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Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259538/the-iprgc-driven-pupil-response-with-light-exposure-and-refractive-error-in-children
#1
Lisa A Ostrin
PURPOSE: The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) signal environmental light, control pupil size and entrain circadian rhythm. There is speculation that ipRGCs may be involved in the protective effects of light exposure in myopia. Here, the ipRGC-driven pupil response was evaluated in children and examined with light exposure and refractive error. METHODS: Children ages 5-15 years participated. Subjects wore an actigraph device prior to the lab visit for objective measures of light exposure and sleep...
September 26, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221376/vision-and-academic-performance-in-primary-school-children
#2
Joanne M Wood, Alex A Black, Shelley Hopkins, Sonia L J White
PURPOSE: Vision is considered important for academic performance in children; however, the evidence in this area tends to be inconsistent and inconclusive. This study explored the association between vision function and visual information processing measures and standardised academic achievement scores in Grade 3 Australian children. METHODS: Participants included 108 Grade 3 primary school children (M = 8.82 ± 0.32 years) from three state primary schools in South-East Queensland...
September 16, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221370/binocular-contrast-summation-and-inhibition-depends-on-spatial-frequency-eccentricity-and-binocular-disparity
#3
Concetta F Alberti, Peter J Bex
PURPOSE: When central vision is compromised, visually-guided behaviour becomes dependent on peripheral retina, often at a preferred retinal locus (PRL). Previous studies have examined adaptation to central vision loss with monocular 2D paradigms, whereas in real tasks, patients make binocular eye movements to targets of various sizes and depth in 3D environments. METHODS: We therefore examined monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity functions with a 26-AFC (alternate forced choice) band-pass filtered letter identification task at 2° or 6° eccentricity in observers with simulated central vision loss...
September 16, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182516/a-genetic-risk-score-and-number-of-myopic-parents-independently-predict-myopia
#4
Neema Ghorbani Mojarrad, Cathy Williams, Jeremy A Guggenheim
PURPOSE: To investigate whether a genetic risk score (GRS) improved performance of predicting refractive error compared to knowing a child's number of myopic parents (NMP) alone. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study. Refractive error was assessed longitudinally between age 7-15 using non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Genetic variants (n = 149) associated with refractive error from a Consortium for Refractive Error And Myopia (CREAM) genome-wide association study were used to calculate a GRS for each child...
September 4, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175473/the-relationship-between-unwarranted-variation-in-optometric-referrals-and-time-since-qualification
#5
David J Parkins, Martin J Benwell, David F Edgar, Bruce J W Evans
PURPOSE: To investigate variation in optometric referral decision-making and the influence of experience and continuing education and training (CET). METHODS: To gain insight into unwarranted variation in referral activity in the United Kingdom (UK): (1) triage data were audited to investigate source of referral, provisional diagnosis, and outcome; (2) an online system was developed to present two sets of 10 vignettes, designed to avoid prompting answers. Participating optometrists completed 10 pre-CET vignettes, recording their tests and management decisions...
September 2, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051487/subtle-changes-in-diabetic-retinas-localised-in-3d-using-oct
#6
Edmund Arthur, Joel A Papay, Bryan P Haggerty, Christopher A Clark, Ann E Elsner
PURPOSE: To detect and localise subtle changes in retinas of diabetic patients who clinically have no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or non-proliferative DR (NPDR) as compared to age- and sex- matched controls. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and software to examine all retinal layers, including deeper layers, were used to quantify foveal avascular zone size and inner and outer retinal layer thicknesses, as well as to detect axial location of prominent lesions. METHODS: Diabetic subjects, 19 total with 16 having no DR and three having non-proliferative retinopathy, were matched with 19 controls with respect to age and sex...
July 26, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984414/validating-the-accuracy-of-an-activity-monitor-in-a-visually-impaired-older-population
#7
Rohan Bajaj, Pradeep Ramulu, Lisa Dillon, Kirsten B Jakobsen, Anne Tiedemann, Kris Rogers, Lisa Keay
PURPOSE: Activity monitors have been used to objectively measure physical activity and its association with visual impairment in older adults. However, there is limited understanding of the accuracy of activity monitors in people with low vision. This study investigated the accuracy of an activity monitor compared with manual step counting in a low vision population and sought to find the most accurate placement location for the device. METHODS: We recruited 32 individuals aged 50 years and older with low vision...
