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Journal of Primary Prevention

Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Rosario Moreno
Elopement exhibited by school-aged children with special health care needs is a relatively low frequency problem behavior with the potential for severe negative consequences for the child and family. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, our results represent one of the first empirical studies of variables that may be associated with children with special health care needs engaging in elopement. Using data from a nationally representative sample of children with special health care needs, our results revealed two variables that were statistically significant predictors of parent-reported elopement in the past year: (1) the child's chronological age, and (2) the presence of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Shannon M Varga, Nancy L Deutsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Michelle Johnson-Motoyama, Mindi Moses, Tiffany Koloroutis Kann, E Susana Mariscal, Michelle Levy, Carolina Navarro, Paula J Fite
Teen pregnancy remains a public health concern particularly among Latinos, whose pregnancy rate of 83.5 per 1000 girls constitutes one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy among all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. To enhance the effectiveness of interventions for diverse Latino populations in the US, it is crucial to assess the community's understanding of the etiology of the problem of adolescent pregnancy and to implement programs that reflect the local community's beliefs and preferences...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Miriam K Ehrensaft, Heather M Knous-Westfall, Thailyn Lopez Alonso
Research consistently indicates that young mothers are at elevated risk for adverse social and economic risks. Recent attention has been paid to the value of maternal educational attainment for their children's economic and social outcomes. Pursuit of post-secondary education requires mothers to balance multiple roles, potentially stressing the parent-child relationship. Yet, almost no studies have addressed parenting and associated stress in young mothers enrolled in post-secondary education, and no preventive intervention trials have been conducted...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
David J DeWit, Samantha Wells, Tara Elton-Marshall, Julie George
We compared the mentoring experiences and mental health and behavioral outcomes associated with program-supported mentoring for 125 Aboriginal (AB) and 734 non-Aboriginal (non-AB) youth ages 6-17 participating in a national survey of Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring relationships. Parents or guardians reported on youth mental health and other outcomes at baseline (before youth were paired to a mentor) and at 18 months follow-up. We found that AB youth were significantly less likely than non-AB youth to be in a long-term continuous mentoring relationship...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Ross Shegog, Stephanie Craig Rushing, Gwenda Gorman, Cornelia Jessen, Jennifer Torres, Travis L Lane, Amanda Gaston, Taija Koogei Revels, Jennifer Williamson, Melissa F Peskin, Jina D'Cruz, Susan Tortolero, Christine M Markham
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate, the consequences of early sexual activity. While effective curricula exist, there is a dearth of curricula with content salient to AI/AN youth. Further, there is a lack of sexual health curricula that take advantage of the motivational appeal, reach, and fidelity of communication technology for this population, who are sophisticated technology users...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Shannon M Varga, Nancy L Deutsch
Mentoring continues to be a popular intervention for promoting positive youth development. However, the underlying mechanisms associated with sustainable and successful relationships remain largely unknown. Our study aimed to expand on previous literature by examining characteristics that have previously been linked to mentoring outcomes (e.g., authenticity, empathy), from a process-focused lens. We utilized post program satisfaction scores and interviews to examine the presence of each characteristic in a large sample of dyads (n = 144) as well as dyads' levels of agreement or disagreement about aspects of the relationships...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Vitor Alexandre Coelho, Vanda Sousa, Ana Paula Figueira
We examined the effects of a social and emotional learning program, Program Positive Attitude, on the social and emotional competencies and self-esteem of Portuguese elementary school students, from the twin perspectives of students and their teachers. Participants were 1237 fourth grade students from 37 schools in a Portuguese municipality, with a mean age of 9.2 years, of which 970 students (in 86 classes) participated in the program and 267 students (in 21 classes) served as a comparison group. Students and their teachers completed questionnaires prior to and following the intervention...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Dawn X Henderson, Jessica DeCuir-Gunby, Vandna Gill
Promoting resilience prevents maladaptation among economically disadvantaged ethnic minority (EDEM) youth. EDEM youth need access to a variety of assets and promotive factors (i.e., resources) in the family, school, and community system to counter risks and promote positive adaptation. However, the field lacks a socio-ecological model of resilience for prevention targeted towards EDEM youth. We aim to review assets and promotive factors in the family, school, and community systems to present a socio-ecological model of resilience for the prevention of negative educational and health outcomes among EDEM youth...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Lei Zhang, Bonita J Iritani, Winnie Luseno, Shane Hartman, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Denise Dion Hallfors
