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Chemical Senses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145567/influence-of-airflow-rate-and-stimulus-concentration-on-olfactory-event-related-potentials-oerp-in-humans
#1
Pengfei Han, Valentin A Schriever, Per Peters, Heidi Olze, Florian C Uecker, Thomas Hummel
Although the association between odor concentration and olfactory event-related potential (OERP) has been studied, less is known about the influence of airflow on OERP. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of airflow rate and stimulus concentration on OERP in humans. EEG data were collected from young healthy volunteers (n=17) in separate sessions where 2-phenylethanol (PEA) was delivered in the following conditions: 8L/min 50%v/v, 8L/min 30%v/v, 4L/min 100%v/v and 4L/min 60%v/v. Odor concentrations are referred to the %v/v achieved with air dilution and was not measured in the nose...
November 14, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136162/differences-in-taste-perception-and-spicy-preference-a-thai-japanese-cross-cultural-study
#2
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Shizuko Sato-Kuriwada, Aroonwan Lam-Ubol, Chadamas Promkam, Nattida Chotechuang, Takashi Sasano, Noriaki Shoji
Taste perception is influenced by several factors. However, the relation between taste perception and food culture is unclear. This study compared taste thresholds between populations with different food culture, i.e. Thai and Japanese. A matched case-control study was conducted in 168 adults (84 for each; aged between 50-90 years). The age, sex, systemic disease, medication, smoking, xerostomia and oral hygiene of both groups were not different. Recognition thresholds of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami were measured using filter paper disc (FPD)...
November 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126164/the-association-between-diabetes-and-olfactory-function-in-adults
#3
Jason Ying Kuen Chan, Esther García-Esquinas, Owen H Ko, Michael C F Tong, Sandra Y Lin
Diabetes is a significant chronic disease that in limited studies has been linked with olfactory dysfunction. We investigated the cross-sectional association between diabetes and olfactory dysfunction in 3,151 adults aged ≥40 years who participated in NHANES 2013-2014 with information on olfactory dysfunction and diabetes. Diabetes was defined from fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dl, oral glucose tolerance test ≥200 mg/dl, HbA1c levels ≥6.5%, physician-diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053803/effect-of-radiation-on-sucrose-detection-thresholds-of-mice
#4
Benjamin C Jewkes, Linda A Barlow, Eugene R Delay
Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for head and neck cancers, with an almost obligate side effect of altered taste (Conger 1973). In mice, targeted irradiation of the head and neck causes transient repression of proliferation of basal epithelial cells responsible for taste cell replacement, leading to a temporary depletion of taste sensory cells within taste buds, including Type II taste cells involved in detection of sweet stimuli (Nguyen et al. 2012). These findings suggest that irradiation may elevate sucrose detection thresholds, peaking at 7 days post-irradiation when loss of Type II cells is greatest...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045623/the-influence-of-circadian-timing-on-olfactory-sensitivity
#5
Rachel S Herz, Eliza Van Reen, David Barker, Cassie J Hilditch, Ashten Bartz, Mary A Carskadon
Olfactory sensitivity has traditionally been viewed as a trait that varies according to individual differences but is not expected to change with one's momentary state. Recent research has begun to challenge this position and time of day has been shown to alter detection levels. Links between obesity and the timing of food intake further raise the issue of whether odor detection may vary as a function of circadian processes. To investigate this question, thirty-seven (21 male) adolescents (M age =13.7 years) took part in a 28-hr forced-desynchrony (FD) protocol with 17...
