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Chemical Senses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645147/corrigendum
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#2
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633416/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605507/comparison-of-the-tastes-of-l-alanine-and-monosodium-glutamate-in-c57bl-6j-wild-type-and-t1r3-knockout-mice
#4
Meghan C Eddy, Benjamin K Eschle, Eugene Delay
Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these two amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, wild type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of conditioned taste aversion between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes...
June 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595328/genetic-lineage-tracing-in-taste-tissues-using-sox2-creert2-strain
#5
Makoto Ohmoto, Wenwen Ren, Yugo Nishiguchi, Junji Hirota, Peihua Jiang, Ichiro Matsumoto
Taste cells in taste buds are epithelial sensory cells. Old taste bud cells die and are replaced by new ones generated from taste stem cells. Identifying and characterizing adult taste stem cells is therefore important to understand how peripheral taste tissues are maintained. SOX2 is expressed in oral epithelium including gustatory papillae and has been proposed to be a marker of adult taste stem/progenitor cells. Nevertheless, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. Here, by single-color genetic lineage tracing using Sox2-CreERT2 strain, we reveal that all types of taste bud cells distributed throughout the oral epithelium are derived from stem cells that express SOX2...
June 8, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575283/quantification-of-oral-roughness-perception-and-comparison-with-mechanism-of-astringency-perception
#6
Brianne Linne, Christopher T Simons
Texture contributes to food acceptance, but oral texture perception is incompletely understood. Presently, we quantified individual sensitivities to lingual tactile roughness and assessed the impact of age, salivary flow (SF), and fungiform papillae density (FPD) on threshold and suprathreshold perception. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that individuals highly sensitive to tactile roughness exhibit sensitivity to astringent stimuli. Detection thresholds (DTs) were determined using the staircase method for surface roughness from stainless steel coupons (Ra; 0...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575186/comparing-manual-counting-to-automated-image-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-fungiform-papillae-density-on-human-tongue
#7
Maria Piochi, Erminio Monteleone, Luisa Torri, Camilla Masi, Valérie L Almli, Jens Petter Wold, Caterina Dinnella
The density of fungiform papillae (FPD) on the human tongue is currently taken as index for responsiveness to oral chemosensory stimuli. Visual analysis of digital tongue picture and manual counting by trained operators represents the most popular technique for FPD assessment. Methodological issues mainly due to operator bias are considered among factors accounting for the uncertainty about the relationships between FPD and responsiveness to chemosensory stimuli.The present study describes a novel automated method to count fungiform papillae from image analysis of tongue pictures...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531300/anosmia-a-clinical-review
#8
Sanne Boesveldt, Elbrich M Postma, Duncan Boak, Antje Welge-Luessen, Veronika Schöpf, Joel D Mainland, Jeffrey Martens, John Ngai, Valerie B Duffy
Anosmia and hyposmia, the inability or decreased ability to smell, is estimated to afflict 3-20% of the population. Risk of olfactory dysfunction increases with old age and may also result from chronic sinonasal diseases, severe head trauma, and upper respiratory infections, or neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders impair the ability to sense warning odors in foods and the environment, as well as hinder the quality of life related to social interactions, eating, and feelings of well-being. This article reports and extends on a clinical update commencing at the 2016 Association for Chemoreception Sciences annual meeting...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#9
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633464/hyposmia-and-disgust-gender-specific-effects
#10
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Reduced olfactory function is associated with altered trait disgust in men. This study sought to determine whether hyposmic women show similar changes in disgust responsiveness. We compared patients with hyposmia (25 men, 23 women) and 50 normosmic individuals (25 men, 25 women) with regard to their tendency to experience disgust across different disgust domains (disgust proneness), their self-disgust and their tendency to perceive their own disgust feelings as difficult to control and embarrassing (disgust sensitivity)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633463/the-body-odor-disgust-scale-bods-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-olfactory-disgust-assessment
#11
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575227/relationship-between-psychophysiological-responses-to-aversive-odors-and-nutritional-status-during-normal-aging
#12
Pauline Joussain, Camille Ferdenzi, Jelena Djordjevic, Moustafa Bensafi
Psychophysiological responses to disgusting and pleasant smells are one of the most important aspects of olfaction. These emotional signals can constitute an alert against toxic substances, and they may play a major role in food selection and nutritional intake. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by examining whether individual physiological responses to odors could predict the subject's nutritional status. Because aging is associated with changes in emotional response to smells, we also examined how aging affects the relationship between olfaction and nutrition...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486665/body-odor-trait-disgust-sensitivity-predicts-perception-of-sweat-biosamples
