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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

André T Gotardo, Mitsue Haraguchi, Paulo C F Raspantini, Maria L Z Dagli, Silvana L Górniak
Senna occidentalis is a toxic leguminous plant found in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes poisoning mainly in confined animals. The seeds are the most toxic part of the plant and may be present in animal rations. The main toxic component of the S. occidentalis seed is a dianthrone, an anthraquinone-derived compound that affects mitochondrial function. This study evaluated the effects on egg production of low-level contamination of the S. occidentalis in the laying hens' diet. Forty-eight one-day-old pullets were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: control, birds that received no experimental treatment; and external and internal tegument (ET/IT), birds that received a diet containing 0...
February 6, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Oscar J Fletcher, Thomas Cimino, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is complex and can be divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS associated with cytolytic infection in the lymphoid organs in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MDV (MAbs) and late-MDV-IS that appears later in the pathogenesis and occurs even in chickens bearing MAbs. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model evaluates late-MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines against challenge with infectious laryngotracheitis virus...
February 2, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ziwei Zhang, Man Liu, Zhenqiong Guan, Jie Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Shiwen Xu
Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency may influence the calcium (Ca) homeostasis in broilers. Our objective was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on Ca regulation-related genes in broiler hearts. In the present study, 1-day-old broilers were fed either a commercial diet (as control group) with 0.15 mg/kg Se or a Se-deficient diet (as L group) with 0.033 mg/kg Se for 35 days. We examined the mRNA expression levels of 15 Ca regulation-related genes (ITPR 1, ITPR 2, ITPR3, RyR2, RyR3, SERCA1s, SLC8A1, PMCA1, CACNA1S, TRPC1, TRPC3, stromal interacting molecule 1, ORAI1, calmodulin (CaLM) and calreticulin (CRT) in broiler hearts...
January 31, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Irit Davidson, Israel Raibstein, Amira Altory-Natour, Michael Simanov, Yevgeny Khinich
The avian flavivirus Turkey Meningoencephalitis Virus (TMEV) causes a neuroparalytic disease of commercial turkeys, expressed in paresis, incoordination, drooping wings and mortality that is controlled by vaccination. The molecular diagnosis using brain tissue RNA has now been upgraded by the development of a diagnostic dual-gene multiplex real-time PCR targeting the envelope and the non-structural NS5 gene, increasing the sensitivity by 10-100-fold compared to the previously existing assays. Based on the recent complete sequences of five TMEV isolates we have now developed a Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) assay, to distinguish between wild-type TMEV strains and the vaccine virus...
January 31, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Yen-Li Huang, Omir Adrian Castaneda, Duangsuda Thongchan, Rupak Khatri-Chhetri, Shinn-Shyong Tsai, Hung-Yi Wu
Pigeons (Columba livia) infected with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) have been reported worldwide. The present study diagnosed PiCV infection in tissue samples of disqualified racing pigeons in Taiwan, using molecular and microscopy diagnostics. Among the 164 dead pigeons examined, 96.95% (159/164) tested positive for PiCV. Severe histopathological lesions, with characteristic inclusions, were observed in various organs of the PiCV-infected pigeons. Multiglobular basophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were found in the bursa of Fabricius and non-lymphoid tissues...
January 30, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Marcia Oliveira Cavalcanti, Eric Vaughn, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Cattoli, Calogero Terregino, Timm Harder, Christian Grund, Carlos Vega, Francisco Robles, Julio Franco, Ayub Darji, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Egbert Mundt
The evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAI-H5N1) has resulted in the appearance of a number of diverse groups of HPAI-H5N1 based on the presence of genetically similar clusters of their haemagglutinin sequences (clades). An H5 antigen encoded by a recombinant baculovirus and expressed in insect cells was used for oil-emulsion-based vaccine prototypes. In several experiments, vaccination was performed at 10 days of age, followed by challenge infection on day 21 post vaccination (PV) with HPAI-H5N1 clades 2...
January 27, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A Feberwee, R Dijkman, D Klinkenberg, W J M Landman
The number of newly infected animals attributable to one infectious animal per day (= transmission rate β) was assessed in non-vaccinated and MS-H vaccinated experimental SPF White Leghorns after M. synoviae challenge. Furthermore, the effect of vaccination on the shedding of the challenge strain was determined. The following groups were made: a negative control group (n = 5), a vaccinated (MS-H vaccine by eye drop (>10(5.7) color changing units /bird)) non-challenged group (n = 5), two non-vaccinated challenged groups (n = 18 each) and two vaccinated challenged groups (n = 18 each)...
