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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Jennifer Hutchison, Catriona Mackenzie, Ben Madin, Jonathan Happold, Edwina Leslie, Emma Zalcman, Anne Meyer, Angus Cameron
Epidemiology provides insights about causes of diseases and how to control them, and is powered by surveillance information. Animal health surveillance systems typically have been designed to meet high-level government informational needs, and any incentives for those who generate data (such as animal owners and animal health workers) to report surveillance information are sometimes outweighed by the negative consequences of reporting; underreporting is a serious constraint. This problem can persist even when modern advances in information and communications technology (ICT) are incorporated into the structure and operation of surveillance systems, although some problems typical of paper-based systems (including timeliness of reporting and response, accuracy of data entry, and level of detail recorded) are reduced...
October 25, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
V J Brookes, K VanderWaal, M P Ward
Social structure creates heterogeneity of interactions between individuals, thus influencing infectious disease spread. The objective of this study was to describe and characterise the social structure of free-roaming dog populations in three communities in the Torres Strait, Australia. Dogs in Kubin, Saibai, and Warraber communities were collared with GPS units that recorded locations at 15 s intervals for up to 1 week, and datasets were obtained from 24 (62% of the dog population), 23 (53%) and 21 (51%) dogs in each community, respectively...
September 12, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Leonardo Víctor de Knegt, Eglė Kudirkiene, Erik Rattenborg, Gitte Sørensen, Matthew James Denwood, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen
This study presents a new method for detection of between-herd livestock movements to facilitate disease tracing and more accurately describe network behaviour of relevance for spread of infectious diseases, including within-livestock business risk-carrying contacts that are not necessarily recorded anywhere. The study introduces and substantiates the concept of grouping livestock herds into business-units based on ownership and location in the tracing analysis of animal movement-based contact networks. To test the utility of this approach, whole core genome sequencing of 196 Salmonella Dublin isolates stored from previous surveillance and project activities was combined with information on cattle movements recorded in the Danish Cattle Database between 1997 and 2017...
September 9, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Wassie Molla, Klaas Frankena, Getachew Gari, Menbere Kidane, Dereje Shegu, Mart C M de Jong
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute or inapparent viral disease of cattle which is endemic in many African and Middle East countries. LSD is one of the major transboundary livestock diseases in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling was undertaken in central and north-western parts of Ethiopia with the objectives to estimate seroprevalence and to identify and quantify risk factors contributing to the occurrence of the disease. A total of 2386 cattle sera were sampled from 605 herds and 30 clusters (kebeles) located in 10 districts and tested for presence of LSD virus antibodies using virus neutralization test...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Angkana Lekagul, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: Overuse of antimicrobials in both humans and animals is recognized as one of the main drivers of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR); and the optimisation of their use has been advocated as a key strategy for dealing with AMR. The measurement of antimicrobial use is vital for the design, monitoring and evaluation of such strategies. This systematic review describes and compares methods and measurements used to quantify antimicrobial use in pigs in order to inform efforts to standardize measurement...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M Valadez-Noriega, L X Estévez-Moreno, A A Rayas-Amor, M S Rubio-Lozano, F Galindo, G C Miranda-de la Lama
Mexico is the 7th largest producer of beef in the world. The livestock transport is a vital component of today's world agrifood economy that directly impacts on the development of animal production, animal welfare, public policies, labor regulations, food safety, markets and consumers. In this study two aims were established; the first aim was to identify the attitudes and perceptions of commercial hauliers towards animal welfare and their influence on the accident risks. The second aim was to characterize the current practices of the commercial cattle transport in Mexico and to detect the risk factors for animal welfare and hauliers' wellbeing...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Camila S Bezerra, Juliana F Cargnelutti, Jéssica T Sauthier, Rudi Weiblen, Eduardo F Flores, Clebert J Alves, Inácio J Clementino, Carolina S A B Santos, Sérgio S Azevedo
