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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274585/factors-associated-with-canine-resource-guarding-behaviour-in-the-presence-of-dogs-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-dog-owners
#1
Jacquelyn A Jacobs, Jason B Coe, David L Pearl, Tina M Widowski, Lee Niel
Resource guarding (RG) involves the use of specific behaviour patterns to control access to an item of potential "value" (as perceived by the dog), and can be expressed in the presence of various animals, including other dogs. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with RG patterns expressed around other dogs. Dog owners (n=3068) were recruited through social media to answer questions regarding dog- and household-related factors, as well as their dog's current and past behaviour around resources in the presence of other dogs...
February 20, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268035/factors-associated-with-canine-resource-guarding-behaviour-in-the-presence-of-people-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-dog-owners
#2
Jacquelyn A Jacobs, Jason B Coe, David L Pearl, Tina M Widowski, Lee Niel
Resource guarding (RG) involves the use of specific behaviour patterns to control access to an item of potential "value" to the dog. Of particular concern are patterns involving aggression, due to safety concerns, but other patterns of RG behaviour are prevalent and include avoidance (i.e., positioning of the head or body to maintain item control, or location change with the item) and rapid ingestion (i.e., rapid ingestion of a consumable item). Current research has not investigated the etiology of RG aggression in depth, nor have the additional patterns of resource guarding been considered...
February 17, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233581/a-quantitative-analysis-of-attitudes-and-behaviours-concerning-sustainable-parasite-control-practices-from-scottish-sheep-farmers
#3
Corin Jack, Emily Hotchkiss, Neil D Sargison, Luiza Toma, Catherine Milne, David J Bartley
Nematode control in sheep, by strategic use of anthelmintics, is threatened by the emergence of roundworms populations that are resistant to one or more of the currently available drugs. In response to growing concerns of Anthelmintic Resistance (AR) development in UK sheep flocks, the Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative was set up in 2003 in order to promote practical guidelines for producers and advisors. To facilitate the uptake of 'best practice' approaches to nematode management, a comprehensive understanding of the various factors influencing sheep farmers' adoption of the SCOPS principles is required...
February 14, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122659/epidemiological-performance-and-subsequent-costs-of-different-surveillance-strategies-to-control-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1-in-dairy-farms
#4
Anouk Veldhuis, Inge Santman-Berends, Birgit Schauer, Jet Mars, Frederik Waldeck, Christoph Staubach, Gerdien van Schaik
This study aimed at comparing the surveillance program of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) as laid down by EU Decision 2004/558/EC and 2007/584/EC ('conventional design') with an alternative design. The alternative design was based on monthly bulk-milk testing, clinical surveillance and a risk-based component that involves testing of animals that are purchased from non-free cattle herds. Scenario-tree analyses were carried out to determine sensitivities of the surveillance system (and its components) and the monthly confidence of freedom on herd-level...
January 18, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089290/assessing-circumstances-and-causes-of-dairy-cow-death-in-italian-dairy-farms-through-a-veterinary-practice-survey-2013-2014
#5
Francesca Fusi, Alessandra Angelucci, Valentina Lorenzi, Luca Bolzoni, Luigi Bertocchi
A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17...
January 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089289/evaluation-of-five-serologic-assays-for-bovine-tuberculosis-surveillance-in-domestic-free-range-pigs-from-southern-spain
#6
Fernando Cardoso-Toset, Inmaculada Luque, Librado Carrasco, Francisco Jurado-Martos, María Ángeles Risalde, Ángel Venteo, José A Infantes-Lorenzo, Javier Bezos, Paloma Rueda, Istar Tapia, Christian Gortázar, Lucas Domínguez, Mercedes Domínguez, Jaime Gomez-Laguna
In countries where bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still prevalent the contact among different animal species in extensive systems contributes to the circulation of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Thus, free-range pigs can develop subclinical infections and may contribute to disease spread to bovine and wildlife. Serodiagnosis has been proposed as a screening tool for detecting infected pig herds; however, the value of this method to obtain an accurate diagnosis in this species is still not clear...
