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Clinical Biochemist. Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072820/progressing-the-certification-of-the-medical-science-workforce
#1
Tony Badrick, Chris Willson
The Australian Commonwealth Government has funded a project to investigate options for a sustainable certification scheme for medical laboratory scientists (MLSs). This has been a sought-after goal for the profession in Australia for many years. Certification is not registration as certification may not be mandatory and does not have the legal teeth of the more formal process. Models of overseas registration schemes are discussed and the key features exposed. The definition of an MLS is needed as certification will provide protection of the title...
February 2018: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072819/genetic-testing-in-endocrinology
#2
REVIEW
Sunita Mc De Sousa, Tristan Se Hardy, Hamish S Scott, David J Torpy
The recent genomic revolution, characterised by surges in the number of available genetic tests and known genetic associations, calls for improved genetic literacy amongst medical scientists and clinicians. This has been driven by next generation sequencing, a technology allowing multiple genes to be sequenced in parallel, thereby reducing the time and financial costs associated with genetic testing in both research and clinical settings. Endocrinology is an intuitive setting in which to consider the principles of genetic testing because endocrine disorders are due to defects in circumscribed pathways, providing clues to candidate genes...
February 2018: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072818/prolactin-biology-and-laboratory-measurement-an-update-on-physiology-and-current-analytical-issues
#3
REVIEW
Mohamed Saleem, Helen Martin, Penelope Coates
Prolactin is a 23 kDa single chain protein of 199 amino acids synthesised and released principally by lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion is mainly under inhibitory control by hypothalamic dopamine and regulated in a negative feedback manner, with prolactin itself providing the afferent signal: short-loop feedback. The main function of prolactin is during pregnancy and lactation in the development of mammary glands, milk synthesis and maintenance of milk secretion. Serum prolactin levels rise rapidly during pregnancy with increase in the size and number of lactotrophs...
February 2018: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332977/the-role-of-wnt-signalling-in-angiogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Jun Jun Olsen, Sebastian Ă–ther-Gee Pohl, Abhijeet Deshmukh, Malini Visweswaran, Natalie C Ward, Frank Arfuso, Mark Agostino, Arun Dharmarajan
Angiogenesis is a normal biological process wherein new blood vessels form from the growth of pre-existing blood vessels. Preventing angiogenesis in solid tumours by targeting pro-angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hepatocyte growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is currently under investigation for cancer treatment. Concurrently targeting the cell signalling pathways involved in the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of these factors may provide positive therapeutic results...
November 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332976/australasian-guideline-2nd-edition-an-annex-to-the-clsi-and-uk-guidelines-for-the-performance-of-the-sweat-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-cystic-fibrosis
#5
John Massie, Ronda Greaves, Michael Metz, Veronica Wiley, Peter Graham, Samantha Shepherd, Richard Mackay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332975/enhancing-the-clinical-value-of-medical-laboratory-testing
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth A Sikaris
The value of medical laboratory testing is often directed to the cost of testing however the clinical benefits of these tests are at least as important. Laboratory testing has an acknowledged widespread role in clinical decision making, and therefore a role in determining clinical outcome. Consequently, the value of laboratory testing should be considered in its role in affecting beneficial actions and outcomes. This includes both the requesting phase of choosing tests which will influence clinical decision making as well as the reporting phase in a way that guides clinical decisions and actions...
November 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332974/the-management-of-post-analytical-correction-factors
#7
Roger Barton, Mark Mackay, Graham Rd Jones, Tony Badrick
Clinical laboratories may systematically apply factors to assay results after analysis, but before reporting, in order to facilitate comparison of data from different methods. This may be done to align with other patient results, reference intervals or clinical decision points. These factors, which we term Post Analytical Correction Factors (PACF), may be applied to all types of results derived from the method, i.e. quality control (QC) and external quality assurance (EQA), as well as the patient results. As the principal use of PACF is comparing patient results, it is important that the laboratory use commutable materials (i...
April 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332973/metabologenomics-of-phaeochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma-an-integrated-approach-for-personalised-biochemical-and-genetic-testing
#8
REVIEW
Graeme Eisenhofer, Barbara Klink, Susan Richter, Jacques Wm Lenders, Mercedes Robledo
The tremendous advances over the past two decades in both clinical genetics and biochemical testing of chromaffin cell tumours have led to new considerations about how these aspects of laboratory medicine can be integrated to improve diagnosis and management of affected patients. With germline mutations in 15 genes now identified to be responsible for over a third of all cases of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, these tumours are recognised to have one of the richest hereditary backgrounds among all neoplasms...
April 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332972/clinical-utility-and-measurement-of-procalcitonin
#9
REVIEW
Intan Samsudin, Samuel D Vasikaran
Procalcitonin (PCT), regarded as a biomarker specific for bacterial infections, is used in a variety of clinical settings including primary care, emergency department and intensive care. PCT measurement aids in the diagnosis of sepsis and to guide and monitor antibiotic therapy. This article gives a brief overview of PCT and its use in guiding antibiotic therapy in various clinical settings, as well as its limitations. PCT performance in comparison with other biomarkers of infection in particular CRP is also reviewed...
