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Chemical Senses

Torben Noto, Guangyu Zhou, Stephan Schuele, Jessica Templer, Christina Zelano
Nasal inhalation is the basis of olfactory perception and drives neural activity in olfactory and limbic brain regions. Therefore, our ability to investigate the neural underpinnings of olfaction and respiration can only be as good as our ability to characterize features of respiratory behavior. However, recordings of natural breathing are inherently non-stationary, non-sinusoidal, and idiosyncratic making feature extraction difficult to automate. The absence of a freely-available computational tool for characterizing respiratory behavior is a hindrance to many facets of olfactory and respiratory neuroscience...
July 7, 2018: Chemical Senses
Stephen P Wooding
Ability to perceive the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) is inherited via a dominant "taster" allele of the TAS2R38 gene, while inability is inherited via a recessive "non-taster" allele. This raises a question: Is the non-taster allele functionless, or does it mediate perception of compounds other than PTC? New evidence supports speculation that it is indeed functional. Associations between TAS2R38 mutations and bitter sensitivity to the tropical berry Antidesma bunius are the inverse of those PTC, suggesting that the non-taster allele enables perception to compounds in the fruit...
July 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
John Thomas Kurisinkal, Preeji K Prathapan, Ranjith Sreedharan
Bruce effect or alien male-induced implantation failure is a well-studied phenomenon in mice. The presence of stud male during exposure to an alien male protects the female from implantation failure. The pheromones of the stud male are imprinted in the female at the time of mating and act as a luteotrophic agent. We tested whether a non-pheromonal cue exposed to the female during pericopulatory sensitive period could protect pregnancy in newly inseminated females exposed to alien males. Virgin females were allowed to mate in presence of a cotton ball smeared with groundnut oil as a non-pheromonal cue...
July 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
Mackenzie Hannum, Margaret A Stegman, Jenna A Fryer, Christopher T Simons
The Duality of Smell hypothesis suggests odorants delivered orthonasally elicit different sensations compared to those delivered retronasally despite activating the same receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Presently, we investigated this further using a matching paradigm free from odorant or semantic memory bias. Subjects were asked to evaluate an aroma delivered in one condition (orthonasal or retronasal delivery) and match the same aroma from four unknowns evaluated in the same or different delivery condition...
July 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Agata Groyecka, Maciej Karwowski, Tomasz Frackowiak, Jennifer E Lansford, Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Ahmad M Alghraibeh, Richmond Aryeetey, Anna Bertoni, Karim Bettache, Sheyla Blumen, Marta Blazejewska, Tiago Bortolini, Marina Butovskaya, Katarzyna Cantarero, Felipe Nalon Castro, Hakan Cetinkaya, Lei Chang, Bin-Bin Chen, Diana Cunha, Daniel David, Oana A David, Fahd A Dileym, Alejandra Del Carmen Domínguez Espinosa, Silvia Donato, Daria Dronova, Seda Dural, Jitka Fialová, Maryanne Fisher, Evrim Gulbetekin, Aslihan Hamamcioglu Akkaya, Peter Hilpert, Ivana Hromatko, Raffaella Iafrate, Mariana Iesyp, Bawo James, Jelena Jaranovic, Feng Jiang, Charles Obadiah Kimamo, Grete Kjelvik, Firat Koç, Amos Laar, Fívia de Araújo Lopes, Guillermo Macbeth, Nicole M Marcano, Rocio Martinez, Norbert Mesko, Natalya Molodovskaya, Khadijeh Moradi Qezeli, Zahrasadat Motahari, Alexandra Mühlhauser, Jean Carlos Natividade, Joseph Ntayi, Elisabeth Oberzaucher, Oluyinka Ojedokun, Mohd Omar-Fauzee, Ike E Onyishi, Anna Paluszak, John D Pierce, Urmila Pillay, Alda Portugal, Eugenia Razumiejczyk, Anu Realo, Ana Paula Relvas, Maria Rivas, Muhammad Rizwan, Svjetlana Salkicevic, Ivan Sarmány-Schuller, Susanne Schmehl, Oksana Senyk, Charlotte Sinding, Emma Sorbring, Eftychia Stamkou, Stanislava Stoyanova, Denisa Šukolová, Nina Sutresna, Meri Tadinac, Sombat Tapanya, Andero Teras, Edna Lúcia Tinoco Ponciano, Ritu Tripathi, Nachiketa Tripathi, Mamta Tripathi, Olja Uhryn, Maria Emília Yamamoto, Gyesook Yoo, Piotr Sorokowski
Olfaction plays an important role in human social communication, including multiple domains in which people often rely on their sense of smell in the social context. The importance of the sense of smell and its role can however vary inter-individually and culturally. Despite the growing body of literature on differences in olfactory performance or hedonic preferences across the globe, the aspects of a given culture as well as culturally universal individual differences affecting odor awareness in human social life remain unknown...
