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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Amanda Brinch Kruse, Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen, Lis Alban
The use of antimicrobials in livestock constitutes an increasing global concern, and many countries pursue approaches to reduce the amount used, particularly in the pig production industry. The EU Commission has decided, due to environmental concerns, to phase out use of zinc oxide in pigs by 2022. This poses an additional challenge to efforts to reduce antimicrobial use (AMU) in European pig production. The pig production sector needs further information about how to comply with official AMU requirements without losing competitiveness...
June 22, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J Escobar-Dodero, A Kinsley, A M Perez, R Ibarra, A Tello, G Monti, F O Mardones
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a widespread and economically devastating fish disease caused by infection with a virus referred to as IPN virus (IPNv). In Chile, the disease is endemic and prevalent in both fresh- and salt-water farms affecting cultured salmonids, mainly Atlantic salmon. Here, we present the results of a retrospective cohort study of Atlantic salmon farms stocked between 2010 and 2013, aimed at quantifying the extent to which certain epidemiological factors influence the time interval between stocking and onset of IPN mortality (time to mortality, ttm) in marine farms...
April 25, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mary Lubungu, Regina Birner
The outbreak of livestock diseases in Sub-Saharan African countries is the most critical challenge affecting the development potential of the livestock sector. Vaccination campaigns are one of the most important strategies to deal with this challenge. However, such campaigns are difficult to implement due to major governance challenges, such as delays in the procurement of vaccines and the disbursement of funds. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of these governance challenges, based on a case study of a Livestock Development Animal Health Project in Zambia...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Wael El-Deeb, Mahmoud Fayez, Ahmed Elmoslemany, Mahmoud Kandeel, Kamal Zidan
A cross sectional study was conducted on 1010 goats from 25 flocks located in the eastern province, Saudi Arabia, to study the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among goat farms. A total of 235 milk samples and 775 nasal swabs were collected for bacteriological investigation. Based on resistance to cefoxitin, 20 isolates were permissively identified as MRSA. PCR with specific primers was used to confirm MRSA. The prevalence of MRSA was 2%; with maximum prevalence in mastitic milk (9...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hendra Wibawa, Desniwaty Karo-Karo, Eko Sugeng Pribadi, Annemarie Bouma, Rogier Bodewes, Hans Vernooij, Diyantoro, Agus Sugama, David H Muljono, Guus Koch, Fadjar Sumping Tjatur Rasa, Arjan Stegeman
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been reported in Asia, including Indonesia since 2003. Although several risk factors related to the HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in Indonesia have been identified, little is known of the contact structure of farms of different poultry production types (backyard chickens, broilers, layers, and ducks). This study aims to quantify the contact rates associated with the movement of people, and movements of live birds and products and equipment that affect the risk of HPAIV H5N1 transmission between poultry farms in Indonesia...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M B Sadiq, S S Syed-Hussain, S Z Ramanoon, A A Saharee, N I Ahmad, Noraziah Mohd Zin, S F Khalid, D S Naseeha, A A Syahirah, R Mansor
The increasing public health problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been linked to the extensive antimicrobial use (AMU) in food animals. We conducted a survey among ruminant farmers in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their level of awareness on AMR, attitudes towards AMU, and determinants that influence their practices. The survey was developed in English and Malay, validated, and administered to ruminant farmers in Selangor. A total of 84 farmers (response rate of 55%) completed the structured questionnaire...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Álvaro Roy, José Antonio Infantes-Lorenzo, Juan Carlos Blázquez, Ángel Venteo, Francisco José Mayoral, Mercedes Domínguez, Inmaculada Moreno, Beatriz Romero, Lucía de Juan, Anna Grau, Lucas Domínguez, Javier Bezos
Vaccination against paratuberculosis (PTB) in goats is a cost-effective control strategy, and is also effective as regards preventing the onset of clinical cases. However, it causes interference in the diagnostic tests used in the control of tuberculosis (TB). A group of 99 goats from a herd with no history of TB or PTB infection was vaccinated against PTB at seven months of age. They then underwent consecutive intradermal tests [single (SIT) and comparative (CIT) intradermal tuberculin tests), interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and two serological tests (p22_CE and DR-ELISA) every three months, until the interference disappeared...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jonathan van Senten, Carole R Engle, Kathleen Hartman, Kamina K Johnson, Lori L Gustafson
The growth of aquaculture, both in terms of the volume of production and the diversity of species and production systems, has created challenges for effective animal health policies. This paper presents results of a case study of the costs to a sector of U.S. aquaculture in which producers raising fish that are sold and shipped live contend with widely differing requirements for testing and certification of aquatic animal health. These are compared to related costs under a proposed uniform standard. The uniform standard scenario assumes adoption by the majority of the industry of a non-regulatory surveillance and biosecurity program with veterinary oversight, as an alternative to the current complex regulatory environment based on administrative political districts rather than on risk of disease transmission...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kathrin Büttner, Joachim Krieter
The analysis of trade networks as well as the spread of diseases within these systems focuses mainly on pure animal movements between farms. However, additional data included as edge weights can complement the informational content of the network analysis. However, the inclusion of edge weights can also alter the outcome of the network analysis. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare unweighted and weighted network analyses of a pork supply chain in Northern Germany and to evaluate the impact on the centrality parameters...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Laura C Roberts, Geoffrey T Fosgate
