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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122659/epidemiological-performance-and-subsequent-costs-of-different-surveillance-strategies-to-control-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1-in-dairy-farms
#1
Anouk Veldhuis, Inge Santman-Berends, Birgit Schauer, Jet Mars, Frederik Waldeck, Christoph Staubach, Gerdien van Schaik
This study aimed at comparing the surveillance program of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) as laid down by EU Decision 2004/558/EC and 2007/584/EC ('conventional design') with an alternative design. The alternative design was based on monthly bulk-milk testing, clinical surveillance and a risk-based component that involves testing of animals that are purchased from non-free cattle herds. Scenario-tree analyses were carried out to determine sensitivities of the surveillance system (and its components) and the monthly confidence of freedom on herd-level...
January 18, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089290/assessing-circumstances-and-causes-of-dairy-cow-death-in-italian-dairy-farms-through-a-veterinary-practice-survey-2013-2014
#2
Francesca Fusi, Alessandra Angelucci, Valentina Lorenzi, Luca Bolzoni, Luigi Bertocchi
A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17...
January 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089289/evaluation-of-five-serologic-assays-for-bovine-tuberculosis-surveillance-in-domestic-free-range-pigs-from-southern-spain
#3
Fernando Cardoso-Toset, Inmaculada Luque, Librado Carrasco, Francisco Jurado-Martos, María Ángeles Risalde, Ángel Venteo, José A Infantes-Lorenzo, Javier Bezos, Paloma Rueda, Istar Tapia, Christian Gortázar, Lucas Domínguez, Mercedes Domínguez, Jaime Gomez-Laguna
In countries where bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still prevalent the contact among different animal species in extensive systems contributes to the circulation of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Thus, free-range pigs can develop subclinical infections and may contribute to disease spread to bovine and wildlife. Serodiagnosis has been proposed as a screening tool for detecting infected pig herds; however, the value of this method to obtain an accurate diagnosis in this species is still not clear...
December 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040270/a-systematic-review-of-financial-and-economic-assessments-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-prevention-and-mitigation-activities-worldwide
#4
REVIEW
Beate Pinior, Clair L Firth, Veronika Richter, Karin Lebl, Martine Trauffler, Monika Dzieciol, Sabine E Hutter, Johann Burgstaller, Walter Obritzhauser, Petra Winter, Annemarie Käsbohrer
Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities...
December 23, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034594/awareness-of-tick-borne-disease-and-compliance-with-using-tick-preventive-products-of-dog-owners-in-hong-kong
#5
Maureen V Boost, Choi-Yin Tung, Claudia Hoi-Ki Ip, July Fung-Oi Man, Toni Wing-Tung Hui, Candy Fung-Yee Leung, Maggie Yuen-Wa Mak, Queeny Yuen, Margaret M O'Donoghue
Tick-borne disease in dogs is common in South-east Asia and includes babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. These diseases can be largely prevented by compliant use of tick preventive products. This study investigated knowledge of ticks and tick-borne disease and use of tick preventive agents by a large sample of dog owners in Hong Kong. A total of 492 valid questionnaires were completed by owners attending veterinary practices, approached by researchers at common dog-walking areas, or targeted via local social media sites for pet owners...
December 21, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017453/risk-factors-for-equine-fractures-in-thoroughbred-flat-racing-in-north-america
#6
Stamatis Panagiotis Georgopoulos, Tim D H Parkin
The aim of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with equine fractures in flat horse racing of Thoroughbreds in North America. Equine fractures were defined as any fracture sustained by a horse during a race. This was a cohort study that made use of all starts from the racecourses reporting injuries. The analysis was based on 2,201,152 racing starts that represent 91% of all official racing starts in the USA and Canada from 1st January 2009-31st December 2014. Approximately 3,990,000 workout starts made by the 171,523 Thoroughbreds that raced during that period were also included in the analysis...
December 12, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993401/rapid-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-evidence-for-effectiveness-of-primary-production-interventions-to-control-salmonella-in-beef-and-pork
#7
REVIEW
Barbara J Wilhelm, Ian Young, Sarah Cahill, Rei Nakagawa, Patricia Desmarchelier, Andrijana Rajić
Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. (hereafter referred to as Salmonella) on beef and pork is an important cause of foodborne illness and death globally. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce Salmonella prevalence or concentration in beef and pork was undertaken. A broad search was conducted in Scopus and CAB abstracts. Each citation was appraised using screening tools tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized studies...
