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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Leonardo Víctor de Knegt, Eglė Kudirkiene, Erik Rattenborg, Gitte Sørensen, Matthew James Denwood, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen
This study presents a new method for detection of between-herd livestock movements to facilitate disease tracing and more accurately describe network behaviour of relevance for spread of infectious diseases, including within-livestock business risk-carrying contacts that are not necessarily recorded anywhere. The study introduces and substantiates the concept of grouping livestock herds into business-units based on ownership and location in the tracing analysis of animal movement-based contact networks. To test the utility of this approach, whole core genome sequencing of 196 Salmonella Dublin isolates stored from previous surveillance and project activities was combined with information on cattle movements recorded in the Danish Cattle Database between 1997 and 2017...
September 9, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Melissa C MacKinnon, David L Pearl, Carolee A Carson, E Jane Parmley, Scott A McEwen
Statistical modelling of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data is an important aspect of AMR surveillance programs; however, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data can be challenging to model. The conventional approach is to dichotomize data using established breakpoints, then use logistic regression modelling for analysis. A disadvantage of this approach is a loss of information created by dichotomizing the data. The objectives of the study were to compare the performance and results of different regression models for the analysis of annual variation in susceptibility of generic Escherichia coli (E...
August 25, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sara Amirpour Haredasht, Saraya Tavornpanich, Mona Dverdal Jansen, Trude Marie Lyngstad, Tadaishi Yatabe, Edgar Brun, Beatriz Martínez-López
Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease of economic importance affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss (Walbaum)) in the seawater phase in Ireland, Norway and Scotland. In this study we used a stochastic network-based disease spread model to better understand the role of vessel movements and nearby seaway distance on PD spread in marine farms. We used five different edge's definitions and weights for the network construction: high-risk vessel movements, high-risk wellboat movements and high-risk nearby seaway distance at <20 km, <10 km or <5 km, respectively...
July 25, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jean-Baptiste Hanon, Miet De Baere, Camille de la Ferté, Sophie Roelandt, Gilles Guillot, Yves Van der Stede, Brigitte Cay
In a cross-sectional field study involving 51 cattle herds in Belgium, 3159 serum samples and 557 individual milk samples were collected and tested by four different commercial antibody (Ab) ELISAs on serum and two Ab ELISAs on milk. A virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed on serum samples with discording ELISA results and on all samples from non-vaccinating herds. An epidemiological survey was carried out in the same herds to collect information about herd characteristics, management practices, BVD vaccination and BVD infection status...
July 24, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ingrid Toftaker, Estelle Ågren, Maria Stokstad, Ane Nødtvedt, Jenny Frössling
A national control program against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) was launched in Norway in 2016. A key strategy in the program is to test for presence of antibodies and protect test-negative herds from infection. Because these viruses are endemic, the rate of re-introduction can be high, and a disease-free status will become more uncertain as time from testing elapses. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of freedom (PostPFree) from BRSV and BCV antibodies over time by use of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibody-testing, geographic information and animal movement data, and to validate the herd-level estimates against subsequent BTM testing...
July 21, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J V Olsen, F F Calvo-Artavia, P Sandøe, N Toft
Due to an increased incidence of human infections, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs and its spread into the human population has been a major public and political issue in Denmark. Similar concerns are also being raised about LA-MRSA in other Western European countries. At a time when the proportion of LA-MRSA-positive pig farms was low, Norway adopted a 'trace and destroy' strategy aimed at keeping LA-MRSA out of the pig population. However, to date, no country with a high proportion of LA-MRSA-positive pig herds has chosen to use an eradication strategy...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
D D Lazarus, O L van Schalkwyk, R E J Burroughs, A Mpehle, B Reininghaus, O Rikhotso, L Heath, F F Maree, B Blignaut, G T Fosgate
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is economically one of the world's most important animal pathogens, which can be responsible for losses in livestock trade, as well as frequent and highly disruptive large-scale epidemics. The control of FMD in southern Africa typically includes vaccination of cattle with a trivalent or bivalent vaccine preparation. The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of the antibody responses conferred by the current FMD vaccination programme in cattle at the western boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mattias Delpont, Vincent Blondel, Luc Robertet, Hugues Duret, Jean-Luc Guerin, Jean-Pierre Vaillancourt, Mathilde C Paul
On-farm biosecurity can be assessed by analyzing patterns of practices to better tailor technical advice to producers. Given their close contact with environmental and wildlife disease reservoirs, free-range duck farms are exposed to multiple risk factors of pathogen exposure that are rare or absent in indoor production. The recurrent emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses in Southeast Asia and Europe has emphasized the importance of farm-level biosecurity on free-range duck farms. This study was conducted on 46 French duck farms...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Chaithep Poolkhet, Kohei Makita, Sukanya Thongratsakul, Kansuda Leelehapongsathon
The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to explain networks of movement of backyard chickens in provinces which had been hotspots for avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand during 2004-2005. We used structured questionnaires to collect data for the period January to December 2009 from participants who were involved in the backyard chicken farming network in three avian influenza hotspots (Ratchaburi, Suphan Buri, and Nakhon Pathom provinces) in Thailand. From 557 questionnaires, we identified nodes, points of entry and exit from nodes, and activities relating to backyard chicken farming and movement of chickens, and generated ERGMs based on non-festive periods (Model 1) and the Chinese New Year period (Model 2)...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Fatima Yahiaoui, Moustafa Kardjadj, Younes Laidoudi, Hacène Medkour, Meriem Hind Ben-Mahdi
