir-surveys-estimating-prevalence-using-fasciola-hepatica-as-an-example
#6
Rebecca I Carroll, Andrew Forbes, David A Graham, Locksley L McV Messam
Abattoir surveys and findings from post-mortem meat inspection are commonly used to estimate infection or disease prevalence in farm animal populations. However, the function of an abattoir is to slaughter animals for human consumption, and the collection of information on animal health for research purposes is a secondary objective. This can result in methodological shortcomings leading to biased prevalence estimates. Selection bias can occur when the study population as obtained from the abattoir is not an accurate representation of the target population...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716203/testing-of-milk-replacers-for-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-by-pcr-and-bacterial-culture-as-a-possible-source-for-johne-s-disease-paratuberculosis-in-calves
#7
Johannes Lorenz Khol, Anna Lena Braun, Iva Slana, Petr Kralik, Thomas Wittek
Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and can lead to severe economic losses in the affected cattle herds. The transmission of the disease occurs mainly orally, by the ingestion of MAP, which is shed in the feces and milk of infected animals. Calves show a high susceptibility for the infection compared to adult animals. The use of milk replacers can, therefore, contribute to the prevention of the transmission of the disease to calves in MAP-positive herds by preventing the ingestion of the bacterium with milk from infected animals...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716202/a-scoping-review-of-published-research-on-the-population-dynamics-and-control-practices-of-companion-animals
#8
Aileigh Kay, Jason B Coe, David Pearl, Ian Young
Companion animal population dynamics is a global, diverse issue that can affect society in multiple ways, including impacts on public health, environmental destruction and shelter management. The purpose of this scoping review was to use structured and transparent methods to identify all published research investigating companion animal population dynamics and/or control practices. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented using five online databases (i.e., PubMed, CAB Direct, Agricola, PsycINFO, and Scopus) and resulted in the identification of 7810 unique citations...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716201/a-matched-case-control-study-comparing-udder-health-production-and-fertility-parameters-in-dairy-farms-before-and-after-the-eradication-of-bovine-virus-diarrhoea-in-switzerland
#9
A Tschopp, R Deiss, M Rotzer, S Wanda, B Thomann, G Schüpbach-Regula, M Meylan
An obligatory eradication programme for Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) was implemented in Switzerland in 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, all bovines were tested for antigen or antibodies against BVDV. By the year 2012, eradication was completed in the majority of farms. A decrease of the prevalence of persistently infected (PI) newborn calves was observed from 1.4% in 2008 to <0.02% in 2012. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of BVD eradication on different parameters of animal health, production and fertility in Swiss dairy herds which had completed the eradication programme...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716200/benchmarking-of-pluck-lesions-at-slaughter-as-a-health-monitoring-tool-for-pigs-slaughtered-at-170kg-heavy-pigs
#10
Annalisa Scollo, Flaviana Gottardo, Barbara Contiero, Claudio Mazzoni, Philippe Leneveu, Sandra A Edwards
Abattoir post-mortem inspections offer a useful tool for the development and monitoring of animal health plans and a source of data for epidemiological investigation. The aim of the present work was to develop an abattoir benchmarking system which provides feedback on the prevalence and severity of lesions of the pluck (lung, pleura and liver) in batches of pigs to inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their herds. The weekly collection of data throughout a year (from September 2014 to September 2015) supported the further aim of providing benchmark values for the prevalence of lesions and their seasonality in Italian heavy pig production...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716199/strategic-control-of-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-infestation-on-beef-cattle-grazed-in-panicum-maximum-grasses-in-a-subtropical-semi-arid-region-of-argentina
#11
Nicolás Morel, Marcelo L Signorini, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716198/herd-specific-interventions-to-reduce-antimicrobial-usage-in-pig-production-without-jeopardising-technical-and-economic-performance
#12
L Collineau, C Rojo-Gimeno, A Léger, A Backhans, S Loesken, E Okholm Nielsen, M Postma, U Emanuelson, E Grosse Beilage, M Sjölund, E Wauters, K D C Stärk, J Dewulf, C Belloc, S Krebs
Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage in order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Herd-level intervention is needed to achieve national and European reduction targets. Alternative, especially preventive measures, have to be implemented to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments. However, little is known about the feasibility, effectiveness and return on investment of such measures. The objective of this study was to assess, across four countries, the technical and economic impact of herd-specific interventions aiming at reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production while implementing alternative measures...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716197/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-antimicrobial-usage-in-white-veal-calves-in-france
#13
N Jarrige, G Cazeau, E Morignat, M Chanteperdrix, E Gay
The development of antimicrobial resistance has made it necessary to measure antimicrobial usage in animal production sectors. France is a major European producer of white veal calves, but few data were previously available for that sector, even though these young animals are particularly susceptible to infection and considered as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 186 batches of French calves to estimate the exposure of white veal calves to antimicrobials and identify the potential risk factors related to antimicrobial usage...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716196/maximum-entropy-modeling-risk-of-anthrax-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan
