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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

Junlei Yin, Yun Chen, Xiaolei Xie, Jie Xia, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effetor gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of Salmonella Pullorum infection, deletion of SPI2 of Salmonella Pullorum did not significantly affect the expression of genes cigR, gtgA, slrP, sopD, sseK1, steB and steC, but had a significantly effect on the expression of genes pipB2, sifB, sopD2, sseJ, sseL, sspH2, steD, sifA, pipB and steA at different degrees...
October 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Shambhu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Obli Rajendran Vinodhkumar, Rajamani Barathidasan, Yashpal Singh Malik, Rajendra Singh, Raj Kumar Singh
Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized...
October 11, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Haoyun Li, Yanmei Wang, Lingli Chen, Lijuan Han, Lifang Li, Han He, Yuan Li, Nan Huang, Hao Ren, Fangying Pei, Guilan Li, Jia Cheng, Wenkui Wang
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major disease in the broiler breeding industry. During PH, the pulmonary artery undergoes remodelling, which is caused by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. CyclinD1 regulates cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of cyclinD1 in the development of PH in broilers, and which bioactivators and signalling pathway are involved in the pathological process. The PH group contained 3-4 week-old broilers with clinical PH, and the healthy group broilers from the same flock without PH...
October 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga, Camila Costa Silva, Maurício de Paula Ferreira Teixeira, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins, Roselene Ecco
Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a worldwide emerging disease that affects broilers. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and aetiology of VO in broilers in a highly productive broiler region. For this, 608 broilers with locomotory problems were analysed from 18 farms. Clinical signs were recorded, necropsy was performed and samples were collected from vertebral bodies with gross changes for molecular and histopathological analysis and for bacterial isolation. From broilers with locomotory changes, 5...
October 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, S Rouxel, D Léon, L Balaine, T Poëzevara, E Houard, B Robineau, C Robinault, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C...
September 30, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A Kleine, H M Hafez, D Lüschow
During routine diagnostic in 2012 sixty-nine samples of diseased turkey breeding and fattening flocks in Germany were examined for infection with aviadenoviruses by virus isolation using primary chicken embryo liver cells. In total, twenty-one aviadenovirus isolates, identified by a group specific indirect immunofluorescence test, were obtained from nineteen flocks. In almost all cases, molecular typing of these isolates based on partial hexon gene sequences revealed the presence of different types of turkey avidenoviruses, including species Turkey aviadenovirus B (TAdV-B) with at least two different genotypes, as well as the species Turkey aviadenovirus C (TAdV-C) and Turkey aviadenovirus D (TAdV-D)...
September 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Yen-Li Huang, Shinn-Shyong Tsai, Duangsuda Thongchan, Rupak Khatri-Chhetri, Hung-Yi Wu
A total of 166 psittacines belonging to 22 species, were received by the Animal Hospital of National Pingtung University of Science & Technology (NPUST) from 2013 to 2015. Only eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) were identified as hosts for microfilariae. All eclectus parrots were adult birds and had been kept in Taiwan for more than three years. Relevance of filariae to eclectus parrots is evident as indicated by the 35.7% (5/14) infection rate. At necropsy, adult filarial nematodes 57-75 mm in length and 0...
September 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ambalika Batra, Helena J Maier, Mark S Fife
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes infectious bronchitis in poultry, a respiratory disease that is a source of major economic loss to the poultry industry. Detection and the study of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus often involves the use of real-time quantitative PCR assays (qPCR). To account for error within the experiments, the levels of target gene transcription are normalised to that of suitable reference genes. Despite publication of the MIQE guidelines in 2009, single un-tested reference genes are often used for normalization of qPCR assays in avian research studies...
September 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
D Liebhart, P Ganas, T Sulejmanovic, M Hess
Histomonosis is a parasitic disease of poultry with worldwide prevalence. The disease can cause morbidity and mortality in chicken and turkey flocks entailing severe economic losses. In the first half of the last century there was a high demand to control histomonosis as the turkey industry was severely affected by the disease. Consequently, numerous chemical compounds were tested for their efficacy against H. meleagridis with varying outcomes, altogether summarized and specified in this review. At the same time, preliminary attempts to protect birds with cultured histomonads indicated the possibility of vaccination...
