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Annual Review of Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628361/lipocalin-2-an-emerging-player-in-iron-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#1
Xia Xiao, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the interaction between Lcn2 and iron, and its effects in various inflammatory diseases...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628360/genetic-risk-factors-for-folate-responsive-neural-tube-defects
#2
Anne M Molloy, Faith Pangilinan, Lawrence C Brody
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. The etiology is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors having important contributions. Researchers have known for the past two decades that maternal periconceptional use of the B vitamin folic acid can prevent many NTDs. Though this finding is arguably one of the most important recent discoveries in birth defect research, the mechanism by which folic acid exerts this benefit remains unknown. Research to date has focused on the hypothesis that an underlying genetic susceptibility interacts with folate-sensitive metabolic processes at the time of neural tube closure...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628359/the-genetic-basis-for-sex-differences-in-obesity-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Jenny C Link, Karen Reue
Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613982/dietary-phosphorus-intake-and-the-kidney
#4
Alex R Chang, Cheryl Anderson
Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria...
June 14, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574804/the-best-of-times
#5
Johanna T Dwyer
I came of age as a nutrition scientist during the best of times-years that spanned a rapidly changing world of food and nutrition science, politics, and policy that greatly broadened the specialty and its influence on public affairs. I followed the conventional route in academe, working my way up the academic ladder in Boston from a base first in a school of public health and later in a teaching hospital and medical school, interspersed with stints in Washington, DC. Thus I tell a tale of two cities. Those were the best of times because nutrition science and policy converged and led to important policies and programs that shaped the field for the next 50 years...
June 2, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564556/brain-on-fire-incentive-salience-hedonic-hot-spots-dopamine-obesity-and-other-hunger-games
#6
Jameason D Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Anders M Sjödin, Gary S Goldfield
This review examines human feeding behavior in light of psychological motivational theory and highlights the importance of midbrain dopamine (DA). Prospective evidence of both reward surfeit and reward deficit pathways to increased body weight are evaluated, and we argue that it is more complex than an either/or scenario when examining DA's role in reward sensitivity, eating, and obesity. The Taq1A genotype is a common thread that ties the contrasting models of DA reward and obesity; this genotype related to striatal DA is not associated with obesity class per se but may nevertheless confer an increased risk of weight gain...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564555/holocarboxylase-synthetase-a-moonlighting-transcriptional-coregulator-of-gene-expression-and-a-cytosolic-regulator-of-biotin-utilization
#7
Alfonso León-Del-Río, Viviana Valadez-Graham, Roy A Gravel
The vitamin biotin is an essential nutrient for the metabolism and survival of all organisms owing to its function as a cofactor of enzymes collectively known as biotin-dependent carboxylases. These enzymes use covalently attached biotin as a vector to transfer a carboxyl group between donor and acceptor molecules during carboxylation reactions. In human cells, biotindependent carboxylases catalyze key reactions in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid catabolism. Biotin is attached to apocarboxylases by a biotin ligase: holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) in mammalian cells and BirA in microbes...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564554/the-nexus-between-nutrition-and-early-childhood-development
#8
Harold Alderman, Lia Fernald
This article looks at both nutrition and early child stimulation interventions as part of an integrated life cycle approach to development. We build on recent systematic reviews of child development, which are comprehensive in regard to what is currently known about outcomes reported in key studies. We then focus particularly on implementation, scaling, and economic returns, drawing mainly on experience in low- and middle-income countries where undernutrition and poor child development remain significant public health challenges with implications across the life course...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431371/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-isomers-in-eye-health-and-disease
#9
Julie Mares
Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431370/nutrient-gene-interaction-in-colon-cancer-from-the-membrane-to-cellular-physiology
#10
Tim Y Hou, Laurie A Davidson, Eunjoo Kim, Yang-Yi Fan, Natividad R Fuentes, Karen Triff, Robert S Chapkin
The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431369/the-perilipins-major-cytosolic-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins-and-their-roles-in-cellular-lipid-storage-mobilization-and-systemic-homeostasis
#11
Alan R Kimmel, Carole Sztalryd
The discovery by Dr. Constantine Londos of perilipin 1, the major scaffold protein at the surface of cytosolic lipid droplets in adipocytes, marked a fundamental conceptual change in the understanding of lipolytic regulation. Focus then shifted from the enzymatic activation of lipases to substrate accessibility, mediated by perilipin-dependent protein sequestration and recruitment. Consequently, the lipid droplet became recognized as a unique, metabolically active cellular organelle and its surface as the active site for novel protein-protein interactions...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431368/formate-the-neglected-member-of-one-carbon-metabolism
#12
Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Formate, the only non-tetrahydrofolate (THF)-linked intermediate in one-carbon metabolism, is produced in mammals from a variety of metabolic sources. It occurs in serum of adults at a concentration of approximately 30 μM. Its principal function lies as a source of one-carbon groups for the synthesis of 10-formyl-THF and other one-carbon intermediates; these are primarily used for purine synthesis, thymidylate synthesis, and the provision of methyl groups for synthetic, regulatory, and epigenetic methylation reactions...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431367/homocysteine-b-vitamins-and-cognitive-impairment
#13
A David Smith, Helga Refsum
Moderately elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a strong modifiable risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Prospectively, elevated tHcy is associated with cognitive decline, white matter damage, brain atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and dementia. Most homocysteine-lowering trials with folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 tested as protective agents against cognitive decline were poorly designed by including subjects unlikely to benefit during the trial period. In contrast, trials in high-risk subjects, which have taken into account the baseline B vitamin status, show a slowing of cognitive decline and of atrophy in critical brain regions, results that are consistent with modification of the Alzheimer's disease process...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431366/nutrient-regulation-conjugated-linoleic-acid-s-inflammatory-and-browning-properties-in-adipose-tissue
#14
Wan Shen, Michael K McIntosh
Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431365/understanding-age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-differences-between-females-and-males
#15
Brandon J F Gheller, Emily S Riddle, Melinda R Lem, Anna E Thalacker-Mercer
Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431364/the-macronutrients-appetite-and-energy-intake
#16
Alicia L Carreiro, Jaapna Dhillon, Susannah Gordon, Kelly A Higgins, Ashley G Jacobs, Breanna M McArthur, Benjamin W Redan, Rebecca L Rivera, Leigh R Schmidt, Richard D Mattes
Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this period, metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency) were emphasized...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296502/endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation-and-lipid-homeostasis
#17
Julian Stevenson, Edmond Y Huang, James A Olzmann
The endoplasmic reticulum is the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway and the site of synthesis for several important lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. Protein production within the endoplasmic reticulum is tightly regulated by a cohort of resident machinery that coordinates the folding, modification, and deployment of secreted and integral membrane proteins. Proteins failing to attain their native conformation are degraded through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via a series of tightly coupled steps: substrate recognition, dislocation, and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal destruction...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296501/nutritional-ecology-and-human-health
#18
David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296500/the-neurobiology-of-food-addiction-and-its-implications-for-obesity-treatment-and-policy
#19
Adrian Carter, Joshua Hendrikse, Natalia Lee, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane Andrews, Wayne Hall
There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215587/sources-and-functions-of-extracellular-small-rnas-in-human-circulation
#20
Joëlle V Fritz, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Anubrata Ghosal, Linda Wampach, Alton Etheridge, David Galas, Paul Wilmes
Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
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