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Chemical Senses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325013/effects-of-task-demands-on-olfactory-auditory-and-visual-event-related-potentials-suggest-similar-top-down-modulation-across-senses
#1
Linus Andersson, Petra Sandberg, Jonas Olofsson, Steven Nordin
A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored...
January 8, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304190/enhancement-of-saltiness-perception-by-monosodium-glutamate-taste-and-soy-sauce-odor-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#2
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
January 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300892/olfaction-philosophy-and-the-missing-object
#3
Bernd Lindemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293901/sweet-emotion-the-role-of-odor-induced-context-in-the-search-advantage-for-happy-facial-expressions
#4
Ljubica Damjanovic, Heather Wilkinson, Julie Lloyd
The current study investigated the extent to which the concurrent presentation of pleasant and unpleasant odors could modulate the perceptual saliency of happy facial expressions in an emotional visual search task. Whilst a search advantage for happy faces was found in the no odor and unpleasant odor conditions, it was abolished under the pleasant odor condition. Furthermore, phasic properties of visual search performance revealed the malleable nature of this happiness advantage. Specifically, attention towards happy faces was optimized at the start of the visual search task for participants presented with pleasant odors, but diminished towards the end...
December 23, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236959/aging-decreases-chorda-tympani-nerve-responses-to-nacl-and-alters-morphology-of-fungiform-taste-pores-in-rats
#5
Zachary D Whiddon, Spencer T Rynberg, Thomas G Mast, Joseph M Breza
Sensory processing is susceptible to decline with age. The sense of taste is, however, generally thought to be resistant to aging. We investigated how chorda-tympani nerve responses and fungiform-taste pores are affected by aging in the Sprague-Dawley rat, a model system for salt taste. First, we measured chorda-tympani nerve responses to NH4Cl and NaCl solutions in young (3-5 months old) and aged (14-15 months old) rats. Aged rats had significantly attenuated chorda-tympani responses to 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0...
December 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228118/where-is-the-tmt-gc-ms-analyses-of-fox-feces-and-behavioral-responses-of-rats-to-fear-inducing-odors
#6
Olivier Rampin, Nathalie Jerôme, Audrey Saint-Albin, Christian Ouali, Frank Boué, Nicolas Meunier, Birte L Nielsen
TMT (2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) is known as a component of fox feces inducing fear in rodents. However, no recent chemical analyses of fox feces are available, and few studies make direct comparisons between TMT and fox feces. Fox feces from 3 individuals were used to prepare 24 samples to be analyzed for the presence of TMT using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When TMT was added in low amounts (50-2000 nmol/g), TMT was detected in 10 out of 11 samples. When no TMT was added, TMT was detected in only 1 out of 13 samples...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211837/effect-of-ovarian-hormones-and-mating-experience-on-the-preference-of-female-mice-to-investigate-male-urinary-pheromones
#7
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Ajay S Naik, Allison F Coyne, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
In female mice the expression of receptive lordosis behavior requires estradiol and progesterone actions in the nervous system; however, the contribution of these hormones to females' motivation to seek out male pheromones is less clear. In an initial experiment, sexually naïve ovary-intact female mice preferred to investigate (make nasal contact with) testes-intact male as opposed to estrous female urine, provided they were in vaginal estrus. In a second experiment, groups of sexually naïve and mating-experienced, ovariectomized females were tested for urinary pheromone preference first without and then with ovarian hormone replacement...
December 2, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145567/influence-of-airflow-rate-and-stimulus-concentration-on-olfactory-event-related-potentials-oerp-in-humans
#8
Pengfei Han, Valentin A Schriever, Per Peters, Heidi Olze, Florian C Uecker, Thomas Hummel
Although the association between odor concentration and olfactory event-related potential (OERP) has been studied, less is known about the influence of airflow on OERP. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of airflow rate and stimulus concentration on OERP in humans. EEG data were collected from young healthy volunteers (n=17) in separate sessions where 2-phenylethanol (PEA) was delivered in the following conditions: 8L/min 50%v/v, 8L/min 30%v/v, 4L/min 100%v/v and 4L/min 60%v/v. Odor concentrations are referred to the %v/v achieved with air dilution and was not measured in the nose...
