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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

Abel Wade, Taïga, Mama Andre Fouda, Abari MaiMoussa, Feussom Kameni Jean Marc, Richard Njouom, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Gaston Djonwe, Etoundi Mballa, Jean Phillipe Kazi, Robert Nenkam, Rodrigue Poueme Namegni, Hamadou Bamanga, Ndongo K M Casimir, Mathew Lebreton, Julius Nwobegahay, Alice Fusaro, Bianca Zecchin, Adelaide Milani, Meyebe Gaston, Vitalis R Chepnda, Simon Dickmu Jumbo, Abdoulkadiri Souley, Yaya Aboubakar, Zephyrin Fotso Kamnga, Konrad Couo, Hamman Atkam, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Lidewij Wiersma, Charles Bebay, Serge Nzietchueng, Tanya Vincent, Cyprien Biaou, Wilfred Mbacham, Isabella Monne, Giovanni Cattoli
In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaounde (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (6 in the Centre, 6 in the West, 8 in the South and 1 in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 death due to infection and 93,801 stamped out)...
July 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ilias Chantziaras, Annemieke Smet, Maria Eleni Filippitzi, Bert Damiaans, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Jeroen Dewulf
The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard®) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2 seeders: 4 sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments, as soon as the chicks were hatched, the birds of two groups were administered Aviguard® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E...
July 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ariel E Vagnozzi, Rodrigo Espinosa, Sunny Cheng, Denise Brinson, Peter O'kane, Jeanna Wilson, Guillermo Zavala
Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) is a widely distributed immunosuppressive agent. SPF flocks and eggs used for vaccine production and diagnostics must be CIAV-free. Detection of CIAV infection in SPF flocks involves primarily serology or other invasive methods. In order to evaluate different types of samples for rapid detection of CIAV infection, a trial was conducted in serologically-negative broiler breeder pullets vaccinated with a commercial live-attenuated CIAV vaccine. Controls and vaccinated groups were sampled prior to and after vaccination...
July 5, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Venugopal Nair
Marek's disease (MD), characterised by rapid-onset lymphoid tumours, immunosuppression and paralysis, is one of the most widespread economically important diseases of poultry world-wide. Caused by the highly contagious Marek's disease virus, control of MD is mainly achieved through vaccination with live attenuated vaccines, although improvements in genetic resistance have also been an important component of disease control. Despite the overall success of the vaccination policy in controlling MD in the last 40 years, continuous evolution of virulence and emergence of hypervirulent pathotypes remains the major challenge for sustainable control of this disease...
July 3, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
W J M Landman, J H H van Eck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ariel Eduardo Vagnozzi, Gabriela Beltrán, Guillermo Zavala, Leah Read, Shayan Sharif, Maricarmen García
The objective of this study was to determine how cytokine transcription profiles correlate with patterns of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication in trachea, Harderian gland, trigeminal ganglia during early and late stages of infection after intra-tracheal inoculation. Viral genomes and transcripts were detected in trachea and Harderian gland but not in trigeminal ganglia. The onset of viral replication in trachea was detected at day one post-infection and peaked by day three post-infection...
July 2, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Dana M Hawley, Sahnzi C Moyers, Johanel Caceres, Courtney Youngbar, James S Adelman
House finches in much of the continental United States experience annual epidemics of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Although evidence suggests that natural infections typically begin unilaterally, experimental inoculations of songbirds with MG to date have all been administered bilaterally. Furthermore, studies of free-living finches find more severe clinical signs of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in left versus right eyes, but the mechanisms underlying this side bias remain unknown...
June 29, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Hossein Hosseini, Masoumeh Jabbarifakhr, Mohammad Hossein Fallah, Hamideh Najafi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi, Zahra Ziafati, Amir Modiri
Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious viral disease affecting numerous species of avian particularly domestic poultry and causes devastating outbreaks. In spite of its endemicity and importance in Iran, data on the genetic characterization of the ND viruses (NDV) is scarce. An alarming issue that has just been raised is the occurrence of ND outbreaks with unexpected high mortality and severe clinical signs. The present study was conducted to characterize the emerging NDV genetically. An NDV strain isolated from commercial broilers (2017) showing severe nervous and enteric signs was completely sequenced which found to be 15,192 nucleotides in length...
June 29, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
F M Tomley, O Sparagano
Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), is currently the most important ectoparasite of the egg laying industry worldwide with an expanding global prevalence. As a blood feeder, it causes anaemia and severe welfare issues to the hens and is a major cause of economic losses. It is also a vector for Salmonella species, avian influenza and potentially for other vector-borne pathogens. Paradoxically, there is a notable lack of funding for research into PRM and an urgent need for effective and safe control strategies, sustainable therapies, prophylactics and integrated pest management (IPM)...
June 29, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mohammed Naghizadeh, Eva Wattrang, Rikke B Kjærup, Maja Bakke, Sandra Shih, Tina S Dalgaard
Opsonins, an important arm of the innate immune system, are various soluble proteins, which play a critical role in destruction of invading pathogens directly or via engulfment of pathogens through the intermediate of phagocytosis. The diversity of opsonin profiles is under genetic influenceandmay be associated with variation in disease resistance. The aim of this study, was to set up an assay to determine serum opsonophagocytic potential (OPp) for chicken sera by flow cytometry and to evaluate the assay using samples from different chicken lines...
