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Chemical Senses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#1
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334357/sweetener-intake-by-rats-selectively-bred-for-differential-saccharin-intake-sucralose-stevia-and-acesulfame-potassium
#2
Nancy K Dess, Kiana Dobson, Brandon T Roberts, Clinton D Chapman
Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear...
March 15, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#3
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334229/functional-and-nonfunctional-forms-of-cquior91-an-odorant-selectivity-subunit-of-culex-quinquefasciatus
#4
David T Hughes, Julien Pelletier, Suhaila Rahman, Sisi Chen, Walter S Leal, Charles W Luetje
In Culex quinquefasciatus, CquiOR91 is the ortholog of 2 larvae-specific odorant receptors (ORs) from Anopheles gambiae (Agam\Or40, previously shown to respond to several odorant ligands including the broad-spectrum repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET) and Aedes aegypti (Aaeg\Or40). When we cloned full-length CquiOR91 from a Culex quinquefasciatus larval head RNA sample, we found 2 alleles of this OR, differing at 9 residues. Functional analysis using the Xenopus oocyte expression system and 2-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology revealed one allele (CquiOR91...
March 3, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334158/the-impact-of-pregnancy-on-taste-function
#5
Ezen Choo, Robin Dando
It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334209/comparative-study-of-chemosensory-organs-of-shrimp-from-hydrothermal-vent-and-coastal-environments
#6
Magali Zbinden, Camille Berthod, Nicolas Montagné, Julia Machon, Nelly Léger, Thomas Chertemps, Nicolas Rabet, Bruce Shillito, Juliette Ravaux
The detection of chemical signals is involved in a variety of crustacean behaviors, such as social interactions, search and evaluation of food and navigation in the environment. At hydrothermal vents, endemic shrimp may use the chemical signature of vent fluids to locate active edifices, however little is known on their sensory perception in these remote deep-sea habitats. Here, we present the first comparative description of the sensilla on the antennules and antennae of 4 hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata, Chorocaris chacei, and Alvinocaris markensis) and of a closely related coastal shrimp (Palaemon elegans)...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334146/corrigendum
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334125/the-effect-of-stimulus-duration-on-the-nostril-localization-of-eucalyptol
#8
Johannes Frasnelli, Florence Gingras-Lessard, Joëlle Robert, Jason Steffener
The trigeminal system is a chemosensory system participating in the perception of most odorants, which allows for the perception of diverse sensations including the freshness of eucalyptus or the spiciness of pepper. The lateralization task, that is, the identification of the stimulated nostril in a monorhinal stimulation paradigm is only possible following trigeminal stimulation and allows therefore for the assessment of the trigeminal sensitivity also in a clinical setting. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of the duration of stimuli on the lateralization task...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334095/phantom-smells-prevalence-and-correlates-in-a-population-based-sample-of-older-adults
#9
Sara Sjölund, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson, Janina Seubert, Erika J Laukka
Loss of olfactory function is common in old age, but evidence regarding qualitative olfactory dysfunction in the general older population is scarce. The current study investigates the prevalence and correlates of phantom smell experiences (phantosmia) in a population-based study (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen [SNAC-K]) of Swedish adults (n = 2569) aged between 60 and 90 years. Phantosmia was assessed through a standardized interview and defined as reporting having experienced an odor percept in the absence of any stimuli in the surrounding environment that could emit the odor...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28200040/simplifying-the-odor-landscape
#10
Casey Trimmer, Joel D Mainland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199551/suppression-of-oral-sweet-taste-sensation-with-gymnema-sylvestre-affects-postprandial-gastrointestinal-blood-flow-and-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#11
Hideaki Kashima, Kohei Eguchi, Kanae Miyamoto, Masaki Fujimoto, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Nami Aso-Someya, Toshio Kobayashi, Naoyuki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Fukuba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199564/do-masculine-men-smell-better-an-association-between-skin-color-masculinity-and-female-preferences-for-body-odor
#12
Mariana L Carrito, Isabel M Santos, Laura Alho, Jacqueline Ferreira, Sandra C Soares, Pedro Bem-Haja, Carlos F Silva, David I Perrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164220/genetic-variation-in-taste-sensitivity-to-sugars-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Shun Uchizono, Teiichi Tanimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158517/cast-eij-and-c57bl-6j-mice-differ-in-their-oral-and-postoral-attraction-to-glucose-and-fructose
#14
Anthony Sclafani, Austin S Vural, Karen Ackroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073838/gender-specific-relation-between-olfactory-sensitivity-and-disgust-perception
#15
Ilona Croy, Johanna Bendas, Nadja Wittrodt, Maria Lenk, Peter Joraschky, Kerstin Weidner
The perception of disgust is a powerful but yet puzzling emotion, aiming at the prevention of potential microbial pathogens and being directly linked to olfactory processing in its neurophysiological pathways via the anterior insular cortex. In sample of healthy participants with a natural variation in olfactory function, we investigated the relation between olfactory sensitivity and disgust perception. A total of 123 healthy individuals were surveyed with a disgust sensitivity questionnaire. Olfactory threshold was assessed in all participants using the Sniffin' Sticks...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073837/chronic-co-species-housing-mice-and-rats-increased-the-competitiveness-of-male-mice
#16
Ying-Juan Liu, Lai-Fu Li, Yao-Hua Zhang, Hui-Fen Guo, Min Xia, Meng-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Jing, Jing-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064213/odor-familiarity-and-identification-abilities-in-adolescents
#17
Alexander Fjaeldstad, Jens Sundbøll, Andreas Niklassen, Therese Ovesen
Olfactory identification abilities in adolescents have been reported inferior compared with adults. Though this seems to be the case when comparing identification abilities using tests validated on-and for-adults, odor familiarity has been hypothesized to affect identification abilities in younger participants. However, this has never been thoroughly tested. The aims of this study were to investigate patterns in odor familiarity differences between adolescents and adults, and to investigate if an adolescent familiarity-based modification of an identification test could lead to similar identification scores in adolescents and adults...
January 7, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119361/table-of-contents
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119360/subscriptions
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119359/cover
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Chemical Senses
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