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Journal of Policy Analysis and Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693958/special-education-financing-and-adhd-medications-a-bitter-pill-to-swallow
#1
Melinda Sandler Morrill
Accurate diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is difficult because the major symptoms, inattentiveness and hyperactivity, can be exhibited by any child. This study finds evidence of systematic differences in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD due to third party financial incentives. In some states, due to the financing mechanism for special education, schools face a financial incentive to facilitate the identification of children with ADHD. Using variation in special education funding policies across states, we find that children living in states with financial incentives are about 15 percent more likely to report having ADHD and are about 22 percent more likely to be taking medication for ADHD...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693366/the-impact-of-providing-vision-screening-and-free-eyeglasses-on-academic-outcomes-evidence-from-a-randomized-trial-in-title-i-elementary-schools-in-florida
#2
Paul Glewwe, Kristine L West, Jongwok Lee
More than 20 percent of all school-aged children in the United States have vision problems, and low-income and minority children are disproportionately likely to have unmet vision care needs. Vision screening is common in U.S. schools, but it remains an open question whether screening alone is sufficient to improve student outcomes. We implemented a multi-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of vision screening, and of vision screening accompanied by eye exams and eyeglasses, provided by a non-profit organization to Title I elementary schools in three large central Florida school districts...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320810/breaking-habits-the-effect-of-the-french-vending-machine-ban-on-school-snacking-and-sugar-intakes
#3
Sara Capacci, Mario Mazzocchi, Bhavani Shankar
This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression discontinuity design. Since the relationship between age-at-interview and school level is not precise, we introduce fuzziness in the model. We find that the ban has generated a 10-gram reduction in sugar intakes from morning snacks at school, and a significant reduction in the frequency of these morning snacks...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320809/does-paid-family-leave-reduce-nursing-home-use-the-california-experience
#4
Kanika Arora, Douglas A Wolf
The intent of Paid Family Leave (PFL) is to make it financially easier for individuals to take time off from paid work to care for children and seriously ill family members. Given the linkages between care provided by family members and the usage of paid services, we examine whether California's PFL program influenced nursing home utilization in California during the 1999 to 2008 period. This is the first empirical study to examine the effects of PFL on long-term care patterns. Multivariate difference-indifference estimates across alternative comparison groups provide consistent evidence that the implementation of PFL reduced the proportion of the elderly population in nursing homes by 0...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320808/paid-family-leave-fathers-leave-taking-and-leave-sharing-in-dual-earner-households
#5
Anne P Bartel, Maya Rossin-Slater, Christopher J Ruhm, Jenna Stearns, Jane Waldfogel
Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991426/scraping-by-income-and-program-participation-after-the-loss-of-extended-unemployment-benefits
#6
Jesse Rothstein, Robert G Valletta
Many Unemployment Insurance (UI) recipients do not find new jobs before exhausting their benefits, even when benefits are extended during recessions. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) panel data covering the 2001 and 2007 to 2009 recessions and their aftermaths, we identify individuals whose jobless spells outlasted their UI benefits (exhaustees) and examine household income, program participation, and health-related outcomes during the six months following UI exhaustion. For the average exhaustee, the loss of UI benefits is only slightly offset by increased participation in other safety net programs (e...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991425/the-economic-impact-of-smoke-free-policies-on-restaurants-caf%C3%A3-s-and-bars-panel-data-estimates-from-european-countries
#7
Luca Pieroni, Luca Salmasi
In this paper, we investigate the extent to which the economic outcomes of restaurants, bars, and cafés have been affected by the introduction of anti-smoking regulations in Europe. We use an unexploited panel database to collect a comprehensive set of information on financial indicators regarding the balance sheets of private and public companies in various economic sectors. The results show that smoke-free policies did not significantly affect the firms' economic performance, irrespective of the balance sheet indicators analyzed...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991424/do-higher-minimum-wages-benefit-health-evidence-from-the-uk
#8
Otto Lenhart
This study examines the link between minimum wages and health outcomes by using the introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom in 1999 as an exogenous variation of earned income. A test for health effects by using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey for a period of ten years was conducted. It was found that the NMW significantly improved several measures of health, including self-reported health status and the presence of health conditions. When examining potential mechanisms, it was shown that changes in health behaviors, leisure expenditures, and financial stress can explain the observed improvements in health...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991423/child-health-in-elementary-school-following-california%C3%A2-s-paid-family-leave-program
#9
Shirlee Lichtman-Sadot, Niryvia Pillay Bell
We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California’s Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during early elementary school. Moreover, our health outcomes have been found to be negatively linked with many potential implications of extended maternity leave--increased breastfeeding, prompt medical checkups at infancy, reduced prenatal stress, and reduced non-parental care during infancy...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991422/emission-standards-public-transit-and-infant-health
#10
Nicole S Ngo
Transit buses are an integral part of urban life. They reduce externalities generated from private vehicles and increase geographic mobility. However, unlike most private vehicles in the United States, they use diesel fuel and emit higher amounts of toxic pollutants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set emission standards for transit buses starting in 1988 that have been continually updated, but their public health and economic impacts are unclear due to scarce emissions data. I construct a novel panel dataset for the New York City (NYC) Transit bus fleet between 1990 and 2009 and examine the impact of bus pollution on infant health by using bus vintage as a proxy for emissions...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991421/worth-the-wait-the-effect-of-early-term-birth-on-maternal-and-infant-health
#11
Kasey Buckles, Melanie Guldi
