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Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

Glòria Salort, María Álvaro-Bartolomé, Jesús A García-Sevilla
Ketamine (KET) is an antidepressant and hypnotic drug acting as an antagonist at excitatory NMDA glutamate receptors. The working hypothesis postulated that KET-induced sleep in mice results in dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) MEK-ERK sequential phosphorylation and upregulation of survival p-FADD and other neuroplastic markers in brain. Low (5-15 mg/kg) and high (150 mg/kg) doses of KET on target proteins were assessed by Western immunoblot in mouse brain cortex. During the time course of KET (150 mg/kg)-induced sleep (up to 50 min) p-MEK was increased (up to +79%) and p-ERK decreased (up to -46%) indicating disruption of MEK to ERK signal...
July 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Etieli Wendler, Camila Pasquini de Souza, Ana Paula Segantine Dornellas, Luis Eduardo Dos Santos, Sergio Texeira Ferreira, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Roberto Andreatini
Mania is characterized by elevated drive and mood but animal models of mania have often neglected elevated mood. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) of 50-kHz emitted by rats are thought to index the subject's positive affective state. Fifty-kHz USV emission is increased by amphetamine, an effect blocked by lithium administration. Sleep deprivation (SD) is an environmental model of mania and the present study evaluated SD effects on behavioral activity and USV emission, together with the impact of lithium treatment...
July 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
David J Clarke, Lala Sarkissian, Stephanie M Todd, Anastasia S Suraev, Dilara Bahceci, Natalia Brzozowska, Jonathon C Arnold
Little is known about the exact genes that confer vulnerability or resilience to environmental stressors during early neurodevelopment. Partial genetic deletion of neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) moderates the neurobehavioural effects of stressors applied in adolescence and adulthood, however, no study has yet examined its impact on prenatal stress. Here we examined whether Nrg1 deficiency in mice modulated the impact of prenatal stress on various behaviours in adulthood. Male heterozygous Nrg1 mice were mated with wild-type female mice who then underwent daily restraint stress from days 13 to 19 of gestation...
June 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Krishan Ariyasiri, Tae-Ik Choi, Oc-Hee Kim, Ted Inpyo Hong, Robert Gerlai, Cheol-Hee Kim
Social behavior is a fundamental aspect of our own species, a feature without which our society would not function. There are numerous human brain disorders associated with abnormal social behavior, among them are the autism spectrum disorders whose causal factors include a genetic component. Environmental factors, including drugs of abuse such as alcohol, also contribute to numerous abnormalities related to social behavior. Several such disorders have been modeled using laboratory animals. Perhaps one of the newest among them is the zebrafish...
June 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
JiaYing Gong, Guanmao Chen, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Lianping Zhao, Xiaomei Luo, Shaojuan Qiu, Shunkai Lai, Zhangzhang Qi, Li Huang, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate that functional disruption in resting-state networks contributes to cognitive and affective symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), however, the functional connectivity (FC) pattern underlying BD II depression within the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and frontoparietal network (FPN) is still not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to explore whether the pathophysiology of BD II derived from the pattern of FC within the DMN, SN, and FPN by using seed-based FC approach of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
June 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Claire E Wilcox, Christopher C Abbott, Vince D Calhoun
Substance use disorders (SUD) are diseases of the brain, characterized by aberrant functioning in the neural circuitry of the brain. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) can illuminate these functional changes by measuring the temporal coherence of low-frequency fluctuations of the blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging signal in contiguous or non-contiguous regions of the brain. Because this data is easy to obtain and analyze, and therefore fairly inexpensive, it holds promise for defining biological treatment targets in SUD, which could help maximize the efficacy of existing clinical interventions and develop new ones...
June 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Marion Rädle, Christian Beste
Chronic heavy methamphetamine use likely causes dopaminergic neurotoxicity, which is commonly thought to result in cognitive control deficits. Both of these alterations may persist even after the use is discontinued, but tend to (partly) improve with increasing duration of abstinence. While several studies have demonstrated that the reinstatement of comparatively normal dopaminergic signaling may take months, if not years, the amelioration of cognitive deficits has predominantly been investigated in much shorter intervals of several weeks to less than half a year...
June 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Takashi Iimori, Shinichiro Nakajima, Takahiro Miyazaki, Ryosuke Tarumi, Kamiyu Ogyu, Masataka Wada, Sakiko Tsugawa, Fumi Masuda, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Masaru Mimura, Yoshihiro Noda
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective clinical intervention for various neuropsychiatric diseases. However, it is still unclear whether rTMS has an effect on cognitive functioning. In this review, we aimed to systematically evaluate the cognitive effects of rTMS in depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. We searched PubMed (1996-2018) under the set terms to review randomized controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of rTMS administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and evaluated cognitive functions in patients with depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease...
June 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Yi Deng, Karen S Y Hung, Simon S Y Lui, William W H Chui, Joe C W Lee, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Henry K F Mak, Pak C Sham, Raymond C K Chan, Eric F C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has been characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain disconnectivity. However, whether disrupted integrity of white matter tracts in schizophrenia can potentially serve as individual discriminative biomarkers remains unclear. METHODS: A random forest algorithm was applied to tractography-based diffusion properties obtained from a cohort of 65 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 60 healthy individuals to investigate the machine-learning discriminative power of white matter disconnectivity...
