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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

Ilias Apostolakos, Alessandra Piccirillo
Colistin has been re-assessed as a critically important antimicrobial in humans due to its efficacy against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. The recent discovery of mobile colistin resistance determinants in humans and animals has brought concerns regarding the future of this antimicrobial. In this paper, we aim to highlight the current challenges with colistin resistant bacteria and to summarise reliable global data on colistin resistance in poultry production...
September 18, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
V Tsiouris, I Georgopoulou, C Batzios, N Pappaioannou, R Ducatelle, P Fortomaris
Heat stress is a physical environmental stressor, which can affect performance, health and welfare of poultry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cyclic acute heat stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks in an experimental challenge model. Two hundred and forty broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group A, was served as negative control (25 o C), group B, birds were subjected to cyclic acute heat stress (35 o C), group C, birds were challenged and group D, birds were both subjected to heat stress and challenged...
September 17, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sylvie Marché, Thierry van den Berg, Bénédicte Lambrecht
Avian influenza viruses have been isolated from many bird species; however, little is known about the susceptibility of pet birds to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. To address this research gap, domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) were experimentally infected with H5 and H7 LPAI viruses to determine susceptibility and evaluate samples for diagnostic purposes. Clinical evidence of infection (eg, ruffled plumage and apathy) and mortality were noted for the canaries inoculated with chicken adapted LPAI viruses...
September 12, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
L Olesen, R Dijkman, R Koopman, R van Leeuwen, Y Gardin, R M Dwars, N D de Bruijn, G J Boelm, J Elattrache, J J de Wit
Following a period of clinical outbreaks of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) in Denmark, the histological bursal lesion score (HBLS) was used on a national scale to screen broiler flocks vaccinated with intermediate IBD vaccines for lesions indicative of IBDV challenge. High lesion scores were detected in a high percentage of healthy and well performing flocks despite the lack of other indications of the presence of vvIBDV. RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed the frequent presence of H253Q and H253N IBDV strains that were genetically close to the sequence of the intermediate vaccines with a relative risk ratio of 13...
September 12, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Niina Tammiranta, Christine Ek-Kommonen, Laila Rossow, Anita Huovilainen
In the spring of 2014 infectious bursal disease (IBD) was confirmed in a Finnish layer flock exhibiting clinical signs and increased mortality. Organ and blood samples were sent for diagnosis to the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira. IBD virus (IBDV) was detected in RT-PCR studies. Altogether hens from six layer farms associated with increased mortality (7-10%, worst case 30%) were diagnosed with IBD during 2014. Antibodies were also detected with IBD-ELISA tests in hens on two farms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the causative agent of the 2014 IBD outbreak was a non-reassortant very virulent type IBDV...
September 12, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
W J M Landman, J H H van Eck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Chang Gao, Jie Zhai, Shengyuan Dang, Shimin Zheng
Alternative splicing(AS) play a significant role in regulation of genomic expression at transcriptional level and was involved in many important biological functions of cells, thus a gene can be spliced into distinct transcripts variants then translated to many different kinds of protein. Reticuloendotheliosis virus(REV) is a kind of retrovirus that can infect multiple avian species, leading to runting syndrome, immunosuppression and oncogenesis. In this present study, we analyzed AS in REV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts(CEFs) which were inoculated with the second generation of REV (group VB) compared with normal CEFs (group C) by high-throughput RNA sequencing technology...
August 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Daral J Jackwood, Karel A Schat, Linda O Michel, Sjaak de Wit
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was initially identified in the USA. For decades, these viruses were not categorized using a typing system because they were considered to be antigenically and pathogenically similar. In the 1980s, a second major serotype, serotype 2, was found in turkeys. Classification of IBDV became more complex with the discovery of antigenic variant strains called "variants" in the United States and a highly virulent strain known as "very virulent" or vvIBDV identified in Europe...
August 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Hossein Hosseini, Masoumeh Jabbarifakhr, Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi, Hamideh Najafi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi, Zahra Ziafati, Amir Modiri
Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious viral disease affecting numerous avian species, particularly domestic poultry, and causes devastating outbreaks. In spite of its endemicity and importance in Iran, data on the genetic characterization of ND virus (NDV) are scarce. An alarming issue that has just been raised is the occurrence of ND outbreaks with unexpected high mortality and severe clinical signs. The present study was conducted to characterize the emerging NDV genetically. An NDV strain, isolated in 2017 from commercial broilers showing severe nervous and enteric signs, was completely sequenced and found to be 15,192 nucleotides in length...
August 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ariel E Vagnozzi, Rodrigo Espinosa, Sunny Cheng, Denise Brinson, Peter O'Kane, Jeanna Wilson, Guillermo Zavala
Chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) is a widely distributed immunosuppressive agent. SPF flocks and eggs used for vaccine production and diagnostics must be CIAV-free. Detection of CIAV infection in SPF flocks involves primarily serology or other invasive methods. In order to evaluate different types of samples for rapid detection of CIAV infection, a trial was conducted in serologically negative broiler breeder pullets vaccinated with a commercial live-attenuated CIAV vaccine. Controls and vaccinated groups were sampled before and after vaccination...
