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Journal of Primary Prevention

Laura B Whiteley, Larry K Brown, Virginia Curtis, Hyeon Ju Ryoo, Nancy Beausoleil
Sexual and racial minority adolescents and young adults account for the most substantial number of new HIV infections in the United States. Numerous publicly available websites and YouTube videos contain HIV/STI prevention information that is culturally tailored to racial and ethnic minorities, and gay and bisexual youth. However, the effect of this easily accessible Internet content on adolescent and young adult HIV/STI related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors is unknown. We assembled a HIV/STI Internet intervention from publicly available online sources, including YouTube and privately and publicly hosted websites...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Amanda Raffoul, Scott T Leatherdale, Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Evidence suggests associations between weight management intentions, weight perceptions, and health-compromising behaviours among adolescent girls. Drawing on cross-sectional data for 21,456 girls, we employed multinomial logistic regression to examine whether smoking, binge drinking, and breakfast-skipping were associated with weight management intentions and weight perceptions. According to self-reported heights and weights, 61.4% of girls were in the healthy weight category. However, most reported trying to manage their weight, with 58% trying to lose, 4...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
John S Luque, Yelena N Tarasenko, Chen Chen
Following the latest update of cervical cancer screening guidelines in 2012, we estimate the prevalence of guideline adherent cervical cancer screening and examine its associated factors among a nationally representative sample of US women aged 21-65 years. Our study was based on cross-sectional data from Cycles 3 (2013) and 4 (2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey. The final analytic sample consisted of 2822 women. Guideline adherent cervical cancer screening was defined as having a Pap test within the last 3 years...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Natasha Slesnick, Jing Zhang, Tansel Yilmazer
Homeless youth report high rates of unemployment. While homeless serving agencies usually offer employment services, most homeless youth are disengaged from homeless service agencies, and a limited number of studies have examined employment and other income sources among service disconnected youth. Our study examined income sources and change in income among service disconnected youth, all of whom received Strengths-Based Outreach and Advocacy (SBOA, N = 79). Findings revealed that over time employment and legal income from non-survival behaviors increased (e...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
David S Bickham, Yulin Hswen, Ronald G Slaby, Michael Rich
While media education and reduction programs have been proposed to prevent adverse health and academic outcomes related to heavy electronic media use among school-aged children, few have been formally piloted and evaluated. We used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Take the Challenge (TtC), a school-based media education/reduction program for the primary prevention of sleep deprivation, dysfunctional social-emotional behaviors, and poor academic performance. Sixth- to eighth-grade students at a rural Midwestern U...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
V L Errisuriz, N M Golaszewski, K Born, J B Bartholomew
Physical education (PE)-based interventions are a popular method to target children's physical activity (PA) and fitness; however, little is known about their effectiveness or what factors lead to successful interventions. This paper: (1) systematically reviews studies examining PE interventions designed to impact PA, fitness, and/or body composition; and (2) makes recommendations for new research directions based upon these findings. Our systematic review was limited to experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted in elementary schools...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Michelle Marie Johns, Oscar Beltran, Heather L Armstrong, Paula E Jayne, Lisa C Barrios
Transgender and gender variant (GV) youth experience elevated risk for poor health and academic outcomes due mainly to social experiences of stigma and discrimination. To supplement the growing evidence on health risks encountered by transgender/GV youth, we identified factors theorized to be protective for these youth across all four levels of Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model (individual, relationship, community, societal). We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed research. The articles included in this review were published in peer-reviewed journals in English or Spanish between 1999 and 2014, analyzed data from a sample or subsample of transgender or GV participants with a mean age between 10 and 24 years, and examined the relationship of at least one theorized protective factor to a health or behavioral outcome...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Simon Larose, Geneviève Boisclair-Châteauvert, David J De Wit, David DuBois, Gizem Erdem, Ellen L Lipman
This study examines three potential contributions (i.e., additive only, hierarchical compensatory, and hierarchical conditional) of mentor support to youth academic adjustment, taking into account interactions with support from mothers and teachers. We derived data from a larger study of the Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) of Canada community mentoring program. The sample included 427 youth (average age 9.8 years; 64% girls, 56% White) who received one-to-one community-based mentoring for at least three months...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Neng Wan, Mohammad Siahpush, Raees A Shaikh, Molly McCarthy, Athena Ramos, Antonia Correa
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area...
June 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Thomas M Ludden, Yhenneko J Taylor, Laura K Simmons, Heather A Smith, Brisa Urquieta de Hernandez, Hazel Tapp, Owen J Furuseth, Michael F Dulin
Hispanic immigrant communities across the U.S. experience persistent health disparities and barriers to primary care. We examined whether community-based participatory research (CBPR) and geospatial modeling could systematically and reproducibly pinpoint neighborhoods in Charlotte, North Carolina with large proportions of Hispanic immigrants who were at-risk for poor health outcomes and health disparities. Using a CBPR framework, we identified 21 social determinants of health measures and developed a geospatial model from a subset of those measures to identify neighborhoods with large proportions of Hispanic immigrant populations at risk for poor health outcomes...