December 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237241/stochastic-bio-economic-modeling-of-mastitis-in-ethiopian-dairy-farms
#7
Abraham Mekibeb Getaneh, Sefinew Alemu Mekonnen, Henk Hogeveen
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs of clinical mastitis and only two studies were reported on costs of subclinical mastitis. Presenting an appropriate and complete study of the costs of mastitis will help farmers in making management decisions for mastitis control...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237240/antimicrobial-reduction-measures-applied-in-danish-pig-herds-following-the-introduction-of-the-yellow-card-antimicrobial-scheme
#8
Nana Dupont, Line Hummelmose Diness, Mette Fertner, Charlotte Sonne Kristensen, Helle Stege
Following introduction of the antimicrobial restrictive "Yellow Card Scheme" in summer 2010, a rapid decrease in the Danish national pig antimicrobial consumption was observed. The aims of this study were to (i) investigate which measures had been implemented to reduce the antimicrobial consumption according to farmers and veterinarians and (ii) where possible, investigate if said measures were reflected in the herds' antimicrobial purchase data. Based on national register data from VetStat and the Central Husbandry Register, the study population was selected among Danish pig herds which had decreased their annual antimicrobial consumption with ≥10% following the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme comparing June 1, 2009-May 31, 2010 to June 1, 2010-May 31, 2011...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237239/meteorological-conditions-and-land-cover-as-predictors-for-the-prevalence-of-bluetongue-virus-in-the-inner-mongolia-autonomous-region-of-mainland-china
#9
Xiang Gao, Hongyu Qin, Jianhua Xiao, Hongbin Wang
Bluetongue is a major disease of economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. It is transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the main pastoral areas for farmed sheep in Mainland China and, because of its large area, represents an ideal candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence characteristics. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of BTV transmission in sheep in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land cover and the transmission of the virus was conducted...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237238/epidemiological-evaluation-of-cats-rescued-at-a-secondary-emergency-animal-shelter-in-miharu-fukushima-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquakes
#10
Aki Tanaka, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Philip Kass
The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI)...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237237/expanding-veterinary-biosurveillance-in-washington-dc-the-creation-and-utilization-of-an-electronic-based-online-veterinary-surveillance-system
#11
Andrew Hennenfent, Vito DelVento, John Davies-Cole, Fern Johnson-Clarke
OBJECTIVES: To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. METHODS: Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237236/influenza-a-virus-in-swine-breeding-herds-combination-of-vaccination-and-biosecurity-practices-can-reduce-likelihood-of-endemic-piglet-reservoir
#12
L A White, M Torremorell, M E Craft
Recent modelling and empirical work on influenza A virus (IAV) suggests that piglets play an important role as an endemic reservoir. The objective of this study is to test intervention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of IAV in piglets and ideally, preventing piglets from becoming exposed in the first place. These interventions include biosecurity measures, vaccination, and management options that swine producers may employ individually or jointly to control IAV in their herds. We have developed a stochastic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Vaccinated (SEIRV) model that reflects the spatial organization of a standard breeding herd and accounts for the different production classes of pigs therein...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237235/assessing-the-time-taken-for-a-surveillance-system-to-detect-a-re-emergence-of-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-in-cattle
#13
Robin R L Simons, Mark E Arnold, Amie Adkin
During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in July 2001 the European Commission established a surveillance scheme for the comprehensive sampling of all BSE clinical suspects, healthy slaughter (HS) animals >30months, and all emergency slaughter and fallen stock animals tested when >24months. With the exponential decline in classical BSE cases, this comprehensive surveillance system has been successively modified to become risk-based, targeting those exit streams and ages where cases from the original epidemic are most likely to be detected...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237234/stard-blcm-standards-for-the-reporting-of-diagnostic-accuracy-studies-that-use-bayesian-latent-class-models
#14
Polychronis Kostoulas, Søren S Nielsen, Adam J Branscum, Wesley O Johnson, Nandini Dendukuri, Navneet K Dhand, Nils Toft, Ian A Gardner
The Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement, which was recently updated to the STARD2015 statement, was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of test accuracy studies. Although STARD principles apply broadly, the checklist is limited to studies designed to evaluate the accuracy of tests when the disease status is determined from a perfect reference procedure or an imperfect one with known measures of test accuracy. However, a reference standard does not always exist, especially in the case of infectious diseases with a long latent period...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237233/application-of-discrete-choice-experiment-to-assess-farmers-willingness-to-report-swine-diseases-in-the-red-river-delta-region-vietnam
#15
Hoa T T Pham, Marisa Peyre, Tuyen Quang Trinh, Oanh Cong Nguyen, Ton Dinh Vu, Theera Rukkwamsuk, Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux
A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer's decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine diseases. Data were collected between March and July 2015 in two provinces in the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam, from 196 pig producers by face-to face interview. A conditional logit model is used to measure the relative importance of the socio-economic factors and calculate the expected probability of disease reporting under changes of levels of these factors...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237232/economic-consequences-of-paratuberculosis-control-in-dairy-cattle-a-stochastic-modeling-study
#16
R L Smith, M A Al-Mamun, Y T Gröhn
The cost of paratuberculosis to dairy herds, through decreased milk production, early culling, and poor reproductive performance, has been well-studied. The benefit of control programs, however, has been debated. A recent stochastic compartmental model for paratuberculosis transmission in US dairy herds was modified to predict herd net present value (NPV) over 25 years in herds of 100 and 1000 dairy cattle with endemic paratuberculosis at initial prevalence of 10% and 20%. Control programs were designed by combining 5 tests (none, fecal culture, ELISA, PCR, or calf testing), 3 test-related culling strategies (all test-positive, high-positive, or repeated positive), 2 test frequencies (annual and biannual), 3 hygiene levels (standard, moderate, or improved), and 2 cessation decisions (testing ceased after 5 negative whole-herd tests or testing continued)...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237231/epidemiological-investigation-of-bovine-tuberculosis-outbreaks-in-uruguay-2011-2013
#17
Catalina Picasso, Julio Alvarez, Kimberly L VanderWaal, Federico Fernandez, Andres Gil, Scott J Wells, Andres Perez
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237230/estimation-of-the-transmission-parameters-for-swine-influenza-and-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses-in-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-under-natural-conditions
#18
Emanuela Pileri, Gerard E Martín-Valls, Ivan Díaz, Alberto Allepuz, Meritxell Simon-Grifé, Ariadna García-Saenz, Jordi Casal, Enric Mateu
In the present study, the transmission parameters of swine influenza virus (SIV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) have been calculated using the basic reproductive rate (R) parameter in two commercial pig farms (F1 and F2). In order to do this, a serological (PRRSV genotype 1 and SIV) and virological (SIV) follow-up of a batch of animals was carried out weekly from 3 weeks of age until the age of slaughter on each farm. Results of the analysis for SIV and PRRSV showed different transmission profiles depending on the farm, the pathogen, and time of transmission...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237229/break-even-analysis-of-costs-for-controlling-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-slaughter-pigs-via-a-serological-surveillance-program-in-the-netherlands
#19
M van Asseldonk, C P A van Wagenberg, H J Wisselink
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equaled the cost of averted human disease burden and cost-of-illness minus the costs of a T. gondii surveillance program. The surveillance program comprised serological testing of blood samples taken at slaughter. Break-even points were determined given alternative levels of the effectiveness of the intervention program (10% up to 90% in steps of 10%), the value of an averted DALY (20,000, 50,000 and 80,000 Euro), and threshold of sample prevalence for a farm to be under intervention (5% up to 50% out of 20 samples in steps of 5%)...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237228/spatial-temporal-cluster-analysis-of-fatal-clostridium-chauvoei-cases-among-cattle-in-styria-austria-between-1986-and-2013
#20
Robert Wolf, Jörg Hiesel, Sabrina Kuchling, Armin Deutz, John Kastelic, Herman W Barkema, Peter Wagner
Clostridium chauvoei is a gram positive, spore building bacterium that causes blackleg, a mostly fatal disease in cattle and other ruminants. Although the disease is common, little is known on the epidemiology of blackleg. As infection occurs through the environment, the risk of blackleg might be increased in areas with a specific climate or soil type. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify spatial and temporal clusters in the incidence of blackleg in the province of Styria, Austria. Data were collected within the governmentally delivered blackleg control program which includes vaccination of cattle with access to known blackleg pastures and compensation for fallen stock...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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