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Chemical Senses

Paul Szyszka, C Giovanni Galizia
In a recent paper, Joseph and colleagues (Joseph et al., 2017) have characterized an IR60b receptor-expressing neuron in Drosophila. They showed that it responds to sucrose and serves to limit sucrose consumption, and proposed that it may thereby act to prevent overfeeding. Here, we propose an alternative hypothesis for the functional role of sucrose feeding control, and for how this limitation of sucrose uptake is accomplished. Adult fruit flies feed by excreting saliva onto the food, and imbibing the predigested liquefied food, or by filling the crop, where the food is predigested...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Senses
A Fjaeldstad, A Niklassen, H Fernandes
The sense of taste holds a key integrate role in assessing the flavour of food before swallowing is initiated. If the expectations for taste are not met, palatability and pleasure of the food can decrease. In patients suffering from taste disorders, this may impair appetite and nutritional state. Testing gustatory function can be important for diagnostics and assessment of treatment effects. However, the gustatory tests applied are required to be both sensitive and reliable.In this study, we investigate the re-test validity of popular Taste Strips gustatory test for gustatory screening...
March 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
Sherlley Amsellem, Richard Höchenberger, Kathrin Ohla
Odors are inherently ambiguous and therefore susceptible to redundant sensory as well as context information. The identification of an odor object relies largely on visual input. Thus far, it is unclear whether visual and olfactory stimuli are indeed integrated at an early perceptual stage and which role the congruence between the visual and olfactory inputs plays. Previous studies on visual-olfactory interaction used either congruent or incongruent information, leaving it open whether nuances of visual-olfactory congruence shape perception differently...
March 8, 2018: Chemical Senses
Edward J Szczygiel, Sungeun Cho, Robin M Tucker
Little is known about the relationship between sleep and chemosensation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between chemosensory function and sleep duration, quality and architecture. A total of 56 non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2) female participants who denied having diagnosed sleep disorders completed testing. Sleep was measured for two nights using a single-channel (A1-A2) electroencephalogram-(EEG) (Zmachine). Sweet taste threshold and preference as well as olfactory threshold, recognition ability, and pleasantness ratings were evaluated...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Senses
Jonas Töle, Antje Stolzenburg, Susan M Tyree, Frauke Stähler, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Despite long and intense research, some fundamental questions regarding representation of taste information in the brain still remain unanswered. This might in part be due to shortcomings of the established methods that limit the researcher either to thorough characterization of few elements or analyze the response of the entirety of neurons to only one stimulus. To overcome these restrictions, we evaluate the use of the immediate early gene Arc as a neuronal activity marker in the early neural structures of the taste pathway, the nodose/petrosal ganglion (NPG) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)...
March 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
Koji Sato, Peter W Sorensen
Although it is well established that the olfactory epithelium of teleost fish detects at least 6 classes of biologically-relevant odorants using five types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), little is understood about the specificity of individual OSNs and thus how they encode identity of natural odors. In this study we used in vivo extracellular single-unit recording to examine the odor-responsiveness and physiological characteristics of 109 individual OSNs in mature male goldfish to a broad range of biological odorants including feeding stimuli (amino acids, polyamines, nucleotides), sex pheromones (sex steroids, prostaglandins) and a putative social cue (bile acids)...
March 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
Maria Piochi, Caterina Dinnella, John Prescott, Erminio Monteleone
Fungiform papillae on human tongue are the proxy structures designated to oral stimuli detection and transduction. However, the role of their density (fungiform papillae/cm2) in explaining oral sensitivity is still controversial. While early studies generally found that the responsiveness to oral stimuli increased as the number of papillae increased, recent large-scale studies failed to confirm this finding.The present paper reviews relevant studies dealing with the relationship between fungiform papillae density and responsiveness to oral sensations including: fundamental tastes, 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PROP) and sensations from trigeminal stimulation...
February 27, 2018: Chemical Senses
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
Sangzin Ahn, Mooseok Choi, Hyunju Kim, Eunjeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Seong-Il Kang, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dae Woo Kim, Hye-Sun Kim
Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior...
February 9, 2018: Chemical Senses
Alex M Pierce, Christopher T Simons
Odorants are perceived orthonasally (nostrils) or retronasally (oral cavity). Prior research indicates route of delivery impacts odorant perception, pleasantness, and directed behaviors thus suggesting differential processing of olfactory information. Adaptation is a form of neural processing resulting in decreased perceived intensity of a stimulus following prolonged and continuous exposure. The present study objective was to determine whether route of delivery differentially impacts olfactory adaptation and whether cross-adaptation occurs between orthonasal and retronasal pathways...