October 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045615/super-and-subadditive-neural-processing-of-dynamic-auditory-visual-objects-in-the-presence-of-congruent-odors
#6
Kathrin Ohla, Richard Höchenberger, Jessica Freiherr, Johan N Lundström
Our sensory experiences comprise a variety of different inputs at any given time. Some of these experiences are unmistakable, others are ambiguous and profit from additional sensory information. Here, we explored whether the presence of a congruent odor influences the neural processing and sensory interaction of audio-visual objects using degraded videos (V) and sounds (A) of dynamic objects in unimodal and bimodal (AV) combinations without or with a congruent odor (VO, AO, AVO). Analyses of EEG data revealed super- and subadditive interaction effects...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040475/from-nose-to-memory-the-involuntary-nature-of-odor-evoked-autobiographical-memories-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Mohamad El Haj, Marie Charlotte Gandolphe, Karim Gallouj, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Pascal Antoine
Research suggests that odors may serve as a potent cue for autobiographical retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigated whether odor-evoked autobiographical memory is an involuntary process that shares similarities with music-evoked autobiographical memory. Participants with mild AD and controls were asked to retrieve two personal memories after odor exposure, after music exposure, and in an odor-and-music-free condition. AD participants showed better specificity, emotional experience, mental time travel, and retrieval time after odor and music exposure than in the control condition...
October 11, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099943/genetic-labeling-of-car4-expressing-cells-reveals-subpopulations-of-type-iii-taste-cells
#8
Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Carbonic anhydrases form an enzyme family of 16 members, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. In lung, kidney, and brain, presence of carbonic anhydrases is associated with protons and bicarbonate transport in capillary endothelium of lung, reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal renal tubules, and extracellular buffering. In contrast, their role in taste is less clear. Recently, carbonic anhydrase IV expression was detected in sour-sensing presynaptic taste cells and was associated with the taste of carbonation, yet the precise role and cell population remained uncertain...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968903/taste-responses-to-linoleic-acid-a-crowdsourced-population-study
#9
Nicole L Garneau, Tiffany M Nuessle, Robin M Tucker, Mengjie Yao, Stephanie A Santorico, Richard D Mattes
Dietary fats serve multiple essential roles in human health but may also contribute to acute and chronic health complications. Thus, understanding mechanisms that influence fat ingestion are critical. All sensory systems may contribute relevant cues to fat detection, with the most recent evidence supporting a role for the sense of taste. Taste detection thresholds for fat vary markedly between individuals and responses are not normally distributed. Genetics may contribute to these observations. Using crowdsourced data obtained from families visiting the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, our objective was to estimate the heritability of fat taste (oleogustus)...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968851/cognitive-load-alters-neuronal-processing-of-food-odors
#10
Sonja Maria Hoffmann-Hensel, Rik Sijben, Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Jessica Freiherr
Obesity is a major health concern in modern societies. Although decreased physical activity and enhanced intake of high-caloric foods are important risk factors for developing obesity, human behavior during eating also plays a role. Previous studies have shown that distraction while eating increases food intake and leads to impaired processing of food stimuli. As olfaction is the most important sense involved in flavor perception, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the influence of cognitive memory load on olfactory perception and processing...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968801/the-accessory-olfactory-system-facilitates-the-recovery-of-the-attraction-to-familiar-volatile-female-odors-in-male-mice
#11
Yoshikage Muroi, Masakazu Nishimura, Toshiaki Ishii
Odors in female mice induce sexual arousal in male mice. Repeated exposure to female odors attenuates male attraction, which recovers when the odors are removed. The neuronal mechanisms for the recovery of male attraction have not been clarified. In this study, we examined how olfactory systems are involved in the recovery of male attraction to female odors following habituation in mice. Presentation with volatile female odors for 5 min induced habituation in males. To evaluate male attraction to familiar volatile female odors, we measured the duration for investigating volatile female odors from the same female mouse, which was presented twice for 5 min with 1-, 3-, or 5-min interval...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968744/olfactory-context-dependent-memory-and-the-effects-of-affective-congruency
#12
Ryan P M Hackländer, Christina Bermeitinger
Odors have been claimed to be particularly effective mnemonic cues, possibly because of the strong links between olfaction and emotion processing. Indeed, past research has shown that odors can bias processing towards affectively congruent material. In order to determine whether this processing bias translates to memory, we conducted 2 olfactory-enhanced-context memory experiments where we manipulated affective congruency between the olfactory context and to-be-remembered material. Given the presumed importance of valence to olfactory perception, we hypothesized that memory would be best for affectively congruent material in the olfactory enhanced context groups...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968700/distracted-sniffing-of-food-odors-leads-to-diminished-behavioral-and-neural-responses
