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Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030883/accommodation-stimulus-and-response-determinations-with-autorefractors
#1
David A Atchison, Saulius R Varnas
PURPOSE: To develop equations for accommodation stimulus and accommodation response with autorefractors when the accommodation stimulus is produced by combinations of object distances and lenses placed in front of eyes, and to give worked examples using these equations. METHODS: Simple ray tracing was used to determine stimulus and response equations, taking into account the reference positions for targets, for refraction, and for autorefractor readings. RESULTS: Several examples applying equations are provided...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030882/ocular-response-to-environmental-variations-in-contact-lens-wearers
#2
Alberto López-de la Rosa, Vicente Martín-Montañez, Alberto López-Miguel, Itziar Fernández, Margarita Calonge, José M González-Méijome, María J González-García
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of different indoor environments simulated in an environmental chamber on soft contact lens (CL) wearers. METHODS: Fifty-four CL wearers were grouped based on their symptoms while wearing their CLs. Subjects were fitted with two different CL types, conventional hydrogel (Omafilcon A) and silicone hydrogel (comfilcon A), and exposed to two controlled indoor environmental conditions, standard [50% relative humidity (RH), 23°C, 930 mb of atmospheric pressure] and adverse (in-flight air cabin environment: 5% RH, localised air flow, 23°C, 750 mb atmospheric pressure), for 90 min in an environmental chamber, making a total of four visits...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030881/intra-and-inter-examiner-repeatability-of-cycloplegic-retinoscopy-among-young-children
#3
Sara J McCullough, Lesley Doyle, Kathryn J Saunders
PURPOSE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner repeatability of cycloplegic retinoscopy in young children aged 4-5 years old. METHODS: Examiner 1 refracted all children in the first sample (n = 108); firstly with masked loose lenses, then using unmasked loose lenses (intra-examiner repeatability). Examiners 1 and 2 refracted all children in the second sample (n = 97) using unmasked loose lenses, blind to the child's refractive error, presence/magnitude of habitual spectacle correction and to each other's findings (inter-examiner repeatability)...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030880/correcting-presbyopia-the-problem-of-pupil-size
#4
EDITORIAL
W Neil Charman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030879/authors-reply
#5
LETTER
John G Lawrenson, Helen Baker, Gokulan Ratnarajan, Robert A Harper, David F Edgar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030878/evidence-for-scottish-general-ophthalmic-services-improving-true-positive-referral-rate-for-glaucoma
#6
LETTER
Ross Henderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030877/an-alternative-clinical-routine-for-subjective-refraction-based-on-power-vectors-with-trial-frames
#7
Antonia María Revert, Maria Amparo Conversa, César Albarrán Diego, Vicente Micó
PURPOSE: Subjective refraction determines the final point of refractive error assessment in most clinical environments and its foundations have remained unchanged for decades. The purpose of this paper is to compare the results obtained when monocular subjective refraction is assessed in trial frames by a new clinical procedure based on a pure power vector interpretation with conventional clinical refraction procedures. METHODS: An alternative clinical routine is described that uses power vector interpretation with implementation in trial frames...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921328/comprehensive-profile-of-bilateral-astigmatism-rule-similarity-and-symmetry-patterns-of-the-axes-in-the-fellow-eyes
#8
Amir Asharlous, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Abbasali Yekta, Hassan Hashemi
PURPOSE: To study rule similarity (isorule or anisorule) and symmetry patterns of axes (direct and mirror) in bilateral astigmatism. METHODS: Six years of data were collected from four ophthalmology clinics in Tehran. After applying the exclusion criteria (having eye disease or history of ocular surgery), final analyses were performed on data of 160 608 cases whose mean age was 39.2 ± 15.4 years (10-80 years) and 53.7% female. All subjects had autorefraction, retinoscopy, and subjective refraction data...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921322/the-heterophoria-of-3-5-year-old-children-as-a-function-of-viewing-distance-and-target-type
#9
Mary E Troyer, Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan, T J Peper, T Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. METHODS: Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24)...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905122/coloured-filters-and-reading-reasons-for-an-open-mind
#10
LETTER
Bruce J W Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905121/risk-of-bias-in-assessing-risk-of-bias
#11
LETTER
Arnold J Wilkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905118/authors-response
#12
LETTER
Philip G Griffiths, Robert H Taylor, Lisa M Henderson, Brendan T Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880992/studies-using-concentric-ring-bifocal-and-peripheral-add-multifocal-contact-lenses-to-slow-myopia-progression-in-school-aged-children-a-meta-analysis
#13