November 14, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136162/differences-in-taste-perception-and-spicy-preference-a-thai-japanese-cross-cultural-study
#9
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Shizuko Sato-Kuriwada, Aroonwan Lam-Ubol, Chadamas Promkam, Nattida Chotechuang, Takashi Sasano, Noriaki Shoji
Taste perception is influenced by several factors. However, the relation between taste perception and food culture is unclear. This study compared taste thresholds between populations with different food culture, i.e. Thai and Japanese. A matched case-control study was conducted in 168 adults (84 for each; aged between 50-90 years). The age, sex, systemic disease, medication, smoking, xerostomia and oral hygiene of both groups were not different. Recognition thresholds of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami were measured using filter paper disc (FPD)...
November 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126164/the-association-between-diabetes-and-olfactory-function-in-adults
#10
Jason Ying Kuen Chan, Esther García-Esquinas, Owen H Ko, Michael C F Tong, Sandra Y Lin
Diabetes is a significant chronic disease that in limited studies has been linked with olfactory dysfunction. We investigated the cross-sectional association between diabetes and olfactory dysfunction in 3,151 adults aged ≥40 years who participated in NHANES 2013-2014 with information on olfactory dysfunction and diabetes. Diabetes was defined from fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dl, oral glucose tolerance test ≥200 mg/dl, HbA1c levels ≥6.5%, physician-diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053803/effect-of-radiation-on-sucrose-detection-thresholds-of-mice
#11
Benjamin C Jewkes, Linda A Barlow, Eugene R Delay
Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for head and neck cancers, with an almost obligate side effect of altered taste (Conger 1973). In mice, targeted irradiation of the head and neck causes transient repression of proliferation of basal epithelial cells responsible for taste cell replacement, leading to a temporary depletion of taste sensory cells within taste buds, including Type II taste cells involved in detection of sweet stimuli (Nguyen et al. 2012). These findings suggest that irradiation may elevate sucrose detection thresholds, peaking at 7 days post-irradiation when loss of Type II cells is greatest...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293950/role-of-endocannabinoids-on-sweet-taste-perception-food-preference-and-obesity-related-disorders
#12
Ernesto Tarragon, Juan José Moreno
The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome has increased significantly in the past decades, reaching epidemic levels and therefore becoming a major health issue worldwide. Chronic overeating of highly palatable foods is one of the main responsible aspects behind overweight. Food choice is driven by food preference, which is influenced by environmental and internal factors, from availability to rewarding properties of food. Consequently, the acquisition of a dietary habit that may lead to metabolic alterations is the result of a learning process in which many variables take place...
December 25, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293949/interactions-of-lemon-sucrose-and-citric-acid-in-enhancing-citrus-sweet-and-sour-flavors
#13
Maria G Veldhuizen, Ashik Siddique, Sage Rosenthal, Lawrence E Marks
Flavorants such as lemon extract that activate olfactory receptors may also evoke or enhance flavor qualities such as sour and sweet that are typically considered gustatory. Similarly, flavorants such as sucrose and citric acid that activate gustatory receptors may enhance flavors such as citrus that are typically considered olfactory. Here, we ask how lemon extract, sucrose, and citric acid, presented separately and together, affect sweet, sour, and citrus flavors. We accomplished this by testing, in the same 12 subjects, lemon extract and sucrose (Experiment 1), lemon extract and citric acid (Experiment 2), and lemon extract, sucrose, and citric acid (Experiment 3)...
