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Annual Review of Nutrition

Julie Mares
Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Tim Y Hou, Laurie A Davidson, Eunjoo Kim, Yang-Yi Fan, Natividad R Fuentes, Karen Triff, Robert S Chapkin
The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Alan R Kimmel, Carole Sztalryd
The discovery by Dr. Constantine Londos of perilipin 1, the major scaffold protein at the surface of cytosolic lipid droplets in adipocytes, marked a fundamental conceptual change in the understanding of lipolytic regulation. Focus then shifted from the enzymatic activation of lipases to substrate accessibility, mediated by perilipin-dependent protein sequestration and recruitment. Consequently, the lipid droplet became recognized as a unique, metabolically active cellular organelle and its surface as the active site for novel protein-protein interactions...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Formate, the only non-tetrahydrofolate (THF)-linked intermediate in one-carbon metabolism, is produced in mammals from a variety of metabolic sources. It occurs in serum of adults at a concentration of approximately 30 μM. Its principal function lies as a source of one-carbon groups for the synthesis of 10-formyl-THF and other one-carbon intermediates; these are primarily used for purine synthesis, thymidylate synthesis, and the provision of methyl groups for synthetic, regulatory, and epigenetic methylation reactions...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
A David Smith, Helga Refsum
Moderately elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a strong modifiable risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Prospectively, elevated tHcy is associated with cognitive decline, white matter damage, brain atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and dementia. Most homocysteine-lowering trials with folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 tested as protective agents against cognitive decline were poorly designed by including subjects unlikely to benefit during the trial period. In contrast, trials in high-risk subjects, which have taken into account the baseline B vitamin status, show a slowing of cognitive decline and of atrophy in critical brain regions, results that are consistent with modification of the Alzheimer's disease process...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Wan Shen, Michael K McIntosh
Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Brandon J F Gheller, Emily S Riddle, Melinda R Lem, Anna E Thalacker-Mercer
Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Alicia L Carreiro, Jaapna Dhillon, Susannah Gordon, Kelly A Higgins, Ashley G Jacobs, Breanna M McArthur, Benjamin W Redan, Rebecca L Rivera, Leigh R Schmidt, Richard D Mattes
Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this period, metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency) were emphasized...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Julian Stevenson, Edmond Y Huang, James A Olzmann
The endoplasmic reticulum is the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway and the site of synthesis for several important lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. Protein production within the endoplasmic reticulum is tightly regulated by a cohort of resident machinery that coordinates the folding, modification, and deployment of secreted and integral membrane proteins. Proteins failing to attain their native conformation are degraded through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via a series of tightly coupled steps: substrate recognition, dislocation, and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal destruction...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Adrian Carter, Joshua Hendrikse, Natalia Lee, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane Andrews, Wayne Hall
There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Joëlle V Fritz, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Anubrata Ghosal, Linda Wampach, Alton Etheridge, David Galas, Paul Wilmes
Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Erin Simmons, James D Fluckey, Steven E Riechman
Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) fluctuates widely over the course of a day and is influenced by many factors. The time course of MPS responses to exercise and the influence of training and nutrition can only be pieced together from several different investigations and methods, many of which create unnatural experimental conditions. Measurements of cumulative MPS, the sum synthesis over an extended period, using deuterium oxide have been shown to accurately reflect muscle responses and may allow investigations of the response to exercise, total protein intake requirements, and interaction with protein timing in free-living experimental conditions; these factors have yet to be carefully integrated...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Edmund T Rolls
The taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs for some neurons, and these neurons encode food reward value in that they respond to food only when hunger is present and in that activations correlate linearly with subjective pleasantness...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Cria G Perrine, Jennifer M Nelson, Jennifer Corbelli, Kelley S Scanlon
Researchers hypothesize that pregnancy and lactation are part of a continuum, with lactation meant to "reset" the adverse metabolic profile that develops as a part of normal pregnancy, and that when lactation does not occur, women maintain an elevated risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. Several large prospective and retrospective studies, mostly from the United States and other industrialized countries, have examined the associations between lactation and cardio-metabolic outcomes. Less evidence exists regarding an association of lactation with maternal postpartum weight status and dyslipidemia, whereas more evidence exists for an association with diabetes, hypertension, and subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Marie Balslev Backe, Ingrid Wahl Moen, Christina Ellervik, Jakob Bondo Hansen, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
Dietary advice is the cornerstone in first-line treatment of metabolic diseases. Nutritional interventions directed at these clinical conditions mainly aim to (a) improve insulin resistance by reducing energy-dense macronutrient intake to obtain weight loss and (b) reduce fluctuations in insulin secretion through avoidance of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates. However, even in the majority of motivated patients selected for clinical trials, massive efforts using this approach have failed to achieve lasting efficacy...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Erin E Mulvihill, Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Loranne Agius
Liver glucose metabolism is dependent on glucokinase activity. Glucokinase expression is transcriptionally regulated by hormones and metabolites of glucose, and glucokinase activity is dependent on reversible binding of glucokinase to a specific inhibitor protein, glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), and to other binding proteins such as 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK2/FBP2), which functions as an activator. Glucokinase is inhibited in the postabsorptive state by sequestration in the nucleus bound to GKRP, and it is activated postprandially by portal hyperglycemia and fructose through dissociation from GKRP, translocation to the cytoplasm, and binding to PFK2/FBP2...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Kirsty McHugh, Hal Drakesmith
Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, facilitating iron balance by controlling intestinal iron absorption and recycling. Hepcidin levels are suppressed when erythropoiesis is stimulated, for example following acute blood loss, appropriately enhancing cellular iron export to the plasma to support production of new red blood cells. However, persistent increased and ineffective erythropoiesis, for example in thalassemia, results in sustained elevations in iron absorption, which cause iron overload with associated organ toxicities...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Chrysi Koliaki, Michael Roden
Mitochondrial function refers to a broad spectrum of features such as resting mitochondrial activity, (sub)maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), and mitochondrial dynamics, turnover, and plasticity. The interaction between mitochondria and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional and varies depending on tissue, experimental model, methodological approach, and features of mitochondrial function tested. In human skeletal muscle, mitochondrial abnormalities may be inherited (e.g., lower mitochondrial content) or acquired (e...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
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