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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

Shangzhe Xie, Anthony Nicholson, Lucy Woolford, Todd J McWhorter
The pathophysiology of heat illnesses in birds has not been well characterised. In this study, we describe the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, blood biochemistry and histopathological findings in galahs and rock doves after heat exposure under standardized conditions designed to induce heatstroke. Birds in the heat exposed group were exposed to environmental heat stress and compared to control birds. Both groups of birds were under general anaesthesia throughout the experiment and serial blood collections were performed for biochemical analyses, while organs were collected at the end of the experiment for histopathology...
November 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Tom La, Nyree Dale Phillips, David John Hampson
The anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli colonizes the large intestine of a variety of species of mammals and birds, and may result in colitis, diarrhoea and reductions in growth rate. Naturally occurring infections in chickens are largely confined to adult laying and breeding birds. In this study, the 34 kD carboxy-terminus of the prominent outer membrane protein Bmp72 of B. pilosicoli was expressed as a histidine-tagged recombinant protein and used to immunize two groups (B and C) of 15 individually-housed layer chickens...
November 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Linda Gergen, Stephanie Cook, Brooke Ledesma, Wade Cress, Deb Higuchi, Diane Counts, Julio Cruz-Coy, Colin Crouch, Phillip Davis, Ian Tarpey, M Morsey
A double recombinant strain of Herpes Virus of Turkeys (HVT) was constructed that contains the fusion (F) gene from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the gD plus gI genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) inserted into a non-essential region of the HVT genome. Expression of the F protein was controlled by a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) promoter, whereas expression of gD plus gI was driven by an ILTV promoter. The double recombinant vaccine virus (HVT-NDV-ILT) was fully stable genetically and phenotypically following extended passage in cell culture and infection of chickens...
November 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Jianru Qin, Yun Zhang, Xiaoting Shen, Lang Gong, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), including H5N6 strains, pose threats to the health of humans and poultry. Waterfowl play a crucial role in HPAIVs. Since current influenza vaccines induce poor antibody titer in waterfowl, to develop an efficient vaccine against H5N6 infection is in urgent need. In this study, we composed two H5N6 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of matrix-1 (M1) and hemagglutinin of wild-type (HA-TM) or hemagglutinin with transmembrane domain replacement (HA-TMH3 ) (designated as H5N6 VLPs-TM and H5N6 VLPs-TMH3 )...
November 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A Shini, S Shini, W L Bryden
Surveys were conducted with cage and alternative layer production systems to assess the prevalence of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). Commercial caged laying hens of different ages from three farms in Queensland were monitored for 3 months. The mortality rate of flocks ranged from 0.8% (the youngest flock) to 11.6% (the oldest flock). Six hundred and fifty-one birds were necropsied, and approximately 40% of hens died due to FLHS. Hens kept in cages in a controlled environment shed, were at a similar risk of developing FLHS as hens kept in naturally controlled sheds, however the heavier birds in a flock were more likely to have the condition than lighter birds...
October 22, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Luke B Borst, M Mitsu Suyemoto, Laura R Chen, H John Barnes
Pathogenic strains of Enterococcus cecorum cause symmetrical paralysis in broilers due to infection of the free thoracic vertebra. The disease caused by pathogenic E. cecorum, known as Enterococcal Spondylitis or 'kinky-back' continues to be responsible for significant losses to the broiler industry worldwide. In outbreaks of pathogenic E. cecorum, gut colonization and sepsis occur in the first 3 weeks of life. Since maternal antibodies are present during this period, we postulated that vaccination of breeders with a polyvalent killed vaccine would protect chicks from challenge...
October 17, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Tibor Magyar, Éva Gyuris, Barbara Ujvári, Martin Metzner, Enikő Wehmann
Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is a widely distributed bacterial pathogen of birds responsible for remarkable losses to poultry production, especially among waterfowl. We characterized the genomic diversity of 166 field isolates of RA collected from geese and ducks using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The field strains and five reference strains showed 17 distinct patterns consisting of five to 12 bands ranging from approximately150-1800bp. The majority of the strains belonged to two closely related ERIC-PCR types (A and B), while the other types contained only a few isolates each...
