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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sesny Gall, László Kőrösi, Aneg L Cortes, Andrea Delveccio, Francesco Prandini, Peter Mitsch, Isabel M Gimeno
This article reports nine cases of neurological disease in brown layer pullets that occur in various European countries between 2015 and 2018. In all cases, the onset of neurological clinical signs was at 4-8 weeks of age and they lasted up to 22 weeks of age. Enlargement of peripheral nerves was the main lesion observed in all cases. Histopathological evaluation of nerves revealed edema with moderate to severe infiltration of plasma cells. Marek's disease (MD) was ruled out by real time PCR as none of the evaluated tissues had high load of oncogenic MD virus (MDV) DNA, characteristics of MD...
May 10, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Basim Manswr, Christopher Ball, Anne Forrester, Julian Chantrey, Kannan Ganapathy
Sequence variability in the S1 gene determines the genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. A single RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify and sequence the full S1 gene for six classical and variant IBVs (M41, D274, 793B, IS/885/00, IS/1494/06 and Q1) enriched in allantoic fluid (AF) or the same AF but inoculated onto Flinders Technology Association (FTA) cards. Representative strains from each genotype were grown in SPF eggs and RNA was extracted from AF. Full S1 gene amplification was achieved using primer A and primer 22...
May 1, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Chao Yin, Lijuan Xu, Yang Li, Zijian Liu, Dan Gu, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
In Salmonella, plasmids participate in many pathways involved in virulence, metabolism, and antibiotic resistance. To investigate the function of the ipaJ gene in a multi-copy plasmid pSPI12 prevalent in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum), we established a method to eliminate plasmid and constructed the plasmid-cured bacteria C79-13-ΔpSPI12 by using the suicide vector pDM4. Briefly, a 500 bp fragment ipaJU from pSPI12 was cloned into pDM4 and transformed into S. Pullorum C79-13 by conjugative transfer...
May 1, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Anis Anis, Mohammed AboElkhair, Mahmoud Ibrahim
In 2016, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was detected in wild birds for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, we identified the HPAI virus H5N8 of clade from domestic waterfowl in Egypt, suggesting its transmission to the domestic poultry from the migratory birds. Based on partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequence, this virus has a close genetic relationship with subtype H5N8 viruses circulating in Asia and Europe. Pathologically, H5N8 virus in hybrid duck induced nervous signs accompanied by encephalomalacia, hemorrhages, nonsuppurative encephalitis and nonsuppurative vasculitis...
April 27, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Hannah Serna, Ann Pocknell, Anthony W Sainsbury, Gabriela Peniche, Damer P Blake, Katie M Beckmann
Eimeria crecis and Eimeria nenei have been detected in association with enteric disease ("coccidiosis") in the corncrake (Crex crex: Family Rallidae, Order Gruiformes). Both parasite species are common in apparently healthy free-living corncrakes, but captive-bred juvenile birds reared for reintroduction appeared particularly susceptible to clinical coccidiosis. We investigated the occurrence and relative pathogenicity of these Eimeria species in this juvenile corncrake population and developed a diagnostic species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for their identification...
April 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ar'Quette Grant, Cyril G Gay, Hyun S Lillehoj
The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria combined with regulatory pressure and consumer demands for foods produced without antibiotics has caused the agricultural industry to restrict its practice of using antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in feed animals. The poultry industry is not immune to this trend, and has been actively seeking natural alternatives to AGP that will improve the health and growth performance of commercial poultry flocks. Bacillus probiotics have been gaining in popularity in recent years as an AGP alternative because of their health promoting benefits and ability to survive the harsh manufacturing conditions of chicken feed production...
April 11, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Husnain Ahmed, Jody Mays, Matti Kiupel, John R Dunn
A variety of techniques have been developed as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of tumours produced by Marek's disease virus from those induced by avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus. However, most current techniques are unreliable when used in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, which often is the only sample type available for definitive diagnosis. A collection of tumours was generated by the inoculation of different strains of Marek's disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus or avian leukosis virus singularly or in combination...
April 11, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Kang Ning, Te Liang, Minghang Wang, Yunhan Dong, Shenghua Qu, Dabing Zhang
The pathogenicity of a variant goose parvovirus (GPV) isolated from short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) of Pekin ducks (strain Cherry Valley) in embryonating goose eggs and goslings was investigated. The virus was easily grown in GPV antibody-free goose embryos and caused high mortality and severe lesions of goose embryos, indicating that the variant GPV shares good adaptation and high pathogenicity to embryonated goose eggs similar to the classical GPV. Like the third egg passage virus (strain H) of a classical GPV, the third egg passage virus (strain JS1) of the variant GPV caused Derzsy's disease in 2-day-old goslings with high mortality...
