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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

N Bravo-Vasquez, F Di Pillo, A Lazo, P Jiménez-Bluhm, S Schultz-Cherry, C Hamilton-West
In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting...
October 6, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kaare Græsbøll, Lars Ole Andresen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft
Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test-positive samples by pooling...
September 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jorge Hernández de Anda
The 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE 14) was held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 3-7 November. 2015. The purpose of ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 was to provide a global forum for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior and senior investigators, as well as health policymakers to exchange information that can advance the fields of veterinary epidemiology and economics, and other disciplines in the health and social sciences. The main theme of ISVEE 14 was Planning Our Future...
September 20, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maria Luisa Danzetta, Rossana Bruno, Francesca Sauro, Lara Savini, Paolo Calistri
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the most important zoonotic Transboundary Animal Diseases able to cross international borders and cause devastating effect on animal health and food security. Climate changes and the presence of competent vectors in the most of the current RVF-free temperate countries strongly support the inclusion of RVF virus (RVFV) among the most significant emerging viral threats for public and animal health. The transmission of RVFV is driven by complex eco-climatic factors making the epidemiology of RVF infection difficult to study and to understand...
September 11, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H M Higgins, J Mouncey, I Nanjiani, A J C Cook
This study used probabilistic elicitation and a Bayesian framework to quantitatively explore how logically practitioners' update their clinical beliefs after exposure to new data. The clinical context was the efficacy of antibiotics versus teat sealants for preventing mammary infections during the dry period. While most practitioners updated their clinical expectations logically, the majority failed to draw sufficient strength from the new data so that their clinical confidence afterwards was lower than merited...
September 7, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Mubamba, G Ramsay, C Abolnik, G Dautu, B Gummow
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
P J Jones, J Sok, R B Tranter, I Blanco-Penedo, N Fall, C Fourichon, H Hogeveen, M C Krieger, A Sundrum
Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers' and legislators' expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers' intentions towards improving the health status of their organic herds through the use of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was found that farmers across the countries were positive about taking additional preventative measures to improve the health status of their herds. They believed this would not only improve herd physical performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but also achieve greater cost effectiveness and improved job satisfaction for them...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ingrid Toftaker, Javier Sanchez, Maria Stokstad, Ane Nødtvedt
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are considered widespread among cattle in Norway and worldwide. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on antibody-ELISA of bulk tank milk (BTM) from 1347 herds in two neighboring counties in western Norway. The study aims were to determine the seroprevalence at herd level, to evaluate risk factors for BRSV and BCoV seropositivity, and to assess how these factors were associated with the spatial distribution of positive herds. The overall prevalence of BRSV and BCoV positive herds in the region was 46...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, W J Browne, T Kypraios, M J Green
Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
L V Randall, M J Green, M G G Chagunda, C Mason, L E Green, J N Huxley
The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Li Ni, Weichao Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Wei Cao, Baoming Li
The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurim, Staphylococcus aureus or bacterial mixtures on stainless steel surfaces was evaluated and compared its efficacy with composite phenol solution for reducing total aerobic bacteria in animal transport vehicles. Stainless steel surfaces were inoculated with these strains individually or in a mixture, and sprayed with SAEW, composite phenol, or alkaline electrolyzed water for 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2min...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Arata Hidano, Tim E Carpenter, Mark A Stevenson, M Carolyn Gates
Many countries implement regionalisation as a measure to control economically important livestock diseases. Given that regionalisation highlights the difference in disease risk between animal subpopulations, this may discourage herd managers in low-risk areas from purchasing animals from high-risk areas to protect the disease-free status of their herds. Using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand as a case example, we develop a novel network simulation model to predict how much the frequency of cattle movements between different disease control areas (DCAs) could theoretically change if herd managers adopted the safest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the lowest risk of bTB), if herd managers adopted the riskiest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the greatest risk of bTB), or if herd managers made trade decisions completely at random (purchasing cattle without consideration for bTB disease risk)...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Elizabeth Marier, Richard Piers Smith, Johanne Ellis-Iversen, Eamon Watson, Derek Armstrong, Henk Hogeveen, Alasdair J C Cook
This study presents British farmers' perception of, and barriers to, implementing Salmonella control on pig farms. Four farms that had implemented interventions and their 33 close contacts (known to the intervention farmers) took part in interviews before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intervention trials to assess the difference in perception over time. Their results were compared against those from nine randomly selected control farms. The hypothesis was that farms implementing interventions whether or not successful, would influence their close contacts' opinion over time...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J E Duval, N Bareille, C Fourichon, A Madouasse, M Vaarst
Veterinarians could be the expected sparring partners of organic dairy farmers in promoting animal health which is one of the main organic principles. However, in the past organic dairy farmers did not always consider veterinarians to be pertinent advisors for them. The objectives of this study are - from private veterinary practitioners' point of views- i) to describe the roles of veterinarians today in organic dairy farmers' animal health promotion strategies, ii) to identify factors related to organic farming which determine their role on organic dairy farms, and, iii) to identify opportunities for improvement of veterinarians' advisory services for organic dairy herds...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Omid Nekouei, John VanLeeuwen, Henrik Stryhn, David Kelton, Greg Keefe
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J Sok, H Hogeveen, A R W Elbers, A G J M Oude Lansink
Understanding the context and drivers of farmers' decision-making is critical to designing successful voluntary disease control interventions. This study uses a questionnaire based on the Reasoned Action Approach framework to assess the determinants of farmers' intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against Bluetongue. Results suggest that farmers' attitude and social pressures best explained intention. A mix of policy instruments can be used in a complementary way to motivate voluntary vaccination based on the finding that participation is influenced by both internal and external motivation...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Carlos Rouco, Sacramento Moreno, Simone Santoro
Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J M Pettersen, O B Brynildsrud, R B Huseby, K M Rich, A Aunsmo, B Jensen Bang, M Aldrin
Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease associated with significant economic losses in Scottish, Irish, and Norwegian marine salmon aquaculture. In this paper, we investigate how disease-triggered harvest strategies (systematic depopulation of infected marine salmon farms) towards PD can affect disease dynamics and salmon producer profits in an endemic area in the southwestern part of Norway. Four different types of disease-triggered harvest strategies were evaluated over a four-year period (2011-2014), each scenario with different disease-screening procedures, timing for initiating the harvest interventions on infected cohorts, and levels of farmer compliance to the strategy...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
K A Kipronoh, J N Ombui, Y S Binepal, H O Wesonga, E K Gitonga, E Thuranira, H K Kiara
A cross-sectional study to determine risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) in goats was carried out between the months of March, 2014 and March, 2015 in Pokot East, Turkana West and Kajiado Central Sub-counties. A semi-structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for CCPP was completed for each flock whose serum samples were collected. A logistic regression model was developed to assess the association between the risk factors and CCPP sero-positivity...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Bellet, M J Green, M Vickers, A Forbes, E Berry, J Kaler
This study aims at investigating the occurrence, risk factors and production impacts on beef carcass parameters of three of the most important cattle helminth infections in England and Wales. Abomasa, reticulorumens and livers from healthy cattle were collected and examined post-mortem quarterly over a one year period in an abattoir in South-West England. Specific viscera from 974 cattle were collected, examined and scored for Ostertagia spp., adult rumen fluke and liver fluke lesions/presence. A total of 89%, 25% and 29% of the carcasses had lesions/presence of Ostertagia spp...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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