June 27, 2018: Chemical Senses
Julia Machon, Philippe Lucas, Juliette Ravaux, Magali Zbinden
Chemoreception might play an important role for endemic shrimp that inhabit deep and dark hydrothermal vents to find food sources and to locate active edifices that release specific chemicals. We compared the chemosensory abilities of the hydrothermal shrimp Mirocaris fortunata and the coastal related species, Palaemon elegans. The detection of diverse ecologically relevant chemical stimuli by the antennal appendages was measured with electroantennography. The two species can detect food-related odor and sulfide, a short-distance stimulus, via both their antennae and antennules...
June 20, 2018: Chemical Senses
Sonia D Hudson, Charles A Sims, Asli Z Odabasi, Thomas A Colquhoun, Derek J Snyder, Jennifer J Stamps, Shawn C Dotson, Lorenzo Puentes, Linda M Bartoshuk
Taste and flavor (retronasal olfaction) interact in the brain. The rules of that interaction are not well understood. This study uses 2 taste modifiers that alter sweet to examine the effects on flavors. Subjects used the Global Sensory Intensity Scale to assess the aroma, sweetness, sourness, and flavor of 10 foods. As previous work had shown, miracle fruit added sweetness to acids, which secondarily reduced sourness (mixture suppression) and Gymnema sylvestre reduced sweetness in sweet foods as well as the sweetness induced by miracle fruit...
June 14, 2018: Chemical Senses
Davide Risso, Eduardo Sainz, Gabriella Morini, Sergio Tofanelli, Dennis Drayna
It was shown more than 40 years ago that the ability to perceive the bitterness of the fruit of the Antidesma bunius tree is inversely correlated with the ability to perceive the well-studied bitter tastant phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). To determine if variants of the TAS2R38 gene, which encodes the PTC taste receptor, or variants in any of the other TAS2R bitter or TAS1R sweet receptor genes account for Antidesma taste perception, we recruited an independent subject sample and examined associations between these taste receptor gene haplotypes and Antidesma perception...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Senses
Supreet Saluja, Richard J Stevenson
People make reliable and consistent matches between taste and color. However, in contrast to other cross-modal correspondences, all of the research to date has used only taste words (and often color words too), potentially limiting our understanding of how taste-color matches arise. Here, participants sampled the five basic tastes, at three concentration steps, and selected their best matching color from a color-wheel. This test was repeated, and in addition, participants evaluated the valence of the taste and their color choice, as well as the qualities/intensities of the taste stimuli...
June 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Valentin A Schriever, Janine Gellrich, Nora Rochor, Ilona Croy, Helene Cao-Van, Mario Rüdiger, Thomas Hummel
Because of their immaturity many premature infants are fed via nasogastric tube. One objective of the neonatal care is to feed infants orally early. The olfactory function of premature infants is developed before birth and odorants have a significant impact on nutrition in infants. The aim of the study was to test whether odor stimulation has a positive effect on the transition from gavage to oral feeding in infants. Participants were premature infants with gestational age of more than 27 weeks, with full or partial gavage feeding, stable vital parameters and without invasive ventilation...
June 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Longzhi Tan, X Sunney Xie
Different regions of the mammalian nose smell different odors. In the mouse olfactory system, spatially regulated expression of > 1,000 olfactory receptors (ORs) along the dorsomedial-ventrolateral (DV) axis forms a topological map in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). However, the locations of most ORs along the DV axis are currently unknown. By sequencing mRNA of 12 isolated MOE pieces, we mapped out the DV locations-as quantified by "zone indices" on a scale of 1-5-of 1,033 OR genes with an estimated error of 0...