#13
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Jonas K Olofsson, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486601/the-face-of-distaste-a-preliminary-study
#14
Hanah A Chapman, Daniel H Lee, Joshua M Susskind, Marni S Bartlett, Adam K Anderson
Distaste is a primitive rejection impulse triggered by the ingestion of unpleasant tasting substances, many of which are toxic. Theoretical work has suggested that distaste may be the evolutionary precursor for both physical disgust, which serves to defend against disease and other threats to biological fitness, and moral disgust, which defends against threats to the social order. Consistent with this proposal, recent work has found that the facial expression of distaste may be similar to that of disgust. Specifically, raising of the upper lip has been reported in distaste, physical disgust, and moral disgust...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383634/influence-of-bitter-taste-on-affective-facial-processing-an-erp-study
#15
Anne Schienle, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Daniela Schwab
Previous research showed that a bitter taste in the mouth is able to enhance hostile response tendencies to social rejection. The present event-related potential (ERP) study sought to investigate neuronal components of this effect. We presented 52 participants (39 women and 13 men; mean age = 23.3 years) with images of facial expressions signaling social rejection (angry, disgusted) or no rejection (happy, neural), whereas they either experienced a bitter aftertaste (bitter group [BG]: n = 26) or rinsed their mouth with water (control group [CG]: n = 26)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073838/gender-specific-relation-between-olfactory-sensitivity-and-disgust-perception
#16
Ilona Croy, Johanna Bendas, Nadja Wittrodt, Maria Lenk, Peter Joraschky, Kerstin Weidner
The perception of disgust is a powerful but yet puzzling emotion, aiming at the prevention of potential microbial pathogens and being directly linked to olfactory processing in its neurophysiological pathways via the anterior insular cortex. In sample of healthy participants with a natural variation in olfactory function, we investigated the relation between olfactory sensitivity and disgust perception. A total of 123 healthy individuals were surveyed with a disgust sensitivity questionnaire. Olfactory threshold was assessed in all participants using the Sniffin' Sticks...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531312/taste-elicited-activity-in-facial-muscle-regions-in-5-8-week-old-infants
#17
Jessica E Armstrong, David G Laing, Anthony L Jinks
The state of development of the sense of taste in humans during the first few months of life is only partially understood. Since taste plays a critical role in the feeding and nutrition of infants a better understanding of taste development during early life is required. Currently, information about the sense of taste in pre-verbal infants is obtained by analysis of videotaped facial expressions using the Baby FACS coding system. A potentially more objective faster procedure for assessing facial expressions not investigated in infants is electromyography (EMG)...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444161/odor-perception-by-dogs-evaluating-two-training-approaches-for-odor-learning-of-sniffer-dogs
#18
Carola Fischer-Tenhagen, Dorothea Johnen, Wolfgang Heuwieser, Roland Becker, Kristin Schallschmidt, Irene Nehls
In this study, a standardized experimental set-up with various combinations of herbs as odor sources was designed. Two training approaches for sniffer dogs were compared; first, training with a pure reference odor, and second, training with a variety of odor mixtures with the target odor as a common denominator. The ability of the dogs to identify the target odor in a new context was tested. Six different herbs (basil, St. John's wort, dandelion, marjoram, parsley, ribwort) were chosen to produce reference materials in various mixtures with (positive) and without (negative) chamomile as the target odor source...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383662/phosphorus-taste-involves-t1r2-and-t1r3
#19
Michael G Tordoff
Rodents consume solutions of phosphates and pyrophosphates in preference to water. Recently, we found that the preference for trisodium pyrophosphate (Na3HP2O7) was greater in T1R3 knockout (KO) mice than wild-type (WT) controls, suggesting that T1R3 is a pyrophosphate detector. We now show that this heightened Na3HP2O7 preference of T1R3 KO mice extends to disodium phosphate (Na2HPO4), disodium and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na2H2PO4 and Na4H2PO4), a tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10), a non-sodium phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4], and a non-sodium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) but not to non-P salts with large anions (sodium gluconate, acetate, or propionate)...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379369/electrogustometry-thresholds-tongue-tip-vascularization-density-and-form-of-the-fungiform-papillae-following-smoking-cessation
#20
Pavlos Pavlidis, Haralampos Gouveris, Georgios Kekes
The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in gustatory function and in shape, density, and vascularization of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of smokers' tongue before and after smoking cessation. In 24 smokers (19 males, 5 females; median age: 54.6 ± 2.9 years) electrogustometry (EGM) thresholds at the chorda tympani area, at the soft palate area and at the area of the vallate papillae were recorded bilaterally. Morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) and blood vessels' density and morphology at the tip of the tongue were examined using contact endoscopy (CE)...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
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