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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

K Marie McIntyre, Bart H P van den Borne, Francisco F Calvo-Artavia, Gerdien van Schaik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
November 23, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Moh A Alkhamis, Andreia G Arruda, Carles Vilalta, Robert B Morrison, Andres M Perez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) outbreaks cause significant financial losses to the U.S. swine industry, where the pathogen is endemic. Seasonal increases in the number of outbreaks are typically observed using PRRSv epidemic curves. However, the nature and extent to which demographic and environmental factors influence the risk for PRRSv outbreaks in the country remains unclear. The objective of this study was to develop risk maps for PRRSv outbreaks across the United States (U...
November 16, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Denis Haine, Ian Dohoo, Daniel Scholl, Simon Dufour
Using imperfect tests may lead to biased estimates of disease frequency and of associations between risk factors and disease. For instance in longitudinal udder health studies, both quarters at risk and incident intramammary infections (IMI) can be wrongly identified, resulting in selection and misclassification bias, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy can possibly be improved by using duplicate or triplicate samples for identifying quarters at risk and, subsequently, incident IMI. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relative impact of selection and misclassification biases resulting from IMI misclassification on measures of disease frequency (incidence) and of association with hypothetical exposures...
November 11, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
R W Humphry, J Evans, C Webster, S C Tongue, G T Innocent, G J Gunn
Antimicrobial resistance is primarily a problem in human medicine but there are unquantified links of transmission in both directions between animal and human populations. Quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits of reduced antimicrobial usage in livestock requires robust quantification of transmission of resistance between animals, the environment and the human population. This in turn requires appropriate measurement of resistance. To tackle this we selected two different methods for determining whether a sample is resistant - one based on screening a sample, the other on testing individual isolates...
November 10, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A S Boerlage, A Elghafghuf, H Stryhn, J Sanchez, K L Hammell
Infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum, the cause of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) occurs in salmon populations in many locations, including the east coast of Canada. However, information about risk factors for BKD and their effects in the saltwater phase of the salmon aquaculture industry in the region is inadequate. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using industry health records in which BKD was recorded in New Brunswick, Canada, between 2006 and 2012. Several risk factors for BKD, such as stocking season, mortality percentage in the first four weeks, food conversion ratio (FCR), lice treatment, Bay Management Area (BMA), and production year were analyzed in a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models with cross-classified random effects to account for the structure of the data...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A Wiseman, E M Berman, E Klement
Following a large outbreak of Newcastle disease (ND) in Israel, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the broilers sector. The aim of the study was to find geographical and farm related risk factors for ND. Information was available on 96% of the broiler farms in Israel. Of these, farms diagnosed with ND in the years 2010-2012 were compared with the other farms. Risk factors for ND were analyzed, using Generalized Estimating Equation models. Six variables were found to be associated with the risk for ND outbreak: a distance of less than 300m from another farm (OR=1...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Claire Grant, Jasmeet Kaler, Eamonn Ferguson, Holly O'Kane, Laura Elizabeth Green
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three knowledge-transfer intervention trial types (postal, group, one-to-one) to promote best practice to treat sheep with footrot. Further aims were to investigate whether farmer behaviour (i.e. management of lameness) before the trial was associated with uptake of best practice and whether the benefits of best practice framed positively or negatively influenced change in behaviour. The intervention was a message developed from evidence and expert opinion...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Arianne Brown Jordan, Jamie Sookhoo, Lemar Blake, Paul Crooks, Zul Mohammed, Judy Molawatti-Bisnath, Christine V F Carrington, Christopher A L Oura
Viruses affecting poultry cause significant levels of disease leading to severe economic losses among poultry farmers worldwide. The Americas region continues to be vulnerable to the spread of poultry viruses across the continents and Caribbean island chains. In Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) there is limited information on the viruses circulating in poultry. Many flock are vulnerable to infection and there are occasional outbreaks of disease resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify important viruses of poultry circulating in T&T through a broad-based surveillance approach...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Abubakar Suleiman, Elizabeth Jackson, Jonathan Rushton
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious disease of cattle which substantially contributes to poor productivity of the sub-Saharan pastoral livestock sector. In Nigeria and most of the West African countries, limited public funding for CBPP control have necessitated farmers to bear a bigger burden of managing the disease. Understanding the factors influencing decision of farmers to implement disease control programmes is therefore a key element in informing future policies aimed at improving CBPP management...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kate J Dutton-Regester, Tamsin S Barnes, John D Wright, John I Alawneh, Ahmad R Rabiee
Foot lesions causing lameness in dairy cows are important economic and welfare issues. Prompt and correct detection and diagnosis are critical for improving economic and welfare outcomes. Few tests are currently available to aid the dairy farmer in the detection and diagnosis of foot lesions. The objectives of this systematic review were to identify those tests that have been investigated for the detection and diagnosis of foot lesions causing lameness in dairy cows, evaluate the methodological quality of the studies investigating the identified tests, compare the accuracy of the identified test, and determine which tests can be recommended for implementation on the farm based on accuracy and practicality for use by dairy farmers...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Claudio De Liberato, Raffaele Frontoso, Adele Magliano, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Gian Luca Autorino, Marcello Sala, Andrew Bosworth, Maria Teresa Scicluna