February 1, 2018: Chemical Senses
Yada Treesukosol, Timothy H Moran
The orosensory characteristics of a diet play a role in its acceptance and rejection. The current study was designed to investigate the gustatory components that contribute to the intake of a palatable, high-energy diet (HE; 45% calories from fat, 17% calories from sucrose). Here, rats were conditioned to avoid HE diet by pairings with i.p. injections of LiCl to induce visceral malaise. Subsequently, the degree of generalization was tested to an array of taste compounds using a brief-access lick procedure (10-s trials, 30-min sessions)...
February 1, 2018: Chemical Senses
A Banner, I Frumin, S G Shamay-Tsoory
A growing body of evidence suggests that humans can communicate socially relevant information, such as aggression, dominance and readiness for competition, through chemosensory signals. Androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one), a testosterone-derived compound found in men's axillary sweat, is a main candidate for a human pheromone that may convey such information. The current study aimed to investigate whether androstadienone serves as a chemosignaling threat cue to men, thus triggering avoidance behavior during competitive interaction with another man...
January 30, 2018: Chemical Senses
Soleil Worthy, German Rojas, Charles Taylor, Elizabeth E Glater
Animals have evolved specialized pathways to detect appropriate food sources and avoid harmful ones. Caenorhabditis elegans can distinguish among the odors of various species of bacteria, its major food source, but little is known about what specific chemical cue or combination of chemical cues C. elegans uses to detect and recognize different microbes. Here, we examine the strong innate attraction of C. elegans for the odor of the pathogenic bacterium, Serratia marcescens. This initial attraction likely facilitates ingestion and infection of the C...
January 24, 2018: Chemical Senses
Maik Behrens, Loïc Briand, Claire A de March, Hiroaki Matsunami, Atsuko Yamashita, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Simone Weyand
The field of chemical senses has made major progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms of olfaction and taste in the past two decades. However, the molecular understanding of odour and taste recognition is still lagging far behind and will require solving multiple structures of the relevant full-length receptors in complex with native ligands to achieve this goal. However, the development of multiple complimentary strategies for the structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) makes this goal realistic...
January 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
Linus Andersson, Petra Sandberg, Jonas Olofsson, Steven Nordin
A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored...
January 8, 2018: Chemical Senses
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
January 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
Bernd Lindemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Chemical Senses
Ljubica Damjanovic, Heather Wilkinson, Julie Lloyd
The current study investigated the extent to which the concurrent presentation of pleasant and unpleasant odors could modulate the perceptual saliency of happy facial expressions in an emotional visual search task. Whilst a search advantage for happy faces was found in the no odor and unpleasant odor conditions, it was abolished under the pleasant odor condition. Furthermore, phasic properties of visual search performance revealed the malleable nature of this happiness advantage. Specifically, attention towards happy faces was optimized at the start of the visual search task for participants presented with pleasant odors, but diminished towards the end...
December 23, 2017: Chemical Senses
Olivier Rampin, Nathalie Jerôme, Audrey Saint-Albin, Christian Ouali, Frank Boué, Nicolas Meunier, Birte L Nielsen
TMT (2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) is known as a component of fox feces inducing fear in rodents. However, no recent chemical analyses of fox feces are available, and few studies make direct comparisons between TMT and fox feces. Fox feces from 3 individuals were used to prepare 24 samples to be analyzed for the presence of TMT using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When TMT was added in low amounts (50-2000 nmol/g), TMT was detected in 10 out of 11 samples. When no TMT was added, TMT was detected in only 1 out of 13 samples...
February 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Ajay S Naik, Allison F Coyne, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
In female mice, the expression of receptive lordosis behavior requires estradiol and progesterone actions in the nervous system; however, the contribution of these hormones to females' motivation to seek out male pheromones is less clear. In an initial experiment, sexually naïve ovary-intact female mice preferred to investigate (make nasal contact with) testes-intact male as opposed to estrous female urine, provided they were in vaginal estrus. In a second experiment, groups of sexually naïve and mating-experienced, ovariectomized females were tested for urinary pheromone preference first without and then with ovarian hormone replacement...
February 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
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