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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609137/an-attempt-to-develop-a-detection-method-specific-for-virulent-duck-plague-virus-strains-based-on-the-ul2-gene-b-fragment
#1
Liji Xie, Li Huang, Zhixun Xie, Sheng Wang, Jiaoling Huang, Yanfang Zhang, Chuande Zhong
A comparison of the unique long region 2 (UL2) gene sequences between 10 virulent and 11 attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) strains (including all DPV UL2 gene sequences registered in GenBank) showed that the UL2 genes in the attenuated DPV strains had a 528 bp deletion in the B fragment. Primers were designed based on the B fragment sequence of the UL2 gene in an attempt to establish a fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a conventional PCR detection method that could specifically detect virulent DPV strains (i...
July 18, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714747/onset-of-white-striping-and-progression-into-wooden-breast-as-defined-by-myopathic-changes-underlying-pectoralis-major-growth-estimation-of-growth-parameters-as-predictors-for-stage-of-myopathy-progression
#2
Jacqueline Reedy Griffin, Luis Moraes, Macdonald Wick, Michael Snell Lilburn
The broiler industry has incurred significant economic losses due to two muscle myopathies, white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB), affecting the Pectoralis major (P. major) of commercial broilers. The current study documented macroscopic changes occurring with age/growth in the P. major and P. minor muscles of commercial broilers from day 2 through 46 (n=27/day). Distinct myopathic aberrations observed in both breast muscles corresponded to the onset of WB. These distinct morphological changes were used as determinants in developing a ranking system, defining the ontogeny of WB as the following 4 stages; 1) WS, 2) petechial epimysium hemorrhages, 3) intramuscular hemorrhages and 4) ischemia...
July 17, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488446/plasma-protein-haematologic-and-blood-chemistry-changes-in-african-grey-parrots-psittacus-erithacus-experimentally-infected-with-bornavirus
#3
Charlotte Högemann, Rüdiger Richter, Rüdiger Korbel, Monika Rinder
Bornaviruses are considered to be the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. In order to detect haematological and blood chemistry changes during the development of PDD and a possible correlation with clinical signs and the virological status, six African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were experimentally infected with parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) by subcutaneous route. All six parrots developed clinical signs of varying extent and successful infection was confirmed in all the birds by seroconversion or detection of RNA of the PaBV-4 infection strain...
July 13, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669198/pathological-and-microbiological-investigations-into-cases-of-bacterial-chondronecrosis-and-osteomyelitis-in-broiler-poultry
#4
Dinidu S Wijesurendra, Anthony Neal Chamings, Rhys Nathan Bushell, Denise O' Rourke, Mark Stevenson, Marc Serge Marenda, Amir H Noormohammadi, Andrew Stent
Bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) is increasingly recognised as a major cause of lameness in commercial broilers chickens worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the condition is incompletely understood. This was a longitudinal study of 20 commercial broiler farms in Victoria, Australia to investigate the etiology and pathology of BCO. Thorough postmortem examination was performed on culled and dead birds (n=325) from 20 different flocks at either 1 week, 4 weeks or 5 weeks of age and samples were analysed by conventional bacteriology, molecular identification of infectious organisms detected, serology and histopathology...
July 3, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660788/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-a-genetically-modified-live-vaccine-in-broilers-challenged-with-salmonella-heidelberg
#5
Eduardo Correa Muniz, Renato Verdi, Joice Aparecida Leão, Alberto Back, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento
Salmonellosis ranks among the major diseases of commercial poultry, and its presence in poultry flocks is responsible for economic losses and risks related to public health. Vaccines are an important tool within integrated programs to control salmonellosis. The purpose of this study was to assess cross-protection provided by the Poulvac(®) ST vaccine in the control of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in experimentally challenged 3- and 21-day-old birds. Eighty birds were identified and separated into four treatments (T1: vaccinated and challenged at 3 days of age, T2: unvaccinated and challenged at 3 days of age, T3: vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age, and T4: unvaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age)...
June 29, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660781/variability-in-biological-behaviour-pathogenicity-protectotype-and-induction-of-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-by-different-vaccination-programs-to-infectious-bronchitis-virus-genotype-q1-strains-from-chile
#6
J J de Wit, R Dijkman, P Guerrero, J Calvo, A Gonzalez, H Hidalgo
In the period from July 2008 to 2010 a disease episode resulting in serious economic losses in the major production area of the Chilean poultry industry were reported. These losses were associated with respiratory problems, increase of condemnations, drops in egg production and nephritis in breeders, laying hens and broilers due to infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Twenty-five IBV isolates were genotyped and 4 strains were selected for further testing by pathotyping and protectotyping. Twenty-four IBV isolates were of the Q1 genotype...