July 8, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924407/a-brief-consideration-of-the-paper-by-suttle-et-al-about-the-repeatability-of-tinted-lenses
#8
LETTER
Carlo Aleci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924406/breaking-the-glass-ceiling-in-academia
#9
EDITORIAL
Shahina Pardhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924405/optic-nerve-tissue-displacement-during-mild-intraocular-pressure-elevation-its-relationship-to-central-corneal-thickness-and-corneal-hysteresis
#10
Phillip Bedggood, Fumi Tanabe, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin, Andrew J Anderson, Bang V Bui
PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which (1) optic nerve tissue is displaced following mild acute elevation of intraocular pressure, and (2) clinically accessible measures at the anterior eye can be used as a surrogate for such displacements. METHODS: We imaged the optic disc of 21 healthy subjects before and after intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation of ~10 mmHg delivered by ophthalmodynamometry. Steady-state tissue displacement during IOP elevation was assessed axially from OCT data, and laterally from SLO data...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924404/areas-for-improvement-in-community-optometry-flashes-and-floaters-take-priority
#11
Eilidh M Duncan, Heather Cassie, Janet Pooley, Paula Elouafakoui, Maria Prior, Elizabeth Gibb, Craig Ramsay, Linda Young
PURPOSE: A common response to rising demand for healthcare is to extend the role of health professionals and the range of their service provision. Community optometry in Scotland is a recent example of this. Within this context of innovation and change there are challenges to ensuring quality in optometry practice. The purpose of this research is to establish what the priorities are for practice improvement within community optometry and to start a programme to inform strategies to improve practice...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924403/author-s-reply
#12
LETTER
Catherine M Suttle, John Barbur, Miriam L Conway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774584/-i-can-see-fine-patient-knowledge-of-eye-care
#13
Elizabeth L Irving, Alisa M Sivak, Marlee M Spafford
PURPOSE: To learn more about the perceptions and attitudes toward eye care of members of the public - in particular, their knowledge of the purpose, components and providers of eye examinations, their ability to self-monitor ocular status and their awareness of major sight threatening eye conditions. METHODS: This study used the qualitative research strategy, grounded theory. Participants were recruited via poster and social media. Two researchers, one with optometric knowledge and one without, moderated seven 60- to 90-min, semi-structured focus group discussions, which were audiotaped and transcribed...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774576/spatial-vision-in-older-adults-perceptual-changes-and-neural-bases
#14
REVIEW
Allison M McKendrick, Yu Man Chan, Bao N Nguyen
PURPOSE: The number of older adults is rapidly increasing internationally, leading to a significant increase in research on how healthy ageing impacts vision. Most clinical assessments of spatial vision involve simple detection (letter acuity, grating contrast sensitivity, perimetry). However, most natural visual environments are more spatially complicated, requiring contrast discrimination, and the delineation of object boundaries and contours, which are typically present on non-uniform backgrounds...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736941/two-dimensional-simulation-of-eccentric-photorefraction-images-for-ametropes-factors-influencing-the-measurement
#15
Yifei Wu, Larry N Thibos, T Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: Eccentric photorefraction and Purkinje image tracking are used to estimate refractive state and eye position simultaneously. Beyond vision screening, they provide insight into typical and atypical visual development. Systematic analysis of the effect of refractive error and spectacles on photorefraction data is needed to gauge the accuracy and precision of the technique. METHODS: Simulation of two-dimensional, double-pass eccentric photorefraction was performed (Zemax)...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732579/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-exercise-based-falls-prevention-strategies-in-adults-aged-50-years-with-visual-impairment
#16
Lisa Dillon, Lindy Clemson, Pradeep Ramulu, Catherine Sherrington, Lisa Keay
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of exercise or physical training on falls or physical function in people aged 50+ years with visual impairment, compared with control (no intervention or usual care). METHODS: An updated systematic review of randomised controlled trials, investigating the effect of exercise or physical activity on falls prevention or physical function in adults aged 50+ with visual impairment. Searches of CINAHL, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, and Medline were undertaken...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602236/evaluating-glaucomatous-abnormality-in-peripapillary-optical-coherence-tomography-enface-visualisation-of-the-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-reflectance
#17
Bright S Ashimatey, Brett J King, Stephen A Burns, William H Swanson
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enface visualisation of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) reflectance has been found to have some advantages over retinal thickness measures. However, it is not yet clear how abnormalities on enface images relate to findings of abnormalities from other clinical measures such as the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (cRNFLT). We developed a technique to analyse the RNFL reflectance on the OCT enface images, and to investigate its relation with the cRNFLT...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572900/high-prevalence-and-familial-aggregation-of-keratoconus-in-an-iranian-rural-population-a-population-based-study
#18
Hassan Hashemi, Samira Heydarian, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mohamadreza Aghamirsalim, Akbar Derakhshan, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of keratoconus and the potential effect of genetic and environmental factors on its prevalence in households living in rural areas of Iran in a large population-based study. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was performed in two Iranian rural populations. Two rural areas were randomly selected in the southwest and north of Iran. All individuals over one year of age were invited to participate in the study...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492992/glaucoma-referral-refinement-in-ireland-managing-the-sensitivity-specificity-paradox-in-optometric-practice
#19
Catriona Barrett, Colm O'Brien, James Loughman
PURPOSE: Glaucoma referral refinement (GRR) has proven a successful demand management strategy for glaucoma suspect cases in the United Kingdom (UK). A GRR clinic was established in Dublin, Ireland to investigate the clinical viability of this pathway outside the UK's National Health Service (NHS) structures, and away from the influence of National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance. METHODS: Glaucoma suspect patients were recruited into the scheme following referral from community optometrists in the greater Dublin area...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691931/five-year-incidence-and-progression-of-myopic-maculopathy-in-a-rural-chinese-adult-population-the-handan-eye-study
#20
Caixia Lin, Shi-Ming Li, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Bing Song Wang, Yu Xin Fang, Kai Cao, Li Qin Gao, Jie Hao, Ye Zhang, Jian Wu, Ning Li Wang
PURPOSE: To determine the cumulative five-year incidence and progression of myopic maculopathy in a rural Chinese adult population. METHODS: The Handan Eye Study was a population-based longitudinal study. In 2006, 6830 subjects aged 30+ years participated in this study (baseline). Five years later, 5394 subjects (follow-up rate: 85.3%) took part in the follow-up study. Participants had a detailed eye examination, including visual acuity, standardized refraction and fundus photography according to a similar protocol at both baseline and follow-up...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
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