June 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Yong-Ku Kim, Meysam Amidfar, Eunsoo Won
The heterogeneity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms indicates that multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of the condition. However, no generally accepted PTSD biomarkers in clinical practice currently exist. The sequential responses to recurrent and chronic stress by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) system are considered to play a significant role in the onset and progression of PTSD. Decreased activity of the HPA axis and parasympathetic nervous system, along with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, have been observed in PTSD, which may lead to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
June 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Kathryn D Baker, Gavan P McNally, Rick Richardson
Adolescent humans and rodents are impaired in extinguishing learned fear relative to younger and older groups. This impairment could be due to differences in recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), or amygdala during extinction. For example, unlike juveniles and adults, adolescent rats do not express extinction-induced increases in phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (pMAPK), a marker of synaptic plasticity, in the medial PFC. The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) improves extinction retention in adolescent rats...
June 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Stephen Rao, Robert Bornstein, Bogna Szymańska, Andrzej Horban, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Emilia Łojek
The objective of the study was to examine additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on resting state (RS) intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. We also aimed to assess relationships with neurocognition and determine clinical-, treatment-, and health-related factors moderating intrinsic brain activity in aging HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. The current report presents data on 54 HIV+ individuals (age M = 41, SD = 12 years) stabilized on cART and 54 socio-demographically matched healthy (HIV-) comparators (age M = 43, SD = 12 years), with cohort education mean of 16 years (SD = 12)...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
André R Brunoni, Frank Padberg, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Antônio Lucio Teixeira, André F Carvalho, Paulo Andrade Lotufo, Wagner F Gattaz, Isabela Martins Benseñor
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for major depressive disorder (MDD). A more precise understanding of its underlying mechanisms may aid in the identification of subsets of patients responsive to tDCS within the context of precision psychiatry. OBJECTIVE: In this ancillary investigation of the Escitalopram vs. Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS), we investigated whether plasma levels of several cytokines and neurotrophic factors associated with major depression or antidepressant response predicted tDCS effects...
June 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Kailyn A Bradley, Carmen M Alonso, Lushna M Mehra, Junqian Xu, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: Alterations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness. Our previous work has specifically linked anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GABA deficits with anhedonia in youth with major depressive disorder (MDD). As anhedonia reflects alterations within the reward circuitry, we sought to extend this investigation and examine GABA levels in another key reward-related region, the striatum, in the same adolescent population...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Yun-Hyong Kang, Jong-Min Lee, Jungho Cha, Yeong-Hun Park, Kuk-Ju Kweon, Bung-Nyun Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for externalizing behavior problems in perpetrators of school bullying using assessments of brain activity and behavior. Twenty-five adolescent bullies participated in an 8-session intervention. Prior to and after participation, 24 adolescents were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 23 completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and scores on the CBCL were analyzed...
June 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Miao Ding, Ping Li, Yan Wen, Yan Zhao, Bolun Cheng, Lu Zhang, Mei Ma, Shiqiang Cheng, Li Liu, Yanan Du, Xiao Liang, Awen He, Xiong Guo, Feng Zhang
Insomnia is a common sleep disorder whose genetic mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study is to identify novel genes, gene enrichment sets and enriched tissue/cell types for insomnia considering the differences across different brain regions. We conducted an integrative analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) and brain region related enhancer maps. Summary data was derived from a large-scale GWAS of insomnia, involving 113,006 unrelated individuals. The chromosomal enhancer maps of 6 brain regions were then aligned with the GWAS summary data to obtain the association testing results of enhancer regions for insomnia...
June 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Alexia V Williams, Abigail Laman-Maharg, Crystal V Armstrong, Stephanie Ramos-Maciel, Vanessa A Minie, Brian C Trainor
Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are considered to be a promising therapeutic target for stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Preclinical data show that KOR antagonists have greater efficacy if administered before stressful experiences as opposed to afterwards. However, almost all of these studies use long-acting antagonists, leaving it unclear whether inhibition of KOR after stress is required for efficacy. Here we show that administration of the short-acting KOR antagonist AZ-MTAB before episodes of social defeat stress block the induction of anhedonia (both males and females) and social avoidance responses (females) that persist two weeks after stress...
June 4, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Moon-Soo Lee, Purnima Anumagalla, Prasanth Talluri, Mani N Pavuluri
OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit has been shown to exist in adult and pediatric bipolar disorder across the life span. Given that emotion dysregulation is central to bipolar disorder, this study hypothesizes that emotional circuitry regions are altered along with anomalies in the attentional systems during cognitive deployment in bipolar disorder. METHODS: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of attentional activities using GingerALE software was completed for adult and pediatric bipolar disorder populations in all published studies till December 2017...
May 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jessica R M Goodnight, Katie A Ragsdale, Sheila A M Rauch, Barbara O Rothbaum
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often a clinically complex disorder, frequently presenting with comorbid clinical conditions. Individuals with PTSD may also present with high-risk symptoms such as substance misuse and suicidal ideation. The clinical complexity of PTSD has precluded some clinicians from providing gold-standard trauma-focused treatment due to concern of iatrogenic effects. However, evidence to date suggests that trauma-focused treatments are safe and effective for PTSD even when higher-risk comorbidity presents...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Stephen I Deutsch, C Teal Raffaele
Deficits in decoding and understanding facially expressed emotions occur commonly in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which contribute to the impairment of social communication that serves as one of its core diagnostic criteria. Research suggests that abnormalities of visual scanning of the face, activation of key nodes within the "social brain" by facially expressed emotions, functional connectivity within and between nodes of the "social brain", and transduction of specific neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory signals contribute to the pathogenesis of these deficits in at least some persons with ASD...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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