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Chemical Senses

Jérôme Frei, Thomas Kröber, Myriam Troccaz, Christian Starkenmann, Patrick M Guerin
The responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to odors from male and female axillary sweat incubated with human axilla bacteria were recorded in a dual-choice olfactometer. Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected for its low odor-producing pattern, Corynebacterium jeikeium for its strong Nα-acylglutamine aminoacylase activity liberating carboxylic acids including (R)/(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus for its capacity to liberate sulfur-containing compounds including (R/S)-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (MSH)...
October 27, 2016: Chemical Senses
Julia Y Q Low, Robert L McBride, Kathleen E Lacy, Russell S J Keast
Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A)...
October 20, 2016: Chemical Senses
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Senses
Zhudong Liu, Yucui Xin, Bingbing Xu, Kenneth F Raffa, Jianghua Sun
For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Senses
Melanie Yvonne Denzer-Lippmann, Jonathan Beauchamp, Jessica Freiherr, Norbert Thuerauf, Johannes Kornhuber, Andrea Buettner
Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores...
September 28, 2016: Chemical Senses
Steven J St John
Three experiments assessed potential changes in the rat's perception of sodium chloride (NaCl) during a state of sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sodium-sufficient rats licking a range of NaCl concentrations (0.028-0.89M) in 15s trials showed an inverted U-shaped concentration response function peaking at 0.281M. Depleted rats (furosemide) showed an identical function, merely elevated, suggesting altered qualitative or hedonic perception but no change in perceived intensity. In Experiment 2, sodium-depleted rats were tested with NaCl, sodium gluconate, and potassium chloride (KCl; 0...
September 22, 2016: Chemical Senses
Camille Ferdenzi, Pauline Joussain, Bérengère Digard, Lucie Luneau, Jelena Djordjevic, Moustafa Bensafi
Olfactory perception is highly variable from one person to another, as a function of individual and contextual factors. Here, we investigated the influence of 2 important factors of variation: culture and semantic information. More specifically, we tested whether cultural-specific knowledge and presence versus absence of odor names modulate odor perception, by measuring these effects in 2 populations differing in cultural background but not in language. Participants from France and Quebec, Canada, smelled 4 culture-specific and 2 non-specific odorants in 2 conditions: first without label, then with label...
September 21, 2016: Chemical Senses
Bastian Henkel, Willem Bintig, S Sneha Bhat, Marc Spehr, Eva M Neuhaus
In most mammals, the vomeronasal system detects a variety of (semio)chemicals that mediate olfactory-driven social and sexual behaviors. Vomeronasal chemosensation depends on G protein-coupled receptors (V1R, V2R, and FPR-rs) that operate at remarkably low stimulus concentrations, thus, indicating a highly sensitive and efficient signaling pathway. We identified the PDZ domain-containing protein, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1), as putative molecular organizer of signal transduction in vomeronasal neurons...
September 21, 2016: Chemical Senses
Jenne M Westberry, Michael Meredith
Chemosensory stimuli from same species (conspecific) and different species (heterospecific) elicit categorically different immediate-early gene (IEG) response patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. All heterospecific stimuli activate anterior medial amygdala (MeA) but only especially salient heterospecific stimuli, such as those from predators activate posterior medial amygdala (MeP). We previously reported that characteristic patterns of response in separate populations of cells in MeA and MeP distinguish between different conspecific stimuli...
