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Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

Neven Henigsberg, Petra Kalember, Zrnka Kovačić Petrović, Ana Šečić
Neuroimaging research reflects the complexity of post-traumatic stress disorder and shares some common difficulties of post-traumatic stress disorder research, such as the different classifications of the disorder over time, changes in diagnostic criteria, and extensive comorbidities, as well as precisely delineated and prevailing genetic and environmental determinants in the development of the disorder and its clinical manifestations. Synthesis of neuroimaging findings in an effort to clarify causes, clinical manifestations, and consequences of the disorder is complicated by a variety of applied technical approaches in different brain regions, differences in symptom dimensions in a study population, and typically small sample sizes, with the interplay of all of these consequently bringing about divergent results...
November 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Chuanjun Zhuo, Yudong Yao, Yong Xu, Chuanxin Liu, Min Chen, Feng Ji, Jie Li, Hongjun Tian, Deguo Jiang, Chongguang Lin, Ce Chen
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder and the exact mechanisms that underpin SZ remain poorly understood despite decades of research. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are all considered to play a role. The importance of gut flora and its influence on the central nervous system has been recognized in recent years. We hypothesize that gut flora may be a converging point where environmental factors interact with epigenetic factors and contribute to SZ pathogenesis...
November 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Stephen J Gotts, Michal Ramot, Kyle Jasmin, Alex Martin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by profound impairments in social abilities and by restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Much work in the past decade has been dedicated to understanding the brain-bases of ASD, and in the context of resting-state functional connectivity fMRI in high-functioning adolescents and adults, the field has established a set of reliable findings: decreased cortico-cortical interactions among brain regions thought to be engaged in social processing, along with a simultaneous increase in thalamo-cortical and striato-cortical interactions...
November 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Cristiane Busnardo, Carlos C Crestani, América A Scopinho, Benjamin A Packard, Leonardo B M Resstel, Fernando M A Correa, James P Herman
We investigated the involvement of nitrergic neurotransmission within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in modulation of local neuronal activation, autonomic and neuroendocrine responses and behavioral consequences of acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjections of the selective neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) inhibitor Nw -Propyl-L-arginine (NPLA) or the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO into the PVN reduced arterial pressure and heart rate increases, as well as the fall in cutaneous tail temperature induced by restraint stress...
November 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Fabrice Jollant, Géraldine Voegeli, Nolan C Kordsmeier, Jessica M Carbajal, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Gustavo Turecki, Ricardo Cáceda
OBJECTIVE: Psychological pain lies at the heart of human experience. However, it may also be abnormally intense and/or prolonged in pathological states, with negative outcomes. A simple and reliable measure of psychological pain for clinical use would be useful. In this study, we present a preliminary validation of a simple visual analog scale jointly measuring psychological and physical pain. METHODS: Two samples of adult (non elderly) depressed patients and healthy controls were independently recruited in two locations in Canada and the USA (N = 48/46 and 20/200, respectively)...
October 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hui Zhang, Qun Li, Yingchun Shang, Xi Xiao, Xinxin Xu, Jianhai Zhang, Tao Zhang
The effect of prenatal stress (PS) on offspring's behavior was reported previously. Several studies attempted to reveal the mechanisms of PS on synaptic and molecular levels. However, the influences of PS on neural oscillations and their interaction in hippocampus are still unknown. In the present study, a PS rat model was established by using restraint stress. The local-field potentials (LFPs) were simultaneously recorded from the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions in young, adolescent and early-adult offspring rats...
October 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Qiuping Zhong, Hui Yu, Chang Huang, Jiahong Zhong, Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Yufang Cheng
The canonical phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors produce antidepressant-like effects in a variety of animal models. However, severe side effects, particularly vomiting and nausea, limit their clinical application. FCPR16 is a novel PDE4 inhibitor with less vomiting potential. However, whether it will exert an antidepressant-like effect remains unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of FCPR16 in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our results showed that FCPR16 produced antidepressant-like effects in multiple behavioral tests, including a forced swimming test, tail suspension test, sucrose preference test and novelty suppression feeding test...
October 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jitao Li, Youhong Li, Yaxin Sun, Han Wang, Xiao Liu, Yingying Zhao, Hongli Wang, Yun'ai Su, Tianmei Si
Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. It remains unknown how adolescent individuals would be affected by chronic exposure to corticosterone (the major stress hormone in rodents, CORT) at the doses that are usually not detrimental in adults. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CORT (5 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 29-49) or adulthood (PND 71-91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for neurobiological analyses...
October 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Sanne J H van Rooij, Tanja Jovanovic
Inhibition of fear involves learning and then appropriately responding to safety signals, and has been shown to be impaired in PTSD patients. Response inhibition refers to cognitive control and likely uses the same prefrontal cortex circuits as fear inhibition, and has also been implicated in PTSD. Impaired inhibition can serve as an intermediate phenotype for PTSD and can be measured with neuroimaging and psychophysiological tools. We first review the neurobiological mechanisms of fear and response inhibition...
October 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jason S Nomi, Istvan Molnar-Szakacs, Lucina Q Uddin
The insular cortex, hidden within the lateral sulcus of the human brain, participates in a range of cognitive, affective, and sensory functions. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental condition affecting all of these functional domains, has increasingly been linked with atypical activation and connectivity of the insular cortices. Here we review the latest research linking atypical insular function to a range of behaviors characteristic of ASD, with an emphasis on neuroimaging findings in the domains of social cognition and executive function...