#13
Maria Geraldine Veldhuizen
Eating under distracted conditions such as viewing television is associated with overeating and weight gain. Following evidence from earlier findings, in this issue Hoffman-Hensel et al. report a study in which they investigated the influence of distraction on intensity perception of low and high caloric food odors and neural responses to these food odors. Their findings suggest that distraction directly leads to decreased neural response in olfactory cortex and decreased intensity, and, indirectly to overeating, through a mechanism that then compensates for the decrease in strength of the olfactory signals...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968659/type-iii-cells-in-anterior-taste-fields-are-more-immunohistochemically-diverse-than-those-of-posterior-taste-fields-in-mice
#14
Courtney E Wilson, Thomas E Finger, Sue C Kinnamon
Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981826/differences-in-the-density-of-fungiform-papillae-and-composition-of-saliva-in-patients-with-taste-disorders-compared-to-healthy-controls
#15
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Franz Schöps, Gilles Feron, Helene Brignot, Antje Hähner, Thomas Hummel
This study investigated the relation of the fungiform taste papillae density and saliva composition with the taste perception of patients suffering from diagnosed taste disorders. For this purpose, 81 patients and 40 healthy subjects were included. Taste was measured by means of regional and whole mouth chemosensory tests, and electrogustometry. Olfaction was assessed using the Sniffin Sticks. Fungiform papillae were quantified using the "Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae"...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981825/the-influence-of-sniffing-on-airflow-and-odorant-deposition-in-the-canine-nasal-cavity
#16
Alex D Rygg, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Brent A Craven
Nasal airflow plays a critical role in olfaction by transporting odorant from the environment to the olfactory epithelium, where chemical detection occurs. Most studies of olfaction neglect the unsteadiness of sniffing and assume that nasal airflow and odorant transport are "quasi-steady," wherein reality most mammals "sniff." Here, we perform computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow and odorant deposition in an anatomically accurate model of the coyote (Canis latrans) nasal cavity during quiet breathing, a notional quasi-steady sniff, and unsteady sniffing to: quantify the influence of unsteady sniffing, assess the validity of the quasi-steady assumption, and investigate the functional advantages of sniffing compared to breathing...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981824/thirst-increases-chorda-tympani-responses-to-sodium-chloride
#17
Thomas G Mast, Joseph M Breza, Robert J Contreras
In nature, water is present as a low-salt solution, thus we hypothesized that thirst would increase taste responses to low-salt solutions. We investigated the effect of thirst on the 2 different salt detection mechanisms present in the rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve. The first mechanism is dependent upon the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), is blocked by benzamil, and is specific to the cation sodium. The second mechanism, while undefined, is independent of ENaC, and detects multiple cations. We expected thirst to increase benzamil-sensitive sodium responses due to mechanistically increasing the benzamil-sensitive ENaC...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981823/developmental-fine-tuning-of-human-olfactory-discriminability
#18
Xiaomeng Zhang, Wei Chen, Su Li, Wen Zhou
Unlike vision or audition, human olfaction is generally considered evolutionarily ancient and well-functioning at birth, yet there have been few empirical data on the development of olfactory acuity. The current study has assessed olfactory discriminability in children aged 3 to 6 years with 16 pairs of single-compound odorants that differ in various degrees in structure and smell. We report a significant improvement over age in young children's overall olfactory discriminability. Critically, such improvement is modulated by the degree of structural similarity between odorants independent of odor familiarity...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981822/human-fear-chemosignaling-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#19
Jasper H B de Groot, Monique A M Smeets
Alarm pheromones are widely used in the animal kingdom. Notably, there are 26 published studies (N = 1652) highlighting a human capacity to communicate fear, stress, and anxiety via body odor from one person (66% males) to another (69% females). The question is whether the findings of this literature reflect a true effect, and what the average effect size is. These questions were answered by combining traditional meta-analysis with novel meta-analytical tools, p-curve analysis and p-uniform-techniques that could indicate whether findings are likely to reflect a true effect based on the distribution of P-values...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981821/sodium-carbonate-is-saltier-than-sodium-chloride-to-sodium-depleted-rats
#20
Steven J St John, Anya M McBrayer, Erin E Krauskopf
In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
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