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Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221970/understanding-and-predicting-a-complex-behavior-using-n-of-1-methods-photoprotection-in-xeroderma-pigmentosum
#1
Kirby Sainsbury, Rute Vieira, Jessica Walburn, Falko F Sniehotta, Robert Sarkany, John Weinman, Vera Araujo-Soares
OBJECTIVE: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a very rare inherited disease; the most important aspect of clinical management is rigorous photoprotection from ultraviolet radiation. The aims of this novel study were to (a) understand and categorize the behavioral complexity and within-participant variability in photoprotection of the face in XP; (b) determine the predictors of photoprotection; and (c) identify individual needs for personalized interventions. METHOD: A total of 20 adults with XP completed an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study over 50 days...
September 17, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221969/social-nudging-the-effect-of-social-feedback-interventions-on-vaccine-uptake
#2
Lars Korn, Cornelia Betsch, Robert Böhm, Nicolas W Meier
OBJECTIVE: Most vaccines provide indirect community protection by preventing the transmission of the disease. Paradoxically, this effect can also motivate omission of vaccination because increasing vaccination rates reduce the risk of infection and, therefore, the individual benefit of vaccination. Consequently, vaccination becomes a social dilemma where individuals' interests conflict with group interests. The current study investigated two social nudge interventions aiming to increasing individuals' motivation to act in the group's interest...
September 17, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221968/optimism-and-the-conserved-transcriptional-response-to-adversity
#3
Yukiko Uchida, Shinobu Kitayama, Satoshi Akutsu, Jiyoung Park, Steve W Cole
Dispositional optimism, a personality trait predisposing individuals to positive expectations, has been suggested to promote better health. However, little is known about the biological mechanism of the salubrious health effects of optimism. We hypothesized that by diminishing a sense of threat to the self, optimism will be associated with a healthier profile of gene expression in immune cells. Specifically, the "conserved transcriptional response to adversity" (CTRA) is activated by fight-or-flight stress responses and results in increased transcription of genes involved in inflammation and decreased transcription of genes involved in antiviral defense...
September 17, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198739/perceived-social-support-loneliness-and-later-life-telomere-length-following-wartime-captivity
#4
Jacob Y Stein, Yafit Levin, Yael Lahav, Orit Uziel, Heba Abumock, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVES: Telomere length (TL) is a robust indicator of cellular aging. TL erosion has been associated with exposure to social and traumatic stressors. Loneliness and perceived social support are strongly linked to increased morbidity and mortality, but have yet to be investigated in relation to TL after extreme stress. The present study examined whether loneliness and lack of perceived social support following wartime captivity may be associated with TL as repatriated prisoners of war (ex-POWs) enter old age and contribute to its prediction...
September 10, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198738/identifying-targets-for-cardiovascular-medication-adherence-interventions-through-latent-class-analysis
#5
Talea Cornelius, Corrine I Voils, Jeffrey L Birk, Emily K Romero, Donald E Edmondson, Ian M Kronish
OBJECTIVE: Reasons for nonadherence to cardiovascular medications vary widely between individuals. Yet, adherence interventions are often uniformly applied, limiting their effectiveness. This study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify multidimensional profiles of reasons for nonadherence to cardiovascular medications. METHOD: Participants ( N = 137; M Age = 58.8, SD Age = 11.8) were drawn from an observational study of the impact of cardiac-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on cardiac medication adherence in patients presenting to the emergency department with a suspected acute coronary syndrome...
September 10, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198737/time-varying-social-support-and-time-to-death-in-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#6
Janet MacNeil-Vroomen, Richard Schulz, Margaret Doyle, Terrence E Murphy, Diane G Ives, Joan K Monin
OBJECTIVES: There is a consensus that social connectedness is integral for a long, healthy life. However, studies of social support and survival have primarily relied on baseline social support measures, potentially missing the effects of fluctuations of perceived support over time. This is especially important for older adults who experience increased changes in disability. This study examined whether among older adults time-varying perceived social support was associated with time to death (main effect model of support) and whether time-varying disability was a modifier (stress-buffering model of support)...