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. Several animal species can transmit rabies, but domestic dogs are the main reservoir implicated in rabies transmission to human and other susceptible animals. There is a scarcity of data regarding canine rabies in Algeria. Hence, this report is the first study that attempts to understand the epidemiology of dog rabies through a retrospective national study of rabies cases between 2010 and 2016, determination of canine vaccination coverage and evaluation of immune response of three rabies commercial vaccines used in Algeria...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Amie Adkin, Verity Horigan, Brenda Rajanayagam, Mark Arnold, Timm Konold, John Spiropoulos, Louise Kelly
Multiple controls established during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic were not solely applied to BSE in cattle, but were implemented for scrapie in sheep and goats due to concerns over the occurrence of BSE in sheep. In the absence of BSE in sheep being observed, control measures for prion diseases are now being evaluated to ensure they remain proportionate to risk. This risk assessment, aims to estimate, by use of stochastic simulation, the impact of reducing controls for Specified Risk Materials (SRM) from sheep at abattoir...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J Ogola, E M Fèvre, G K Gitau, R Christley, G Muchemi, W A de Glanville
In many livestock production systems in sub-Saharan Africa, cattle are owned by individual keepers but regularly mix with animals from other herds while grazing communal land, at watering points or through the use of shared bulls for breeding and ploughing. Such contacts may have important implications for disease transmission and control but are not well documented. We describe between-farm contacts in Kimilili sub-county of Bungoma County, a mixed farming area of predominately smallholder farmers. Between-farm contacts occurring during grazing or at shared water points over the past four weeks were captured in seven randomly selected villages using a photo-elicitation tool...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hend M El Damaty, Yasser S Mahmmod, Shaimaa M Gouda, Nader M Sobhy
Regular updating of our knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of bovine fascioliasis is necessary to increase the awareness of the disease's significance and subsequently, improve the control measures. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the prevalence of bovine fascioliasis, and identify the association of epidemiological characteristics under traditional householders' production systems, (2) to describe the association between the clinical picture, Fasciola spp. egg count and hepatobiliary ultrasonography findings...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Alexandre Darbon, Eugenio Valdano, Chiara Poletto, Armando Giovannini, Lara Savini, Luca Candeloro, Vittoria Colizza
The endemic circulation of bovine brucellosis in cattle herds has a markedly negative impact on economy, due to decreased fertility, increased abortion rates, reduced milk and meat production. It also poses a direct threat to human health. In Italy, despite the long lasting efforts and the considerable economic investment, complete eradication of this disease still eludes the southern regions, as opposed to the northern regions that are disease-free. Here we introduced a novel quantitative network-based approach able to fully exploit the highly resolved databases of cattle trade movements and outbreak reports to yield estimates of the vulnerability of a cattle market to brucellosis...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
N J Robinson, Z Belshaw, M L Brennan, R S Dean
Preventative healthcare consultations account for a large proportion of the veterinary caseload. This novel study is the first to methodically review all literature on canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations. Previous research has found these consultations to be different from health problem consultations in terms of communication style and content. Identifying relevant evidence and previously validated methods of measuring the success of these consultations will be useful when implementing strategies for optimisation...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Solange Marconcin, Adriel Rocha, Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia
We used a two-stage cluster sampling design to estimate the population sizes of owned dogs and cats in Pinhais, Brazil. For dogs, we simulated the population dynamics using a compartmental model of coupled differential equations, incorporating uncertainties in a global sensitivity analysis and identifying the most influential parameters through local sensitivity analysis. The calibration with the known human population improved precision in population size for dogs but not for cats. Population pyramids had a wide base, and the apparent population turnover was lower than the net population gain...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Aurelio H Cabezas, Michael W Sanderson, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Victoriya V Volkova
Parameterizing mathematical models of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDv) transmission is challenging due to knowledge gaps on the variable dynamics in susceptible populations. Expert opinion surveys are an approach to gather data on topics where no data have been reported. The objective of this study was to collect-via an expert-opinion survey-key parameter values of the potential FMD natural history and transmissibility in beef feedlot cattle in the U.S. Experts with experience working with FMD in endemic and non-endemic settings were targeted...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Mubamba, G Ramsay, C Abolnik, G Dautu, B Gummow
There are limited data on production and financial performance of the rural poultry sector in developing countries like Zambia that could be used by extension services as a feedback loop to enhance service delivery in the sector. Thus, a study that used production and financial data obtained from poultry farmers of Eastern Zambia was conducted to describe the rural poultry sub-sector and conduct financial analysis. It compared the financial performance of indigenous chicken production to broiler and layer production...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Z G Terfa, S Garikipati, G Kassie, J M Bettridge, R M Christley
Newcastle disease (NCD) is an important disease of poultry, directly affecting the livelihoods of poor farmers across developing countries. Research has identified promising innovations in NCD vaccine development and field trials among village poultry have been promising. However, NCD vaccination is not currently part of village poultry extension programmes in many developing countries. Understanding the preferences for, and relative importance of, different attributes of potential vaccination programmes to prevent NCD will be crucial in designing acceptable and sustainable prevention programmes...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M N Almeida, J J Zimmerman, C Wang, D C L Linhares
Various porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) regional elimination projects have been implemented in the U.S., but none have yet succeeded. In part, this reflects the need for efficient methods to monitor over time the progress of PRRSV status of participating herds. This study assessed the feasibility of monitoring PRRSV using oral fluids collected at the abattoir. A total of 36 pig lots were included in the study. On-farm oral fluid (n = 10) and serum (n = 10) collected within two days of shipment to the abattoir were used to establish the reference PRRSV status of the population...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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