April 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Breno C B Beirão, Max Ingberman, Celso Fávaro, Dany Mesa, Letícia C Bittencourt, Vitor B Fascina, Luiz Felipe Caron
Probiotics and immunization are being widely adopted by the poultry industry with the goal of controlling Salmonella enterica. However, the interaction between these two management protocols has been sparsely studied. The present study aimed to understand the role of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic in the production of salmonella-specific IgA in layers immunized with a live vaccine. Four groups were used: "Control" (no vaccine or probiotic); "Probiotic" (which received an E. faecium product); "Vaccine" (immunized with two doses of a live attenuated S...
April 6, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mahmoud Ha Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Adel M Abdelaziz, Ahmed M Al-Ali, Mostafa Alramadan, Mohamed A Lebdah, Abdelazim M Ibrahim, Abdul-Rahman S Al-Ankari
During the period from 2015 to 2017, frequent outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were observed in chicken broilers and falcons in Saudi Arabia. Fifty samples were collected from both species. The histopathological examination and PCR confirmed the IBH infection in eight samples (5 samples from chickens and 3 samples from falcons). The genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide and amino acids sequences of Saudi strains, reference fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) and field viruses available in Genbank revealed that, all investigated FAdVs clustered into FAdV-2 (species D) and FAdV-6 (species E)...
March 28, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Guillaume Croville, Charlotte Foret, Pauline Heuillard, Alexis Senet, Mattias Delpont, Mohammed Mouahid, Mariette F Ducatez, Faouzi Kichou, Jean-Luc Guerin
Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks...
February 27, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Matheus C Martini, Leonardo C Caserta, Marcia M A B Dos Santos, Ana C S Barnabé, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Marina A Padilla, Raphael M Simão, Laís S Rizotto, Paulo V M Simas, Juliana C S Bastos, Tereza C Cardoso, Paulo A N Felippe, Helena L Ferreira, Clarice W Arns
The detection of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) in wild birds and the emergence of new AvCoV have increased in the past few years. In the present study, the pathogenicity of three AvCoV isolates was investigated in day-old chicks. One AvCoV isolated from a pigeon, which clustered with the Massachusetts vaccine serotype, and two AvCoV isolated from chickens, which grouped with a Brazilian genotype lineage, were used. Clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathological changes, ciliary activity, viral RNA detection, and serology were evaluated during 42 days post infection...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sajid Umar, Maxence Delverdier, Mattias Delpont, Sakhia F Z Belkasmi, Angélique Teillaud, Céline Bleuart, Isabelle Pardo, Mohammed El Houadfi, Jean-Luc Guérin, Mariette F Ducatez
Respiratory diseases are responsible for major economic losses in poultry farms. While in most cases a single pathogen is not alone responsible for the clinical outcome, the impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in turkeys. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergism between Escherichia coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV, H6N1), in the turkey model. Four-week-old commercial turkeys were inoculated with either H6N1, O78 or both agents simultaneously or three days apart...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Xiangjun Song, Chunxiao Li, Kezong Qi, Jian Tu, Hongmei Liu, Ting Xue
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are important pathogens that cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The PhoP/Q system is essential for APEC pathogenicity, and its mutation leads to a decrease in ybjX gene expression, but whether ybjX regulated by PhoP/Q plays a role in pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of ybjX in APEC pathogenicity was investigated using a ybjX mutant strain constructed from APEC strain AE17 by the Red recombination method. The mutant strain displayed significantly reduced adherence to and invasion of chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1) cells...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Racheal Mwenda, Katendi Changula, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Nozyechi Chidumayo, Alfred S Mangani, Titus Kaira, Ayato Takada, Aaron S Mweene, Edgar Simulundu
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease of chickens and causes substantial economic losses to the poultry industry globally. This study investigated the genetic characteristics and pathological lesions induced by IBD viruses (IBDVs) that were associated with 60 suspected outbreaks in chickens during 2015-2016 in Lusaka Province, Zambia. Nucleotide sequences of VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) (n = 38) and part of VP1 (n = 37) of Zambian IBDVs were phylogenetically analysed...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Henrik Christensen, Susanne Kabell, Magne Bisgaard
Pododermatitis has been observed in several layer flocks in Denmark during 2015. The aetiology is complex, including litter quality, nutrition and management. Bacterial pathogens associated with pododermatitis, however, have not received much attention. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to identify 106 bacterial isolates obtained from pododermatitis in table egg layers in addition to five isolates from spleen/bursa presternalis. Isolates were obtained from layers from six affected flocks. All isolates were identified by standard bacterial methods, species-specific PCRs, 16S rRNA sequencing or matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization identification...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Peter Cargill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Dauda G Bwala, Ponman Solomon, Neil Duncan, Daniel B R Wandrag, Celia Abolnik
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the primary cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. We investigated the protective efficacy of the live-attenuated ts-11 and 6/85 MG vaccines against a local MG strain and, in order to enhance signs and mimic a typical field situation, we co-infected birds with a virulent strain of QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Both vaccines showed similar ability to protect infected chickens from clinical signs, although ts-11 performed slightly better. Despite the lower protection against clinical disease, 6/85-vaccinated birds had significantly (P ≤ 0...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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