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Clinical Biochemist. Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872507/calculated-chemistry-parameters-do-they-need-to-be-harmonised
#1
REVIEW
David Hughes, James Cg Doery, Kay Weng Choy, Robert Flatman
In clinical chemistry, harmonisation of the testing process is a global initiative with the purpose of improving patient safety, allowing better integration of research data and enabling the use of national electronic heath records. In Australia, as in other countries, the initial focus has been on the harmonisation of the more commonly measured analytes. There are also a number of calculated parameters, derived from these measured analytes, which could also be considered for harmonisation. Calculated parameters that are reported by laboratories and used for clinical decision-making should undergo the same robust process of harmonisation as is the case for the measured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872506/harmonising-adult-reference-intervals-in-australia-and-new-zealand-the-continuing-story
#2
REVIEW
Gus Koerbin, Jillian R Tate
Reference intervals (RIs) are used to help clinicians determine if a patient can be classified as being in a diseased or healthy state and there are often sound scientific and clinical reasons for differences in RIs. One of the current strategic priorities for the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists is to encourage and assist laboratories to achieve harmonisation of RIs for common clinical chemistry analytes where sound calibration and traceability are in place. This need is based on good laboratory practice, providing the clinician with results that allow appropriate and reliable clinical interpretation and progression further toward the national e-health framework and a single electronic health record...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872505/harmonisation-of-osmolal-gap-can-we-use-a-common-formula
#3
REVIEW
Kay Weng Choy, Nilika Wijeratne, Zhong X Lu, James Cg Doery
Osmolal gap is the difference between the measured osmolality and a calculated osmolality based on the major commonly measured osmotically active particles. The perceived gap indicates the presence of unmeasured osmotically active particles. The major use of osmolal gap today is to screen for the possible presence of exogenous toxic substances in patients in an emergency department or intensive care unit. There is a long history of osmolal gap calculations and it needs to be appreciated that the uncertainty of the osmolal gap will be determined by the sum of errors in the calculated osmolality, error in measured osmolality and variability in unmeasured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872504/harmonising-reference-intervals-for-three-calculated-parameters-used-in-clinical-chemistry
#4
REVIEW
David Hughes, Gus Koerbin, Julia M Potter, Nicholas Glasgow, Nic West, Walter P Abhayaratna, Juleen Cavanaugh, David Armbruster, Peter E Hickman
For more than a decade there has been a global effort to harmonise all phases of the testing process, with particular emphasis on the most frequently utilised measurands. In addition, it is recognised that calculated parameters derived from these measurands should also be a target for harmonisation. Using data from the Aussie Normals study we report reference intervals for three calculated parameters: serum osmolality, serum anion gap and albumin-adjusted serum calcium. The Aussie Normals study was an a priori study that analysed samples from 1856 healthy volunteers...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872503/harmonisation-and-what-s-in-a-unit
#5
EDITORIAL
Jillian R Tate, David Hughes, Kay Weng Choy, Robert Flatman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057076/fat-soluble-vitamins-clinical-indications-and-current-challenges-for-chromatographic-measurement
#6
REVIEW
Ali A Albahrani, Ronda F Greaves
Fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A, D and E, are required for a wide variety of physiological functions. Over the past two decades, deficiencies of these vitamins have been associated with increased risk of cancer, type II diabetes mellitus and a number of immune system disorders. In addition, there is increasing evidence of interactions between these vitamins, especially between vitamins A and D. As a result of this enhanced clinical association with disease, translational clinical research and laboratory requests for vitamin measurements have significantly increased...
February 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057075/an-age-calibrated-definition-of-chronic-kidney-disease-rationale-and-benefits
#7
Pierre Delanaye, Richard J Glassock, Hans Pottel, Andrew D Rule
Defining chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the subject of intense debate in the current nephrology literature. The debate concerns the threshold value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) used to make the diagnosis of CKD. Current recommendations argue that a universal threshold of 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) should be used. This threshold has been defended by epidemiological studies showing that the risk of mortality or end-stage renal disease increases with an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73m(2). However, a universal threshold does not take into account the physiologic decline in GFR with ageing nor does it account for the risk of mortality and end-stage renal disease being trivial with isolated eGFR levels just below 60 mL/min/1...
February 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057074/androgen-receptor-structure-function-and-biology-from-bench-to-bedside
#8
REVIEW
Rachel A Davey, Mathis Grossmann
The actions of androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor and member of the steroid hormone nuclear receptor family. Given its widespread expression in many cells and tissues, the AR has a diverse range of biological actions including important roles in the development and maintenance of the reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, neural and haemopoietic systems. AR signalling may also be involved in the development of tumours in the prostate, bladder, liver, kidney and lung...
February 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900192/variation-in-laboratory-reporting-of-haemolysis-a-need-for-harmonisation
#9
Penny Petinos, Stephanie Gay, Tony Badrick
AIM: The purpose of this survey was to determine the cut-offs being used by Australian laboratories using their instrument's Haemolysis Index (HI), whether these cut-offs vary, and at what level of haemolysis (or haemolysis index) did laboratories stop reporting one or more analytes. This was done in response to the large numbers of haemolysed samples reported in the RCPAQAP Key Incident Monitoring and Management System External Quality Assurance program (KIMMS EQA) and lack of information in the literature at the time regarding what to do once a haemolysed sample was identified...
