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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Sara H Downs, Simon J More, Anthony V Goodchild, Adam O Whelan, Darrell A Abernethy, Jennifer M Broughan, Angus Cameron, Alasdair J Cook, R Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech, Matthias Greiner, Jane Gunn, Javier Nuñez-Garcia, Shelley Rhodes, Simon Rolfe, Michael Sharp, Paul Upton, Eamon Watson, Michael Welsh, John A Woolliams, Richard S Clifton-Hadley, Jessica E Parry
There has been little assessment of the methodological quality of studies measuring the performance (sensitivity and/or specificity) of diagnostic tests for animal diseases. In a systematic review, 190 studies of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle (published 1934-2009) were assessed by at least one of 18 reviewers using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) checklist adapted for animal disease tests. VETQUADAS (VQ) included items measuring clarity in reporting (n=3), internal validity (n=9) and external validity (n=2)...
March 22, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Javier Nuñez-Garcia, Sara H Downs, Jessica E Parry, Darrell A Abernethy, Jennifer M Broughan, Angus R Cameron, Alasdair J Cook, Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech, Anthony V Goodchild, Jane Gunn, Simon J More, Shelley Rhodes, Simon Rolfe, Michael Sharp, Paul A Upton, H Martin Vordermeier, Eamon Watson, Michael Welsh, Adam O Whelan, John A Woolliams, Richard S Clifton-Hadley, Matthias Greiner
Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is a global health problem and eradication of the disease requires accurate estimates of diagnostic test performance to optimize their efficiency. The objective of this study was, through statistical meta-analyses, to obtain estimates of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp), for 14 different ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnostic tests for bTB in cattle. Using data from a systematic review of the scientific literature (published 1934-2009) diagnostic Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression models adjusting for confounding factors...
March 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jacquelyn A Jacobs, Jason B Coe, David L Pearl, Tina M Widowski, Lee Niel
Resource guarding (RG) involves the use of specific behaviour patterns to control access to an item of potential "value" (as perceived by the dog), and can be expressed in the presence of various animals, including other dogs. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with RG patterns expressed around other dogs. Dog owners (n=3068) were recruited through social media to answer questions regarding dog- and household-related factors, as well as their dog's current and past behaviour around resources in the presence of other dogs...
February 20, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jacquelyn A Jacobs, Jason B Coe, David L Pearl, Tina M Widowski, Lee Niel
Resource guarding (RG) involves the use of specific behaviour patterns to control access to an item of potential "value" to the dog. Of particular concern are patterns involving aggression, due to safety concerns, but other patterns of RG behaviour are prevalent and include avoidance (i.e., positioning of the head or body to maintain item control, or location change with the item) and rapid ingestion (i.e., rapid ingestion of a consumable item). Current research has not investigated the etiology of RG aggression in depth, nor have the additional patterns of resource guarding been considered...
February 17, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Bart H P van den Borne, Francisco F Calvo-Artavia, David Brodbelt, K Marie McIntyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Omar Triana-Chávez, Andrés Valencia-Hernández, Diana Sánchez-Arévalo, Alba Poche-Ceballos, José Ortíz-Álvarez, Ana M Mejía-Jaramillo
Surra disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi, a salivary trypanosome, originally from Africa, which affects a wide range of mammalian worldwide. Dogs are highly susceptible to T. evansi infection and they often exhibit strong clinical signs than can lead to death, even within weeks in untreated acute cases. The present survey is the first report through clinical, parasitological and molecular approaches, of two fatal cases of T. evansi in Colombian dogs. After analysing two presumptive cases of infection with Trypanosoma spp...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Tatiani Vitor Harvey, Jorg Heukelbach, Maíra Siles Assunção, Thalna Magalhães Fernandes, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha, Renata Santiago Alberto Carlos
Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease neglected by authorities, health professionals, and the general population. Its occurrence is significantly associated with poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the prevalence of tungiasis, associated clinical signs and risk factors of the canine population at a tourist site in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia (northeast Brazil). All village households were visited and dogs inspected after authorization by owners. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Zeying Huang, Jimin Wang, Alec Zuo
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a high morbidity and mortality zoonotic disease, which threatens poultry and human health. An outbreak of disease in China requires strict slaughter and disposal of all chickens within a three-kilometer radius, incurring large private costs for farmers and encouraging black market transactions. A stated preference survey of 331 farmers across six provinces in China was conducted in 2015, in order to measure the responsiveness of farmers to accept various compensation prices for safely disposing of HPAI infected chicken...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Michael Muleme, John Stenos, Gemma Vincent, Colin R Wilks, Joanne M Devlin, Angus Campbell, Alexander Cameron, Mark A Stevenson, Stephen Graves, Simon M Firestone
Coxiella burnetii may cause reproduction disorders in pregnant animals but subclinical infection in other animals. Unrecognised disease may delay implementation of control interventions, resulting in transmission of infection to other livestock and to humans. Seroreactivity to C. burnetii phase-specific antigens, is routinely used to interpret the course of human Q fever. This approach could be similarly useful in identifying new and existing infections in livestock herds to help describe risk factors or production losses associated with the infections and the implementation of disease-control interventions...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H Lynch, F C Leonard, K Walia, P G Lawlor, G Duffy, S Fanning, B K Markey, C Brady, G E Gardiner, H Argüello
