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Annual Review of Nutrition

Manu S Goyal, Lora L Iannotti, Marcus E Raichle
Appraising success in meeting the world's nutritional needs has largely focused on infant mortality and anthropometric measurements with an emphasis on the first 1,000 days (conception to approximately age 2 years). This ignores the unique nutritional needs of the human brain. Although the intrauterine environment and the early postnatal years are important, equally critical periods follow during which the brain's intricate wiring is established for a lifetime of experience-driven remodeling. At the peak of this process during childhood, the human brain may account for 50% of the body's basal nutritional requirement...
June 1, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Martin J Shearer, Toshio Okano
Vitamin K (VK) is an essential cofactor for the post-translational conversion of peptide-bound glutamate to γ-carboxyglutamate. The resultant vitamin K-dependent proteins are known or postulated to possess a variety of biological functions, chiefly in the maintenance of hemostasis. The vitamin K cycle is a cellular pathway that drives γ-carboxylation and recycling of VK via γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), respectively. In this review, we show how novel molecular biological approaches are providing new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms caused by rare mutations of both GGCX and VKOR...
June 1, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Mads F Hjorth, Yishai Zohar, James O Hill, Arne Astrup
During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have different levels of success on different diets. We identified studies investigating pretreatment glycemia or insulinemia status, or both, of the individual as prognostic markers of weight loss during periods in which the composition of a participant's diet was known...
June 1, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Claudio Franceschi, Rita Ostan, Aurelia Santoro
Individuals capable of reaching the extreme limit of human life such as centenarians are characterized by an exceptionally healthy phenotype-that is, a low number of diseases, low blood pressure, optimal metabolic and endocrine parameters, and increased diversity in the gut microbiota-and they are epigenetically younger than their chronological age. We present data suggesting that such a remarkable phenotype is largely similar to that found in adults following a calorie-restricted diet. Interviews with centenarians and historical data on the nutritional and lifestyle habits of Italians during the twentieth century suggest that as children and into adulthood, centenarians lived in an environment that was nonobesogenic, but at the same time the environment did not produce malnutrition...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Marianne Wessling-Resnick
Because both the host and pathogen require iron, the innate immune response carefully orchestrates control over iron metabolism to limit its availability during times of infection. Nutritional iron deficiency can impair host immunity, while iron overload can cause oxidative stress to propagate harmful viral mutations. An emerging enigma is that many viruses use the primary gatekeeper of iron metabolism, the transferrin receptor, as a means to enter cells. Why and how this iron gate is a viral target for infection are the focus of this review...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Sydney E Scott, Yoel Inbar, Christopher D Wirz, Dominique Brossard, Paul Rozin
Genetically engineered food has had its DNA, RNA, or proteins manipulated by intentional human intervention. We provide an overview of the importance and regulation of genetically engineered food and lay attitudes toward it. We first discuss the pronaturalness context in the United States and Europe that preceded the appearance of genetically engineered food. We then review the definition, prevalence, and regulation of this type of food. Genetically engineered food is widespread in some countries, but there is great controversy worldwide among individuals, governments, and other institutions about the advisability of growing and consuming it...
May 25, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Nour Makarem, Elisa V Bandera, Joseph M Nicholson, Niyati Parekh
High sugar intake may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and body adiposity, but epidemiologic evidence is unclear. Associations between dietary sugars and lifestyle-related cancer risk from longitudinal studies were evaluated. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL and identified 37 prospective cohort studies (1990-2017) reporting multivariable adjusted risk estimates for dietary sugars in relation to cancer. Of 15 and 14 studies on total sugar and sucrose respectively, 11 reported a null association in relation to cancer...
May 25, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Salvador Alonso, Ömer H Yilmaz
Dietary composition and calorie intake are major determinants of health and disease. Calorie restriction promotes metabolic changes that favor tissue regeneration and is arguably the most successful and best-conserved antiaging intervention. Obesity, in contrast, impairs tissue homeostasis and is a major risk factor for the development of diseases including cancer. Stem cells, the central mediators of tissue regeneration, integrate dietary and energy cues via nutrient-sensing pathways to maintain growth or respond to stress...