November 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900191/aspects-to-consider-in-adopting-pregnancy-specific-reference-intervals
#10
Narelle Hadlow, Ken Sikaris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900190/reporting-thyroid-function-tests-in-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
Alan R McNeil, Phoebe E Stanford
While there is agreement that overt maternal hypothyroidism (serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) >10 mIU/L) should be treated immediately, the evidence is mixed regarding the harm associated with subclinical hypothyroidism and the benefits of thyroxine replacement. The diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism rests on the recognition of an increased serum concentration of TSH which may be affected by many factors including gestational age, analytical method, the antibody status of the mother, ethnicity, iodine nutrition and even the time of day when the blood is collected...
November 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900189/consensus-statement-for-the-management-and-communication-of-high-risk-laboratory-results
#12
REVIEW
Craig Campbell, Grahame Caldwell, Penelope Coates, Robert Flatman, Andrew Georgiou, Andrea Rita Horvath, Que Lam, Hans Schneider
Ineffective test follow-up is a major source of harm for patients around the world. Unreliable communication from medical laboratories (henceforth termed 'laboratories') to clinicians of results that represent critical or significant risk to patients (collectively termed 'high risk results') is a contributing factor to this problem. Throughout Australasia, management practices for such results vary considerably. The recommendations presented in this document are based on best practice derived from the published literature and follow consultation with a wide range of stakeholders...
August 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900188/collective-opinion-paper-on-a-2013-aacb-workshop-of-experts-seeking-harmonisation-of-approaches-to-setting-a-laboratory-quality-control-policy
#13
Graham Jones, John Calleja, Douglas Chesher, Curtis Parvin, John Yundt-Pacheco, Mark Mackay, Tony Badrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224897/adventures-with-creatinine-and-egfr-a-national-international-and-personal-story-aacb-roman-lecture-2014
#14
Graham R D Jones
In Australia and New Zealand today there is a commonality in all laboratories in many areas of testing related to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). These include creatinine assay standardisation, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) reporting and the use of common units for serum creatinine and eGFR. This is supported by a single definition for diagnosis and staging of CKD, agreed indications for who and how to test together with detailed advice on test interpretation and patient management provided by our nephrology colleagues...
May 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224896/regional-variation-in-analytical-techniques-used-in-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-porphyria-a-case-for-harmonisation
#15
Christiaan W Sies, Virginia Cronin, Christopher M Florkowski, Jan Gill, Janine Grant, Victor Poulos, John Zoanetti
BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) Porphyrin Quality Assurance Program assesses the measurement of urine, faecal, plasma and whole blood porphyrins and their components plus urinary porphobilinogen and delta aminolaevulinic acid and has laboratories enrolled from around the world. It was observed that there was a wide scatter in results submitted to some subsections of the program. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire covering the analytical techniques used in the diagnosis of porphyria was sent to all laboratories enrolled in the RCPA Porphyrin Quality Assurance Program...
May 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224895/pleiotropic-activities-of-vitamin-d-receptors-adequate-activation-for-multiple-health-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Jackson W Ryan, Paul H Anderson, Howard A Morris
The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor, elicits physiological regulation of gene transcription following binding of its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological activities of vitamin D contribute to regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D, like other steroid hormone receptors, can regulate a diverse range of biological activities across many tissues. Such properties raise the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be detrimental to bone and muscular health, but also a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes including increased risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, immune system disorders and cancer...
May 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224894/steroid-receptor-associated-immunophilins-a-gateway-to-steroid-signalling
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Ratajczak, Carmel Cluning, Bryan K Ward
The steroid receptor-associated immunophilins FKBP51, FKBP52, CyP40 and PP5 have specific roles in steroid receptor function that impact steroid hormone-binding affinity, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activation of target genes in a tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression of these functionally unique immunophilins has the potential to cause steroid-based diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, diabetes and related metabolic disorders, male and female infertility and major depressive disorders...
May 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25944969/managing-the-ethical-issues-of-genomic-research-using-pathology-specimens
#18
Nikolajs Zeps, Marianna J Bledsoe
Biobanks of human biospecimens involving tissue taken from surgery require close relationships with diagnostic pathology practices. As most of the tissue will be analysed using genetic or genomic technologies there is the possibility that new information is created that could be of relevance to the donors. Although attention has been recently focused on the responsibilities that may arise from researchers and biobanks in terms of giving back individual genetic research results (IGRRs) to research participants, little has been said in relation to the role of pathology services...
February 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25944968/reducing-post-analytical-error-perspectives-on-new-formats-for-the-blood-sciences-pathology-report
#19
John D O'Connor
Little has changed in the way we report pathology results from blood sciences over the last 50 years other than moving to electronic display from paper. In part, this is aspiration to preserve the format of a paper report in electronic format. It is also due to the limitations of electronic media to display the data. The advancement of web-based technologies and functionality of hand-held devices together with wireless and other technologies afford the opportunity to rethink data presentation with the aim of emphasising the message in the data, thereby modifying clinical behaviours and potentially reducing post-analytical error...
February 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25944967/point-of-care-testing-high-time-for-a-dedicated-national-adverse-event-monitoring-system
#20
Samarina M A Musaad, Shoukat Ali Khan, Geoff Herd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
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