Salmonella carriage in pigs is a significant food safety issue. Dietary supplementation with organic acids has previously been shown to reduce shedding and transmission of Salmonella. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of three commercially available organic acid-based products on Salmonella levels in grower pigs, using a model of experimental infection that closely mimics natural exposure to the organism. Seven week old trial pigs (n=40) with a mean weight of 14.7kg were placed in one of four pens with 10 pigs/pen...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kevin Queenan, Peter Mangesho, Moses Ole-Neselle, Esron Karimuribo, Mark Rweyemamu, Richard Kock, Barbara Häsler
Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists often occupy remote and hostile environments, which lack infrastructure and capacity in human and veterinary healthcare and disease surveillance systems. Participatory epidemiology (PE) and Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) are particularly useful in situations of resource scarcity, where conventional diagnostics and surveillance data of disease prevalence may be intermittent or limited. Livestock keepers, when participating in PE studies about health issues, commonly use their local language terms, which are often syndromic and descriptive in nature...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Esther Dias Costa, Camila Marinelli Martins, Graziela Ribeiro Cunha, Dariane Cristina Catapan, Fernando Ferreira, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia, Alexander Welker Biondo
Although pet population management programs have been established worldwide, few reports on program evaluation have been carried out to date. Accordingly, a 3-year longitudinal study has been carried out in a 4000 household neighborhood located within the metropolitan area of Curitiba, the eighth most populated city of Brazil. Visits were conducted and questionnaires completed to estimate and characterize the local pet population (animal sex, reproductive and vaccination status, street access). Care provided by owners, community perception on stray dog management and the possible changes were compared in these variables over time (2010 and 2013) were evaluated, after the establishment of a city pet population management program...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
V J Brookes, S C Barry, M Hernández-Jover, M P Ward
The objective of this study was to trial point of truth calibration (POTCal) as a novel method for disease prioritisation. To illustrate the application of this method, we used a previously described case-study of prioritisation of exotic diseases for the pig industry in Australia. Disease scenarios were constructed from criteria which described potential impact and pig-producers were asked to score the importance of each scenario. POTCal was used to model participants' estimates of disease importance as a function of the criteria, to derive a predictive model to prioritise a range of exotic diseases...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kerli Mõtus, Kaari Reimus, Toomas Orro, Arvo Viltrop, Ulf Emanuelson
High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
N J Robinson, M L Brennan, M Cobb, R S Dean
In order for veterinary surgeons to undertake an evidence-based approach to making decisions about their patients, it is important that new evidence is generated to support the clinical decision-making process. Many of the decisions are likely to be around the actions taken to treat or manage health problems discussed during the consultation, and little is currently known about the factors which affect the type of action taken. The aim of this study was to determine the decisions made and actions taken for health problems discussed during first-opinion small-animal consultations, as well as identifying factors which may affect the decision-making process...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Corin Jack, Emily Hotchkiss, Neil D Sargison, Luiza Toma, Catherine Milne, David J Bartley
Nematode control in sheep, by strategic use of anthelmintics, is threatened by the emergence of roundworms populations that are resistant to one or more of the currently available drugs. In response to growing concerns of Anthelmintic Resistance (AR) development in UK sheep flocks, the Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative was set up in 2003 in order to promote practical guidelines for producers and advisors. To facilitate the uptake of 'best practice' approaches to nematode management, a comprehensive understanding of the various factors influencing sheep farmers' adoption of the SCOPS principles is required...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Anouk Veldhuis, Inge Santman-Berends, Birgit Schauer, Jet Mars, Frederik Waldeck, Christoph Staubach, Gerdien van Schaik
This study aimed at comparing the surveillance program of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) as laid down by EU Decision 2004/558/EC and 2007/584/EC ('conventional design') with an alternative design. The alternative design was based on monthly bulk-milk testing, clinical surveillance and a risk-based component that involves testing of animals that are purchased from non-free cattle herds. Scenario-tree analyses were carried out to determine sensitivities of the surveillance system (and its components) and the monthly confidence of freedom on herd-level...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Stamatis Panagiotis Georgopoulos, Tim D H Parkin
The aim of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with equine fractures in flat horse racing of Thoroughbreds in North America. Equine fractures were defined as any fracture sustained by a horse during a race. This was a cohort study that made use of all starts from the racecourses reporting injuries. The analysis was based on 2,201,152 racing starts that represent 91% of all official racing starts in the USA and Canada from 1st January 2009-31st December 2014. Approximately 3,990,000 workout starts made by the 171,523 Thoroughbreds that raced during that period were also included in the analysis...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kaare Græsbøll, Lars Ole Andresen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft
Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test-positive samples by pooling...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H M Higgins, J Mouncey, I Nanjiani, A J C Cook
This study used probabilistic elicitation and a Bayesian framework to quantitatively explore how logically practitioners' update their clinical beliefs after exposure to new data. The clinical context was the efficacy of antibiotics versus teat sealants for preventing mammary infections during the dry period. While most practitioners updated their clinical expectations logically, the majority failed to draw sufficient strength from the new data so that their clinical confidence afterwards was lower than merited...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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