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevention and control is a challenge worldwide but the situation in southern Africa is particularly complex because the virus is endemic in wild African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). The objective of this study was to compare stakeholder perceptions of the FMD control methods employed to restrict FMD virus to the infected zone of South Africa. Data collection was performed using an online questionnaire distributed to FMD experts, government veterinarians, private livestock veterinarians, people involved within the wildlife sector, and "other" occupation groups including the general public...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
N J Urie, J E Lombard, K L Marshall, R Digianantonio, A M Pelzel-McCluskey, B J McCluskey, J L Traub-Dargatz, C A Kopral, S L Swenson, J J Schiltz
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by a contagious rhabdovirus that affects horses, cattle, and swine. Clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in pigs and cattle are indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a foreign animal disease and reportable disease in the United States (Rodriguez et al., 2000). A VS epidemic occurred in the Rocky Mountain region in 2014-15. A study was conducted in Colorado to evaluate horse- and management-level factors associated with VS. For a horse to be considered a clinical VS horse, there were two requirements...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Md Ahasanul Hoque, Beata Ujvari, Marcel Klaassen
Live bird markets (LBM) are important for trading poultry in many developing countries where they are being considered hotspots of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) prevalence and contamination. An active surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) was conducted on four species of LBM birds (chickens, ducks, quails and pigeons) from 10 of the largest LBM in Chittagong, Bangladesh, and two species of peri-domestic wild birds (house crow and Asian pied starling) in their direct vicinity from November 2012 until September 2016...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
D Price, J Sánchez, J McClure, S McConkey, R Ibarra, S St-Hilaire
The use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is increasingly being scrutinized. In Chile, piscirickettsiosis accounts for approximately 90% of the total volume of antibiotics used in marine aquaculture. Treatment failures are frequently reported, but there is limited information on why this occurs. Fish producers have started assessing the level of antibiotics in fish tissues during and immediately after in-feed treatments to determine if they are adequately medicating their fish. In this study, we evaluated the probability of finding antibiotic concentrations in muscle tissue above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the P...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Noémie Courtejoie, Gina Zanella, Benoît Durand
The growing frequency of bluetongue virus (BTV) incursions in Europe in recent years led to the largest BTV outbreak ever recorded in 2006/09, with a dramatic impact on the cattle and sheep industries. The complex epidemiology of this vector-borne disease of ruminants and its recent emergence need to be better understood to identify and implement efficient control strategies. Mathematical models provide useful tools for that purpose; many of them have been developed in the light of the 2006/09 outbreak. We aimed to provide a systematic review of compartmental mathematical models dedicated to BTV occurrence or transmission in European countries, to assess robustness of findings to different modelling approaches and assumptions...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
S Buczinski, G Fecteau, J Dubuc, D Francoz
Bovine respiratory disease complex is a major cause of illness in dairy calves. The diagnosis of active infection of the lower respiratory tract is challenging on daily basis in the absence of accurate clinical signs. Clinical scoring systems such as the Californian scoring system, are appealing but were developed without considering the imperfection of reference standard tests used for case definition. This study used a Bayesian latent class model to update Californian prediction rules. The results of clinical examination and ultrasound findings of 608 preweaned dairy calves were used...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Florence Terrade, Nicolas Rose
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen mainly transmitted via food in developed countries, and for which domestic pigs are recognised as the main reservoir. To implement an efficient HEV surveillance and control plan in the pig production sector, it is first necessary to assess the level of knowledge of pig-farming main actors about this pathogen. To this aim, an online survey was conducted between September and October 2017 to evaluate pig farmers' and veterinarians' knowledge about HEV epidemiology and its zoonotic potential...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Marino Contu, Paolo Capece, Michele Fiori, Simona Canu, Cipriano Foxi, Sandro Rolesu
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Many studies have contributed to clarifying various aspects of its aetiology, epidemiology and vector dynamic; however, BT remains a disease of epidemiological and economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. Since 2000, the Sardinia region has been the most affected area of the Mediterranean basin. The region is characterised by wide pastoral areas for sheep and represents the most likely candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence in Italy...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
I F Richens, J Houdmont, W Wapenaar, O Shortall, J Kaler, H O'Connor, M L Brennan
It has been recognised that few cattle farmers undertake biosecurity practices on their farms. Approaches that take into consideration individuals' preparedness for change, alongside beliefs thought to motivate the enactment of certain behaviours, may provide a framework for actuating tangible change. The aim of this study was to use a combination of behaviour change models to link beliefs with behaviour and identify possible key interventions to improve the uptake of biosecurity measures by dairy cattle farmers in Great Britain (GB)...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kaari Reimus, Toomas Orro, Ulf Emanuelson, Arvo Viltrop, Kerli Mõtus
Mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) reflects the health and welfare state of the cows and is associated with undesirable financial consequences for the farmer. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to identify risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in dairy cows. Data for a study period between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board and Estonian Livestock Performance Recording, Ltd. Cows from milk-recording herds with ≥20 cow-years were included...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Svensson, K Alvåsen, A C Eldh, J Frössling, H Lomander
A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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