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Journal of Policy Analysis and Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991426/scraping-by-income-and-program-participation-after-the-loss-of-extended-unemployment-benefits
#1
Jesse Rothstein, Robert G Valletta
Many Unemployment Insurance (UI) recipients do not find new jobs before exhausting their benefits, even when benefits are extended during recessions. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) panel data covering the 2001 and 2007 to 2009 recessions and their aftermaths, we identify individuals whose jobless spells outlasted their UI benefits (exhaustees) and examine household income, program participation, and health-related outcomes during the six months following UI exhaustion. For the average exhaustee, the loss of UI benefits is only slightly offset by increased participation in other safety net programs (e...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991425/the-economic-impact-of-smoke-free-policies-on-restaurants-caf%C3%A3-s-and-bars-panel-data-estimates-from-european-countries
#2
Luca Pieroni, Luca Salmasi
In this paper, we investigate the extent to which the economic outcomes of restaurants, bars, and cafés have been affected by the introduction of anti-smoking regulations in Europe. We use an unexploited panel database to collect a comprehensive set of information on financial indicators regarding the balance sheets of private and public companies in various economic sectors. The results show that smoke-free policies did not significantly affect the firms' economic performance, irrespective of the balance sheet indicators analyzed...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991424/do-higher-minimum-wages-benefit-health-evidence-from-the-uk
#3
Otto Lenhart
This study examines the link between minimum wages and health outcomes by using the introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom in 1999 as an exogenous variation of earned income. A test for health effects by using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey for a period of ten years was conducted. It was found that the NMW significantly improved several measures of health, including self-reported health status and the presence of health conditions. When examining potential mechanisms, it was shown that changes in health behaviors, leisure expenditures, and financial stress can explain the observed improvements in health...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991423/child-health-in-elementary-school-following-california%C3%A2-s-paid-family-leave-program
#4
Shirlee Lichtman-Sadot, Niryvia Pillay Bell
We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California’s Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during early elementary school. Moreover, our health outcomes have been found to be negatively linked with many potential implications of extended maternity leave--increased breastfeeding, prompt medical checkups at infancy, reduced prenatal stress, and reduced non-parental care during infancy...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991422/emission-standards-public-transit-and-infant-health
#5
Nicole S Ngo
Transit buses are an integral part of urban life. They reduce externalities generated from private vehicles and increase geographic mobility. However, unlike most private vehicles in the United States, they use diesel fuel and emit higher amounts of toxic pollutants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set emission standards for transit buses starting in 1988 that have been continually updated, but their public health and economic impacts are unclear due to scarce emissions data. I construct a novel panel dataset for the New York City (NYC) Transit bus fleet between 1990 and 2009 and examine the impact of bus pollution on infant health by using bus vintage as a proxy for emissions...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991421/-unknown-title
#6
Kasey Buckles, Melanie Guldi
Early term birth is defined as birth at 37 or 38 weeks gestation. While infants born early term are not considered premature, the medical literature suggests that they have an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes compared to infants born at term (39 or 40 weeks). Despite these known harms, we document a rise in early term births in the United States from 1989 to the mid-2000s, followed by a decline in recent years. We posit that the recent decline in early term births has been driven by changes in medical practice advocated by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, programs such as the March of Dimes’ "Worth the Wait" campaign, and by Medicaid policy...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654224/comparing-inference-approaches-for-rd-designs-a-reexamination-of-the-effect-of-head-start-on-child-mortality
#7
Matias D Cattaneo, Rocio Titiunik, Gonzalo Vasquez-Bare
The regression discontinuity (RD) design is a popular quasi-experimental design for causal inference and policy evaluation. The most common inference approaches in RD designs employ “flexible” parametric and nonparametric local polynomial methods, which rely on extrapolation and large-sample approximations of conditional expectations using observations somewhat near the cutoff that determines treatment assignment. An alternative inference approach employs the idea of local randomization, where the very few units closest to the cutoff are regarded as randomly assigned to treatment and finite-sample exact inference methods are used...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653821/effects-of-aca-medicaid-expansions-on-health-insurance-coverage-and-labor-supply
#8
Robert Kaestner, Bowen Garrett, Jiajia Chen, Anuj Gangopadhyaya, Caitlyn Fleming
We examined the effect of the expansion of Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage and labor supply of low-educated and low-income adults. We found that the Medicaid expansions were associated with large increases in Medicaid coverage, for example, 50 percent among childless adults, and corresponding decreases in the proportion uninsured. There was relatively little change in private insurance coverage, although the expansions tended to decrease such coverage slightly...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653820/u-s-child-safety-seat-laws-are-they-effective-and-who-complies
#9
Lauren E Jones, Nicolas R Ziebarth
This paper assesses the effectiveness of child safety seat laws in the United States. Over the past 35 years, these laws have steadily increased mandatory child safety seat restraint ages. We exploit state-year level variation in the age until which children are required to ride in child safety seats to estimate triple difference models using Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data from 1975 to 2011. Our findings show that increasing the age thresholds is effective in increasing the actual age of children in safety seats...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653819/the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-power-plant-emissions-on-birth-weight-evidence-from-a-pennsylvania-power-plant-located-upwind-of-new-jersey
#10
Muzhe Yang, Rhea A Bhatta, Shin-Yi Chou, Cheng-I Hsieh