September 10, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138024/cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-tinnitus-in-integrated-primary-care-a-case-example
#7
Chelsea H Wiener, Cerissa Blaney, Jeffrey E Cassisi, Virgil Dawson
OBJECTIVE: Tinnitus is a common and sometimes severely debilitating condition. It has been estimated that approximately 7% of Americans experience tinnitus daily. Hearing difficulties, sleep problems, concentration difficulties, and anxiety are commonly reported associated concerns. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is often recommended to address the psychosocial impact of burdensome tinnitus, as CBT interventions have been shown to be efficacious in reducing tinnitus burden. The presented case demonstrates that a brief (4-session) adapted CBT treatment in an integrated primary care (IPC) setting can result in notable improvements in functioning...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138023/social-constraints-and-fear-of-recurrence-in-couples-coping-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#8
Emily C Soriano, Elizabeth C Pasipanodya, Stefanie T LoSavio, Amy K Otto, Christine Perndorfer, Scott D Siegel, Jean-Philippe Laurenceau
OBJECTIVE: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a top concern of breast cancer (BC) survivors and their spouses. FCR often occurs within an interpersonal context, yet there has been little research on relationship processes that may influence FCR in patients and spouses. It was hypothesized that the inhibition of disclosure of cancer-related concerns, thoughts, and feelings because of perceived partner disinterest or avoidance (termed social constraints) would predict greater FCR in BC patients and their spouses both globally and in the context of everyday life...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138022/predictors-of-response-to-brief-cbt-in-patients-with-cardiopulmonary-conditions
#9
Natalie E Hundt, Brenna N Renn, Shubhada Sansgiry, Nancy J Petersen, Melinda A Stanley, Michael R Kauth, Aanand D Naik, Mark E Kunik, Jeffrey A Cully
OBJECTIVE: This study examined predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (bCBT) for patients with a cardiopulmonary condition and comorbid, clinically significant symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. METHOD: Only those who completed outcome assessments in the bCBT arm were studied (n = 132), to provide information about predictors of change in psychological symptoms. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted with baseline depression and anxiety symptoms, functional limitations, coping, self-efficacy, number of treatment sessions attended, and working alliance as potential predictors of change from pre- to postintervention on the dependent variables, depression [Patient Health Questionniare-9] and anxiety [Beck Anxiety Inventory])...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138021/pilot-randomized-trial-of-a-couple-based-physical-activity-videoconference-intervention-for-sedentary-cancer-survivors
#10
Laura S Porter, Xiaomei Gao, Pauline Lyna, William Kraus, Maren Olsen, Emily Patterson, Blair Puleo, Kathryn I Pollak
OBJECTIVE: Including partners in interventions to increase physical activity (PA) could promote better adherence and longer-term effects. In preparation for a future large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT), this randomized pilot trial tested the acceptability of a novel couple-based PA intervention for breast and prostate cancer survivors and the feasibility of conducting an RCT testing the intervention. METHOD: Twenty cancer survivors (70% female; mean age = 63...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138020/the-revised-panic-screening-score-for-emergency-department-patients-with-noncardiac-chest-pain
#11
Guillaume Foldes-Busque, Isabelle Denis, Julien Poitras, Richard P Fleet, Patrick M Archambault, Clermont E Dionne
OBJECTIVES: We sought to reduce the 90% rate of missed diagnoses of panic-like anxiety (panic attacks with or without panic disorder) among emergency department patients with low risk noncardiac chest pain by validating and improving the Panic Screening Score (PSS). METHOD: A total of 1,102 patients with low risk noncardiac chest pain were prospectively and consecutively recruited in two emergency departments. Each patient completed a telephone interview that included the PSS, a brief 4-item screening instrument, new candidate predictors of panic-like anxiety, and the Anxiety Disorder Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138019/loneliness-social-isolation-their-synergistic-interaction-and-mortality
#12
Johannes Beller, Adina Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Although loneliness and social isolation are distinct constructs, only few studies have examined the putative synergistic effects of loneliness and social isolation on health. The current study strives to fill this gap. We ask, "Do loneliness, social isolation, and their interaction predict mortality?" METHODS: We used a large nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults in Germany (N = 4,838) with a follow-up period of up to 20 years...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138018/the-role-of-depression-and-social-support-on-readmission-rates-within-one-year-of-traumatic-injury
#13
Stephanie Agtarap, Jordin Shelley, Monica Bennett, Jacob W Roden-Foreman, Evan Rainey, Mackenzie Dome, Mark B Powers, Laura B Petrey, Ann Marie Warren
OBJECTIVE: Hospital readmission rates have become a quality metric-particularly in trauma and acute care, where up to one third of individuals with traumatic injury return to the hospital. Thus, identifying predictors of readmission is a priority in an effort to reduce readmissions. Based on previous theoretical work, this study tests the utility of social support and depression in predicting readmissions up to one year after initial injury. METHOD: Data from 180 injured individuals admitted to a large, urban Level 1 trauma center were matched to a regional readmissions database...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047750/anhedonia-and-smoking-cessation-among-spanish-speaking-mexican-americans