October 17, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mohammed Nooruzzaman, Md Enamul Haque, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam
We performed pathological and molecular virological investigation of three outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a quail farm and two duck farms of Mymensingh and Netrokona districts of Bangladesh in 2011. HPAI viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected from all three outbreaks and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene sequence placed the viruses into clade The outbreak in the quail farm was characterized by acute death with 100% mortality within two days. Marked haemorrhages and congestion with necrotic and inflammatory lesions in the respiratory tract, liver, pancreas and kidneys were the major gross and histopathological lesions...
October 10, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Thanya Varinrak, Anucha Muenthaisong, Nisachon Apinda, Takuo Sawada, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
A capsule-defective mutant strain PBA129 of Pasteurella multocida was constructed by electroporation of phagemid containing the coding region of the antisense RNA of the ompH gene into the wild type strain X-73 (serovar A:1) of Pasteurella multocida. The pathogenicity and protective potency of the mutant against homologous and heterologous challenge in mice and chickens were characterized. Grayish colonies of the mutant, indicating lower capsule thickness, on selective dextrose starch agar were observed under an obliquely transmitted light stereomicroscope and compared to iridescent colonies of the wild type strain X-73...
October 7, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Francesca Soglia, Maurizio Mazzoni, Massimiliano Petracci
Selection for fast-growing and high-breast-yield hybrids has enormously increased the pressure on muscle development rate and mass, indirectly promoting the development of muscular abnormalities affecting the pectoral muscles such as White Striping, Wooden Breast and Spaghetti Meat. Macroscopically, the muscles affected by these defects exhibit distinctive traits, whereas the microscopic examinations evidenced similar histological alterations. Therefore, a common causative mechanism (involving genes related to several metabolic pathways and functional categories) underpinning the occurrence of these abnormalities may be hypothesized and directly associated with muscle hypertrophy induced by selection...
September 24, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sunil S Kapgate, K Kumanan, K Vijayarani, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe
Poultry parvoviruses identified during the early 1980s are found worldwide in intestines from young birds with enteric disease syndromes as well as healthy birds. The chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and turkey parvovirus (TuPV) belong to the Aveparvovirus genus within the subfamily Parvovirinae. Poultry parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses consisting of three open reading frames, the first two encoding the non-structural protein (NS) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP) and the third encoding the viral capsid proteins 1 (VP1 and VP2)...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Camilo A G González, Cinthia T A Lopes, Pedro P M Teixeira, Regiane R Santos, Sheyla F S Domingues
Bone fractures in birds are usually diagnosed with the aid of traditional radiography. However, this technique remains limited because of the difficulties associating this examination with real-time procedures. The aim of this study was to describe the use of B-mode ultrasound to assess the long bones of two avian orders. For the study, we used carcases of birds from the orders Falconiformes (n = 9) and Strigiformes (n = 12), with weights ranging from 108 to 1020 g. An ultrasound device with a 5-12 MHz linear probe was employed to produce images of the long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur and tibiotarsus)...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ilias Apostolakos, Alessandra Piccirillo
Colistin has been re-assessed as a critically important antimicrobial in humans due to its efficacy against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. The recent discovery of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) determinants in humans and animals has brought concerns regarding the future of this antimicrobial. In this paper, we aim to highlight the current challenges with colistin resistant bacteria and to summarize reliable global data on colistin resistance in poultry production...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
V Tsiouris, I Georgopoulou, C Batzios, N Pappaioannou, R Ducatelle, P Fortomaris
