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Journal of Primary Prevention

Yolanda Anyon, Joe Roscoe, Kimberly Bender, Heather Kennedy, Jonah Dechants, Stephanie Begun, Christine Gallager
In the field of prevention science, some consider fidelity to manualized protocols to be a hallmark of successful implementation. A growing number of scholars agree that high-quality implementation should also include some adaptations to local context, particularly as prevention programs are scaled up, in order to strengthen their relevance and increase participant engagement. From this perspective, fidelity and adaptation can both be seen as necessary, albeit mutually exclusive, dimensions of implementation quality...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Primary Prevention
Cady Berkel, Carlos G Gallo, Irwin N Sandler, Anne M Mauricio, Justin D Smith, C Hendricks Brown
The field of prevention has established the potential to promote child adjustment across a wide array of outcomes. However, when evidence-based prevention programs have been delivered at scale in community settings, declines in implementation and outcomes have resulted. Maintaining high quality implementation is a critical challenge for the field. We describe steps towards the development of a practical system to monitor and support the high-quality implementation of evidence-based prevention programs in community settings...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Primary Prevention
Joseph N Roscoe, Valerie B Shapiro, Kelly Whitaker, B K Elizabeth Kim
High-quality implementation is important for preventive intervention effectiveness. Although this implies fidelity to a practice model, some adaptation may be inevitable or even advantageous in routine practice settings. In order to organize the study of adaptation and its effect on intervention outcomes, scholars have proposed various adaptation taxonomies. This paper examines how four published taxonomies retrospectively classify adaptations: the Ecological Validity Framework (EVF; Bernal et al. in J Abnorm Child Psychol 23(1):67-82, 1995), the Hybrid Prevention Program Model (HPPM; Castro et al...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Primary Prevention
Anne Marie Mauricio, Jenna Rudo-Stern, Thomas J Dishion, Kirsten Letham, Monique Lopez
We used provider (n = 112) data that staff at the agency disseminating the Family Check-Up (FCU; REACH Institute) collected to profile provider diversity in community settings and to examine whether provider profiles are related to implementation fidelity. Prior to FCU training, REACH Institute staff administered the FCU Provider Readiness Assessment (PRA), a provider self-report measure that assesses provider characteristics previously linked with provider uptake of evidence-based interventions. We conducted a latent class analysis using PRA subscale scores as latent class indicators...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Primary Prevention
William B Hansen, Charles B Fleming, Lawrence M Scheier
Numerous studies emphasize the role of student engagement in academic learning and performance. Less known is whether engagement plays a role in drug prevention program outcomes. We examined a self-report measure of engagement as part of the All Stars Core drug prevention program evaluation, assessing its impact on target risk mechanisms and behavioral outcomes. Students completed pretests just prior to and posttests just after completing the intervention. Surveys assessed demographics, proximal intervening measures (i...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Primary Prevention
Elias Allara, Franca Beccaria, Roberta Molinar, Laura Marinaro, Antonella Ermacora, Alessandro Coppo, Fabrizio Faggiano
Diario della Salute [My Health Diary] is a school-based program designed to enhance the subjective well-being and health of 12- to 13-year-old students. We hypothesized that providing students with the social and emotional skills to fulfill their potential and deal with common developmental tasks of adolescence (e.g., onset of puberty, identity development, increased responsibilities and academic demands) would result in improved well-being and health. The program comprises five standardized interactive lessons concerning common psychosocial and health issues in adolescence, and two narrative booklets addressed to both students and their parents...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Rachel Valencia, Li Yan Wang, Richard Dunville, Akshay Sharma, Travis Sanchez, Eli Rosenberg
Although adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM) are at increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States (US), studies that estimate sexual risk behaviors that contribute to HIV risk in ASMM are limited. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compile available data and estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors in this population. We searched four databases for key terms related to ASMM, defined as males aged 14 through 19 who identified as gay or bisexual, reported sex with a male in their lifetime, and/or were considered sexual minority by the study...
December 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Danielle Vaclavik, Molly Brown, Paige Adenuga, Samantha Scartozzi, Dennis P Watson
The Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP) provided individuals and families who were either at-risk or currently experiencing homelessness with time-limited financial and housing support services. Evaluations of HPRP showed a high rate of family placement into permanent housing. However, little research has explored immediate and longitudinal outcomes for families enrolled in HPRP. Using Homeless Management Information System data from Indianapolis, Indiana, we examined demographic and program-related predictors of families entering permanent housing and their risk of reentry into homeless services following HPRP participation...
December 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Hannah D Peach, Jane F Gaultney, Aria R Ruggiero
Although a few studies have examined sleep knowledge and attitudes as predictors of sleep behavior, the question of which better predicts actual sleep behavior is still open. Furthermore, the construct of sleep attitudes has been inconsistently defined and measured. We examined both sleep knowledge and attitudes to determine their unique associations with sleep hygiene behaviors, and direct and indirect associations with objective and subjective sleep outcomes. College students (N = 218) completed a series of questionnaires before and after wearing a FitBit Flex accelerometer for 7 days...
December 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Nancy J Kepple, Bridget Freisthler
Venue-based distribution of marijuana has become the normative model in the United States to obtain marijuana. This study examines one-time purchase behaviors at medical marijuana dispensaries (MMDs) to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. We used a two-stage, venue-based sampling approach to randomly select patrons exiting 16 MMDs in Los Angeles, California during the spring of 2013. Patrons (N = 595) reported their discrete purchase behaviors during their most recent visit to the sampled MMD...