July 25, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ariel Eduardo Vagnozzi, Gabriela Beltrán, Guillermo Zavala, Leah Read, Shayan Sharif, Maricarmen García
The objective of this study was to determine how cytokine transcription profiles correlate with patterns of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication in the trachea, Harderian gland, and trigeminal ganglia during the early and late stages of infection after intratracheal inoculation. Viral genomes and transcripts were detected in the trachea and Harderian gland but not in trigeminal ganglia. The onset of viral replication in the trachea was detected at day one post-infection and peaked by day three post-infection...
July 20, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Dana M Hawley, Sahnzi C Moyers, Johanel Caceres, Courtney Youngbar, James S Adelman
House finches in much of the continental United States experience annual epidemics of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Although evidence suggests that natural infections typically begin unilaterally, experimental inoculations of songbirds with MG to date have all been administered bilaterally. Furthermore, studies of free-living finches find more severe clinical signs of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in left versus right eyes, but the mechanisms underlying this side bias remain unknown...
July 20, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
F M Tomley, O Sparagano
Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is currently the most important ectoparasite of the egg laying industry worldwide with an expanding global prevalence. As a blood-feeder, it causes anaemia and severe welfare issues to the hens and it is a major cause of economic losses. It is also a vector for Salmonella species, avian influenza and potentially for other vector-borne pathogens. Paradoxically, there is a notable lack of funding for research into poultry red mite and an urgent need for effective and safe control strategies, sustainable therapies, prophylactics and integrated pest management...
July 18, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Abel Wade, Taïga, Mama Andre Fouda, Abari MaiMoussa, Feussom Kameni Jean Marc, Richard Njouom, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Gaston Djonwe, Etoundi Mballa, Jean Phillipe Kazi, Robert Nenkam, Rodrigue Poueme Namegni, Hamadou Bamanga, Ndongo K M Casimir, Mathew Lebreton, Julius Nwobegahay, Alice Fusaro, Bianca Zecchin, Adelaide Milani, Meyebe Gaston, Vitalis R Chepnda, Simon Dickmu Jumbo, Abdoulkadiri Souley, Yaya Aboubakar, Zephyrin Fotso Kamnga, Konrad Couo, Hamman Atkam, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Lidewij Wiersma, Charles Bebay, Serge Nzietchueng, Tanya Vincent, Cyprien Biaou, Wilfred Mbacham, Isabella Monne, Giovanni Cattoli
In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaounde (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (6 in the Centre, 6 in the West, 8 in the South and 1 in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 death due to infection and 93,801 stamped out)...
July 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mohammed Naghizadeh, Eva Wattrang, Rikke B Kjærup, Maja Bakke, Sandra Shih, Tina S Dalgaard
Opsonins, an important arm of the innate immune system, are various soluble proteins, which play a critical role in destruction of invading pathogens directly or via engulfment of pathogens through the intermediate of phagocytosis. The diversity of opsonin profiles is under genetic influence and may be associated with variation in disease resistance. The aim of this study was to set up an assay to determine serum opsonophagocytic potential (OPp) for chicken sera by flow cytometry and to evaluate the assay using samples from different chicken lines...
July 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Alessandra Piccirillo, Martina Giacomelli, Giulia Niero, Carlotta De Luca, Lisa Carraro, Giovanni Ortali, Lapo Mughini-Gras
Poultry are the main reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter spp., which is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry, particularly in turkeys, is not completely understood. This study aimed at identifying potential sources and transmission routes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey farms. C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from breeders (n = 29, 20 C. jejuni and 9 C. coli) and their progeny (n = 51, 18 C. jejuni and 33 C...
July 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ilias Chantziaras, Annemieke Smet, Maria Eleni Filippitzi, Bert Damiaans, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Jeroen Dewulf
The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard®) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2 seeders: 4 sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments, as soon as the chicks were hatched, the birds of two groups were administered Aviguard® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E...
July 9, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ehud Shahar, Ruth Haddas, Dana Goldenberg, Avishai Lublin, Itai Bloch, Noa Bachner Hinenzon, Jacob Pitcovski
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major cause of infectious mortality and morbidity in poultry worldwide. It is an enveloped virus with two outer-membrane proteins-haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F)-that induce neutralizing antibodies. All NDV strains belong to one serotype. Yet, NDV vaccines, derived from genotype II, do not fully prevent infection or shedding of viruses from other genotypes. The aim of this study was to test if an updated vaccine is required. For this purpose, NDVs isolated from infected, albeit heavily vaccinated, flocks were genetically and immunologically characterized...
July 5, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Venugopal Nair
Marek's disease (MD), characterised by rapid-onset lymphoid tumours, immunosuppression and paralysis, is one of the most widespread economically important diseases of poultry world-wide. Caused by the highly contagious Marek's disease virus, control of MD is mainly achieved through vaccination with live attenuated vaccines, although improvements in genetic resistance have also been an important component of disease control. Despite the overall success of the vaccination policy in controlling MD in the last 40 years, continuous evolution of virulence and emergence of hypervirulent pathotypes remains the major challenge for sustainable control of this disease...
July 3, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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