April 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Amie L Haas, Byron L Zamboanga, Melina Bersamin, Travis Hyke
The social and political climate regarding marijuana use has been changing in the US over the past decade. Research suggests that many adolescents report relatively easy access to marijuana and perceptions that recreational use involves minimal harm despite a growing body of research implicating the deleterious effects of use on cognitive and psychological development. Not surprisingly, prevalence rates have been rising in recent years, making it important to identify risk and protective factors associated with adolescent marijuana use...
April 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Katie Cotter Stalker, Roderick A Rose, Martica Bacallao, Paul R Smokowski
We evaluated the effectiveness of the Parenting Wisely (PW) program 6 months post intervention and assessed differences based on delivery format. Using a quasi-experimental design, parents (N = 311) participated in the PW program in one of five formats (i.e., parents-only intensive workshop, parents-only 5-week group, parents and adolescents 5-week group, parent and adolescent online, and parent-only online format). An additional 53 parents served as a comparison group. We used the McMaster Family Assessment Device, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Violent Behavior Checklist to measure family functioning, parenting, and adolescent behavior...
April 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Brian E Menaker, Adam E Barry, Steven M Howell
Sporting events in the U.S., particularly college football games, provide an opportunity for high-risk alcohol consumption that can result in alcohol-related consequences and associated public safety issues. Policy implication and predicting alcohol-related misconduct at college football games has become a concern for university administrators. To address this issue, we explored the extent to which the profile of a game or opponent-whether that be operationalized by classification (e.g., in-state opponent, conference opponent) or opponent quality (e...
April 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Leah M Ranney, Kristen L Jarman, Hannah M Baker, Maihan Vu, Seth M Noar, Adam O Goldstein
Several health-related agencies administer national and targeted public education campaigns to provide health information and change health-related behaviors. The trust the public has in these agencies as the source of the message impacts the effectiveness of their communication campaigns. In this study, we explore the perceived trust of agencies that communicate health messages in the tobacco control field. As part of a larger tobacco regulatory science study, we conducted six 90-min focus groups comprising 41 participants...
April 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Linda A M Khong, Richard G Berlach, Keith D Hill, Anne-Marie Hill
Falls among older adults are a major problem. Despite considerable progress in falls prevention research, older adults often show low motivation to engage in recommended preventive strategies. Peer-led falls prevention education for older adults may have potential for bridging the research evidence-practice gap, thereby promoting the uptake of falls prevention strategies. We evaluated peer educators' presentations of falls prevention education to community-dwelling older adults in regard to established criteria that were consistent with adult learning principles, the framework of health behaviour change, falls prevention guidelines, and recommendations for providing falls prevention information...
April 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
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February 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Michael D George, Harold D Holder, Paul N McKenzie, Heather R Mueller, Donna C Herchek, Barry S Faile
We tested the generalizability of a science-based community prevention design to reduce DUI crashes. Previous researcher-led studies have confirmed the effects of an intervention design of visible enforcement coupled with heightened public awareness of enforcement to increase driver perception of likely detection for drinking and driving. A community coalition based the project on a prevention intervention model that included two key intermediate variables: levels of visible enforcement and of public awareness of enforcement...
February 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Annese Jaffery, Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
No study has yet evaluated the effects of an acute 5-min bout of exercise (walking) on cognitive function, which was the purpose of our study. We employed a Solomon-4 experimental design, in which 22 young adult participants were included in each group. Participants in two groups (1 and 3) walked on a treadmill for 5 min at a self-selected intensity. We assessed cognitive function by means of the Trail Making B test. We observed no difference in cognitive function between the two assessments for the control group (group 2: 42...
February 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Mallie J Paschall, Bettina Friese, Kristen Law, Anna Lebedeff
States and municipalities across the U.S. are adopting social host ordinances (SHOs) to reduce alcohol use by underage youth in private settings. SHOs are most likely to be effective if parents and other adults are aware of them and they are enforced. We examined the association between a multi-media SHO awareness campaign in northern California municipalities and parents' awareness of SHOs and SHO enforcement. We collected survey data from 1798 parents in a northern California county in fall 2014; all municipalities within the county had SHOs...
February 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Renée Spencer, Alison L Drew, Jill Walsh, Stella S Kanchewa
This prospective, mixed-methods study examined the role of gender in youth mentoring relationship duration and quality. Participants were 67 gender-matched pairs of adult mentors and youth participating in community-based mentoring programs as well as the youths' guardians. Mentors and youth completed surveys and qualitative interviews at multiple time points. At baseline, male youth reported stronger relationships with their guardians. Analysis of the survey data from the 3-month follow-up revealed that male mentors and youth reported stronger mentoring relationship quality...
February 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
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