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Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516509/the-incidence-and-predictors-of-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-older-adults-with-vision-impairment-a-longitudinal-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Thomas J Heesterbeek, Hilde P A van der Aa, Ger H M B van Rens, Johannes W R Twisk, Ruth M A van Nispen
PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in older adults with vision impairment. Because symptoms of depression and anxiety appear to fluctuate, it is important to identify patients who are at risk of developing these symptoms for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and to investigate predictors of developing symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment who had no subthreshold depression or anxiety at baseline...
May 18, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508531/avoiding-experimental-death-the-equator-network-a-valuable-resource-for-research
#2
EDITORIAL
Catey Bunce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503812/the-difference-between-cycloplegic-and-non-cycloplegic-autorefraction-and-its-association-with-progression-of-refractive-error-in-beijing-urban-children
#3
Zhong Lin, Balamurali Vasudevan, Kenneth J Ciuffreda, Hong Jia Zhou, Guang Yun Mao, Ning Li Wang, Yuan Bo Liang
PURPOSE: To investigate the difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with the progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. METHODS: A total of 386 children aged 6-17 years were enrolled in the baseline investigation of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study in 2010. They were invited for follow-up vision examinations in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, including cycloplegic (cyclopentolate 1%, three times) autorefraction...
May 15, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497619/change-in-over-refraction-after-scleral-lens-settling-on-average-corneas
#4
Chelsea Bray, Stephanie Britton, Debby Yeung, Lacey Haines, Luigina Sorbara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the change in over-refraction, if any, after a scleral lens settled on the eye for 6-8 h. METHODS: Sixteen patients of varying refractive errors and normal corneal curvatures (measured with Pentacam(™) Oculus) were fitted with trial Mini-Scleral Design (MSD) scleral lenses (15.8 mm diameter) in one eye. The sagittal depths of the scleral lenses were selected by adding 350 μm to the corneal sagittal heights measured at a chord length of 15 mm with the Visante(™) optical coherence tomographer (OCT) anterior segment scans and picking the closest available trial lens in the set...
May 12, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497480/effectiveness-of-portable-electronic-and-optical-magnifiers-for-near-vision-activities-in-low-vision-a-randomised-crossover-trial
#5
John J Taylor, Rachel Bambrick, Andrew Brand, Nathan Bray, Michelle Dutton, Robert A Harper, Zoe Hoare, Barbara Ryan, Rhiannon T Edwards, Heather Waterman, Christine Dickinson
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of near vision activities using additional portable electronic vision enhancement systems (p-EVES), to using optical magnifiers alone, by individuals with visual impairment. METHODS: A total of 100 experienced optical aid users were recruited from low vision clinics at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK, to a prospective two-arm cross-over randomised controlled trial. Reading, performance of near vision activities, and device usage were evaluated at baseline; and at the end of each study arm (Intervention A: existing optical aids plus p-EVES; Intervention B: optical aids only) which was after 2 and 4 months...
May 12, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470770/a-proposed-minimum-data-set-for-international-primary-care-optometry-a-modified-delphi-study
#6
Christopher J Davey, Sarah V Slade, Darren Shickle
PURPOSE: To identify a minimum list of metrics of international relevance to public health, research and service development which can be extracted from practice management systems and electronic patient records in primary optometric practice. METHODS: A two stage modified Delphi technique was used. Stage 1 categorised metrics that may be recorded as being part of a primary eye examination by their importance to research using the results from a previous survey of 40 vision science and public health academics...
May 4, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439944/using-perimetric-data-to-estimate-ganglion-cell-loss-for-detecting-progression-of-glaucoma-a-comparison-of-models
#7
Derek A Price, William H Swanson, Douglas G Horner
PURPOSE: Models relating perimetric sensitivities to ganglion cell numbers have been proposed for combining structural and functional measures from patients with glaucoma. Here we compared seven models for ability to differentiate progressing and stable patients, testing the hypothesis that the model incorporating local spatial scale would have the best performance. METHODS: The models were compared for the United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) data for the right eyes of 489 patients recently diagnosed with glaucoma...
April 25, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417473/ophthalmology-patients-interest-in-online-access-to-clinic-notes-at-three-us-clinics
#8
Bryan S Lee, Natalia V Oster, Galen Y Chen, Leona L Ding, Janice D Walker, Joann G Elmore
PURPOSE: This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions about potential benefits and harms of accessing their own ophthalmology clinic notes via an electronic patient portal as part of the OpenNotes initiative. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional, in-person survey of ophthalmology patients at three US eye clinics. The paper survey was self-administered or administered with assistance from study staff before or after patients' clinical visits. The authors used descriptive statistics to summarise patient characteristics and patient attitudes about accessing their ophthalmology notes online...
April 17, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370187/differences-in-retinal-shape-between-east-asian-and-caucasian-eyes
#9
Pavan K Verkicharla, Marwan Suheimat, Katrina L Schmid, David A Atchison
PURPOSE: To investigate whether retinal shape is different between East Asians and Caucasians. METHODS: There were 36 East Asian and 40 Caucasian young adults, with refractions between +0.75D and -5.50D. Peripheral eye lengths were obtained after pupil dilation using the Lenstar partial coherence interferometer. Measurements were obtained along the horizontal and vertical meridians of the visual field out to ±35° and ±30°, respectively, in 5° steps. Retinal co-ordinates were estimated using a validated method from the peripheral eye length measurements and ray-tracing through a modified Le Grand full theoretical eye...