#14
Aaron K Haslam, Virmarie Correa-Fernández, Diana S Hoover, Liang Li, Cho Lam, David W Wetter
OBJECTIVE: Smoking cessation is associated with improved health and reduced risk of disease. Understanding specific factors that are associated with smoking cessation is important both for identifying those who may have the greatest difficulty quitting smoking and tailoring smoking cessation interventions accordingly. Low positive affect/anhedonia, a key transdiagnostic symptom of several psychiatric disorders, is associated with lower levels of smoking cessation in the general population, but to date, few studies have examined factors influencing smoking cessation among Spanish-speaking Mexican-American smokers...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024182/diurnal-cortisol-profiles-inflammation-and-functional-limitations-in-aging-findings-from-the-midus-study
#15
Jennifer R Piazza, Natalia O Dmitrieva, Susan T Charles, David M Almeida, Gabriel A Orona
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the association between diurnal cortisol profiles, inflammation, and functional limitations, among adults ranging in age from 34-84 years. METHOD: Participants ( N = 799) completed Waves 2 (between 2004 and 2006) and 3 (between 2014 and 2016) of the Midlife Development in the United States Survey. At Wave 2, participants provided saliva samples across 4 consecutive days, from which cortisol was assayed. Previously validated diurnal cortisol profiles (i...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010353/meditation-smartphone-application-effects-on-prehypertensive-adults-blood-pressure-dose-response-feasibility-trial
#16
Zachary W Adams, John C Sieverdes, Brenda Brunner-Jackson, Martina Mueller, Jessica Chandler, Vanessa Diaz, Sachin Patel, Luke R Sox, Spencer Wilder, Frank A Treiber
OBJECTIVE: Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common chronic disease in the United States and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle interventions (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management) to reduce blood pressure (BP) are often complex with varying effectiveness. Breathing awareness meditation (BAM) is a stress management strategy with encouraging effects on BP, though widespread dissemination is hampered by the lack of an easy-to-use methodology to train and monitor BAM practices...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927272/condom-use-self-efficacy-as-a-mediator-between-syndemics-and-condomless-sex-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#17
Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill, Jasper S Lee, Conall O'Cleirigh, Julia Tomassili, Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVE: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV sexual risk and poor self-care behavior is associated with syndemics, or co-occurring psychosocial problems. Though prior research has demonstrated an additive total effect of syndemics on HIV risk behavior and infection, mostly within cross-sectional designs, it is possible that these associations are not direct but rather that syndemics disrupt relevant individual-level mediating psychological variables. One of the more common individual-level psychological variables that predicts health behavior generally, and HIV risk behavior specifically, is self-efficacy...
September 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024233/effects-of-a-methodological-infographic-on-research-participants-knowledge-transparency-and-trust
#18
Michaela Kiernan, Marily A Oppezzo, Kenneth Resnicow, Gwen L Alexander
OBJECTIVE: Given participants' research literacy is essential for clinical trial participation, evidence-based strategies are needed that improve literacy and easily accessed online. We tested whether an infographic letter-that illustrated how dropouts can distort study conclusions-improved participant knowledge about the impact of dropouts relative to a control letter. METHOD: In three distinct online samples purposely recruited to assess reproducibility, young ethnically diverse adults were randomized to read an infographic letter or control letter in a hypothetical scenario...
August 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024232/perceived-weight-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-parent-adolescent-dyads
#19
Kara P Wiseman, Minal Patel, Laura A Dwyer, Linda C Nebeling
OBJECTIVE: Family-based physical activity interventions have the potential to reduce obesity, but more information is needed regarding physical activity in the family context. This study used an actor-partner interdependence model to estimate the dyadic association between perceived weight status and barriers to physical activity in dyads of adults and their adolescent children. It was hypothesized that greater perceived weight would be associated with greater barriers perceived by both one's self and one's partner...
August 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024231/exercise-specific-volition-and-motivation-for-weight-loss-maintenance-following-an-intensive-lifestyle-intervention
#20
Peter Elsborg, Anne-Marie Elbe
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the influence of exercise-specific motivation and volition on weight loss maintenance following an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). METHOD: The study participants were 164 individuals with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2) that participated in an ILI. Participants' exercise-specific volition and motivation were assessed before and after the intervention as well as 3 and 12 months after completion. Volition was measured with the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire and motivation was measured with the context translated Sport Motivation Scale...
August 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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