May 22, 2018: Chemical Senses
Roza G Kamiloglu, Monique Smeets, Jasper H B de Groot, Gün R Semin
In a double-blind experiment, participants were exposed to facial images of anger, disgust, fear and neutral expressions under two body odor conditions: fear and neutral sweat. They had to indicate the valence of the gradually emerging facial image. Two alternative hypotheses were tested, namely a general negative evaluative state hypothesis and a discrete emotion hypothesis. These hypotheses suggest two distinctive data patterns for muscle activation and classification speed of facial expressions. The pattern of results that would support a discrete emotions perspective would be expected to reveal significantly increased activity in the medial frontalis (eyebrow raiser) and corrugator supercilii (frown) muscles associated with significantly decreased reaction times to only fear faces in the fear odor condition...
May 22, 2018: Chemical Senses
Benjamin C Jewkes, Michael G Gomella, Evan T Lowry, Joy A Benner, Eugene R Delay
Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer, however a side effect is often altered taste. This study examined how cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy drug, affects salt taste in mice. Based on previous findings, it was predicted that cyclophosphamide-induced disruptions in salt taste would be observed near days 2-4, 8-12, and 22-24 days post treatment, and that multiple, smaller doses would cause more severe disruptions to taste. To test these predictions, two experiments were performed, one using brief access testing to measure appetitive qualities, and another using operant conditioning to measure detection thresholds...
May 19, 2018: Chemical Senses
Preet Bano Singh, Alix Young, Synnøve Lind, Marie Cathinka Leegaard, Alessandra Capuozzo, Valentina Parma
Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone...
May 15, 2018: Chemical Senses
Charalampos Georgiopoulos, Suzanne T Witt, Sven Haller, Nil Dizdar, Helene Zachrisson, Maria Engström, Elna-Marie Larsson
Studying olfaction with functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) poses various methodological challenges. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stimulation length and repetition time (TR) on the activation pattern of four olfactory brain regions: the anterior and the posterior piriform cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the insula. 22 healthy participants with normal olfaction were examined with fMRI, with two stimulation lengths (6 seconds and 15 seconds) and two TRs (0.901 seconds and 1.34 seconds)...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
Roza G Kamiloglu, Monique A M Smeets, Jasper H B de Groot, Gün R Semin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
Yada Treesukosol, Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto, Haruno Mizuta, Takashi Yamamoto, Timothy H Moran
Upon presentation of a calorically dense diet, rats display hyperphagia driven by increased meal size. The increased meal size and hyperphagia are most robust across the first several days of diet exposure before changes in body weight are evident, thus it is plausible that one of the factors that drives the hyperphagia may be enhanced orosensory responsivity. Here, electrophysiological responses to an array of taste stimuli were recorded from the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the facial nerve that innervates taste receptors in the anterior tongue, of rats presented a high-energy (45% fat and 17% sucrose) diet for 3 days...
July 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
Adam B Schroer, Joshua D Gross, Shane W Kaski, Kim Wix, David P Siderovski, Aurelie Vandenbeuch, Vincent Setola
The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Senses
Ruina Zhang, Yi Pan, Lucky Ahmed, Eric Block, Yuetian Zhang, Victor S Batista, Hanyi Zhuang
Metal-coordinating compounds are generally known to have strong smells, a phenomenon that can be attributed to the fact that odorant receptors for intense-smelling compounds, such as those containing sulfur, may be metalloproteins. We previously identified a mouse odorant receptor (OR), Olfr1509, that requires copper ions for sensitive detection of a series of metal-coordinating odorants, including (methylthio)methanethiol (MTMT), a strong-smelling component of male mouse urine that attracts female mice. By combining mutagenesis and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modeling, we identified candidate binding sites in Olfr1509 that may bind to the copper-MTMT complex...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Senses
Jacqueline Ferreira, Valentina Parma, Laura Alho, Carlos F Silva, Sandra C Soares
Many studies have indicated that the chemical cues from body odors (BOs) of donors experiencing negative emotions can influence the psychophysiological and behavioral response of the observers. However, these olfactory cues have been used mainly as contextual information for processing visual stimuli. Here, for the first time, we evaluate how emotional BO affects the emotional tone of a subsequent BO message. Axillary sweat samples were taken from 20 donors in 3 separate sessions while they watched fear, disgust, or neutral videos...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Senses
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