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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919180/investigation-of-a-mortality-cluster-in-wild-adult-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-at-otago-peninsula-new-zealand
#1
Brett Gartrell, David Agnew, Maurice Alley, Tim Carpenter, Hye Jeong Ha, Laryssa Howe, Stuart Hunter, Kate McInnes, Rex Munday, Roe Wendi, Young Melanie
We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established...
December 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917677/infectious-bronchitis-vaccine-virus-detection-and-part-s1-genetic-variation-following-single-or-dual-inoculation-in-broiler-chicks
#2
Christopher Ball, Faez Awad, Sally Hutton, Anne Forrester, Matthew Baylis, Kannan Ganapathy
An investigation was undertaken of the extent of genetic variation occurring within infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine strains following vaccination of day-old broiler chicks. Chicks were divided into seven groups, with two groups receiving single Massachusetts (Mass) vaccinations and the other four were inoculated with combinations of different IBV serotypes; Mass, 793B, D274, and Arkansas (Ark). The remaining group was maintained as an unvaccinated control. Following vaccination, swabs and tissues collected at intervals were pooled and RNA was extracted for detection of IBV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR)...
December 5, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917645/a-chicken-intestinal-ligated-loop-model-to-study-the-virulence-of-clostridium-perfringens-isolates-recovered-from-antibiotic-free-chicken-flocks
#3
Eric Parent, Marie Archambault, Audrey Charlebois, Jocelyn Bernier-Lachance, Martine Boulianne
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a major problem in antibiotic-free (ABF) chicken flocks and specific strains of Clostridium perfringens are known to induce NE. The objective of this study was to develop a chicken intestinal ligated loop model in order to compare the virulence of various C. perfringens strains recovered from consecutive ABF flocks with and without NE. Intestinal loops were surgically prepared in 10 anaesthetized specific-pathogen-free chickens and alternately inoculated with C. perfringens isolates or brain heart infusion (BHI) media...
December 5, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911082/necrotizing-and-haemorrhagic-hepatitis-and-enteritis-in-commercial-layer-pullets
#4
Yuko Sato, William L Wigle, Tsang Long Lin, Eric Gingerich, Patricia S Wakenell
This case report describes an episode of recurring severe necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis and enteritis experienced in a flock of commercial layer pullets at 12 weeks of age and again at 18 weeks of age in Indiana. Pullets had been vaccinated at 10 weeks old using a trivalent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)/Newcastle disease/infectious bronchitis oil-emulsion-inactivated vaccine. The pullets were found dead at 12 weeks with firm but friable, enlarged, haemorrhagic livers, enlarged spleens, and necrohaemorrhagic intestines...
December 2, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557362/prevalence-of-histopathological-intestinal-lesions-and-enteric-pathogens-in-dutch-commercial-broilers-with-time
#5
C Ter Veen, N D de Bruijn, R Dijkman, J J de Wit
Intestinal disease has a major impact on the broiler industry due to economic and welfare reasons. Intestinal disease might occur due to a large number of reasons varying from well-defined pathogens to non-specific enteritis and complex syndromes. However, knowledge about the nature of intestinal disease and presence of enteric viruses in the Dutch broiler industry is largely absent. Therefore, a large-scale field study, in which 98 broiler flocks from 86 farms were sampled weekly, was started to assess the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the jejunum, a number of enterotropic viruses by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and coccidia by lesion scoring...
December 2, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545145/evaluation-of-a-selected-lactic-acid-bacteria-based-probiotic-on-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-colonization-and-intestinal-permeability-in-broiler-chickens
#6
Omar F Prado-Rebolledo, Jaime de Jesus Delgado-Machuca, Rafael J Macedo-Barragan, Luis J Garcia-Márquez, Jesus E Morales-Barrera, Juan D Latorre, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Guillermo Tellez
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11(®)) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups: control + S. Enteritidis or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, haematology and caecal content were evaluated for S...