December 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Eric Persaud, Catherine LePrevost
Chemical tank cleaners' occupational diseases and injuries are largely unknown due to a lack of monitoring and limited research. Their potential exposure to highly corrosive chemicals-including sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and ferric chloride-suggests that tank cleaners represent an at-risk occupational group. This pilot study explored tank cleaners' risk perceptions and barriers to using personal protective equipment and other protective behaviors in their workplace. Data sources included a survey (n = 29) and interviews (n = 9) with sodium hypochlorite tank cleaners in the United States...
December 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Sara M St George, Sarah E Messiah, Krystal M Sardinas, Sofia Poma, Cynthia Lebron, Maria I Tapia, Maria Rosa Velazquez, Hilda Pantin, Guillermo Prado
We describe the adaptation of Familias Unidas, an evidence-based substance use and sexual risk behavior intervention, for obesity prevention in Hispanic adolescents. Intervention developers and experts in pediatric obesity, exercise physiology, dietetics, and the local parks system provided input for changes. Hispanic families also provided input through a series of 21 focus groups conducted before, during, and after an initial pilot test of the adapted intervention. After transcribing audiotaped sessions, we used a general inductive approach and Dedoose qualitative software to derive themes...
December 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Hailee K Dunn, Deborah N Pearlman, Avery Beatty, Paul Florin
Social networking sites (SNSs) now serve as a primary form of communication among adolescents. Consequently, drug prevention campaigns delivered through SNSs have the potential to reach a wide network of adolescents if teens are willing to engage in the message diffusion process by commenting on, "liking," following, creating, or sharing prevention messages with their networked peers. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors that influence adolescents' willingness to participate in drug prevention social media campaigns...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Nesly Metayer, Rebecca Boulos, Alison Tovar, Julie Gervis, Joyce Abreu, Erika Hval, Christina Luongo Kamins, Kerline Tofuri, Christina D Economos
Minority populations are hard to reach with prevention interventions because of cultural and logistical barriers to recruitment. Understanding how to overcome these barriers is pertinent to reducing the elevated burden of obesity within these underserved communities. To inform this literature gap, we explore the processes and outcomes of recruitment for Live Well-a randomized controlled obesity prevention intervention targeting new immigrant mothers and children from Brazil, Latin America, and Haiti who were residing in the greater Somerville, MA area...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Mathieu Pinelli, Sonia Pellissier, Clémentine Bry
We tested a field-adapted priming procedure (a technique used to subtly activate mental representations and guide behavior) on a ski slope, with the goal of reducing risk behavior in winter sports. At cableway stations, skiers were initially exposed eight times to a prevention poster displaying a logo and a "slow down" message. The "slow down" concept was activated on the ski slope by exposing skiers (or not) 10 times to the logo featured on the poster. We used a radar device to measure the skiers' speed data just before a slope intersection...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Karin Widemar, Magnus Falk
The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide, mostly because of increasing exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The Sun Exposure and Protection Index (SEPI) questionnaire, developed in Linköping and validated in Sweden and Australia, is used to map sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and readiness to increase sun protection. We sought to examine differences in sun habits or sun protection behaviour and propensity to increase sun protection, based on SEPI as related to self-estimated skin UV sensitivity according to the Fitzpatrick classification...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Caroline Stephenson, Matthew E Rossheim
Limited research has systematically examined injuries resulting from Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ), Judo, and mixed martial arts (MMA), especially when compared to more well-known or -established martial arts. These three combative sports differ substantially regarding their rules and techniques. BJJ emphasizes ground positioning and submission, Judo rewards throwing an opponent on their back with submission ending the match, and MMA emphasizes knocking out or forcing the submission of one's opponent. We examined injuries, among people of any age, experienced from participation in BJJ, Judo, and MMA...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Briana L McGeough, Paul R Sterzing
Sexual minority youth experience substantially higher rates of family victimization than their heterosexual peers. No systematic review has yet identified the predictors and consequences in this vulnerable population of childhood abuse, exposure to sibling abuse and domestic violence, and sibling aggression. This systematic review aims to (a) describe differences in these family victimization rates by sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity; (b) identify potential sexual minority and non-sexual minority-specific risk factors; and (c) identify physical, mental, and behavioral health and extrafamilial victimization correlates...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Lauren Tingey, Rachel Chambers, Summer Rosenstock, Francene Larzelere, Novalene Goklish, Angelita Lee, Anne Rompalo
Early sexual initiation is a catalyst for sexually transmitted infection and unintended pregnancy. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth initiate sex prior to age 13 more often than other U.S. youth, contributing to current inequalities in sexual health. Identifying what factors were associated with lifetime sexual experience among AI/AN youth can inform the development of primary prevention programming to delay sexual initiation, alleviate the costs of early sexual activity, and improve sexual health outcomes in this population...
August 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Kate Bloom, Jaime Adler, Christy Bridges, Julia Bernstein, Christine Rini, Adam O Goldstein, Carol Ripley-Moffitt
Obesity affects more than one-third of Americans and is a leading cause of preventable death. Integrating patient perspectives into obesity treatment can help primary care providers (PCPs) intervene more effectively. In this study, we describe patients' experiences with PCPs concerning the diagnosis and treatment of obesity and offer suggestions for patient-centered care in weight management. We conducted four focus groups with patients of a university medical system-associated family practice who had a BMI ≥ 30...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
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