October 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ivana Perić, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Dragos Inta, Peter Gass, Lang E Undine, Stefan Borgwardt, Dragana Filipović
Adult male rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS) show depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and reduce the numbers of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in the dorsal hippocampus. We aimed to determine whether tianeptine (Tian), administered during the last three weeks of a six-week-social isolation (10 mg/kg/day), may reverse CSIS-induced behavioral changes and antagonize the CSIS-induced reduction in the number of PV+ interneurons. We also studied whether Tian affects the GABA-producing enzyme GAD67+ cells, in Stratum Oriens (SO), Stratum Pyramidale (SP), Stratum Radiatum (SR) and Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare (LM) of CA1-3, as well as in molecular layer-granule cell layer (ML-GCL) and Hilus (H) of the dentate gyrus (DG)...
October 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Chao Zhou, Miao Yu, Xiaowei Tang, Xiang Wang, Xiaobin Zhang, Xiangrong Zhang, Jiu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggested likely mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of the default mode network (DMN) in schizophrenia. However, altered patterns of the intrinsic activity of the DMN in both deficit schizophrenia (DS) and non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, as well as the neurocognitive relationships among them, remain unknown. This study explores the resting-state characteristics of the DMN activity in both DS and NDS patients, and further investigates correlations with neurocognitive features...
October 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Lisa Y Wang, Melissa Chiu, Grace Lee, Linda Ellis, Wayne Yu, Joanne Weinberg
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is known to cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hyperresponsivity to stressors. Dysregulation of the HPA axis plays a role in vulnerability to stress-related disorders, such as anxiety and depression. Thus, the effects of PAE on HPA function may result in increased vulnerability to the effects of stress and, in turn, lead to the development of stress-related disorders. Indeed, individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol have an increased risk of developing anxiety and depression...
October 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Claire L McGrory, Karen M Ryan, Erik Kolshus, Declan M McLoughlin
The E2F transcription factors are a group of proteins that bind to the promotor region of the adenovirus E2 gene. E2F1, the first family member to be cloned, is linked to functions including cell proliferation and apoptosis, DNA repair, cell senescence and metabolism. We recently performed a deep sequencing study of micro-RNA changes in whole blood following ECT. Two micro-RNAs (miR-126-3p and miR-106a-5p) were identified and gene targeting analysis identified E2F1 as a shared target of these miRNAs. To our knowledge, no studies have examined E2F1 mRNA levels in patients with depression...
October 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Boadie W Dunlop, Andrea Wong
Questions of how altered functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis contribute to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been the focus of extensive animal and human research. As a rule, results have been inconsistent across studies, likely due to a variety of confounding variables that have received inadequate attention. Important confounding factors include the effects of early life stress, biological sex, and the glucocorticoid used for interventions...
October 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Elisabeth M Weiss, Christian Rominger, Ellen Hofer, Andreas Fink, Ilona Papousek
BACKGROUND: Reduced facial expressivity (flat affect) and deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors are characteristic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the important interpersonal functions of facial emotional responsiveness the present study aimed at a comprehensive and differentiated analysis of perceptible facial behavior in response to another person's naturalistic, dynamic facial expressions of emotion. METHODS: In a group of 21 adolescent and adult individuals with High-Funtioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) and in 21 matched healthy controls we examined perceptible facial responses using the whole range of action units of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) while participants were watching films displaying continuous, dynamic real-life facial expressions of four universal emotions (cheerfulness, anger, sadness, anxiety)...
October 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Luis C Farhat, Emily Olfson, Fenghua Li, Shilpa Telang, Michael H Bloch
BACKGROUND: Symptom severity in trichotillomania clinical trials is typically rated using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS) and the National Institute of Mental Health Trichotillomania Severity Scale (NIMH-TSS). There are no universal definitions of treatment response on these scales. The absence of empirically supported definitions of treatment response hampers advances in trichotillomania treatment. METHODS: PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched for trichotillomania clinical trials...
October 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Aakash V Sathappan, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby
Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS)1 each show efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders; however, more efficacious interventions are needed as reflected by an overall unmet need in mental health care. While each modality has typically been studied and developed as a monotherapy, in practice they are typically used in combination. Research has begun to emerge studying the potential synergistic actions of multi-modal, combination therapies. For example, NIBS combined with rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated some success for speech and motor rehabilitation in stroke patients...
October 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Samaneh Aminyavari, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Maryam Farahmandfar, Fariba Khodagholi, Leila Dargahi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Alzheimer's disease (AD) by progressive neurodegenerative pattern is associated with autophagy stress which is suggested as a potential cause of amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation and neural loss. Apelin-13, a neuropeptide with modulatory effect on autophagy, has been shown the beneficial effects on neural cell injuries. We investigated the effect of Apelin-13 on Aβ-induced memory deficit as well as autophagy and apoptosis processes. We performed bilateral intra-CA1 injection of Aβ25-35 alone or in combination with Apelin-13...
October 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Andreia Moreira da Silva Santos, John P Kelly, Peter Dockery, Karen M Doyle
Methamphetamine, an amphetamine derivative, is a powerful psychomotor stimulant and commonly used drug of abuse. This study examined the effect of binge-like methamphetamine (MA) dosing (4 × 4 mg/kg, s.c., 2 h apart) on regional dopamine and dopaminergic metabolite levels in rat brain at a range of early time points after final dose (2-48 h). Body temperature was elevated when measured 2 h after the last dose. MA increased dopamine levels in the frontal cortex 2 and 24 h after the last dose. The dopamine level was also increased in the amygdala at 24 h...
October 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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