September 20, 2016: Chemical Senses
Boriana Atanasova, Fayçal Mehdi Goumeidane, François Kazour, Henri Schmitt, Marion Husson, Philippe Gaillard, Wissam El-Hage, Nicolas Ballon
As the olfactory system is closely connected with the brain areas responsible for the most crucial alterations in psychiatric populations, especially cognitive and emotional impairments, the study of olfactory processing may be a relevant approach to identify specific markers of alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to propose the probable olfactory markers for alcohol dependence through a study of the olfactory parameters that involve the central olfactory pathway. We recruited the same 41 alcohol-dependent patients in an early (day 8) and late (day 67) stage of abstinence and 41 controls matched for gender, age, and smoking status...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Senses
Yoshihisa Katagawa, Toshiaki Yasuo, Takeshi Suwabe, Tomoki Yamamura, Keika Gen, Noritaka Sako
This behavioral study investigated how rats conditioned to binary mixtures of preferred and aversive taste stimuli, respectively, responded to the individual components in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. The preference of stimuli was determined based on the initial results of 2 bottle preference test. The preferred stimuli included 5mM sodium saccharin (Sacc), 0.03M NaCl (Na), 0.1M Na, 5mM Sacc + 0.03M Na, and 5mM Sacc + 0.2mM quinine hydrochloride (Q), whereas the aversive stimuli tested were 1...
September 13, 2016: Chemical Senses
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chemical Senses
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chemical Senses
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chemical Senses
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chemical Senses
Agnieszka Sorokowska
Previous examinations of olfactory sensitivity in blind people have produced contradictory findings. Thus, whether visual impairment is associated with increased olfactory abilities is unclear. In the present investigation, I aimed to resolve the existing questions via a relatively large-scale study comprising early-blind (N = 43), and late-blind (N = 41) and sighted (N = 84) individuals matched in terms of gender and age. To compare the results with those of previous studies, I combined data from a free odor identification test, extensive psychophysical testing (Sniffin' Sticks test), and self-assessed olfactory performance...
October 2016: Chemical Senses
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Robert Pellegrino, Shangwa Lee, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Thomas Hummel
Sniffin' Sticks have become a popular procedure to measure overall olfactory functionality with 3 subtest: phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I). However, several procedural components specified by the original paper have not been tested nor has the impact of deviations been measured. The aim of the present work was to measure olfactory performance under modified testing procedures. First, the reverse order of subtests (IDT) was compared with more standard practices (TDI)...
October 2016: Chemical Senses
Richard L Doty, Tatiana Prosini De Fonte
Poor sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and related substances has been associated with a number of diseases. We determined, in patients with chemosensory dysfunction from multiple etiologies, whether PTC "tasters" (n = 511) exhibit less smell and taste dysfunction than their non-PTC-tasting counterparts (n = 432) on a comprehensive battery of olfactory and gustatory tests. The proportion of tasters (54%) in our study population was much lower than that calculated from 11 North American population studies (76...
October 2016: Chemical Senses
Sherlley Amsellem, Kathrin Ohla
The role of congruence in cross-modal interactions has received little attention. In most experiments involving cross-modal pairs, congruence is conceived of as a binary process according to which cross-modal pairs are categorized as perceptually and/or semantically matching or mismatching. The present study investigated whether odor-taste congruence can be perceived gradually and whether congruence impacts other facets of subjective experience, that is, intensity, pleasantness, and familiarity. To address these questions, we presented food odorants (chicken, orange, and 3 mixtures of the 2) and tastants (savory-salty and sour-sweet) in pairs varying in congruence...
October 2016: Chemical Senses
Verena Untiet, Lisa M Moeller, Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Gabriela Sánchez-Andrade, Miriam Stricker, Eva M Neuhaus, Darren W Logan, Thomas Gensch, Marc Spehr
In rodents, the vomeronasal system controls social and sexual behavior. However, several mechanistic aspects of sensory signaling in the vomeronasal organ remain unclear. Here, we investigate the biophysical basis of a recently proposed vomeronasal signal transduction component-a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. As the physiological role of such a current is a direct function of the Cl(-) equilibrium potential, we determined the intracellular Cl(-) concentration in dendritic knobs of vomeronasal neurons. Quantitative fluorescence lifetime imaging of a Cl(-)-sensitive dye at the apical surface of the intact vomeronasal neuroepithelium revealed increased cytosolic Cl(-) levels in dendritic knobs, a substantially lower Cl(-) concentration in vomeronasal sustentacular cells, and an apparent Cl(-) gradient in vomeronasal neurons along their dendritic apicobasal axis...
October 2016: Chemical Senses
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