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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Bart H P van den Borne, Hans U Graber, Verena Voelk, Carlotta Sartori, Adrian Steiner, M Christina Haerdi-Landerer, Michèle Bodmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S...
November 18, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A Che'Amat, J A Armenteros, D González-Barrio, J F Lima, I Díez-Delgado, J A Barasona, B Romero, K P Lyashchenko, J A Ortiz, C Gortázar
We assessed the suitability of targeted removal as a means for tuberculosis (TB) control on an intensely managed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunting estate. The 60km(2) large study area included one capture (treatment) site, one control site, and one release site. Each site was fenced. In the summers of 2012, 2013 and 2014, 929 wild boar were live-captured on the treatment site. All wild boar were micro-chipped and tested using an animal side lateral flow test immediately after capture in order to detect antibodies to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC)...
November 9, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
N Bravo-Vasquez, F Di Pillo, A Lazo, P Jiménez-Bluhm, S Schultz-Cherry, C Hamilton-West
In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting...
October 6, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kaare Græsbøll, Lars Ole Andresen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft
Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test-positive samples by pooling...
September 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jorge Hernández de Anda
The 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE 14) was held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 3-7 November. 2015. The purpose of ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 was to provide a global forum for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior and senior investigators, as well as health policymakers to exchange information that can advance the fields of veterinary epidemiology and economics, and other disciplines in the health and social sciences. The main theme of ISVEE 14 was Planning Our Future...
September 20, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maria Luisa Danzetta, Rossana Bruno, Francesca Sauro, Lara Savini, Paolo Calistri
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the most important zoonotic Transboundary Animal Diseases able to cross international borders and cause devastating effect on animal health and food security. Climate changes and the presence of competent vectors in the most of the current RVF-free temperate countries strongly support the inclusion of RVF virus (RVFV) among the most significant emerging viral threats for public and animal health. The transmission of RVFV is driven by complex eco-climatic factors making the epidemiology of RVF infection difficult to study and to understand...
September 11, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M Hernández-Jover, V Higgins, M Bryant, L Rast, C McShane
Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Erin E Gorsich, Angela D Luis, Michael G Buhnerkempe, Daniel A Grear, Katie Portacci, Ryan S Miller, Colleen T Webb
The application of network analysis to cattle shipments broadens our understanding of shipment patterns beyond pairwise interactions to the network as a whole. Such a quantitative description of cattle shipments in the U.S. can identify trade communities, describe temporal shipment patterns, and inform the design of disease surveillance and control strategies. Here, we analyze a longitudinal dataset of beef and dairy cattle shipments from 2009 to 2011 in the United States to characterize communities within the broader cattle shipment network, which are groups of counties that ship mostly to each other...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Stephanie Easton, Gina L Pinchbeck, David J Bartley, Emily Hotchkiss, Jane E Hodgkinson, Jacqueline B Matthews
The aim of this study was to determine practices, attitudes and experiences of UK prescribers of anthelmintics for horses and livestock. A questionnaire was sent by direct email to groups licenced to prescribe these medicines. These were veterinarians, Suitably Qualified Persons (SQPs, registered with the Animal Medicines Training Regulatory Authority) and veterinary pharmacists. The survey was also advertised through social media. It comprised questions relating to demographics, training experiences, current prescribing practices, as well as personal opinions on anthelmintic selection, diagnostics and anthelmintic resistance...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
V Simbizi, M N Saulez, A Potts, C Lötter, B Gummow
Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. In South Africa, the epidemiology of the disease in horses is not well documented. A serosurvey to determine what serovars were present in horses from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces and to get an estimate of the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was carried out from January 2013 until April 2014 with the assistance of four large equine hospitals located in these provinces...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Longfeng Weng, Alfons Weersink, Zvonimir Poljak, Kees de Lange, Mike von Massow
The economic losses of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) and the net benefits of strategies to control the virus are calculated for individual farrow-to-finish herds. A production simulation model that estimates the number of pigs by population cohorts on a weekly basis for a farrow-to-finish farm depending on production parameters is simulated under normal operating conditions and then with an outbreak of PED. The estimated annual costs of a PED outbreak with the closure of the breeding herd as the only intervention is approximately $300,000 for a 700-sow farrow-to-finishing herd...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