#14
S K Abdrakhmanov, Y Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, A S Kadyrov, D B Kushubaev, T G Bakishev
The objective of this study was to zone the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) into risk categories according to the probability of anthrax emergence in farm animals as stipulated by the re-activation of preserved natural foci. We used historical data on anthrax morbidity in farm animals during the period 1933 - 2014, collected by the veterinary service of the RK. The database covers the entire territory of the RK and contains 4058 anthrax outbreaks tied to 1798 unique locations. Considering the strongly pronounced natural focality of anthrax, we employed environmental niche modeling (Maxent) to reveal patterns in the outbreaks' linkages to specific combinations of environmental factors...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716195/quantitative-assessment-of-social-and-economic-impact-of-african-swine-fever-outbreaks-in-northern-uganda
#15
Erika Chenais, Sofia Boqvist, Ulf Emanuelson, Claudia von Brömssen, Emily Ouma, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. In Uganda, a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa, ASF is endemic. Animal disease impact is multidimensional and include social and economic impact along the value chain. In low-income settings, this impact keep people poor and push those that have managed to escape poverty back again. If the diseases can be controlled, their negative consequences can be mitigated...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716194/vaccicost-a-tool-to-estimate-the-resource-requirements-for-implementing-livestock-vaccination-campaigns-application-to-peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-vaccination-in-senegal
#16
Damian Tago, Baba Sall, Renaud Lancelot, Jennifer Pradel
Vaccination is one of the main tools currently available to control animal diseases. In eradication campaigns, vaccination plays a crucial role by reducing the number of susceptible hosts with the ultimate goal of interrupting disease transmission. Nevertheless, mass vaccination campaigns may be very expensive and in some cases unprofitable. VacciCost is a tool designed to help decision-makers in the estimation of the resources required to implement mass livestock vaccination campaigns against regulated diseases...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716193/epidemiological-features-and-financial-loss-due-to-clinically-diagnosed-haemorrhagic-septicemia-in-bovines-in-karnataka-india
#17
G Govindaraj, P Krishnamoorthy, K R Nethrayini, R Shalini, H Rahman
The epidemiological features and financial losses due to Haemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) in bovines were studied in Karnataka state using the primary data collected from 133 clinically diagnosed HS affected farms. The various losses due to HS and the Benefit- Cost of the vaccination programme in cattle and water buffaloes were studied using mathematical models. The number of HS outbreaks were higher during the year 2002 and peaked during 2005 and thereafter declined due to targeted vaccination against HS. The morbidity and mortality risks were lower in large farms than medium and small farms, and lower in indigenous cattle compared to high yielding crossbred cattle and water buffaloes...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716192/impact-of-fmd-outbreak-on-milk-production-and-heifers-growth-on-a-dairy-herd-in-southern-iran
#18
Maryam Ansari-Lari, Mehdi Mohebbi-Fani, Nicholas A Lyons, Nezamaddin Azizi
Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Middle Eastern countries including Iran but its impact is poorly characterized. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of FMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth in an industrial dairy herd located in Fars province, southern Iran. Data about individual milk production, heifers' growth and total daily milk (sold for manufacturing), its fat and protein content and somatic cell counts were collected from the herd database. Based on the results of the linear mixed models, a significant decline in individual milk production after the outbreak was observed compared with before the outbreak...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716191/effect-of-immunologic-solutions-on-sows-and-gilts-on-time-to-stability-and-production-losses-in-breeding-herds-infected-with-1-7-4-prrsv
#19
D C L Linhares, C Betlach, R B Morrison
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is an economically significant swine pathogen causing production losses in the global swine industry. Clinical impact depends on many factors including the virus itself. One method to sub-type PRRSv is using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The RFLP pattern 1-7-4 emerged within the United States swine industry in 2014 and has become prevalent since then. This was a field study that prospectively followed 1-7-4-infected breeding herds (n=107) and compared time to stability (TTS), time to baseline production (TTBP) and total loss per 1000 sows between herds using modified-live virus vaccine (MLV) on sows and gilts (MLV-MLV), MLV on sows and MLV in addition to field virus exposure on gilts (MLV-MLV/FVE) or not deliberately exposing sows or gilts to PRRSv (Natural-Natural)...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716190/risk-factors-for-underweight-and-overweight-in-cats-in-metropolitan-sydney-australia
#20
Kendy T Teng, Paul D McGreevy, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, David Raubenheimer, Kim Kendall, Navneet K Dhand
Obesity is regarded as one of the most significant welfare issues in companion animals. Some risk factors affecting body condition in cats have been determined, but many remain controversial. The current study aimed to investigate the risk factors for overweight and underweight in cats in metropolitan Sydney. Electronic patient records for 11 years (2005-2015) were acquired from a feline primary practice in metropolitan Sydney. The 9-point body condition score (BCS) evaluation in each visit was classified into three groups: underweight (1-3), ideal-weight (4-6) and overweight (7-9)...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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