December 2, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400318/detection-of-transmissible-viral-proventriculitis-and-chicken-proventricular-necrosis-virus-in-the-uk
#7
Llorenç Grau-Roma, Kirsty Reid, Simone de Brot, Richard Jennison, Paul Barrow, Raúl Sánchez, Miquel Nofrarías, Mike Clark, Natàlia Majó
Increasing evidence suggests that a new birnavirus, named chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), is the aetiological agent of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP). The present work aimed to explore the possible presence of both TVP and CPNV in the UK. Forty-four chickens showing TVP-compatible gross lesions were classified into three groups based on the histological lesions: (i) TVP-affected chickens: lymphocytic infiltration and glandular necrosis (n = 15); (ii) lymphocytic proventriculitis (LP)-affected chickens: lymphocytic infiltration without necrosis (n = 18); and (iii) without proventriculitis (WP): no lymphocytic infiltration or necrosis (n = 11)...
December 1, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897452/characterization-of-two-recombinant-hvt-ibd-vaccines-by-vp2-insert-detection-and-cell-mediated-immunity-after-vaccination-of-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#8
Fiona Ingrao, Fabienne Rauw, Thierry van den Berg, Bénédicte Lambrecht
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an avian viral disease that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The live IBD virus (IBDV) has a potential immunosuppressive effect. Currently available IBDV vaccines have shortcomings, prompting the development of safer and more effective vaccination approaches, including the use of the recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccine expressing the immunogenic structural VP2 protein of IBDV (rHVT-IBD). The objectives of this study were twofold: (i) to develop in vitro assays and molecular tools to detect the VP2 protein and gene, and (ii) to evaluate cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by rHVT-IBD vaccination of day-old specific pathogen-free chickens...
November 29, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866413/disbalance-of-calcium-regulation-related-genes-in-heart-of-broilers-induced-by-selenium-deficiency
#9
Ziwei Zhang, Man Liu, Zhenqiong Guan, Jie Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Shiwen Xu
Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency may influence the calcium (Ca) homeostasis in broilers. Our objective was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on Ca regulation related genes' change in heart of broilers. In the present study, 1-day-old broilers were fed either a commercial diet (as control group) with 0.15 mg/kg Se or a Se-deficient diet (as L group) with 0.033 mg/kg Se for 35 days. We examined the mRNA expression levels of 15 Ca regulation related genes (ITPR 1, ITPR 2, ITPR3, RyR2, RyR3, SERCA1s, SLC8A1, PMCA1, CACNA1S, TRPC1, TRPC3, STIM1, ORAI1, CaLM and CRT) in the heart of broilers...
November 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866411/evaluation-of-the-eric-pcr-as-a-probable-method-to-differentiate-avibacterium-paragallinarum-serovars
#10
Julius Eduard Hellmuth, Arina Corli Hitzeroth, Robert Richard Bragg, Charlotte Enastacia Boucher
Infectious coryza an upper respiratory tract-disease in chickens, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, leads to huge economic losses. The disease is controlled through vaccination, but vaccination efficacy is dependent on correct identification of the infecting serovar, as limited cross-protection is reported amongst some serovars. Current identification methods include the heamagglutination inhibition (HI) test, which is demanding, and could be subjective. To overcome this, molecular typing methods proposed are the Multiplex PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) PCR, but low reproducibility is reported...
November 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817200/safe-application-of-regionalization-for-trade-in-poultry-and-poultry-products-during-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-usa
#11
David E Swayne, Rick E Hill, John Clifford
The 2014-15 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out program that cost USA government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all U.S.-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the U...
November 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807985/a-genetically-engineered-h5-protein-expressed-in-insect-cells-confers-protection-against-different-clades-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chickens
#12
Marcia Oliveira Cavalcanti, Eric Vaughn, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Cattoli, Calogero Terregino, Timm Harder, Christian Grund, Carlos Vega, Francisco Robles, Julio Franco, Ayub Darji, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Egbert Mundt
The evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAI-H5N1) has resulted in the appearance of a number of diverse groups of HPAI-H5N1 based on the presence of genetically similar clusters of their haemagglutinin sequences (clades). An H5 antigen encoded by a recombinant baculovirus and expressed in insect cells, was used for oil-emulsion-based vaccine prototypes. In several experiments, vaccination was performed at 10 days of age, followed by challenge infection on day 21 post vaccination (PV) with HPAI-H5N1 clades 2...