April 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798504/molecular-aspects-of-wound-healing-and-the-rise-of-venous-leg-ulceration-omics-approaches-to-enhance-knowledge-and-aid-diagnostic-discovery
#10
REVIEW
Daniel A Broszczak, Elizabeth R Sydes, Daniel Wallace, Tony J Parker
Chronic wounds, in particular venous leg ulcers (VLU), represent a substantial burden for economies, healthcare systems and societies worldwide. This burden is exacerbated by the recalcitrant nature of these wounds, despite best practice, evidence-based care, which substantially reduces the quality of life of patients. Furthermore, co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease within ageing populations further contribute to the increasing prevalence in developed countries. This review provides an overview of the literature concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms of wound healing and aspects where this process fails, resulting in a chronic wound...
February 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798503/working-up-a-good-sweat-the-challenges-of-standardising-sweat-collection-for-metabolomics-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Joy N Hussain, Nitin Mantri, Marc M Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis...
February 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798502/reducing-the-environmental-impact-of-clinical-laboratories
#12
Joseph B Lopez, David Jackson, Alistair Gammie, Tony Badrick
Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support...
February 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167846/report-on-the-findings-of-the-aacb-2014-body-fluid-survey
#13
John Calleja, Bruce Robinson, Intissar Bittar, Yvonne Reidy, James Doery, Kay Weng Choy, Julie Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167845/acute-kidney-injury-diagnostic-approaches-and-controversies
#14
REVIEW
Konstantinos Makris, Loukia Spanou
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In the last ten years a large number of publications have highlighted the limitations of traditional approaches and the inadequacies of conventional biomarkers to diagnose and monitor renal insufficiency in the acute setting. A great effort was directed not only to the discovery and validation of new biomarkers aimed to detect AKI more accurately but also to standardise the definition of AKI. Despite the advances in both areas, biomarkers have not yet entered into routine clinical practice and the definition of this syndrome has many areas of uncertainty...
December 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167844/current-methods-of-haemolysis-detection-and-reporting-as-a-source-of-risk-to-patient-safety-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Euan J McCaughey, Elia Vecellio, Rebecca Lake, Ling Li, Leslie Burnett, Douglas Chesher, Stephen Braye, Mark Mackay, Stephanie Gay, Tony C Badrick, Johanna I Westbrook, Andrew Georgiou
AIM: Haemolysis has a major impact on patient safety as the need for a replacement specimen increases the risk of injury and infection, delays test results and extends the duration of hospital stays. Consistency of haemolysis detection and reporting can facilitate the generation of benchmark data used to develop quality practices to monitor and reduce this leading cause of pre-analytical laboratory error. This review aims to investigate current methods of haemolysis detection and reporting...
December 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167843/consensus-statement-for-the-management-and-reporting-of-haemolysed-specimens
#16
Tony Badrick, Harry Barden, Shaw Callen, Goce Dimeski, Stephanie Gay, Peter Graham, Penny Petinos, Ken Sikaris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872507/calculated-chemistry-parameters-do-they-need-to-be-harmonised
#17
REVIEW
David Hughes, James Cg Doery, Kay Weng Choy, Robert Flatman
In clinical chemistry, harmonisation of the testing process is a global initiative with the purpose of improving patient safety, allowing better integration of research data and enabling the use of national electronic heath records. In Australia, as in other countries, the initial focus has been on the harmonisation of the more commonly measured analytes. There are also a number of calculated parameters, derived from these measured analytes, which could also be considered for harmonisation. Calculated parameters that are reported by laboratories and used for clinical decision-making should undergo the same robust process of harmonisation as is the case for the measured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872506/harmonising-adult-reference-intervals-in-australia-and-new-zealand-the-continuing-story
#18
REVIEW
Gus Koerbin, Jillian R Tate
Reference intervals (RIs) are used to help clinicians determine if a patient can be classified as being in a diseased or healthy state and there are often sound scientific and clinical reasons for differences in RIs. One of the current strategic priorities for the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists is to encourage and assist laboratories to achieve harmonisation of RIs for common clinical chemistry analytes where sound calibration and traceability are in place. This need is based on good laboratory practice, providing the clinician with results that allow appropriate and reliable clinical interpretation and progression further toward the national e-health framework and a single electronic health record...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872505/harmonisation-of-osmolal-gap-can-we-use-a-common-formula
#19
REVIEW
Kay Weng Choy, Nilika Wijeratne, Zhong X Lu, James Cg Doery
Osmolal gap is the difference between the measured osmolality and a calculated osmolality based on the major commonly measured osmotically active particles. The perceived gap indicates the presence of unmeasured osmotically active particles. The major use of osmolal gap today is to screen for the possible presence of exogenous toxic substances in patients in an emergency department or intensive care unit. There is a long history of osmolal gap calculations and it needs to be appreciated that the uncertainty of the osmolal gap will be determined by the sum of errors in the calculated osmolality, error in measured osmolality and variability in unmeasured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872504/harmonising-reference-intervals-for-three-calculated-parameters-used-in-clinical-chemistry
#20
REVIEW
David Hughes, Gus Koerbin, Julia M Potter, Nicholas Glasgow, Nic West, Walter P Abhayaratna, Juleen Cavanaugh, David Armbruster, Peter E Hickman
For more than a decade there has been a global effort to harmonise all phases of the testing process, with particular emphasis on the most frequently utilised measurands. In addition, it is recognised that calculated parameters derived from these measurands should also be a target for harmonisation. Using data from the Aussie Normals study we report reference intervals for three calculated parameters: serum osmolality, serum anion gap and albumin-adjusted serum calcium. The Aussie Normals study was an a priori study that analysed samples from 1856 healthy volunteers...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
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