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Journal of Primary Prevention

Nancy J Kepple, Bridget Freisthler
Venue-based distribution of marijuana has become the normative model in the United States to obtain marijuana. This study examines one-time purchase behaviors at medical marijuana dispensaries (MMDs) to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. We used a two-stage, venue-based sampling approach to randomly select patrons exiting 16 MMDs in Los Angeles, California during the spring of 2013. Patrons (N = 595) reported their discrete purchase behaviors during their most recent visit to the sampled MMD...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Eric Persaud, Catherine LePrevost
Chemical tank cleaners' occupational diseases and injuries are largely unknown due to a lack of monitoring and limited research. Their potential exposure to highly corrosive chemicals-including sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and ferric chloride-suggests that tank cleaners represent an at-risk occupational group. This pilot study explored tank cleaners' risk perceptions and barriers to using personal protective equipment and other protective behaviors in their workplace. Data sources included a survey (n = 29) and interviews (n = 9) with sodium hypochlorite tank cleaners in the United States...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Sara M St George, Sarah E Messiah, Krystal M Sardinas, Sofia Poma, Cynthia Lebron, Maria I Tapia, Maria Rosa Velazquez, Hilda Pantin, Guillermo Prado
We describe the adaptation of Familias Unidas, an evidence-based substance use and sexual risk behavior intervention, for obesity prevention in Hispanic adolescents. Intervention developers and experts in pediatric obesity, exercise physiology, dietetics, and the local parks system provided input for changes. Hispanic families also provided input through a series of 21 focus groups conducted before, during, and after an initial pilot test of the adapted intervention. After transcribing audiotaped sessions, we used a general inductive approach and Dedoose qualitative software to derive themes...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Briana L McGeough, Paul R Sterzing
Sexual minority youth experience substantially higher rates of family victimization than their heterosexual peers. No systematic review has yet identified the predictors and consequences in this vulnerable population of childhood abuse, exposure to sibling abuse and domestic violence, and sibling aggression. This systematic review aims to (a) describe differences in these family victimization rates by sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity; (b) identify potential sexual minority and non-sexual minority-specific risk factors; and (c) identify physical, mental, and behavioral health and extrafamilial victimization correlates...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Hailee K Dunn, Deborah N Pearlman, Avery Beatty, Paul Florin
Social networking sites (SNSs) now serve as a primary form of communication among adolescents. Consequently, drug prevention campaigns delivered through SNSs have the potential to reach a wide network of adolescents if teens are willing to engage in the message diffusion process by commenting on, "liking," following, creating, or sharing prevention messages with their networked peers. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors that influence adolescents' willingness to participate in drug prevention social media campaigns...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Nesly Metayer, Rebecca Boulos, Alison Tovar, Julie Gervis, Joyce Abreu, Erika Hval, Christina Luongo Kamins, Kerline Tofuri, Christina D Economos
Minority populations are hard to reach with prevention interventions because of cultural and logistical barriers to recruitment. Understanding how to overcome these barriers is pertinent to reducing the elevated burden of obesity within these underserved communities. To inform this literature gap, we explore the processes and outcomes of recruitment for Live Well-a randomized controlled obesity prevention intervention targeting new immigrant mothers and children from Brazil, Latin America, and Haiti who were residing in the greater Somerville, MA area...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Mathieu Pinelli, Sonia Pellissier, Clémentine Bry
We tested a field-adapted priming procedure (a technique used to subtly activate mental representations and guide behavior) on a ski slope, with the goal of reducing risk behavior in winter sports. At cableway stations, skiers were initially exposed eight times to a prevention poster displaying a logo and a "slow down" message. The "slow down" concept was activated on the ski slope by exposing skiers (or not) 10 times to the logo featured on the poster. We used a radar device to measure the skiers' speed data just before a slope intersection...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Karin Widemar, Magnus Falk
The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide, mostly because of increasing exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The Sun Exposure and Protection Index (SEPI) questionnaire, developed in Linköping and validated in Sweden and Australia, is used to map sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and readiness to increase sun protection. We sought to examine differences in sun habits or sun protection behaviour and propensity to increase sun protection, based on SEPI as related to self-estimated skin UV sensitivity according to the Fitzpatrick classification...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Caroline Stephenson, Matthew E Rossheim
Limited research has systematically examined injuries resulting from Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ), Judo, and mixed martial arts (MMA), especially when compared to more well-known or -established martial arts. These three combative sports differ substantially regarding their rules and techniques. BJJ emphasizes ground positioning and submission, Judo rewards throwing an opponent on their back with submission ending the match, and MMA emphasizes knocking out or forcing the submission of one's opponent. We examined injuries, among people of any age, experienced from participation in BJJ, Judo, and MMA...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Lauren Tingey, Rachel Chambers, Summer Rosenstock, Francene Larzelere, Novalene Goklish, Angelita Lee, Anne Rompalo
Early sexual initiation is a catalyst for sexually transmitted infection and unintended pregnancy. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth initiate sex prior to age 13 more often than other U.S. youth, contributing to current inequalities in sexual health. Identifying what factors were associated with lifetime sexual experience among AI/AN youth can inform the development of primary prevention programming to delay sexual initiation, alleviate the costs of early sexual activity, and improve sexual health outcomes in this population...