March 29, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345168/cardinal-and-anti-cardinal-points-equalities-and-chromatic-dependence
#10
Tanya Evans, William F Harris
PURPOSE: Cardinal points are used for ray tracing through Gaussian systems. Anti-principal and anti-nodal points (which we shall refer to as the anti-cardinal points), along with the six familiar cardinal points, belong to a much larger set of special points. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a set of relationships and resulting equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points and to illustrate them using Pascal's ring. METHODS: The methodology used relies on Gaussian optics and the transference T...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439979/scattering-contribution-to-the-double-pass-psf-using-monte-carlo-simulations
#11
Dimitrios Christaras, Harilaos Ginis, Alexandros Pennos, Pablo Artal
PURPOSE: Scattering in the eye occurs mainly at two sites: the eye's optical media and the deeper retinal layers. Although the two phenomena are often treated collectively, their spatial domain of contribution to the double-pass Point Spread Function (PSF) is different: the fundus effect is limited to the narrow and middle part of the PSF whereas scattering in the eye's optics extends also to wide angles. The objective of this work was to determine the domain of contribution at the double-pass PSF of light scattered in the ocular media and the ocular fundus, using simulated and experimental data for two different wavelengths and for two different pigmentations...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439978/simulation-of-commercial-vs-theoretically-optimised-contact-lenses-for-presbyopia
#12
Richard Legras, David Rio
PURPOSE: To compare theoretically optimised bifocal contact lens optical designs to commercially available optical designs for presbyopia. METHODS: Retinal images were simulated, using a numerical eye model, from -6 (i.e., near vision) to +2 D for each 0.25 D. Ten optical profiles were simulated. Four of them corresponded to commercial contact lenses (i.e., Acuvue Oasys for Presbyopia®, Air Optix Aqua Multifocal®, Purevision Multifocal® and Distance Biofinity Multifocal®)...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439977/method-of-locating-the-visual-axis-objectively
#13
Vasyl Molebny
PURPOSE: To locate the visual axis of the eye objectively. METHOD: Based on three-beam scanning laser radar microprofilometry, a technique is proposed to objectively locate the visual axis of the eye. The laser beam consists of three components, two of them being shifted relatively to the central one by differing frequencies, filtered in spatially orthogonal directions. The centre of the foveola is defined as the crossing of steepest inclinations determined in the specific beam positions on the trajectory of scanning...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439976/eye-retraction-and-rotation-during-corvis-st-air-puff-intraocular-pressure-measurement-and-its-quantitative-analysis
#14
Agnieszka Boszczyk, Henryk Kasprzak, Agnieszka Jóźwik
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyse the indentation and deformation of the corneal surface, as well as eye retraction, which occur during air puff intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. METHODS: A group of 10 subjects was examined using a non-contact Corvis ST tonometer, which records image sequences of corneas deformed by an air puff. Obtained images were processed numerically in order to extract information about corneal deformation, indentation and eyeball retraction...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439975/scleral-changes-with-accommodation
#15
Alejandra Consejo, Hema Radhakrishnan, D Robert Iskander
PURPOSE: To assess whether the sclera changes its shape during accommodation, quantify those changes and ascertain whether they depend on age and refractive power. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects, aged between 19 and 84 years old were recruited for the study. Young subjects were grouped according to their refractive power as emmetropes (seven subjects) and myopes (seven subjects). Data were obtained with a height corneo-scleral topographer (Eye Surface Profiler) with coverage area far beyond the limbus...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439974/visual-and-physiological-optics-where-will-the-journey-lead-us-in-10%C3%A2-years
#16
EDITORIAL
Jos J Rozema, W Neil Charman, David A Atchison, Harilaos Ginis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370389/is-an-objective-refraction-optimised-using-the-visual-strehl-ratio-better-than-a-subjective-refraction
#17
Gareth D Hastings, Jason D Marsack, Lan Chi Nguyen, Han Cheng, Raymond A Applegate
PURPOSE: To prospectively examine whether using the visual image quality metric, visual Strehl (VSX), to optimise objective refraction from wavefront error measurements can provide equivalent or better visual performance than subjective refraction and which refraction is preferred in free viewing. METHODS: Subjective refractions and wavefront aberrations were measured on 40 visually-normal eyes of 20 subjects, through natural and dilated pupils. For each eye a sphere, cylinder, and axis prescription was also objectively determined that optimised visual image quality (VSX) for the measured wavefront error...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281302/compensation-of-corneal-oblique-astigmatism-by-internal-optics-a-theoretical-analysis
#18
Tao Liu, Larry N Thibos
PURPOSE: Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. METHODS: Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125860/corneal-biomechanics-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Sabine Kling, Farhad Hafezi
PURPOSE: In recent years, the interest in corneal biomechanics has strongly increased. The material properties of the cornea determine its shape and therefore play an important role in corneal ectasia and related pathologies. This review addresses the molecular origin of biomechanical properties, models for their description, methods for their characterisation, techniques for their modification, and computational simulation approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has focused on developing non-contact techniques to measure the biomechanical properties in vivo, on determining structural and molecular abnormalities in pathological corneas, on developing and optimising techniques to reinforce the corneal tissue and on the computational simulation of surgical interventions...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337792/overestimation-of-stereo-thresholds-by-the-tno-stereotest-is-not-due-to-global-stereopsis
#20
Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read, William Herbert, Nicola Goodship, Maeve Woodhouse, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
PURPOSE: It has been repeatedly shown that the TNO stereotest overestimates stereo threshold compared to other clinical stereotests. In the current study, we test whether this overestimation can be attributed to a distinction between 'global' (or 'cyclopean') and 'local' (feature or contour-based) stereopsis. METHODS: We compared stereo thresholds of a global (TNO) and a local clinical stereotest (Randot Circles). In addition, a global and a local psychophysical stereotest were added to the design...
March 23, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
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