December 6, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017454/assessment-of-factors-influencing-the-within-batch-seroprevalence-of-human-enteropathogenic-yersinia-spp-of-pigs-at-slaughter-age-and-the-analogy-with-microbiology
#8
G Vanantwerpen, D Berkvens, L De Zutter, K Houf
The microbiologically and serologically-based prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at moment of slaughter varies between pig farms due to different herd-level factors. A face-to-face questionnaire concerning a broad range of farm aspects (e.g., management and housing system, biosecurity, and hygiene measurements) was performed on one hundred farms. Factors influencing the seropositivity of 7047 pigs against human pathogenic Yersinia spp. were determined and compared to the microbiology. At the slaughterhouse, pieces of diafragm of on average 70 slaughter pigs per batch were sampled to determine the level of antibodies against enteropathogenic Yersinia spp...
December 5, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107883/batch-medication-of-intestinal-infections-in-nursery-pigs-a-randomised-clinical-trial-on-the-efficacy-of-treatment-strategy-type-of-antibiotic-and-bacterial-load-on-average-daily-weight-gain
#9
Nicolai Rosager Weber, Ken Steen Pedersen, Christian Fink Hansen, Matthew Denwood, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Jens Peter Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Previous research projects have demonstrated the need for better diagnostic tools to support decisions on medication strategies for infections caused by Escherichia coli F4 (F4) and F18 (F18), Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and Brachyspira pilosicoli (PILO). This study was carried out as a randomised clinical trial in three Danish pig herds and included 1047 nursery pigs, distributed over 10 batches and 78 pens. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the effect of four 5-day treatment strategies (initiated at clinical outbreak of diarrhoea or at fixed time points 14, 21, or 28days after weaning) on average daily weight gain (ADG); (2) to compare the effect of treatment with doxycycline or tylosine on diarrhoea prevalence, pathogenic bacterial load, and ADG; (3) to evaluate PCR testing of faecal pen floor samples as a diagnostic tool for determining the optimal time of treatment...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107882/a-real-time-reporting-system-of-causes-of-death-or-reasons-for-euthanasia-a-model-for-monitoring-mortality-in-domesticated-cats-in-taiwan
#10
Wei-Hsiang Huang, Albert Taiching Liao, Pei-Yi Chu, I-Feng Yen, Chen-Hsuan Liu
A novel, real-time mortality recording system was designed to collect mortality data in companion animals from veterinary hospitals in Taiwan. This retrospective study aims to introduce the system, and to utilize the data collected for further investigation of the lifespan and mortality of the domesticated cat population stratified by demographic variables. Our data revealed that 1325 domesticated cats were acquired between 2012 and 2014. The median age of the study population was 8.0 years (IQR 3.0-13.0; range 0...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107881/a-census-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-caprine-arthritis-encephalitis-virus-and-visna-maedi-virus-in-the-swiss-goat-population
#11
B Thomann, L C Falzon, G Bertoni, H R Vogt, G Schüpbach-Regula, I Magouras
In Switzerland, viruses belonging to two different phylogenetic groups of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are currently circulating: the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and visna/maedi virus (VMV). In the past two decades, a mandatory national control program has led to a very low prevalence of seropositivity, while completely eliminating CAE as a clinical manifestation. However, in order to reduce the high costs and effort associated with this program, adjustments based on the most recent epidemiological knowledge are needed...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107880/treatment-strategies-for-sheep-scab-an-economic-model-of-farmer-behaviour
#12
Emily J Nixon, Hannah Rose Vineer, Richard Wall
Ovine psoroptic mange (sheep scab) is a debilitating and damaging condition caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the faecal material of the parasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. Farmers incur costs from the use of prophylactic acaricides and, if their sheep become infected, they incur the costs of therapeutic treatment plus the economic loss from reduced stock growth, lower reproductive rate, wool loss and hide damage. The unwillingness of farmers to use routine prophylactic treatment has been cited as a primary cause of the growing incidence of sheep scab in the United Kingdom (UK) since the disease was deregulated in 1992...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107879/disease-transmission-in-animal-transfer-networks
#13
Dejene W Sintayehu, H H T Prins, I M A Heitkönig, W F de Boer
Infectious diseases transmission is strongly determined by who contacts whom. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a worldwide burden for animal populations. One of the major transmission mechanism between herd is the transfer of infectious animal. In East Africa, pastoralists may receive or bestow livestock to create and strengthen social relationships. Here, we used a network approach to examine the relative importance of such cattle transfer in the transmission of bTB. First, a total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test to assess the presence of bTB infected cattle in the herd...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107878/effect-of-strategic-administration-of-an-encapsulated-blend-of-formic-acid-citric-acid-and-essential-oils-on-salmonella-carriage-seroprevalence-and-growth-of-finishing-pigs