The aim of this survey was to estimate the apparent herd-level and animal-level prevalences, as well as to identify risk factors and spatial clustering of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) positive herds in the state of Paraíba, semiarid of Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling strata: Sertão, Borborema and Zona da Mata/Agreste. For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. First, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; second, within each herd, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥ 24 months were systematically selected (secondary sampling units)...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Guillaume Lhermie, Loren William Tauer, Yrjo Tapio Gröhn
Antimicrobial resistance is a public threat for humans, generated by the use of antimicrobials in human medicine as well as animal agriculture. Consequently, governments set public policies aim at curbing antimicrobial use (AMU). In dairy production, the occurrence of diseases triggers AMU to limit the costs associated with these afflictions. Therefore, any policies targeting AMU are likely to generate additional costs for farmer, and impact the dairy market. The objective of our research was to assess at the market level the costs associated with potential regulations (a prohibition scenario and tax scenarios) surrounding antimicrobial use in the U...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Gavin, R R L Simons, A D C Berriman, D Moorhouse, E L Snary, R P Smith, A A Hill
Pork and pork products are a major source of human salmonellosis in the United Kingdom (UK). Despite a number of surveillance programmes, the prevalence of Salmonella in the UK slaughter pig population remains over 20%. Here, we present the results of a Cost-Benefit Analysis comparing five on-farm control strategies (where the cost is the cost of implementation and the benefits are the financial savings for both the human health and pig industries). The interventions considered were: wet feed, organic acids in feed, vaccination, enhanced cleaning and disinfection and movement of outdoor breeding units...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jenny E Hanks, Elsa J Glanville, Ei Phyu, Nandar Hlaing, Lwin Naing Oo, Aung Aung, Kyaw Naing Oo, Angus J D Campbell
A novel syndromic surveillance approach was used to describe small ruminant health in Myanmar, to help overcome limitations in disease diagnosis common in many parts of the world, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Observations were made from July 2015 to June 2016 of ten clinical syndromes in 12 goat herds and sheep flocks owned by smallholders in the Central Dry Zone. Strengths and weaknesses to using syndromic surveillance in a village setting were identified using a formal surveillance evaluation framework, 'SERVAL'...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
F Ebhodaghe, C Isaac, J A Ohiolei
Bovine trypanosomiasis is a disease of cattle. In sub-Saharan Africa, the disease mean prevalence estimates are unknown in most endemic countries. We therefore performed a meta-analysis with the aim of estimating national mean prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis in endemic countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Relevant articles reporting bovine trypanosomiasis prevalence were retrieved through systematic literature search and scanning of articles reference-lists. Eligibility criteria included that articles reported sample size, prevalence, and diagnostic technique adopted...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Juan Carlos Arango-Sabogal, Gilles Fecteau, Julie Paré, Jean-Philippe Roy, Olivia Labrecque, Geneviève Côté, Vincent Wellemans, Ian Schiller, Nandini Dendukuri, Sébastien Buczinski
A latent class model fit within a Bayesian framework was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of individual fecal culture (IFC) in liquid medium (Para TB culture liquid medium and BACTEC MGIT 960 system) for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in Québec dairy cows. As a secondary objective, the within-herd paratuberculosis prevalence was estimated. A dataset including 21 commercial Québec dairy herds participating in previous research projects was retrospectively analyzed...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Joseph P Belgrad, Md Ashiqur Rahman, Md Sadeque Abdullah, Md Harun Rashid, Md Abu Sayeed, M Sawkat Anwer, Md Ahasanul Hoque
Bangladesh experiences some of the highest malnutrition rates in the world, and efforts are being made to increase food security and overall health status. One of the largest constrains on increasing food security is endemic diseases among livestock and poultry populations. Newcastle Disease (ND) is one of these viral endemic diseases reducing food security. However, the sero- and viro-prevalence of ND has not been thoroughly studied in rural poultry in Bangladesh. Knowledge of farm management practices and their effect on ND sero and viro-prevalence is needed before interventions can occur, and efforts to improve the endemic state of ND cannot begin without a baseline study...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Gustavo S Silva, Luis G Corbellini, Daniel L C Linhares, Kimberlee L Baker, Derald J Holtkamp