Shi-Ming Li, Meng-Tian Kang, Shan-Shan Wu, Bo Meng, Yun-Yun Sun, Shi-Fei Wei, Luoru Liu, Xiaoxia Peng, Zhuo Chen, Fengju Zhang, Ningli Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of soft contact lens with concentric ring bifocal and peripheral add multifocal designs on controlling myopia progression in school-aged children. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and reference lists of included trials. Methodological quality of included trials was assessed using Jadad Scale and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale items. RESULTS: We identified five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and three cohort studies with a total of 587 myopic children...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873338/high-myopes-have-lower-normalised-corneal-tangent-moduli-less-stiff-corneas-than-low-myopes
#14
Ying Hon, Guo-Zhen Chen, Shu-Hao Lu, David C C Lam, Andrew K C Lam
PURPOSE: To compare corneal tangent moduli between low and high myopes. METHODS: Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) of 32 low and 32 high myopes were obtained using an Ocular Response Analyzer, followed by a corneal indentation device that measured corneal stiffness. Corneal topography, pachymetry, Goldmann applanation tonometry intraocular pressure (GAT-IOP), and corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were also obtained. Corneal tangent modulus was calculated on the basis of corneal stiffness, central corneal thickness and corneal radius...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862125/cases-of-advanced-visual-field-loss-at-referral-to-glaucoma-clinics-more-men-than-women
#15
David P Crabb, Luke J Saunders, Laura A Edwards
PURPOSE: In many medical conditions 'late presentation' of disease is more of a problem for men than women. Risk of sight loss from glaucoma is certainly greater in those detected with advanced disease. We performed a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that men are more likely than women to have advanced visual field loss at referral to glaucoma clinics. METHODS: We used 152 918 Humphrey visual fields from 32 147 patients from three regionally different hospitals in England; no other clinical data were made available apart from patient's age, sex and examination dates...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774623/reversal-of-functional-loss-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-intraocular-pressure-elevation
#16
Hsin-Hua Liu, Zheng He, Christine T O Nguyen, Algis J Vingrys, Bang V Bui
PURPOSE: This pilot study considered whether intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering could reverse ganglion cell dysfunction in a rat model of chronic ocular hypertension. METHODS: A circumlimbal suture was applied in one eye to induce ocular hypertension (n = 7) in Long-Evans rats. The contralateral eye served as an untreated control. After 8 weeks of IOP elevation the suture was removed to lower IOP for the remaining 7 weeks. Electroretinogram (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were measured at baseline, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 15 weeks...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774618/does-the-badal-optometer-stimulate-accommodation-accurately
#17
Mikel Aldaba, Carles Otero, Jaume Pujol, David A Atchison
PURPOSE: To study whether the accommodation response to Badal optometer is equivalent to the response for real space targets. METHODS: Accommodative responses were measured for 28 young eyes with the WAM-5500 autorefractometer in eight configurations for 0.17 D, 2.0 D and 5.0 D accommodation stimuli. Parameters that might contribute to differences in response were systematically isolated: stimulation method (real space vs Badal targets), field of view, instrument's cover proximity, the looming effect, and the peripheral interposition of objects in depth...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790776/the-effect-of-interrupted-defocus-on-blur-adaptation
#18
Kiren A Khan, Matthew P Cufflin, Edward A H Mallen
PURPOSE: Blur adaptation occurs when an observer is exposed to continuous defocus. However, it is unclear whether adaptation requires constant defocus, or whether the effect can still be achieved when the adaptation period is interrupted by short periods of clear vision. METHODS: The study included 12 emmetropes and 12 myopes. All observers wore full refractive correction throughout the experiment. 1D and 3D of myopic defocus was introduced using spherical convex lenses...
November 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790775/thanks-and-journal-metrics
#19
EDITORIAL
David B Elliott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790774/the-effect-of-longitudinal-chromatic-aberration-on-the-lag-of-accommodation-and-depth-of-field
#20
Mateusz Jaskulski, Iván Marín-Franch, Paula Bernal-Molina, Norberto López-Gil
PURPOSE: Longitudinal chromatic aberration is present in all states of accommodation and may play a role in the accommodation response and the emmetropisation process. We study the change of the depth of field (DOFi) with the state of accommodation, taking into account the longitudinal chromatic aberration. METHODS: Subjective DOFi was defined as the range of defocus beyond which the blur of the target (one line of optotypes of 0.1 logMAR shown on a black-and-white microdisplay, seen through different colour filters) was perceived as objectionable...
November 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
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