January 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Shimaa M G Mansour, Fakry F Mohamed, Amal A M Eid, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
In recent years, avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have caused large-scale outbreaks in many countries, including Egypt. The culling and vaccination strategies have failed to control both viruses in Egypt. In this study, we investigated the outbreaks of nervous manifestations and deaths in pigeons between 2013 and 2015. The H5N1 subtype of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1), an antigenic variant of NDV, were found to be the cause; AIV and PPMV-1 were isolated from 61...
January 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
David E Swayne, Rick E Hill, John Clifford
The 2014-2015 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out programme that cost the US government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all US-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, and allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the US not affected by HPAI...
December 23, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Haoyun Li, Yanmei Wang, Lingli Chen, Lijuan Han, Lifang Li, Han He, Yuan Li, Nan Huang, Hao Ren, Fangying Pei, Guilan Li, Jia Cheng, Wenkui Wang
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major disease in the broiler breeding industry. During PH, the pulmonary artery undergoes remodelling, which is caused by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. CyclinD1 regulates cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of cyclinD1 in the development of PH in broilers, and which bioactivators and signalling pathway are involved in the pathological process. The PH group contained 3-4-week-old broilers with clinical PH, and the healthy group broilers from the same flock without PH...
December 23, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mohammad Sadegh Saeidabadi, Hassan Nili, Habibollah Dadras, Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Joanne Connolly, Mary Valcanis, Shane Raidal, Seyed Ali Ghorashi
Consumption of poultry products contaminated with Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases worldwide and therefore detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp. in poultry is important. In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hem-D gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms...
December 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, S Rouxel, D Léon, L Balaine, T Poëzevara, E Houard, B Robineau, C Robinault, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C...
December 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Xiaoyan Zhang, Tiantian Yin, Xueqing Du, Wenbin Yang, Jinlin Huang, Xinan Jiao
Poultry are the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. Flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90% and occurred 4-6 weeks after introduction to the farm...
December 20, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Junlei Yin, Yun Chen, Xiaolei Xie, Jie Xia, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effector gene expression was studied using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of S. Pullorum infection; deletion of SPI2 of S...
December 20, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Yen-Li Huang, Shinn-Shyong Tsai, Duangsuda Thongchan, Rupak Khatri-Chhetri, Hung-Yi Wu
A total of 166 psittacines belonging to 22 species were received by the Animal Hospital of National Pingtung University of Science & Technology (NPUST) from 2013 to 2015. Only eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) were identified as hosts for microfilariae. All eclectus parrots were adult birds and had been kept in Taiwan for more than three years. The relevance of filariae to eclectus parrots is evident as indicated by the 35.7% (5/14) infection rate. At necropsy, adult filarial nematodes 57-75 mm in length and 0...
December 20, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Lili Li, Ida Thøfner, Jens Peter Christensen, Troels Ronco, Karl Pedersen, Rikke H Olsen
In poultry production Escherichia coli autogenous vaccines are often used. However, the efficacy of autogenous E. coli vaccinations has not been evaluated experimentally in chickens after start of lay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of an autogenous E. coli vaccine in broiler breeders. Three groups of 28 weeks old broiler breeders (unvaccinated, vaccinated once and twice, respectively) were challenged with a homologous E. coli strain (same strain as included in the vaccine) or a heterologous challenge strain in an experimental ascending model...
December 16, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
J M K G K Jayasundara, S W Walkden-Brown, M E Katz, A F M F Islam, K G Renz, J McNally, P W Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in SPF chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
December 12, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
S Oliver-Ferrando, R Dolz, C Calderón, R Valle, R Rivas, M Pérez, M Biarnés, A Blanco, K Bertran, A Ramis, N Busquets, N Majó
Inclusion body hepatitis caused by different fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) serotypes has been described in several countries in recent years. In Spain, from the spring of 2011 to 2013, an increased number of outbreaks in broiler and broiler breeder flocks from different regions occurred. The objectives of the present work were to carry out the molecular characterization of FAdV strains from Spanish inclusion body hepatitis cases and to study the pathogenicity and viral dynamics of these strains in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens...
December 8, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A Kleine, H M Hafez, D Lüschow
During routine diagnosis in 2012, 69 samples of diseased turkey breeding and fattening flocks in Germany were examined for infection with aviadenoviruses by virus isolation using primary chicken embryo liver cells. In total, 21 aviadenovirus isolates, identified by a group-specific indirect immunofluorescence test, were obtained from 19 flocks. In almost all cases, molecular typing of these isolates based on partial hexon gene sequences revealed the presence of different types of turkey aviadenoviruses (TAdVs), including species Turkey aviadenovirus B (TAdV-B) with at least two different genotypes, as well as the species Turkey aviadenovirus C (TAdV-C) and Turkey aviadenovirus D (TAdV-D)...
December 8, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
L Pohjola, N Tammiranta, C Ek-Kommonen, T Soveri, M L Hänninen, M Fredriksson Ahomaa, A Huovilainen
Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5...
December 8, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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