Our study reports the results from a mixed method study comparing age-similar (AS) marriages of orphaned young women to age disparate (AD) marriages, defined as spousal age difference of 5 or more years. Research in Zimbabwe and sub-Saharan Africa suggests that AD sexual relationships between older men and young women increase the risk for HIV but few studies have examined this association among married couples or explored why young women marry much older men. In this study, a total of 35 orphaned young women aged 17-26 years in rural Zimbabwe participated in semi-structured interviews during 2012-2013...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Ashley K Day, Carlene J Wilson, Amanda D Hutchinson, Rachel M Roberts
Australia has a significant proportion of residents of Asian heritage. Although the incidence of skin cancer is lower in those of Asian heritage than Caucasians, their prognosis is often worse. Sociocultural variables are central to the tanning behaviours of individuals from Western cultures. We examined the role of sociocultural variables in the tanning behaviours (outdoor tanning, indoor/solarium and fake tan use) among Asian Australians. A sample of 399 young adults identifying either as a person of Asian heritage or as Asian Australian participated in an online survey...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Michael Mason, Jeremy Mennis, Thomas Way, Nikola Zaharakis, Leah Floyd Campbell, Eric G Benotsch, Lori Keyser-Marcus, Laura King
Although adolescent tobacco use has declined in the last 10 years, African American high school seniors' past 30-day use has increased by 12 %, and as they age they are more likely to report lifetime use of tobacco. Very few urban youth are enrolled in evidenced-based smoking prevention and cessation programming. Therefore, we tested a text messaging smoking cessation intervention designed to engage urban youth through an automated texting program utilizing motivational interviewing-based peer network counseling...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Leslie M Babinski, Ashley J Corra, Elizabeth J Gifford
Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U...
August 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Sara E Champlin, Keryn E Pasch, Cheryl L Perry
Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey...
August 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Pietro Muratori, Iacopo Bertacchi, Consuelo Giuli, Annalaura Nocentini, Laura Ruglioni, John E Lochman
Aggressive behaviors in schools have the potential to cause serious harm to students' emotional and social well-being and to limit their ability to achieve their full academic potential. Prevention programs developed to reduce children's aggressive behaviors in school settings can provide interventions at a universal or targeted level. The main aim of our randomized control study was to examine the efficacy of Coping Power, adapted as a universal prevention program, in reducing children's behavioral problems and improving school grades...
August 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Rebecca S Spicer, Ted R Miller
Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace...
August 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Kaitlyn Reho, Jon Agley, Mallori DeSalle, Ruth A Gassman
Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol is an evidence-based prevention practice designed to reduce frequency and severity of alcohol misuse. Many studies have validated the effectiveness of SBI for reducing levels of alcohol misuse, especially in primary medical care. Additional research continues to be conducted in terms of the effectiveness of including referral to treatment (SBIRT) and addressing illicit drug use and prescription drug abuse. Importantly, cross-comparison among SBIRT programs is difficult because evaluative processes vary widely between programs, which themselves often are substantively different...
August 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Brian Dauenhauer, Xiaofen Keating, Dolly Lambdin
Response to intervention (RtI) models are frequently used in schools to tailor academic instruction to the needs of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using RtI to promote physical activity (PA) and fitness in one urban elementary school. Ninety-nine students in grades 2-5 participated in up to three tiers of intervention throughout the course of one school year. Tier one included 150 min/week of physical education (increased from 90 min/week the previous year) and coordinated efforts to improve school health...
August 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Bettina Friese, Michael D Slater, Rachelle Annechino, Robynn S Battle
Recent research indicates that marijuana-infused food product (i.e., edible) use is becoming nearly as common as smoking marijuana where medical marijuana is available. This study explores edible use among teens. We conducted four focus groups in the San Francisco Bay Area with youth, ages 15-17. The focus groups were divided by gender and whether they used marijuana. Some teens mentioned edible use at school. Youth reported that teens consume edibles, primarily to reduce the likelihood of getting caught. Edibles are also attractive to those who do not like to smoke or have concerns about smoking...
June 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Lynsay Ayer, Rajeev Ramchand, Lily Geyer, Lane Burgette, Aaron Kofner
The Army and Marine Corps have consistently experienced the highest rates of suicide relative to the other services. In both the Army and Marine Corps, the service members responsible for identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide are called "gatekeepers" and are typically noncommissioned officers (NCOs). We used structural equation modeling on survey responses from 1184 Army soldiers and 796 marines to estimate the relationships between training, intervention efficacy, reluctance, and mental health stigma on NCO intervention behaviors...
June 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
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