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Chemical Senses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073838/gender-specific-relation-between-olfactory-sensitivity-and-disgust-perception
#1
Ilona Croy, Johanna Bendas, Nadja Wittrodt, Maria Lenk, Peter Joraschky, Kerstin Weidner
The perception of disgust is a powerful but yet puzzling emotion, aiming at the prevention of potential microbial pathogens and being directly linked to olfactory processing in its neurophysiological pathways via the anterior insular cortex. In sample of healthy participants with a natural variation in olfactory function, we investigated the relation between olfactory sensitivity and disgust perception. A total of 123 healthy individuals were surveyed with a disgust sensitivity questionnaire. Olfactory threshold was assessed in all participants using the Sniffin' Sticks...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073837/chronic-co-species-housing-mice-and-rats-increased-the-competitiveness-of-male-mice
#2
Ying-Juan Liu, Lai-Fu Li, Yao-Hua Zhang, Hui-Fen Guo, Min Xia, Meng-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Jing, Jing-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064213/odor-familiarity-and-identification-abilities-in-adolescents
#3
Alexander Fjaeldstad, Jens Sundbøll, Andreas Niklassen, Therese Ovesen
Olfactory identification abilities in adolescents have been reported inferior compared with adults. Though this seems to be the case when comparing identification abilities using tests validated on-and for-adults, odor familiarity has been hypothesized to affect identification abilities in younger participants. However, this has never been thoroughly tested. The aims of this study were to investigate patterns in odor familiarity differences between adolescents and adults, and to investigate if an adolescent familiarity-based modification of an identification test could lead to similar identification scores in adolescents and adults...
January 7, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034900/the-sensory-difference-threshold-of-menthol-odor-in-flavored-tobacco-determined-by-combining-sensory-and-chemical-analysis
#4
Erna J Z Krüsemann, Johannes W J M Cremers, Wouter F Visser, Pieter H Punter, Reinskje Talhout
Cigarettes are an often-used consumer product, and flavor is an important determinant of their product appeal. Cigarettes with strong nontobacco flavors are popular among young people, and may facilitate smoking initiation. Discriminating flavors in tobacco is important for regulation purposes, for instance to set upper limits to the levels of important flavor additives. We provide a simple and fast method to determine the human odor difference threshold for flavor additives in a tobacco matrix, using a combination of chemical and sensory analysis...
December 29, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007788/chemical-identification-of-maternal-signature-odors-in-rat
#5
Leam Sreng, Brice Temime-Roussel, Henri Wortham, Christiane Mourre
Newborn altricial mammals need just after birth to locate their mother's nipples for suckling. In this precocious behavior, including for the human baby, maternal odor via the olfactory process plays a major role. Maternal odor emitted by lactating females or by amniotic fluid (AF) attracts pups, but the chemical identity of this attractant has not yet been elucidated. Here, using behavioral tests and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, we show that AF extracts from rat pregnant female, nipples, ventral skin, milk, and nest extracts of mother contained 3-6 active substances...
December 22, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007787/factors-associated-with-inaccurate-self-reporting-of-olfactory-dysfunction-in-older-us-adults
#6
Dara R Adams, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, Michael J Kozloski, William Dale, Martha K McClintock, Jayant M Pinto
Self-reported olfactory function has poor sensitivity (i.e., people with measured olfactory dysfunction are unlikely to accurately report it). We aimed to identify factors associated with lack of awareness of smell dysfunction. Objective odor identification was evaluated using a validated 5-item test in respondents from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling, US adults ages 57-85 (n = 1468). Self-reported olfaction was assessed with a 5-point Likert scale...
December 22, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988494/a-high-bandwidth-dual-channel-olfactory-stimulator-for-studying-temporal-sensitivity-of-olfactory-processing
#7
Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals encounter fine-scale temporal patterns of odorant mixtures that contain information about the distance and number of odorant sources. To study the role of such temporal cues for odorant detection and source localization, one needs odorant delivery devices that are capable of mimicking the temporal stimulus statistics of natural odor plumes. However, current odorant delivery devices either lack temporal resolution or are limited to a single odorant channel. Here, we present an olfactory stimulator that features precise control of high-bandwidth stimulus dynamics, which allows generating arbitrary fluctuating binary odorant mixtures...