December 25, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099943/genetic-labeling-of-car4-expressing-cells-reveals-subpopulations-of-type-iii-taste-cells
#14
Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Carbonic anhydrases form an enzyme family of 16 members, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. In lung, kidney, and brain, presence of carbonic anhydrases is associated with protons and bicarbonate transport in capillary endothelium of lung, reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal renal tubules, and extracellular buffering. In contrast, their role in taste is less clear. Recently, carbonic anhydrase IV expression was detected in sour-sensing presynaptic taste cells and was associated with the taste of carbonation, yet the precise role and cell population remained uncertain...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968903/taste-responses-to-linoleic-acid-a-crowdsourced-population-study
#15
Nicole L Garneau, Tiffany M Nuessle, Robin M Tucker, Mengjie Yao, Stephanie A Santorico, Richard D Mattes
Dietary fats serve multiple essential roles in human health but may also contribute to acute and chronic health complications. Thus, understanding mechanisms that influence fat ingestion are critical. All sensory systems may contribute relevant cues to fat detection, with the most recent evidence supporting a role for the sense of taste. Taste detection thresholds for fat vary markedly between individuals and responses are not normally distributed. Genetics may contribute to these observations. Using crowdsourced data obtained from families visiting the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, our objective was to estimate the heritability of fat taste (oleogustus)...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968851/cognitive-load-alters-neuronal-processing-of-food-odors
#16
Sonja Maria Hoffmann-Hensel, Rik Sijben, Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Jessica Freiherr
Obesity is a major health concern in modern societies. Although decreased physical activity and enhanced intake of high-caloric foods are important risk factors for developing obesity, human behavior during eating also plays a role. Previous studies have shown that distraction while eating increases food intake and leads to impaired processing of food stimuli. As olfaction is the most important sense involved in flavor perception, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the influence of cognitive memory load on olfactory perception and processing...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968801/the-accessory-olfactory-system-facilitates-the-recovery-of-the-attraction-to-familiar-volatile-female-odors-in-male-mice
#17
Yoshikage Muroi, Masakazu Nishimura, Toshiaki Ishii
Odors in female mice induce sexual arousal in male mice. Repeated exposure to female odors attenuates male attraction, which recovers when the odors are removed. The neuronal mechanisms for the recovery of male attraction have not been clarified. In this study, we examined how olfactory systems are involved in the recovery of male attraction to female odors following habituation in mice. Presentation with volatile female odors for 5 min induced habituation in males. To evaluate male attraction to familiar volatile female odors, we measured the duration for investigating volatile female odors from the same female mouse, which was presented twice for 5 min with 1-, 3-, or 5-min interval...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968744/olfactory-context-dependent-memory-and-the-effects-of-affective-congruency
#18
Ryan P M Hackländer, Christina Bermeitinger
Odors have been claimed to be particularly effective mnemonic cues, possibly because of the strong links between olfaction and emotion processing. Indeed, past research has shown that odors can bias processing towards affectively congruent material. In order to determine whether this processing bias translates to memory, we conducted 2 olfactory-enhanced-context memory experiments where we manipulated affective congruency between the olfactory context and to-be-remembered material. Given the presumed importance of valence to olfactory perception, we hypothesized that memory would be best for affectively congruent material in the olfactory enhanced context groups...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968700/distracted-sniffing-of-food-odors-leads-to-diminished-behavioral-and-neural-responses
#19
Maria Geraldine Veldhuizen
Eating under distracted conditions such as viewing television is associated with overeating and weight gain. Following evidence from earlier findings, in this issue Hoffman-Hensel et al. report a study in which they investigated the influence of distraction on intensity perception of low and high caloric food odors and neural responses to these food odors. Their findings suggest that distraction directly leads to decreased neural response in olfactory cortex and decreased intensity, and, indirectly to overeating, through a mechanism that then compensates for the decrease in strength of the olfactory signals...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968659/type-iii-cells-in-anterior-taste-fields-are-more-immunohistochemically-diverse-than-those-of-posterior-taste-fields-in-mice
#20
Courtney E Wilson, Thomas E Finger, Sue C Kinnamon
Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
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