Biosecurity is defined as the set of practices carried out to prevent the introduction and spread of infectious agents in a herd. These practices are essential in swine production, especially for highly infectious agents such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv). Even with years of research and experience over the last three decades, PRRSv is still causing productivity losses and is the major health problem affecting the global swine industry. Despite knowledge of the various ways in which the virus can be transmitted from one herd to another (e...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ning Zhang, Desheng Huang, Wei Wu, Jing Liu, Feng Liang, Baosen Zhou, Peng Guan
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide, causing huge economic losses in the animal industry and posing a serious threat to human health. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has recommended strategies or measures to control or eradicate brucellosis, only some developed countries have achieved freedom from animal brucellosis. In developing countries, brucellosis remains a serious problem, and the importance of its control has attracted little attention...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Liat Morgan, Eyal Klement, Shiri Novak, Elad Eliahoo, Ahmad Younis, Gila Abells Sutton, Wiessam Abu-Ahmad, Tal Raz
In many countries sows are kept in individual stalls from insemination up to just few days prior to farrowing. The overall objective of this study was to examine group housing management system for sows during gestation as an alternative for individual confinement stalls, and the possible effects on their welfare, production and reproduction performances. Accordingly, the study included three specific objectives: (1) to compare parameters of production, reproduction, and welfare of sows housed in groups (either 30 or 7 sows/group; Large Group: LG, Small Group: SG, respectively) during gestation as compared to individual confinement stalls (IS); (2) to compare saliva cortisol of pregnant sows throughout gestation, when housed in groups of three different sizes (either 7, 15 or 30 sows per pen group); and (3) to compare sows' production and reproduction performances at the herd level, before, during and after practically transforming from a management of individual confinement stalls to a group housing system, in a large commercial swine farm over a six-year period...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ana R S Oliveira, José Piaggio, Lee W Cohnstaedt, D Scott McVey, Natalia Cernicchiaro
Following a qualitative risk assessment, in which we identified and assessed all viable pathways for the introduction of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) into the United States (US), we identified entry through infected vectors via aircraft and cargo ships as the most likely pathway, and thus considered it further in a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of introduction of JEV in the US via infected mosquitoes transported in aircraft and cargo ships arriving from Asia, using a QRA model...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Melissa C MacKinnon, David L Pearl, Carolee A Carson, E Jane Parmley, Scott A McEwen
Statistical modelling of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data is an important aspect of AMR surveillance programs; however, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data can be challenging to model. The conventional approach is to dichotomize data using established breakpoints, then use logistic regression modelling for analysis. A disadvantage of this approach is a loss of information created by dichotomizing the data. The objectives of the study were to compare the performance and results of different regression models for the analysis of annual variation in susceptibility of generic Escherichia coli (E...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jean-Baptiste Hanon, Miet De Baere, Camille de la Ferté, Sophie Roelandt, Gilles Guillot, Yves Van der Stede, Brigitte Cay
In a cross-sectional field study involving 51 cattle herds in Belgium, 3159 serum samples and 557 individual milk samples were collected and tested by four different commercial antibody (Ab) ELISAs on serum and two Ab ELISAs on milk. A virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed on serum samples with discording ELISA results and on all samples from non-vaccinating herds. An epidemiological survey was carried out in the same herds to collect information about herd characteristics, management practices, BVD vaccination and BVD infection status...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Simon R Rüegg, Sarah Welby, Hurria Yassin, Yves Van der Stede, Rebekka Nafzger, Helmut Saatkamp, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Katharina D C Stärk
The aim of this study was to propose a procedure for optimising the cost-effectiveness of vector borne disease surveillance using a scenario tree model and cost-effectiveness analysis. The surveillance systems for Bluetongue Virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) implemented in Switzerland and Belgium were used as examples. In twenty four different, simulated population structures, passive surveillance and five designs of active surveillance were investigated. The influence of surveillance system design and parameters such as farmer disease awareness, veterinary disease awareness, herd and within-herd design prevalence on the overall surveillance system sensitivity were assessed...
November 15, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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