August 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Kate Bloom, Jaime Adler, Christy Bridges, Julia Bernstein, Christine Rini, Adam O Goldstein, Carol Ripley-Moffitt
Obesity affects more than one-third of Americans and is a leading cause of preventable death. Integrating patient perspectives into obesity treatment can help primary care providers (PCPs) intervene more effectively. In this study, we describe patients' experiences with PCPs concerning the diagnosis and treatment of obesity and offer suggestions for patient-centered care in weight management. We conducted four focus groups with patients of a university medical system-associated family practice who had a BMI ≥ 30...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Arissa R Fitch-Martin, Lauren M Menger, Amber D Loomis, Lauren E S Hartsough, Kim L Henry
Risk factors for melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, include lifetime sun exposure and a history of sunburns. However, a minority of adolescents report consistent engagement in sun protective behaviors. The few sun protection interventions that have targeted adolescents have had little effect on behavior change, which suggests that a better understanding of the issue, especially from the adolescents' perspective, is needed. Although efforts to qualitatively examine adolescent sun protection have been carried out in a handful of countries, no studies to date have focused on U...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Laura B Whiteley, Larry K Brown, Virginia Curtis, Hyeon Ju Ryoo, Nancy Beausoleil
Sexual and racial minority adolescents and young adults account for the most substantial number of new HIV infections in the United States. Numerous publicly available websites and YouTube videos contain HIV/STI prevention information that is culturally tailored to racial and ethnic minorities, and gay and bisexual youth. However, the effect of this easily accessible Internet content on adolescent and young adult HIV/STI related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors is unknown. We assembled a HIV/STI Internet intervention from publicly available online sources, including YouTube and privately and publicly hosted websites...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Amanda Raffoul, Scott T Leatherdale, Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Evidence suggests associations between weight management intentions, weight perceptions, and health-compromising behaviours among adolescent girls. Drawing on cross-sectional data for 21,456 girls, we employed multinomial logistic regression to examine whether smoking, binge drinking, and breakfast-skipping were associated with weight management intentions and weight perceptions. According to self-reported heights and weights, 61.4% of girls were in the healthy weight category. However, most reported trying to manage their weight, with 58% trying to lose, 4...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
John S Luque, Yelena N Tarasenko, Chen Chen
Following the latest update of cervical cancer screening guidelines in 2012, we estimate the prevalence of guideline adherent cervical cancer screening and examine its associated factors among a nationally representative sample of US women aged 21-65 years. Our study was based on cross-sectional data from Cycles 3 (2013) and 4 (2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey. The final analytic sample consisted of 2822 women. Guideline adherent cervical cancer screening was defined as having a Pap test within the last 3 years...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
David S Bickham, Yulin Hswen, Ronald G Slaby, Michael Rich
While media education and reduction programs have been proposed to prevent adverse health and academic outcomes related to heavy electronic media use among school-aged children, few have been formally piloted and evaluated. We used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Take the Challenge (TtC), a school-based media education/reduction program for the primary prevention of sleep deprivation, dysfunctional social-emotional behaviors, and poor academic performance. Sixth- to eighth-grade students at a rural Midwestern U...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
V L Errisuriz, N M Golaszewski, K Born, J B Bartholomew
Physical education (PE)-based interventions are a popular method to target children's physical activity (PA) and fitness; however, little is known about their effectiveness or what factors lead to successful interventions. This paper: (1) systematically reviews studies examining PE interventions designed to impact PA, fitness, and/or body composition; and (2) makes recommendations for new research directions based upon these findings. Our systematic review was limited to experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted in elementary schools...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Michelle Marie Johns, Oscar Beltran, Heather L Armstrong, Paula E Jayne, Lisa C Barrios
Transgender and gender variant (GV) youth experience elevated risk for poor health and academic outcomes due mainly to social experiences of stigma and discrimination. To supplement the growing evidence on health risks encountered by transgender/GV youth, we identified factors theorized to be protective for these youth across all four levels of Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model (individual, relationship, community, societal). We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed research. The articles included in this review were published in peer-reviewed journals in English or Spanish between 1999 and 2014, analyzed data from a sample or subsample of transgender or GV participants with a mean age between 10 and 24 years, and examined the relationship of at least one theorized protective factor to a health or behavioral outcome...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Simon Larose, Geneviève Boisclair-Châteauvert, David J De Wit, David DuBois, Gizem Erdem, Ellen L Lipman
This study examines three potential contributions (i.e., additive only, hierarchical compensatory, and hierarchical conditional) of mentor support to youth academic adjustment, taking into account interactions with support from mothers and teachers. We derived data from a larger study of the Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) of Canada community mentoring program. The sample included 427 youth (average age 9.8 years; 64% girls, 56% White) who received one-to-one community-based mentoring for at least three months...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Neng Wan, Mohammad Siahpush, Raees A Shaikh, Molly McCarthy, Athena Ramos, Antonia Correa
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
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