November 3, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807983/development-of-duplex-dual-gene-and-diva-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-and-use-of-feathers-as-a-non-invasive-sampling-method
#13
Irit Davidson, Israel Raibstein, Amira Altory-Natour, Michael Simanov, Yevgeny Khinich
The avian flavivirus Turkey Meningoencephalitis Virus (TMEV) causes a neuroparalytic disease of commercial turkeys, expressed in paresis, incoordination, dropping wings and mortality that is controlled by vaccination. The molecular diagnosis using brain tissue RNA was now upgraded by the development of a diagnostic dual-gene multiplex real-time PCR targeting the env and the NS5 genes, increasing the sensitivity by 10-100 fold compared to the previously existing assays. Based on the recent complete sequences of 5 TMEV isolates we now developed a Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) assay, to distinguish between wild-type TMEV strains and the vaccine virus...
November 3, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791403/salmonella-enterica-serovar-gallinarum-addressing-fundamental-questions-in-bacteriology-sixty-years-on-from-the-9r-vaccine
#14
Paul Wigley
Sixty years on from Smith's seminal work on Fowl Typhoid vaccines, there is renewed interest in experimental avian salmonellosis and in particular the use of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum as a tool to understand key features of bacterial evolution and host adaptation. In this short review we outline some of the recent advances in avian salmonellosis research that have coupled both the power of whole genome analysis and new tools to understand the host response to existing experimental infection models...
October 28, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766900/pathogenicity-tissue-distribution-shedding-and-environmental-detection-of-two-strains-of-ibdv-following-infection-of-chickens-at-0-and-14-days-of-age
#15
Jayasundara Mudiyanselage Kanchana Ganga Kumari Jayasundara, Stephen William Walkden-Brown, Magaret Elizabeth Katz, A F M Fakhrul Islam, Katrin Gondola Renz, Jody McNally, Peter Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766896/occurrence-and-genotypes-of-campylobacter-species-in-broilers-during-the-rearing-period
#16
Xiaoyan Zhang, Tiantian Yin, Xueqing Du, Wenbin Yang, Jinlin Huang, Xinan Jiao
Poultry is the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at the farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers, and the environments of 9 chicken flocks in 2 farms during their growth process were observed. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754714/multidrug-resistant-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-wild-birds-in-a-veterinary-hospital
#17
C A Borges, L G Beraldo, R P Maluta, M V Cardozo, K B Barboza, E A L Guastalli, S Kariyawasam, C DebRoy, F A Ávila
Wild birds are carriers of Escherichia coli. However, little is known about their role as reservoirs for extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). In this work we investigated E. coli strains carrying virulence genes related to human and animal ExPEC isolated from free-living wild birds treated in a veterinary hospital. Multidrug resistance was found in 47.4% of the strains, but none of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Not only the virulence genes, but also the serogroups (e.g. O1 and O2) detected in the isolates of E...
October 18, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754702/six-year-surveillance-of-newcastle-disease-virus-in-wild-birds-in-north-eastern-spain-catalonia
#18
Sebastian Napp, Anna Alba, Ana Isabel Rocha, Azucena Sánchez, Raquel Rivas, Natalia Majó, Mireia Perarnau, Cristina Massot, Elena San Miguel, Mercé Soler, Núria Busquets
Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance...
October 18, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735192/influence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-pullorum-pathogenicity-island-2-on-type-iii-secretion-system-effetor-gene-expression-in-chicken-macrophage-hd11-cells
#19
Junlei Yin, Yun Chen, Xiaolei Xie, Jie Xia, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effetor gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of Salmonella Pullorum infection, deletion of SPI2 of Salmonella Pullorum did not significantly affect the expression of genes cigR, gtgA, slrP, sopD, sseK1, steB and steC, but had a significantly effect on the expression of genes pipB2, sifB, sopD2, sseJ, sseL, sspH2, steD, sifA, pipB and steA at different degrees...
October 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724072/molecular-characterization-isolation-pathology-and-pathotyping-of-peafowl-pavo-cristatus-origin-newcastle-disease-virus-isolates-recovered-from-disease-outbreaks-in-three-states-of-india
#20
Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Shambhu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Obli Rajendran Vinodhkumar, Rajamani Barathidasan, Yashpal Singh Malik, Rajendra Singh, Raj Kumar Singh
Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized...
October 11, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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