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, is caused by a tibovirus (CCHFV) transmitted in particular by the Hyalomma genus of the Ixodidae family that can remain attached to the host for up to 26days, which in case of migratory birds allows long distance carriage. Although CCHF in domestic ruminants is usually subclinical, they may become reservoirs and act as sentinels for the introduction and/or circulation of CCHFV. In this study, possible CCHFV introduction and circulation in Italy were monitored by tick sampling on migratory birds and by a serosurvey conducted on sheep...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Takehisa Yamamoto, Kiyokazu Murai, Yoko Hayama, Sota Kobayashi, Reiko Nagata, Satoko Kawaji, Makoto Osaki, Shin-Ichi Sakakibara, Toshiyuki Tsutsui
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD), is a chronic infectious disease causing intractable diarrhea in cattle, which leads to less productivity, such as decreased milk yield, and lower daily weight gain. As a control measure against JD in cattle, national serological surveillance has been conducted in Japan since 1998. To conduct modeling studies that are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures against JD, reliable parameter values, such as length of time from infection to the start of fecal shedding or antibody expression, are especially important...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
I Aznar, K Frankena, S J More, J O'Keeffe, G McGrath, M C M de Jong
In the UK and Ireland, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of badgers has been suggested as one of a number of strategies to control or even eradicate Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. In this manuscript, we present the results of a badger field trial conducted in Ireland and discuss how the novel trial design and analytical methods allowed the effects of vaccination on protection against infection and, more importantly, on transmission to be estimated. The trial area was divided into three zones North to South (A, B and C) where vaccination coverages of 0, 50 and 100%, respectively, were applied...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Shumaila Arif, Jane Heller, Marta Hernandez-Jover, David M McGill, Peter C Thomson
The present study aimed to estimate the herd-level sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of three commonly used serological tests in naturally-infected cattle and buffalo in smallholder farms in Pakistan. Between February and June 2015, a cross-sectional study was carried out in five districts of Punjab (Kasur, Okara, Pakpattan, Jhelum, and Bhakkar) and two districts of Sindh (Badin and Thatta). Serum samples from mixed farms of cattle (n=441) and buffalo (n=621) were collected and tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT), indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) and competitive ELISA (C-ELISA)...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Takeshi Miyama, Eiji Watanabe, Yoshimi Ogata, Yoshiro Urushiyama, Naoya Kawahara, Kohei Makita
A cross-sectional study was designed to generate information on the herd level prevalence and the risk factors for Leptospira serovar Hardjo (L. Hardjo) in Yamagata, the southern Tohoku, Japan. Bulk tank milk samples from 109 dairy herds were used to test the herd level sero-prevalence of L. Hardjo using a commercial ELISA kit, which detects both L. interrogans serovar Hardjo and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the sampled farms, and univariable and multivariable analyses were performed...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hachung Yoon, Wooseog Jeong, Jun-Hee Han, Jida Choi, Yong-Myung Kang, Yong-Sang Kim, Hong-Sig Park, Tim E Carpenter
The financial impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred in 180 piggeries (100 farrow-to-finish and 80 fattening farms) confirmed infected during the 2014/2015 epidemic in the Republic of Korea was estimated at the farm level. The median loss due to slaughtering of pigs prior to their expected market weights was US$ 71.8 (uncovered compensation-compensation loss) plus US$ 57.3 (foregone net gain) per pig. Median loss per farm was US$ 27,487 (55.6% of total loss) for compensation and US$ 15,925 (44...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Amjad Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad, Jawad Nazir, Zahida Fatima, Asghar Khan, Shahid Hussain Farooqi
EI in non-vaccinated population causes disruption and economic losses. To identify the risk factors associated with the EI epidemics in equids in Pakistan, a 1:1 matched case control study was conducted during 2015-2016. Including a total of 197 laboratory confirmed cases and negative controls, matched on the basis of geography, time of sampling, specie and age. A piloted questionnaire was used to collect data regarding risk factors associated with the occurrence of EI in face to face interviews. Conditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the data...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Nicolas Rose
Animal movements between farms are a major route of pathogen spread in the pig production sector. This study aimed to pair network analysis and epidemiological data in order to evaluate the impact of animal movements on pathogen prevalence in farms and assess the risk of local areas being exposed to diseases due to incoming movements. Our methodology was applied to hepatitis E virus (HEV), an emerging foodborne zoonotic agent of concern that is highly prevalent in pig farms. Firstly, the pig movement network in France (data recorded in 2013) and the results of a nation-wide seroprevalence study (data collected in 178 farms in 2009) were modelled and analysed...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kiyokazu Murai, Sachiko Moriguchi, Yoko Hayama, Sota Kobayashi, Ayako Miyazaki, Toshiyuki Tsutsui, Takehisa Yamamoto
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious enteric disease in swine that can cause devastating economic damage to pig producers. Japan was severely affected by PED epidemics from 2013 through 2015, with over 1000 farms were affected during this period. Although many studies have unraveled pathological and molecular characteristics of PED virus (PEDV), the mechanism for within-farm spread is largely unknown. Here, we constructed a deterministic compartmental model to quantitatively describe the infection dynamics in a farm setting and to investigate effective control measures...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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