June 29, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649856/the-efficacy-of-inactivated-escherichia-coli-autovaccines-against-the-e-coli-peritonitis-syndrome-in-layers
#7
W J M Landman, J H H van Eck
Autogenous Escherichia coli vaccines to prevent the E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS) in laying hens are often used in the field, although their effectiveness has not been demonstrated yet. Therefore, in this study, which consisted of two experiments, their efficacy was assessed. In the first experiment, the EPS inducing ability of three E. coli isolates originating from bone marrow of hens that died due to EPS and with different Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns, was examined by intravenous inoculation of the isolates in 17 week-old brown layers...
June 26, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417679/synergy-or-interference-of-a-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-with-a-velogenic-newcastle-disease-virus-in-chickens-is-dose-dependent
#8
Francesco Bonfante, Giovanni Cattoli, Sofia Leardini, Angela Salomoni, Eva Mazzetto, Irit Davidson, Ruth Haddas, Calogero Terregino
Field observations indicate that the impact of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) is more severe in countries with concomitant circulation of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus, as is the case in the Middle East, in particular in Israel, where H9N2 and NDV are endemic. In our study, we evaluated how the exposure of chickens to an H9N2 challenge either favours or interferes with a subsequent vNDV infection and its transmission to sentinels. For this purpose, single vNDV and sequential H9/NDV challenges were performed with increasing doses of vNDV (10(1)-10(6) EID50)...
June 21, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532159/the-route-of-inoculation-dictates-the-replication-patterns-of-the-infectious-laryngotracheitis-virus-iltv-pathogenic-strain-and-chicken-embryo-origin-ceo-vaccine
#9
Gabriela Beltrán, Susan M Williams, Guillermo Zavala, James S Guy, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has a high proclivity to replicate in the larynx and trachea of chickens causing severe lesions. There is a lack of knowledge on the ability of ILTV to replicate in other respiratory associated tissues apart from in the trachea. The objective of this study was to investigate how tissues that first encounter the virus dictate further sites of viral replication during the lytic stage of infection. Replication patterns of the pathogenic strain 63140 and the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine in the conjunctiva, the Harderian gland, nasal cavity and trachea were evaluated after ocular, oral, intranasal or intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen-free chickens...
June 19, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447468/induction-of-apoptosis-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-by-vaccination-against-gumboro-disease
#10
Marcelo Pablo Killian, Juan David Boviez, Mariana Gambarotta, Daniel Marcelo Lombardo
Infectious bursal disease is a severe acute viral disease of young chickens, affecting mainly the B-lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, leading to severe immunosuppression as a result of the death of lymphoid cells. In the bursa infected with infectious bursal disease virus, viral replication is associated with apoptosis of lymphoid cells, inflammatory change and atrophy. Vaccination has appeared to be a crucial factor for control, with live attenuated vaccines being the most used. However, the apoptotic effect of these vaccines on the bursa has not been tested...
June 19, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622015/the-first-whole-genome-sequence-and-pathogenicity-characterization-of-a-fowl-adenovirus-4-isolated-from-ducks-associated-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-and-hydropericardium-syndrome
#11
Qing Pan, Linlin Liu, Yongqiang Wang, Yanping Zhang, Xiaole Qi, Changjun Liu, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang, Hongyu Cui
In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks...
June 16, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609139/evidence-and-role-of-phlebitis-and-lipid-infiltration-in-the-onset-and-pathogenesis-of-wooden-breast-disease-in-modern-broiler-chickens
#12
Michael Babak Papah, Erin Brannick, Carl J Schmidt, Behnam Abasht
Wooden Breast Disease (WBD), a myopathy that frequently affects modern broiler chickens, is a disorder that has been associated with significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To examine tissue changes associated with the onset and early pathogenesis of this disorder, a time-series experiment was conducted using chickens from a high-breast-muscle-yield, purebred commercial broiler line. Birds were raised for up to seven weeks, with a subset of birds sampled weekly. Breast muscle tissues were extracted at necropsy and processed for analysis by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
June 13, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470098/chicken-embryo-lethality-assay-for-determining-the-lethal-dose-and-virulence-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#13
Ana E Blanco, Martin Barz, Wiebke Icken, David Cavero, A Reza Sharifi, Matthias Voss, Rudolf Preisinger, Carlos Buxadé
Enterococcus faecalis is the major pathogen found in field cases of amyloid arthropathy in chickens. Given the need for a better understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the causative strains, the embryo lethality assay (ELA) is proposed in the present study as a model to evaluate the virulence of E. faecalis strains, specifically the pathogenic avian strain K923/96, which was previously related with amyloid arthropathy. Hence, 0.2 ml of five doses of the cited strain (from 2.5 to 2500 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml) were inoculated into the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old embryos...