Heat stress is a physical environmental stressor, which can affect performance, health and welfare of poultry. The present study investigates the effect of cyclic acute heat stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks in an experimental challenge model. Two hundred and forty broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups, as follows: group A served as negative control (25°C), group B birds were subjected to cyclic acute heat stress (35°C), group C birds were challenged and group D birds were both subjected to heat stress and challenged...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sylvie Marché, Thierry van den Berg, Bénédicte Lambrecht
Avian influenza viruses have been isolated from many bird species; however, little is known about the susceptibility of pet birds to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. To address this research gap, domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) were experimentally infected with H5 and H7 LPAI viruses to determine susceptibility and to evaluate samples for diagnostic purposes. Clinical evidence of infection (e.g. ruffled plumage and apathy) and mortality were noted for the canaries inoculated with chicken-adapted LPAI viruses...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
L Olesen, R Dijkman, R Koopman, R van Leeuwen, Y Gardin, R M Dwars, N D de Bruijn, G J Boelm, J Elattrache, J J de Wit
Following a period of clinical outbreaks of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) in Denmark, the histological bursal lesion score (HBLS) was used on a national scale to screen broiler flocks vaccinated with intermediate IBD vaccines for lesions indicative of IBDV challenge. High lesion scores were detected in a high percentage of healthy and well performing flocks despite the lack of other indications of the presence of vvIBDV. RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed the frequent presence of H253Q and H253N IBDV strains that were genetically close to the sequence of the intermediate vaccines with a relative risk ratio of 13...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Chang Gao, Jie Zhai, Shengyuan Dang, Shimin Zheng
Alternative splicing (AS) plays a significant role in regulation of genomic expression at the transcriptional level and is involved in many important biological functions of cells, thus a gene can be spliced into distinct transcript variants then translated to many different kinds of protein. Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a kind of retrovirus that can infect multiple avian species, leading to runting syndrome, immunosuppression and oncogenesis. In this present study, we analyzed AS in REV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) which were inoculated with the second generation of REV (group VB) and compared with normal CEFs (group C) by high-throughput RNA sequencing technology...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Daral J Jackwood, Karel A Schat, Linda O Michel, Sjaak de Wit
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was initially identified in the USA. For decades, these viruses were not categorized using a typing system because they were considered to be antigenically and pathogenically similar. In the 1980s, a second major serotype, serotype 2, was found in turkeys. Classification of IBDV became more complex with the discovery of antigenic variant strains called "variants" in the United States and a highly virulent strain known as "very virulent" or vvIBDV identified in Europe...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Abel Wade, Taïga Taïga, Mama Andre Fouda, Abari MaiMoussa, Feussom Kameni Jean Marc, Richard Njouom, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Gaston Djonwe, Etoundi Mballa, Jean Phillipe Kazi, Abdou Salla, Robert Nenkam, Rodrigue Poueme Namegni, Hamadou Bamanga, Ndongo K M Casimir, Matthew LeBreton, Julius Mbekem Nwobegahay, Alice Fusaro, Bianca Zecchin, Adelaide Milani, Meyebe Gaston, Vitalis R Chepnda, Simon Dickmu Jumbo, Abdoulkadiri Souley, Yaya Aboubakar, Zephyrin Fotso Kamnga, Conrad Nkuo, Hamman Atkam, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Lidewij Wiersma, Charles Bebay, Serge Nzietchueng, Tanya Vincent, Cyprien Biaou, Wilfred Mbacham, Isabella Monne, Giovanni Cattoli
In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaoundé (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (six in the Centre, six in the West, eight in the South and one in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 deaths due to infection and 93,801 stamped out)...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
F M Tomley, O Sparagano
Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is currently the most important ectoparasite of the egg laying industry worldwide with an expanding global prevalence. As a blood-feeder, it causes anaemia and severe welfare issues to the hens and it is a major cause of economic losses. It is also a vector for Salmonella species, avian influenza and potentially for other vector-borne pathogens. Paradoxically, there is a notable lack of funding for research into poultry red mite and an urgent need for effective and safe control strategies, sustainable therapies, prophylactics and integrated pest management...
December 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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