December 17, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920027/sodium-taste-during-sodium-appetite
#8
Ralph Norgren
Sodium appetite appears to be an excellent model to study the neural mechanisms of motivation. In this issue of Chemical Senses, experiments by St John (2016) challenge 2 hypotheses for how a systemic sodium deficit guides an animal to find and ingest more Na ions in the environment. Both hypotheses deal with modifications of the sensory neural code produced by Na(+) ions on the tongue. One envisions a change in the Na(+) signal amplitude. A reduction could make the strong Na(+) signals less aversive; an increase, weak signals more noticeable...
December 5, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916748/or2m3-a-highly-specific-and-narrowly-tuned-human-odorant-receptor-for-the-sensitive-detection-of-onion-key-food-odorant-3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol
#9
Franziska Noe, Johannes Polster, Christiane Geithe, Matthias Kotthoff, Peter Schieberle, Dietmar Krautwurst
The detection of key food odorants appears to be an important capability of odorant receptors. Here, thiols occupy an outstanding position among the 230 known key food odorants because of their very low odor thresholds. Members of the homologous series of 3-mercapto-2-methylalkan-1-ols have been described as onion key food odorants or food constituents and are detected at logarithmically different thresholds. 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol being the only key food odorant within this series also has the lowest odor threshold...
December 4, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916747/the-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-or1a1-is-highly-selective-for-3-methyl-2-4-nonanedione-a-key-food-odorant-in-aged-wines-tea-and-other-foods
#10
Christiane Geithe, Franziska Noe, Johanna Kreissl, Dietmar Krautwurst
Key food odorants are the most relevant determinants by which we detect, recognize, and hedonically evaluate the aroma of foods and beverages. Odorants are detected by our chemical sense of olfaction, comprising a set of approximately 400 different odorant receptor types. However, the specific receptor activity patterns representing the aroma percepts of foods or beverages, as well as the key food odorant agonist profiles of single-odorant receptors, are largely unknown. We aimed to establish comprehensive key food odorant agonist profiles of 2 unrelated, broadly tuned receptors, OR1A1 and OR2W1, that had been associated thus far with mostly non-key food odorants and shared some of these agonists...
December 4, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789516/behavioral-response-of-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae-to-human-sweat-inoculated-with-axilla-bacteria-and-to-volatiles-composing-human-axillary-odor
#11
Jérôme Frei, Thomas Kröber, Myriam Troccaz, Christian Starkenmann, Patrick M Guerin
The responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to odors from male and female axillary sweat incubated with human axilla bacteria were recorded in a dual-choice olfactometer. Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected for its low odor-producing pattern, Corynebacterium jeikeium for its strong Nα-acylglutamine aminoacylase activity liberating carboxylic acids including (R)/(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus for its capacity to liberate sulfur-containing compounds including (R/S)-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (MSH)...
October 27, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940932/table-of-contents
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940931/subscriptions
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940930/cover
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940929/erratum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940928/editor-in-chief-s-note-thank-you-to-reviewers
#16
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940927/adeno-associated-virus-mediated-gene-transfer-into-taste-cells-in-vivo
#17
Akiyuki Taruno, Makiko Kashio, Hongxin Sun, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiromi Sano, Atsushi Nambu, Yoshinori Marunaka
The sense of taste is achieved by cooperation of many signaling molecules expressed in taste cells, which code and transmit information on quality and intensity of taste to the nervous system. Viral vector-mediated gene transfer techniques have been proven to be useful to study and control function of a gene product in vivo However, there is no transduction method for taste cells in live animals. Here, we have established a method for inducing foreign gene expression in mouse taste cells in vivo by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector...
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940926/articles-highlighted
#18
Wolfgang Meyerhof
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742692/lipid-lowering-pharmaceutical-clofibrate-inhibits-human-sweet-taste
#19
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations...
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707752/sound-triggered-production-of-antiaggregation-pheromone-limits-overcrowding-of-dendroctonus-valens-attacking-pine-trees
#20
Zhudong Liu, Yucui Xin, Bingbing Xu, Kenneth F Raffa, Jianghua Sun
For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees...
January 2017: Chemical Senses
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