June 19, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ehud Shahar, Ruth Haddas, Dana Goldenberg, Avishai Lublin, Itai Bloch, Noa Bachner Hinenzon, Jacob Pitcovski
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major cause of infectious mortality and morbidity in poultry worldwide. It is an enveloped virus with two outer-membrane proteins-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F)-that induce neutralizing antibodies. All NDV strains belong to one serotype. Yet, NDV vaccines, derived from genotype II, do not fully prevent infection or shedding of viruses from other genotypes. The aim of this study was to test if an updated vaccine is required. For this purpose, NDVs isolated from infected, albeit heavily vaccinated flocks, were genetically and immunologically characterized...
June 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Alessandra Piccirillo, Martina Giacomelli, Giulia Niero, Carlotta De Luca, Lisa Carraro, Giovanni Ortali, Lapo Mughini-Gras
Poultry is the main reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter spp., the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry, particularly in turkey, is not completely understood. This study aimed at identifying potential sources and transmission routes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey farms. C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from breeders (n = 29, 20 C. jejuni and 9 C. coli) and their progeny (n = 51, 18 C. jejuni and 33 C. coli) reared in two different farms for three sequential production cycles were analysed by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST)...
June 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ar'Quette Grant, Cyril G Gay, Hyun S Lillehoj
The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria combined with regulatory pressure and consumer demands for foods produced without antibiotics has caused the agricultural industry to restrict its practice of using antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in food animals. The poultry industry is not immune to this trend, and has been actively seeking natural alternatives to AGP that will improve the health and growth performance of commercial poultry flocks. Bacillus probiotics have been gaining in popularity in recent years as an AGP alternative because of their health-promoting benefits and ability to survive the harsh manufacturing conditions of chicken feed production...
May 2, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Kang Ning, Te Liang, Minghang Wang, Yunhan Dong, Shenghua Qu, Dabing Zhang
The pathogenicity of a variant goose parvovirus (GPV), isolated from short beak and dwarfism syndrome of Pekin ducks (strain Cherry Valley), was investigated in embryonating goose eggs and goslings. The virus was easily grown in GPV antibody-free goose embryos and caused high mortality and severe lesions of goose embryos, indicating that the variant GPV has good adaptation and high pathogenicity to embryonated goose eggs similar to the classical GPV. Like the third egg-passage virus (strain H) of a classical GPV, the third egg-passage virus (strain JS1) of the variant GPV caused Derzsy's disease in 2-day-old goslings with high mortality...
April 24, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mahmoud H A Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Adel M Abdelaziz, Ahmed M Al-Ali, Mostafa Alramadan, Mohamed A Lebdah, Abdelazim M Ibrahim, Abdul-Rahman S Al-Ankari
During the period from 2015 to 2017, frequent outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were observed in broiler chickens and falcons in Saudi Arabia. Fifty samples were collected from both species. The histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the IBH infection in eight samples (five samples from chickens and three samples from falcons). The genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Saudi strains, reference fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) and field viruses available in Genbank revealed that all investigated FAdVs clustered into FAdV-2 (species D) and FAdV-6 (species E)...
April 23, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For a long time, Campylobacter jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake, it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sesny Gall, László Kőrösi, Aneg L Cortes, Andrea Delvecchio, Francesco Prandini, Peter Mitsch, Isabel M Gimeno
This article reports nine cases of neurological disease in brown layer pullets that occured in various European countries between 2015 and 2018. In all cases, the onset of neurological clinical signs was at 4-8 weeks of age and they lasted up to 22 weeks of age. Enlargement of peripheral nerves was the main lesion observed in all cases. Histopathological evaluation of nerves revealed oedema with moderate to severe infiltration of plasma cells. Marek's disease (MD) was ruled out by real-time PCR as none of the evaluated tissues had a high load of oncogenic MD virus (MDV) DNA, characteristics of MD...
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Basim Manswr, Christopher Ball, Anne Forrester, Julian Chantrey, Kannan Ganapathy
Sequence variability in the S1 gene determines the genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. A single RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify and sequence the full S1 gene for six classical and variant IBVs (M41, D274, 793B, IS/885/00, IS/1494/06 and Q1) enriched in allantoic fluid (AF) or the same AF inoculated onto Flinders Technology Association (FTA) cards. Representative strains from each genotype were grown in specific-pathogen-free eggs and RNA was extracted from AF. Full S1 gene amplification was achieved using primer A and primer 22...
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Chao Yin, Lijuan Xu, Yang Li, Zijian Liu, Dan Gu, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
In Salmonella, plasmids participate in many pathways involved in virulence, metabolism, and antibiotic resistance. To investigate the function of the ipaJ gene in a multi-copy plasmid pSPI12 prevalent in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum), we established a method to eliminate the plasmid and constructed the plasmid-cured bacteria C79-13-ΔpSPI12 by using the suicide vector pDM4. Briefly, a 500 bp fragment ipaJU from pSPI12 was cloned into pDM4 and transformed into S. Pullorum C79-13 by conjugative transfer...
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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