May 23, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Roheeni Saxena, Anne K Bozack, Mary V Gamble
Exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) via drinking water and/or food is a considerable worldwide problem. Methylation of InAs generates monomethyl (MMAsIII+V )- and dimethyl (DMAsIII+V )-arsenical species in a process that facilitates urinary As elimination; however, MMA is considerably more toxic than either InAs or DMAs. Emerging evidence suggests that incomplete methylation of As to DMAs, resulting in increased MMAs, is associated with increased risk for a host of As-related health outcomes. The biochemical pathway that provides methyl groups for As methylation, one-carbon metabolism (OCM), is influenced by folate and other micronutrients, including choline and betaine...
May 23, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Earl H Harrison, Loredana Quadro
Apocarotenoids are cleavage products of C40 isoprenoid pigments, named carotenoids, synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms. The colors of flowers and fruits and the photosynthetic process are examples of the biological properties conferred by carotenoids to these organisms. Mammals do not synthesize carotenoids but obtain them from foods of plant origin. Apocarotenoids are generated upon enzymatic and nonenzymatic cleavage of the parent compounds both in plants and in the tissues of mammals that have ingested carotenoid-containing foods...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Ronaldo P Ferraris, Jun-Yong Choe, Chirag R Patel
Increased understanding of fructose metabolism, which begins with uptake via the intestine, is important because fructose now constitutes a physiologically significant portion of human diets and is associated with increased incidence of certain cancers and metabolic diseases. New insights in our knowledge of intestinal fructose absorption mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT5 in the apical membrane and by GLUT2 in the basolateral membrane are reviewed. We begin with studies related to structure as well as ligand binding, then revisit the controversial proposition that apical GLUT2 is the main mediator of intestinal fructose absorption...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Lucas D BonDurant, Matthew J Potthoff
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone derived from the liver that exerts pleiotropic effects on the body to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. During the past decade, there has been an enormous effort made to understand the physiological roles of FGF21 in regulating metabolism and to identify the mechanism for its potent pharmacological effects to reverse diabetes and obesity. Through both human and rodent studies, it is now evident that FGF21 levels are dynamically regulated by nutrient sensing, and consequently FGF21 functions as a critical regulator of nutrient homeostasis...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Bette J Caan
Although higher body mass index (BMI) increases cancer incidence, it is associated with improved survival among patients with existing disease; thus, the relationship of BMI with mortality in cancer patients is often U-shaped, which is termed the obesity paradox. This review discusses possible explanations for the obesity paradox, the prevalence and consequences of low muscle mass in cancer patients, and future research directions. It is unlikely that methodological biases, such as reverse causality or confounding, fully explain the obesity paradox...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Michael J Gibney
From my senior school days, I had wanted to pursue a career in food. In quite what capacity I was not too sure. So my starting points were within the fields of animal nutrition before moving for the major part of my career to medical schools to study human nutrition and health. My career scientific achievements lie within the Kuhnian spectrum of normal science, but within that normality, I was always one to challenge conventional wisdom. An academic career is about more than just research. It is about teaching and not just the minutiae of nutrition, but about life and living, about challenges and failures...
March 26, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Dennis M Bier
Nearly 50 years ago, I set out to investigate the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children with illnesses that limited their food intake. My goal was to gather accurate and precise measurable data. At the time, I wasn't interested in nutrition as a discipline defined in its more general or popular sense. To address the specific problem that interested me required development of entirely new methods based on stable, nonradioactive tracers that satisfied the conditions of accuracy and precision. At the time, I had no inclination of the various theoretical and practical problems that would have to be solved to achieve this goal...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Evropi Theodoratou, Maria Timofeeva, Xue Li, Xiangrui Meng, John P A Ioannidis
It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene-diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene-diet interactions for the same cancers...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Giuseppe Grosso, Justyna Godos, Fabio Galvano, Edward L Giovannucci
To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Jessica C Ralston, Claire L Lyons, Elaine B Kennedy, Anna M Kirwan, Helen M Roche
Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas) through lipotoxicity and inflammatory signaling networks. Importantly, although numerous signaling pathways are known to integrate metabolic and inflammatory processes, the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is now noted to be a key regulator of metabolic inflammation...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
John C Newman, Eric Verdin
Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Lindsay R Pool, Myles Wolf
The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has provided a more complete understanding of the regulation of phosphate and mineral homeostasis in health and in chronic kidney disease. It has also offered new insights into stratification of risk of cardiovascular events and death among patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. In this review, we provide an overview of FGF23 biology and physiology, summarize clinical outcomes that have been associated with FGF23, discuss potential mechanisms for these observations and their public health implications, and explore clinical and population health interventions that aim to reduce FGF23 levels and improve public health...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
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