September 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
L Pohjola, N Tammiranta, C Ek-Kommonen, T Soveri, M L Hänninen, M Fredriksson-Ahomaa, A Huovilainen
Backyard poultry is regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious animal diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5...
September 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
C Ter Veen, N D de Bruijn, R Dijkman, J J de Wit
Intestinal disease has a major impact on the broiler industry due to economic and welfare reasons. Intestinal disease might occur due to a large number of reasons varying from well-defined pathogens to non-specific enteritis and complex syndromes. However, knowledge about the nature or intestinal disease and presence of enteric viruses in the Dutch broiler industry is largely absent. Therefore, a large scale field study, in which 98 broiler flocks from 86 farms were sampled weekly, was started to assess the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the jejunum, a number of enterotropic viruses by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and coccidia by lesion scoring...
August 24, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Francesca Martelli, Rebecca J Gosling, Rebecca Callaby, Rob Davies
In the European Union statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, fourteen Salmonella positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study and faecal sample were those more frequently positive (62% percent of samples from faeces were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (p<0...
August 22, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Monika Rinder, Anna Schmitz, Andrea Peschel, Barbara Wörle, Helga Gerlach, Rüdiger Korbel
A recently identified circovirus (family Circoviridae) was detected in 14 zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) from seven aviaries and hobbyist breeders using PCR followed by sequencing. Full genome sequences of virus strains from six zebra finches consistently revealed characteristic circoviral genomic features like a stem-loop structure and two major open reading frames encoding the replication-associated protein and the putative capsid protein. One further open reading frame encoding a protein of unknown function was additionally identified in all six genomes...
August 22, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Omar F Prado-Rebolledo, Jaime de Jesus Delgado-Machuca, Rafael J Macedo-Barragan, Luis J Garcia-Márquez, Jesus E Morales-Barrera, Juan D Latorre, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Guillermo Tellez
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11(®)) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups; control + S. Enteritidis; or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post- S. Enteritidis challenge, hematology and ceca content were evaluated for S. Enteritidis colonization...
August 22, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mariette F Ducatez
Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear, which differ significantly from known serotypes...
October 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Scott D Fitzgerald, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), the aetiological agent of Mareks' disease (MD), is a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus that replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. We investigated the possible effect of MDV infection on the exacerbation of necrotic dermatitis in the combs of MD-susceptible (72) and MD-resistant (63) chicken lines at 21 days post infection. MDV-infected birds of line 63 are relatively resistant to tumour development but exhibit an unusual necrosis of combs, wattles, and footpads that is intensified when infected with MDV...
October 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Audrey Charlebois, Mario Jacques, Marie Archambault
Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxaemias in animal species. Recently, C. perfringens was shown to form biofilms, a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. However, very little is known on the subject and no information is available on gene expression in C. perfringens biofilms. To gain insights into the differences between free-living C. perfringens cells and those in biofilms, we used RNA sequencing...
October 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
R J Gosling, M Breslin, J Fenner, K Vaughan, E West, I Mawhinney, C Birch, R H Davies
In 2010, 81 confirmed cases of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 were reported across England and Northern Ireland - an increase of 26% from 2009 and 41% since 2008. Five cases were hospitalized and one death reported, with a strong association found between cases and the consumption of duck eggs. Once present on farms, Salmonella may become persistent and can survive for long periods of time in residual organic matter, increasing risk of infection for follow-on flocks if cleaning and disinfection is not carried out effectively...
October 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
N M Taylor, A D Wales, A M Ridley, R H Davies
Data on husbandry practices, performance, disease and drug use were collected during a cross-sectional survey of 89 poultry meat farms in England and Wales to provide information on possible risk factors for the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant bacteria. Faeces samples were used to classify farms as "affected" or "not affected" by FQ-resistant (FQr) Escherichia coli or Campylobacter spp. Risk factor analysis identified the use of FQ on the farms as having by far the strongest association, among the factors considered, with the occurrence of FQr bacteria...
October 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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