June 13, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589774/development-of-a-multiplex-qpcr-in-real-time-for-quantification-and-differential-diagnosis-of-salmonella-gallinarum-and-salmonella-pullorum
#14
Marcela da Silva Rubio, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Adriana Maria de Almeida, Angelo Berchieri Junior
Currently there are 2659 Salmonella serovars. The host-specific biovars Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum, cause systemic infections in food-producing and wild birds. Fast diagnosis is crucial to control the dissemination in avian environments. The present work describes the development of a multiplex qPCR in real time using a low cost DNA dye (SYBr Green) to identify and quantify these biovars. Primers were chosen based on genomic regions of difference (RoD) and optimized to control dimers. Primers pSGP differentiate from other serovars and pSG and pSP differentiate biovars...
June 7, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580863/validation-of-a-quantitative-eimeria-spp-pcr-for-fresh-droppings-of-broiler-chickens
#15
H W Peek, C Ter Veen, R Dijkman, W J M Landman
A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the seven chicken Eimeria spp. was modified and validated for direct use on fresh droppings. The analytical specificity of the qPCR on droppings was 100%. Its analytical sensitivity (non-sporulated oocysts/g droppings) was 41 for E. acervulina, ≤2,900 for E. brunetti, 710 for E. praecox, 1,500 for E. necatrix, 190 for E. tenella, 640 for E. maxima and 1,100 for E. mitis. Field validation of the qPCR was done using droppings with non-sporulated oocysts from 19 broilers flocks...
June 5, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470089/contribution-of-the-csga-and-bcsa-genes-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-pullorum-biofilm-formation-and-virulence
#16
Muhanad El Hag, Zheng Feng, Yangyang Su, Xiao Wang, Afrah Yassin, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Salmonella biofilm formation is important to environmental stress resistance and virulence. However, the roles of the csgA and bcsA genes, which affect curli protein and cellulose production, respectively, in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum, are unknown. Here we constructed deletions in the csgA and bcsA genes in S. enterica serovar Pullorum strain S6702 and evaluated several aspects of biofilm formation and virulence. ΔcsgA showed decreased production of curli fimbriae, while ΔbcsA had reduced cellulose production...
June 5, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470101/o-polysaccharide-is-important-for-salmonella-pullorum-survival-in-egg-albumen-and-virulence-and-colonization-in-chicken-embryos
#17
Rongxian Guo, Zhuoyang Li, Yang Jiao, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
The pathogen Salmonella Pullorum is the causative agent of persistent systemic infection of poultry, leading to economic losses in developing countries due to morbidity, mortality and reduction in egg production. These infections may result in vertical transmission to eggs or progeny. Limited information is available regarding the mechanisms involved in the survival of Salmonella Pullorum in egg albumen and developing chicken embryos. Hence, we investigated the role of O-polysaccharide in the contamination of eggs and the colonization of chicken embryos...
May 26, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421815/cross-protection-conferred-by-immunization-with-an-romph-based-intranasal-fowl-cholera-vaccine
#18
Thanya Varinrak, Pichayanut Poolperm, Takuo Sawada, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
A previous study demonstrated that a recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH)-based intranasal fowl cholera vaccine elicited efficient homologous protection against the Pasteurella multocida strain X-73 (A:1) in chickens. The present study aimed to determine the cross-protectivity against heterologous P. multocida strains. The rOmpH was purified via electroelution and formulated with two kinds of adjuvants. The vaccine formulations in a total volume of 100 µl were 100 µg rOmpH with 3 µg of Escherichia coli enterotoxin B or 10 µg of CpG ODN2007...
May 26, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537081/high-prevalence-of-brachyspira-spp-in-layers-kept-in-alternative-husbandry-systems-associated-with-frequent-species-variations-from-end-of-rearing-to-slaughter
#19
Claudia Hess, Angelika Zloch, Ivana Bilic, Katrin Hacksteiner, Sabrina Kuchling, Michael Hess
A longitudinal survey was conducted to investigate the presence of Brachyspira species in layer flocks. A total of 66 layer flocks kept in alternative husbandry systems were sampled at three time points: end of rearing, at peak of lay and at end of lay. Content from caecal samples of freshly killed birds was cultured at each sampling time point and processed for further investigations. Gross pathological lesions in caeca were recorded during post mortem investigation. Spirochaetes were isolated from 50 flocks: three flocks were positive at all three sampling points, 25 flocks at two and 22 flocks at one sampling point, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532188/differential-amplification-of-marek-s-disease-cvi988-vaccine-and-of-wild-type-isolates-from-organs-of-commercial-chickens-using-single-or-duplexed-probes-in-real-time-pcr
#20
Irit Davidson, Amira Natour-Altoury, Israel Raibstein, Yaad Dahan
The DIVA test, based on the MDV pp38 gene was described by Baigent et al. (2016), using similar primers and alternate probes for virulent MDV-1 and the vaccine CVI988 virus. We now explored the assay applicability for commercial vaccines and for DNAs of commercial chickens, as former study employed tissue cultured prototype MDV strains and chicken tissue from experimental infection trials. DNA of chicken visceral organs and feathers of either vaccinated, or naturally-infected with virulent MDV-1 wild-type viruses was used for DIVA-PCR real-time PCR...
May 22, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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