Early term birth is defined as birth at 37 or 38 weeks gestation. While infants born early term are not considered premature, the medical literature suggests that they have an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes compared to infants born at term (39 or 40 weeks). Despite these known harms, we document a rise in early term births in the United States from 1989 to the mid-2000s, followed by a decline in recent years. We posit that the recent decline in early term births has been driven by changes in medical practice advocated by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, programs such as the March of Dimes’ "Worth the Wait" campaign, and by Medicaid policy...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654224/comparing-inference-approaches-for-rd-designs-a-reexamination-of-the-effect-of-head-start-on-child-mortality
#12
Matias D Cattaneo, Rocio Titiunik, Gonzalo Vasquez-Bare
The regression discontinuity (RD) design is a popular quasi-experimental design for causal inference and policy evaluation. The most common inference approaches in RD designs employ “flexible” parametric and nonparametric local polynomial methods, which rely on extrapolation and large-sample approximations of conditional expectations using observations somewhat near the cutoff that determines treatment assignment. An alternative inference approach employs the idea of local randomization, where the very few units closest to the cutoff are regarded as randomly assigned to treatment and finite-sample exact inference methods are used...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653821/effects-of-aca-medicaid-expansions-on-health-insurance-coverage-and-labor-supply
#13
Robert Kaestner, Bowen Garrett, Jiajia Chen, Anuj Gangopadhyaya, Caitlyn Fleming
We examined the effect of the expansion of Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage and labor supply of low-educated and low-income adults. We found that the Medicaid expansions were associated with large increases in Medicaid coverage, for example, 50 percent among childless adults, and corresponding decreases in the proportion uninsured. There was relatively little change in private insurance coverage, although the expansions tended to decrease such coverage slightly...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653820/u-s-child-safety-seat-laws-are-they-effective-and-who-complies
#14
Lauren E Jones, Nicolas R Ziebarth
This paper assesses the effectiveness of child safety seat laws in the United States. Over the past 35 years, these laws have steadily increased mandatory child safety seat restraint ages. We exploit state-year level variation in the age until which children are required to ride in child safety seats to estimate triple difference models using Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data from 1975 to 2011. Our findings show that increasing the age thresholds is effective in increasing the actual age of children in safety seats...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653819/the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-power-plant-emissions-on-birth-weight-evidence-from-a-pennsylvania-power-plant-located-upwind-of-new-jersey
#15
Muzhe Yang, Rhea A Bhatta, Shin-Yi Chou, Cheng-I Hsieh
To examine the infant health impact of prenatal exposure to power plant emissions, we draw scientific evidence on the impacted region downwind of a large polluter, a coal-fired power plant located on the border of two states and proven to be the sole contributor to the violation of air quality standards of the impacted region. Our results show that among all live singleton births that occurred during 1990 through 2006, those born to mothers living as far as 20 to 30 miles away downwind from the power plant (which is also an affluent region) during pregnancy are at greater risks of low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW): the likelihoods of LBW and VLBW could increase approximately by 6...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378959/the-impact-of-health-insurance-on-preventive-care-and-health-behaviors-evidence-from-the-first-two-years-of-the-aca-medicaid-expansions
#16
Kosali Simon, Aparna Soni, John Cawley
The U.S. population receives suboptimal levels of preventive care and has a high prevalence of risky health behaviors. One goal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to increase preventive care and improve health behaviors by expanding access to health insurance. This paper estimates how the ACA-facilitated state-level expansions of Medicaid in 2014 affected these outcomes. Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and a difference-in-differences model that compares states that did and did not expand Medicaid, we examine the impact of the expansions on preventive care (e...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378958/child-poverty-the-great-recession-and-the-social-safety-net-in-the-united-states
#17
Marianne Bitler, Hiliary Hoynes, Elira Kuku
In this paper, we comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recession on child poverty, with particular attention to the role of the social safety net in mitigating the adverse effects of shocks to earnings and income. Using a state panel data model and data for 2000 to 2014, we estimate the relationship between the business cycle and child poverty, and we examine how and to what extent the safety net is providing protection to at-risk children. We find compelling evidence that the safety net provides protection; that is, the cyclicality of after-tax-and-transfer child poverty is significantly attenuated relative to the cyclicality of private income poverty...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378956/are-parental-welfare-work-requirements-good-for-disadvantaged-children-evidence-from-age-of-youngest-child-exemptions
#18
Chris M Herbst
This paper assesses the impact of welfare reform’s parental work requirements on low-income children’s cognitive and social-emotional development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the work requirement rules—namely, age-of youngest- child exemptions—as a source of quasi-experimental variation in first-year maternal employment. The 1996 welfare reform law empowered states to exempt adult recipients from the work requirements until the youngest child reaches a certain age. This led to substantial variation in the amount of time that mothers can remain home with a newborn child...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992152/the-effect-of-the-affordable-care-act-medicaid-expansion-on-migration
#19
Lucas Goodman
The expansion of Medicaid to low-income nondisabled adults is a key component of the Affordable Care Act's strategy to increase health insurance coverage, but many states have chosen not to take up the expansion. As a result, for many low-income adults, there has been stark variation across states in access to Medicaid since the expansions took effect in 2014. This study investigates whether individuals migrate in order to gain access to these benefits. Using an empirical model in the spirit of a difference-in-differences, this study finds that migration from non-expansion states to expansion states did not increase in 2014 relative to migration in the reverse direction...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992151/early-impacts-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-health-insurance-coverage-in-medicaid-expansion-and-non-expansion-states
#20
Charles Courtemanche, James Marton, Benjamin Ukert, Aaron Yelowitz, Daniela Zapata
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) aimed to achieve nearly universal health insurance coverage in the United States through a combination of insurance market reforms, mandates, subsidies, health insurance exchanges, and Medicaid expansions, most of which took effect in 2014. This paper estimates the causal effects of the ACA on health insurance coverage in 2014 using data from the American Community Survey. We utilize difference-in-difference-in-differences models that exploit cross-sectional variation in the intensity of treatment arising from state participation in the Medicaid expansion and local area pre-ACA uninsured rates...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
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