To examine the infant health impact of prenatal exposure to power plant emissions, we draw scientific evidence on the impacted region downwind of a large polluter, a coal-fired power plant located on the border of two states and proven to be the sole contributor to the violation of air quality standards of the impacted region. Our results show that among all live singleton births that occurred during 1990 through 2006, those born to mothers living as far as 20 to 30 miles away downwind from the power plant (which is also an affluent region) during pregnancy are at greater risks of low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW): the likelihoods of LBW and VLBW could increase approximately by 6...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378959/the-impact-of-health-insurance-on-preventive-care-and-health-behaviors-evidence-from-the-first-two-years-of-the-aca-medicaid-expansions
#11
Kosali Simon, Aparna Soni, John Cawley
The U.S. population receives suboptimal levels of preventive care and has a high prevalence of risky health behaviors. One goal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to increase preventive care and improve health behaviors by expanding access to health insurance. This paper estimates how the ACA-facilitated state-level expansions of Medicaid in 2014 affected these outcomes. Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and a difference-in-differences model that compares states that did and did not expand Medicaid, we examine the impact of the expansions on preventive care (e...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378958/child-poverty-the-great-recession-and-the-social-safety-net-in-the-united-states
#12
Marianne Bitler, Hiliary Hoynes, Elira Kuku
In this paper, we comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recession on child poverty, with particular attention to the role of the social safety net in mitigating the adverse effects of shocks to earnings and income. Using a state panel data model and data for 2000 to 2014, we estimate the relationship between the business cycle and child poverty, and we examine how and to what extent the safety net is providing protection to at-risk children. We find compelling evidence that the safety net provides protection; that is, the cyclicality of after-tax-and-transfer child poverty is significantly attenuated relative to the cyclicality of private income poverty...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378956/are-parental-welfare-work-requirements-good-for-disadvantaged-children-evidence-from-age-of-youngest-child-exemptions
#13
Chris M Herbst
This paper assesses the impact of welfare reform’s parental work requirements on low-income children’s cognitive and social-emotional development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the work requirement rules—namely, age-of youngest- child exemptions—as a source of quasi-experimental variation in first-year maternal employment. The 1996 welfare reform law empowered states to exempt adult recipients from the work requirements until the youngest child reaches a certain age. This led to substantial variation in the amount of time that mothers can remain home with a newborn child...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992152/the-effect-of-the-affordable-care-act-medicaid-expansion-on-migration
#14
Lucas Goodman
The expansion of Medicaid to low-income nondisabled adults is a key component of the Affordable Care Act's strategy to increase health insurance coverage, but many states have chosen not to take up the expansion. As a result, for many low-income adults, there has been stark variation across states in access to Medicaid since the expansions took effect in 2014. This study investigates whether individuals migrate in order to gain access to these benefits. Using an empirical model in the spirit of a difference-in-differences, this study finds that migration from non-expansion states to expansion states did not increase in 2014 relative to migration in the reverse direction...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992151/early-impacts-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-health-insurance-coverage-in-medicaid-expansion-and-non-expansion-states
#15
Charles Courtemanche, James Marton, Benjamin Ukert, Aaron Yelowitz, Daniela Zapata
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) aimed to achieve nearly universal health insurance coverage in the United States through a combination of insurance market reforms, mandates, subsidies, health insurance exchanges, and Medicaid expansions, most of which took effect in 2014. This paper estimates the causal effects of the ACA on health insurance coverage in 2014 using data from the American Community Survey. We utilize difference-in-difference-in-differences models that exploit cross-sectional variation in the intensity of treatment arising from state participation in the Medicaid expansion and local area pre-ACA uninsured rates...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966429/the-productivity-costs-of-inefficient-hiring-practices-evidence-from-late-teacher-hiring
#16
John P Papay, Matthew A Kraft
We use matched employee-employer records from the teacher labor market to explore the effects of late teacher hiring on student achievement. Hiring teachers after the school year starts reduces student achievement by 0.042SD in mathematics and 0.026SD in reading. This reflects, in part, a temporary disruption effect in the first year. In mathematics, but not in reading, late-hired teachers remain persistently less effective, evidence of negative selection in the teacher labor market. Late hiring concentrates in schools that disproportionately serve disadvantaged student populations, contributing to challenges in ensuring an equitable distribution of educational resources across students...
2016: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690353/the-social-and-productive-impacts-of-zambia-s-child-grant
#17
Sudhanshu Handa, David Seidenfeld, Benjamin Davis, Gelson Tembo
Accumulated evidence from dozens of cash transfer programs across the world suggest that there are few interventions that can match the range of impacts and cost-effectiveness of a small, predictable monetary transfer to poor families in developing countries. However, individual published impact assessments typically focus on only one program and one outcome. This article presents two-year impacts of the Zambian Government's Child Grant, an unconditional cash transfer to families with children under age five, across a wide range of domains including consumption, productive activity and women and children's outcomes, making this one of the first studies to assess both protective and productive impacts of a national unconditional cash transfer program...
2016: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314139/the-effect-of-breakfast-in-the-classroom-on-obesity-and-academic-performance-evidence-from-new-york-city
#18
Sean P Corcoran, Brian Elbel, Amy Ellen Schwartz
Participation in the federally subsidized school breakfast program often falls well below its lunchtime counterpart. To increase take-up, many districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC), offering breakfast directly to students at the start of the school day. Beyond increasing participation, advocates claim BIC improves academic performance, attendance, and engagement. Others caution BIC has deleterious effects on child weight. We use the implementation of BIC in New York City (NYC) to estimate its impact on meals program participation, body mass index (BMI), achievement, and attendance...
2016: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985462/comprehensive-e-cigarette-regulation-as-a-step-toward-harm-reduction
#19
COMMENT
Kurt M Ribisl, Andrew B Seidenberg, Elizabeth N Orlan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985461/health-regulation
#20
COMMENT
Donald S Kenkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
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