#14
Kavita Walia, Hector Argüello, Helen Lynch, Finola C Leonard, Jim Grant, Dermot Yearsley, Sinead Kelly, Geraldine Duffy, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Controlling Salmonella at farm level can act as the first line of defence in reducing salmonellosis from pork. This study investigated the efficacy of an encapsulated blend of formic acid, citric acid, and essential oils (FormaXOL™) administered to finisher pigs for 28days prior to slaughter in controlling Salmonella shedding on a commercial farm with a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. Fourteen pens of 8-10 pigs/pen were randomly assigned to a control (finisher diet without additive) or a treatment group (the same diet with 4kg/t of FormaXOL™) for 28 days...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107877/demography-and-health-of-village-dogs-in-rural-western-uganda
#15
David Hyeroba, Sagan Friant, Johnson Acon, James Okwee-Acai, Tony L Goldberg
"Village dogs" in developing economies are assumed to be heavily burdened by infectious disease. We followed a cohort of 61 village dogs in rural western Uganda prospectively for fifteen months to measure changes in health and demographic outcomes, and to examine risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The mean (±standard deviation) number of dogs per household was 2.4 (±2.0), of which 56.0% were male and 44.0% female. For females, average age at first estrus was 1.7 (±0.6)years with a mean litter size of 3...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107876/a-survey-exploring-factors-associated-with-2890-companion-rabbit-owners-knowledge-of-rabbit-care-and-the-neuter-status-of-their-companion-rabbit
#16
Tasha Welch, Jason B Coe, Lee Niel, Emily McCobb
Pet owners' knowledge of pet care has been shown to affect the human-animal relationship and the welfare of companion animals. With rabbits being the third most common companion animal in many regions, and evidence of owners' lack of awareness for the standards of care required to care for companion rabbits, it is important to understand the knowledge level of rabbit owners and determine how companion rabbits are being cared for. The purpose of this study was to survey rabbit owners in order to explore factors associated with their knowledge of rabbit care, and the neuter status of their companion rabbit...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107875/risk-factors-associated-with-the-different-categories-of-piglet-perinatal-mortality-in-french-farms
#17
F Pandolfi, S A Edwards, F Robert, I Kyriazakis
We aimed to identify mortality patterns and to establish risk factors associated with different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms. At farm level, the analyses were performed on data from 146 farms that experienced perinatal mortality problems. At piglet level, the analyses were performed on data from 155 farms (7761 piglets). All data were collected over a period of 10 years (2004-14) by a consulting company, using a non-probability sampling at farm level and a random sampling at sow level...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081912/veterinary-epidemiology-forging-a-path-toward-one-health
#18
Fernando O Mardones, Marta Hernandez-Jover, John A Berezowski, Ann Lindberg, Jonna A K Mazet, Roger S Morris
The One Health concept has been extensively used to describe those practices that support transdisciplinary collaborations involving animal and human health and the environment. During the past International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) conference in Merida (Mexico) in November 2015, a panel discussion was held to identify gaps and needs required for success with such approaches. Key messages included further development of dynamic, transdisciplinary collaborations, new mechanisms for obtaining, integrating and interpreting data from diverse sources, the identification of One Health joint priorities and resources for the veterinary and public health professions, and operationalization and institutionalization of One Health...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040271/effects-of-climate-change-on-the-occurrence-and-distribution-of-livestock-diseases
#19
B Bett, P Kiunga, J Gachohi, C Sindato, D Mbotha, T Robinson, J Lindahl, D Grace
The planet's mean air and ocean temperatures have been rising over the last century because of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These changes have substantial effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. We describe direct and indirect processes linking climate change and infectious diseases in livestock with reference to specific case studies. Some of the studies are used to show a positive association between temperature and expansion of the geographical ranges of arthropod vectors (e.g. Culicoides imicola, which transmits bluetongue virus) while others are used to illustrate an opposite trend (e...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034595/improving-the-use-of-economics-in-animal-health-challenges-in-research-policy-and-education
#20
Jonathan Rushton
The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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