T Westers, A Jones-Bitton, P Menzies, J VanLeeuwen, Z Poljak, A S Peregrine
Haemonchosis is often associated with late gestation and parturition in ewes in Canada. Due to widespread concerns about development of anthelmintic resistance (AR), targeted selective treatment (TST), where individual animals are treated with an anthelmintic rather than the entire flock, is a possible strategy to control clinical signs in recently lambed ewes while still maintaining parasite refugia. Performing fecal egg counts (FEC) on individual animals is often cost-prohibitive, so indicators that identify ewes with high FEC are essential for TST programs...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kari Boroff, Mandy Kauffman, Dannele Peck, Eric Maichak, Brandon Scurlock, Brant Schumaker
Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
David S L Ramsey, Daniel J O'Brien, Rick W Smith, Melinda K Cosgrove, Stephen M Schmitt, Brent A Rudolph
The eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, from cattle in many locations worldwide is complicated by endemic foci of the disease in free-ranging wildlife. Recent simulation modeling of the bTB outbreak in white-tailed deer (WTD) in Michigan, USA, suggests current management is unlikely to eradicate bTB from the core outbreak area (DMU 452) within the next three decades. However, some level of control short of eradication might sufficiently reduce transmission from deer to cattle to a point at which the negative effects of bTB on the cattle industry could be reduced or eliminated, while minimizing the negative consequences of reducing deer numbers...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
BACKGROUND: The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. DESIGN: A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare, and food safety outcomes...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jonah N Cullen, Jan M Sargeant, Kelly M Makielski, Annette M O'Connor
The case-control study design is deceptively simple. However, many design considerations influence the estimated effect measure. An investigation of case-control studies in the human health literature suggested that some of these considerations are not described in reports of case-control studies. Our hypothesis was that the majority of veterinary studies labeled as case-controls would be incident density designs, and many would not interpret the effect measure obtained from those studies as the rate ratio rather than the odds ratio...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Inger Anneberg, Søren Østergaard, Jehan Frans Ettema, Anne Braad Kudahl
Veterinarians often express frustrations when farmers do not implement their advice, and farmers sometimes shake their heads when they receive veterinary advice which is practically unfeasible. This is the background for the development of a focused 3 page economic report created in cooperation between veterinarians, farmers, advisers and researchers. Based on herd specific key-figures for management, the report presents the short- and long-term economic effects of changes in 15 management areas. Simulations are performed by the dairy herd simulation model "SimHerd"...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nlingisisi D Babayani, Jan A van Wyk, Eric R Morgan
Infection with the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus is responsible for considerable production loss in small ruminants globally, and especially in warm, summer-rainfall regions. Previous attempts to predict infection levels have followed the traditional framework for macroparasite models, i.e. tracking parasite population sizes as a function of host and climatic factors. Targeted treatment strategies, in which patho-physiological indices are used to identify the individuals most affected by parasites, could provide a foundation for alternative, incidence-based epidemiological models...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M P Munita, R Rea, Y Bloemhoff, N Byrne, A M Martinez-Ibeas, R G Sayers
Completion of the F. hepatica lifecycle is dependent on suitable climatic conditions for development of immature stages of the parasite, and its snail intermediate host. Few investigations have been conducted regarding temporal variations in F. hepatica status in Irish dairy herds. The current study aimed to conduct a longitudinal study examining annual and seasonal trends in bulk milk seropositivity over six years, while also investigating associations with soil temperature, rainfall and flukicide treatment...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Zeying Huang, Di Zeng, Jimin Wang
Preventive practices are highly important in response to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). As biosecurity guidelines, HPAI vaccination, antiviral medication, farm cleaning and disinfection jointly focus on mitigating the risk of infectious pathogen spread, yet much less is known about the association between broiler farmer's socio-economic characteristics and their adoption decision of these preventive practices. The current study aims to bridge this gap using a nationally representative household survey of 331 Chinese chicken farm owners, among whom the practices are far from fully adopted (only 58% of the farmers adopt all four types)...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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